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I finally found a
powerful tool to
practice and be
confident enough to
get the best at TKT.
George Thompson
English Teacher
Chelsea NY


Tired of not getting band 4 on TKT?

The purpose of this book is to serve as a tool to help TKT
candidates to prepare in a better way to sit the TKT test
from Cambridge ESOL.
It is divided into three chapters, each covering a
module from the standard TKT test; it contains tasks
specifically designed to help candidates know the
structure and learn important tips to really get band 4
on this teaching knowledge qualification.

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INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this book is to be a helping tool in the process of training
candidates to take the Teaching Knowledge Test TKT.
The Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT) is a test from Cambridge ESOL about
teaching English to speakers of other languages. It aims to increase teachers'
confidence and enhance job prospects by focusing on the core teaching
knowledge needed by teachers of primary, secondary or adult learners,
anywhere in the world. This flexible and accessible award will help you to
understand:
different methodologies for teaching
the 'language of teaching'
the ways in which resources can be used
the key aspects of lesson planning
classroom management methods for different needs
TKT gives teachers a strong foundation in the core areas of teaching
knowledge needed in the English language teaching classroom. It is ideal for
all teachers, whatever their background and teaching experience, and is
also suitable for people who would like to teach English but do not yet have
a teaching position.
There are no formal entry requirements. However, anyone wishing to take TKT
is strongly advised to have at least an intermediate level of English Level B1
of the Council of Europe's Common European Framework of Reference for
Languages (CEFR) e.g. PET, IELTS band score of 4

Each unit consists of plenty of practice exercises and TKT tasks that are very
similar in format to what is evaluated in the real TKT test.
Leyenda que describe una
imagen o un grfico.


LIBARDO GONZALEZ ALVAREZ
SIT-TESOL
MASTER IN APPLIED LINGUSTICS CANDIDATE
TEACHER TRAINER
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TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 1 Grammar Participants
Activity 1
Complete the puzzle with parts of speech.
Across
3. A word used to show an action, state, event or process, e.g. I like cheese.; He speaks Italian.
8. A word used to connect words, phrases, clauses or sentences, e.g. I like tea but I dont like coffee
Because its too strong for me.
9. A word that describes or gives more information about how, when, where or to what degree
something is done, e.g. He worked quickly and well.
10. A word that replaces or refers to a noun or a noun phrase just mentioned, e.g. I saw John
yesterday. He looked very well.
Down
1. An expression used to show a strong feeling, e.g. Oh! Wow!
2. A word which makes clear which noun is referred to or to give information about quantity, e.g. this,
that, some, any, my , that car is mine.
4. On under over, for example
5. A word that describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun, e.g. a cold day.
6. The, a, an, for example
7. A person, place or thing, e.g. elephant, girl, grass, school
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TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 1 Grammar Participants
Activity 2
Exercise 1
Look at the underlined words in the sentences below and match them with the words
from Participants worksheet 1, given in the box.
A. (1) She
exclamation determiner verb preposition adjective article
noun conjunction adverb pronoun
(2) always moves the (3) furniture when she does the (4) housework.
B. (5) Robert is (6) taller than James and (7) his hair is longer.
C. (8) Can you buy a (9) good (10) book for Jim?
D. Ill give it to (11) him for his birthday (12) tomorrow?
E. (13) Ouch! Youre (14) standing on (15) my foot.
F. John (16) saw Fred last week (17) in town. I (18) didnt see him myself but he
(19) said he was carrying (20) a suitcase.






Exercise 2
Group A: Look at the underlined words 1 in the sentences again.
Group B: Look at the underlined words 11 in the sentences again.
Both groups: Match your words with a more specific term from the box below. Some
of the words may have more than one term.
modal verb possessive pronoun countable noun adjective
possessive adjective indefinite article collective noun determiner
reporting verb auxiliary verb adverb of time compound noun
object pronoun proper noun personal pronoun
uncountable noun modal auxiliary transitive verb
subject pronoun exclamation uncountable noun
preposition of place comparative adjective intransitive verb
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TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 1 Grammar Participants
Activity 3, fill in the gaps with





Grammatical structure


How it is made and
example


What it means/how it is used


Present continuous

subject + present tense of
the verb to be + ing form of
verb, e.g. I am working at
the moment.


to talk about an action
happening at the time of
speaking.



1)


subject + past tense of the
verb, e.g. I went to France
last
year.



to talk about an action
completed at a specific
time on the past.

Present simple

2)


to talk about a routine or
habit.




3)


subject + present of the
verb to have + past
participle, e.g. Ive been to
France many times.


to talk about things you have
experienced on your life

Modal verb - must


subject + base form of the
verb e.g. You must be
home by 10.00.


4)


Future with going to

5)


to express intention



6)


If + subject + present
simple + subject + will +
bare infinitive, e.g. If I see
him Ill tell him
.

to talk about something that
is
possible in the future and the
action that will be taken







TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 1 Grammar Sample Task 1
For questions 1- 5 match the example sentences with the grammatil terms listed A-F
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Example sentences Grammatical terms
1 Then I realised what had happened.
A gerund
2 Many old houses are made of wood.
B present perfect simple
3 Weve never seen a whale before.
C present perfect continuous
4 He doesnt like playing chess.
D reported speech
5 She said she was really upset.
E present simple passive
F past perfect simple

Mark the correct letter (AF) on your answer sheet.
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TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 1 Grammar Sample Task 2

For questions 1-5, match the example language with the grammatical terms listed A-
F. Mark the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.

Example language Grammatical items
1. Break in
2. My brother is a pilot, is he?
3. If it's sunny, we'll go to the park
4. The exam should have been given to everyone.
5. This, that, these, those

A. Tag Questions
B. Echo Questions
C. Phrasal verb
D. Passive voice
E. Determiners
F. Conditional

TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 1 Grammar Sample
Task 3

For questions 1-7, choose the correct option (a, b or c) to complete each definition
of grammatical items. Mark the correct letter on your answer sheet.

1. An interjection is
a. an exclamation which shows thoughts or feelings
b. a meaningless string of sounds
c. the same as an adjective

2. A verb that has a subject but no object is.

a. Transitive
b. Intransitive
c. Passive

3. The subject does the action and receives the action is.

a. Reflexive
b. Possessive
c. Relative

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4. A group of words that includes a subject and a finite verb is.

a. A clause
b. A statement
c. An idiom

5. A word that describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun
is.

a. An adjective
b. An adverb
c. An article


6. The words someone uses when they are telling someone what somebody
else said or asked are,

a. The past tense
b. Past conditional
c. Indirect speech

7. A verb that does not take an auxiliary to negate or ask questions is called.

a. Active
b. Modal
c. Intransitive

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TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 1 Grammar Answer Keys
Key to activity 1
1
E
X
C
2
D L
3
V E R B
4
P A
T R M
5 A E 6 A E A
D R R P T
J M
7
N T O I
E I O I S O
8 C O N J U N C T I O N
T E N L T
I R E I
V O
9
A D V E R B
10
P R O N O U N
Across:
3: verb; 8: conjunction; 9: adverb; 10: pronoun
Down:
1: exclamation; 2: determiner; 4:preposition; 5: adjective; 6: article; 7: noun
Key to activity 2
Question Exercise 1 Exercise 2
1. She pronoun subject pronoun, personal pronoun
2. always adverb adverb of frequency
3. furniture noun uncountable noun, collective noun
4. housework noun uncountable noun, compound noun
5. Robert noun proper noun
6. taller adjective comparative adjective
7. his pronoun; determiner possessive pronoun, determiner
8. Can verb modal verb, modal auxiliary
9. good adjective adjective
10. book noun countable noun
11. him pronoun; determiner object pronoun
12. tomorrow adverb adverb of time
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Key to Sample Task 2
1.C 2.A 3.F 4.D 5.E


Key to Sample Task 3
1.A 2.B 3.A 4.A 5.A 6.C
7.B

13. Ouch! exclamation exclamation
14. standing verb intransitive verb
15. my adjective possessive adjective
16. saw verb transitive verb
17. in preposition preposition of place
18. didnt verb auxiliary verb
19. said verb reporting verb
20. a article indefinite article
Key to activity 3
1) Past simple
2) subject + present of the verb, e.g. I get up at 7.00 every day.
3) Present perfect simple
4) To talk about an obligation, something that is necessary
5) subject + present tense of the verb to be + going to + base form, e.g. Im going to
take the train.
6) First conditional
1 F 2 E 3 B 4 A 5 D

Key to Sample Task 1
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TKT UNIT 1 GRAMMAR; GLOSSARY,
Taken from www.cambridgeesol.org


Active voice
In an active sentence, the subject of the verb usually does or causes the action, e.g.
The car hit the tree.

Adjective
An adjective describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun, e.g. a
cold day.

Adverb
An adverb describes or gives more information about how, when, where, or to what
degree etc something is done, e.g. he worked quickly and well.

Apostrophe
A punctuation mark (). The is added to a singular noun before an s to show that
something belongs to someone, e.g. Johns house.

Article
An article can be definite (the), indefinite (a/an) or zero (-), e.g. I was at (-) home in
the sitting room when I heard a noise.

Aspect
A way of looking at verb forms not purely in relation to time. Aspect relates to the
type of event, e.g. whether it is long or short, whether it is complete or not, whether it
is repetitive or not, whether it is connected to the time of speaking or not. There are
two aspects in English, the continuous/progressive and the perfect. The continuous
aspect, for example, suggests that something is happening temporarily.

At symbol
A punctuation mark (@) used instead of at in email addresses, e.g.
john@yahoo.com

Auxiliary verb
An auxiliary verb is a verb used with other verbs to make questions, negatives,
tenses, etc e.g. be, do, have.

Base form of a verb
The base form of a verb is the infinitive form of a verb without to, e.g. go.

Capital letter
A letter of the form and size used at the beginning of a sentence or a name, e.g.
They went to Spain last year.


Clause
A clause generally consists of a subject and a finite verb relating to the subject and
any other elements, e.g. object. A clause can be a full sentence or a part of a
sentence.

Main clause
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When the teacher arrived, the learners stopped talking.

Subordinate clause
When the teacher arrived, the learners stopped talking.

Relative clause
The learners who were sitting near the front stood up.

Collective noun
A collective noun is a noun that refers to a group of people or things, e.g. the police,
the government.

Comma
A punctuation mark (,) used to separate items in a list or to show where there is a
pause in a sentence, e.g. I bought some apples, oranges, bananas and lemons.
When I went to the market, I met my friend.

Comparative adjective
A comparative adjective compares two things, e.g. He is taller than she is.

Complex sentence
A sentence containing a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.

Compound noun
A compound noun is a combination of two or more words, which are used as a
single word, e.g. a flower shop, a headache.

Conditional (forms)
A verb form that refers to a possible or imagined situation. Grammar books often
mention four kinds of conditionals:

First conditional refers to present or future possible or likely situations, e.g. I will
come if I can.

Second conditional refers to present or future situations which the speaker thinks
are impossible or unlikely, e.g. I would go if they asked me.

Third conditional refers to past situations that cannot be changed, e.g. I would
have seen her if I had arrived earlier (but I didnt so I couldnt).

Mixed conditional is used when the speaker wants to refer to different time
frames in one sentence, e.g. If Id arrived on time, I wouldnt have to wait now. If Id
arrived refers to the past and I wouldnt have to wait refers to the present.

Conjunction
A conjunction (or connector) is used to connect words, phrases, clauses or
sentences, e.g. I like tea but I dont like coffee because its too strong for me.

Countable noun
A countable noun has a singular and plural form, e.g. book, books.

Demonstrative adjective
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A demonstrative adjective shows whether something is near or far from the speaker,
e.g. this (near), that (far).


Demonstrative pronoun
A demonstrative pronoun is a word which refers to a noun (phrase) and shows
whether it is near or far from the speaker, e.g. this, that, these, those.

Dependent preposition
A dependent preposition is a word that is always used with a particular noun, verb or
adjective before another word,e.g. interested in, depend on, bored with.

Determiner
A determiner is used to make clear which noun is referred to, or to give information
about quantity, and includes words such as the, a, this, that, my, some, e.g. That car
is mine.

Direct speech, question
The actual words someone says, e.g. He said, My name is Ron., What do you
mean, Sue?, asked Peter.

Exclamation mark
A punctuation mark (!) written after an exclamation, e.g. Be careful!

Exponent
An example of a grammar point, function or lexical set.

Full stop
A punctuation mark (.) used at the end of a sentence, e.g. I like chocolate.

Future with going to
Im going to visit my aunt on Sunday. Its going to rain.

Future with present continuous
He is meeting John for dinner at eight tomorrow.

Future with present simple
The plane leaves at 9.00 next Saturday.

Future with will or shall
Ill help with the cleaning. It will be lovely and sunny tomorrow.

Gerund, -ing form
A form of a verb functioning as a noun, which ends in -ing, e.g. I hate shopping.

(Grammatical) structure, form
A grammatical structure is a grammatical language pattern, e.g. present perfect
simple, and the parts which combine to make it, e.g. have + past participle.

Imperative
The form of a verb that gives an order or instruction, e.g. Turn to page 10.

Indirect speech, question
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The words someone uses when they are telling someone what somebody else said
or asked, e.g. He told me his name was Ron. Peter asked Sue what she meant.

An indirect question can also be used when someone wants to ask something in a
more polite way, e.g. I was wondering if you could help me. (indirect question)
instead of Could you help me? (direct question).

Infinitive
The infinitive form is the base form of a verb with to. It is used after another verb,
after an adjective or noun or as the subject or object of a sentence, e.g. 'I want to
study., Its difficult to understand.

Infinitive of purpose
This is used to express why something is done, e.g. I went to the lesson to learn
English.

-ing/-ed adjective
An -ing/-ed adjective describes things or feelings. An -ing adjective describes things
or people, e.g. The book is very interesting.
An -ed adjective describes feelings, e.g. I am very interested in the book.

Intensifier
A word used to make the meaning of another word stronger, e.g. Hes much taller
than his brother. Im very tired.

Interrogative
A question form.


Intransitive
Is used to describe a verb which does not take a direct object, e.g. She never cried.

Irregular verb
An irregular verb does not follow the same pattern as regular verbs. Each irregular
verb has its own way of forming the past simple and past participle, e.g. go went
(past simple) gone (past participle).

Modal verb
A modal verb is a verb used with other verbs to show ideas such as ability or
obligation or possibility. They include can, must, will, should, e.g. I can speak
French, but I should study even harder.

Noun
A person, place or thing, e.g. elephant, girl, grass, school.


Object
This is a noun or phrase that describes the thing or person that is affected by the
action of a verb, e.g. I saw Mary in the classroom.

A direct object is the main object of a transitive verb.

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An indirect object is an object affected by a verb but not directly acted on, e.g. He
gave the book to me. In this sentence, the book is the direct object and me is an
indirect object.

Object pronoun
An object pronoun is a word which replaces an object noun or an object noun
phrase, e.g. him, her.

Participle (past and present)
ed and ing forms of the verb, they are often used to make tenses or adjectives,
e.g. an interesting film (present participle); I havent seen him today. (past participle)

Particle
A small grammatical word, often an adverb or preposition which does not change its
form when used in a sentence, e.g. look after, after is a particle.

Passive voice, progressive
In a passive sentence, something is done to or happens to the subject of the verb,
e.g. The tree was hit by the car.

Past continuous, progressive
I was watching TV all evening.

Past perfect continuous, progressive
I had been studying for three hours so I felt tired.

Past perfect simple
After I had phoned Mary, I went out.

Past simple
I went on holiday to France last year.

Person

First person the person speaking, e.g. I, we.

Second person the person spoken to, e.g. you.

Third person the person spoken about, e.g. he, she, they.

Personal pronoun
Personal pronouns are words, which are used instead of the name of that person,
e.g. I (subject pronoun), me (object pronoun).

Phonology noun, phonological adjective The study of sounds in a language or
languages.

Phrase
A group of words often without a finite verb that do not form a sentence, e.g. the
green car, on Friday morning are phrases. Also a group of words that together have
a particular meaning.

Plural noun
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A plural noun is more than one person, place or thing and can be regular or
irregular, e.g. boys, women.

Possessive adjective
A possessive adjective shows who something belongs to, e.g. my, our.

Possessive pronoun
A possessive pronoun is used to replace a noun and shows something belongs to
someone, e.g. the house is mine.

Possessive s and whose
Ways of showing or asking who something belongs to, e.g. Whose book is it? Its
Sues.

Preposition
A word used before a noun, pronoun or gerund to connect it to another word, e.g. He
was in the garden.

Present continuous, progressive
I am working in London now.

Present continuous, progressive for future
He is meeting John for dinner at eight tomorrow.

Present perfect continuous, progressive
I have been studying for three years.

Present perfect simple
I have known him for a long time.

Pronoun
A word that replaces or refers to a noun or noun phrase just mentioned.

Proper noun
A proper noun is the name of a person or place, e.g. Robert, London.

Punctuation
The symbols or marks used to organise writing into clauses, phrases and sentences
to make the meaning clear, e.g. full stop (.), capital letter (A), apostrophe (),
comma (,), question mark (?), exclamation mark (!),
at symbol (@) and speech marks ( ).

Quantifier
A word or phrase such as much, few or a lot of which is used with a noun to show an
amount, e.g. I dont have much time; I have a lot of books.

Question mark
A punctuation mark (?) used in writing after a question, e.g. How are you?

Question tag
A phrase such as isnt it? or doesnt he? that is added to the end of a sentence to
make it a question, or to check that someone agrees with the statement just made,
e.g. Its very cold, isnt it?
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Reflexive pronoun
A reflexive pronoun is used when the object of a sentence refers to the same person
or thing as the subject of the sentence, e.g. He cut himself.

Regular verb
A regular verb changes its forms by adding -ed in the past simple and past participle,
e.g. walk, walked.



Relative pronoun
A relative pronoun introduces a relative clause, e.g. the book which Im reading is
interesting.

Reported speech, statement, question
When someones words are reported by another person, e.g. She said she was
sorry.

Reporting verb
A verb such as tell, advise, suggest used in indirect, reported speech to report what
someone has said, e.g. Jane advised John to study harder.

Singular noun
A singular noun is one person, place or thing, e.g. boy, park, bicycle.

Speech marks
Punctuation mark ( ) They are written before and after a word or a sentence to
show that it is what someone said, e.g. John said Hello, Sarah.

Subject
This is the noun or phrase that goes before the verb to show who is doing the action
in an active sentence, e.g. John plays tennis every Saturday, or who the action is
done to in a passive sentence, e.g. the food was cooked yesterday.

Subject-verb agreement
When the form of the verb matches the person doing the action of the verb, e.g. I
walk, he walks. If a learner writes, I walks , then it is wrong because there is no
subject-verb agreement.

Superlative adjective
A superlative adjective compares more than two things, e.g. He is the tallest boy in
the class.

Tense
A form of the verb that shows whether something happens in the past, present or
future.

Time expression
A word or phrase that indicates time, such as after, last weekend, e.g. I will meet you
after the lesson.

Transitive
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Is used to describe a verb which takes a direct object, e.g. She wrote a letter.

Uncountable noun
An uncountable noun does not have a plural form, e.g. information.

Used to
A structure that shows something happened in the past but does not happen now,
e.g. I used to live in London, but now I live in Paris.

Verb
A word used to show an action, state, event or process, e.g. I like cheese; He
speaks Italian.

Verb pattern
The form of the words following the verb, e.g. He advised me to get there early.
(advise + object pronoun + to + base form).

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TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 2 Lexis Activity 1


Complete the puzzle with parts of speech.

1. 5.

T M R P
A Y E I
N N O X F

2. 6.

F A C U
I X D P
F O N
M O

3. 7.

O L M Y
L O N N C
O T S Y

CO A I N

4. 8.

M O X F
H P F U S I
H N
E
O O

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TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 2 Lexis Activity 2a

Match the definitions below with the terms for the lexical items in activity 2b.

1. a word which has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word

2. a meaningful group of letters added to the beginning of a root or base word to
make a new word, which can be a different part of speech from the original word

3. a word in the target language which looks or sounds as if it has the same
meaning as a similar word in the learners first language but does not

4. a meaningful group of letters added to the beginning or end of a word to make a
new word, which can be a different part of speech from the original word

5. a verb which is made up of more than one word (e.g. a verb + adverb particle or
preposition) which has a different meaning from each individual word

6. a word with the same spelling as another word, but which has a different meaning

7. a group of words that are related to each other by their root or base word

8. a meaningful group of letters added to the end of a root or base word to make a
new word, which can be a different part of speech from the original word

9. the opposite of another word

10. a group of words or phrases that are about the same content topic or subject

11. nouns, verbs, adjectives or prepositions that are made up of two or more words
with one unit of meaning

12. a basic word or part of a word from which other words can be made by adding a
prefix or suffix or in some other way

13. words which are regularly used together. The relation between the words may be
grammatical or lexical.

14. a group of words that are used together, in which the meaning of the whole word
group is different from the meaning of each individual word

15. a word which sounds the same as another word, but has a different meaning or
spelling

16. the formality or informality of the language used in a particular situation





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TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 2 Lexis Activity
2b, now match these definitions with examples from 2c



Affix

Antonym

Collocation

Compound

False friend

Homonym

Homophone

Idiom

Lexical set

Phrasal verb

Prefix

Register

Root word, base word

Suffix

Synonym

Word family









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TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 2 Lexis Activity 2c


A. interview, interviewer; tidy untidy

B. hot is the opposite of cold

C. when certain verbs go with particular prepositions, e.g. depend on, good at or
when a verb like make or do goes with a noun, e.g. do the shopping, make a
plan

D. assistant office manager, long-legged

E. In French librairie is a place where people can buy books. In a library in English,
you do not buy books but borrow them instead.

F. bit (past tense of bite) and a bit (a little)

G. I knew he had won; I bought a new book

H. She felt under the weather means that she felt ill

I. weather storm, to rain, wind, cloudy

J. look after A mother looks after her children

K. appear disappear

L. Formal language used in a job applications, informal language used with friends.

M. photograph is the root or base of photographer and photographic

N. care careful

O. nice is similar in meaning to pleasant

P. economy, economist, economic







TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 2 Lexis Sample Task 1

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Examples of vocabulary
Categories

1 colour, color; realise, realize; theatre, theater
A synonyms



2 traffic lights; alarm clock; seat belt
B lexical set



3 childish; successfully; dependable
C collocations



4 turn up; turn off; turn into
D word + suffix



5 catch a cold; catch a bus; catch a thief
E prefix + word



6 sad; miserable; unhappy
F compounds




7 ankle; stomach; knee; heart G phrasal verbs

H American and British
English





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TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 2 Lexis Sample Task 2




For questions 1-4, choose the correct Word(s) to complete each definition of lexical
terms, mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet.

1 .Any pair or group of words commonly found together or near one another.

A. phrasal verbs
B. collocations,
C. chunks

2 A word with the same spelling and pronunciation as another word, but which has
a different meaning,

A. Homonym
B. Antonym
C. homophone


3 A group of words or phrases that are about the same content topic or
subject,

A. Lexical set
B. Synonym
C. Word family

4 A meaningful group of letters added to the end of a root or base word to
make a new word which can be a different part of speech from the original
word,

A. Prefix
B. Particle
C. Suffix

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TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 2 Lexis Answer Keys

Key to Participants Worksheet 1

1. antonym

2. affix

3. collocation

4. homophone

5. prefix

6. compound

7. synonym

8. suffix


Key to Participants Worksheet 2

1. synonym

2. prefix

3. false friend/(cognate)

4. affix

5. phrasal verb

6. homonym

7. word family

8. suffix

9. antonym

10. lexical set

11. compound

12. root word, base word

13. collocation

14. idiom

15. homophone

16. register

Key to Sample Task 1
1.H 2.F 3.D 4.G 5.C 6.A 7.B

Key to Sample Task 1
1.B 2.A 3.A 4.C

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TKT UNIT 2 LEXIS; GLOSSARY,
Taken from www.cambridgeesol.org

Affix verb, affixation noun
A meaningful group of letters added to the beginning or end of a word to
make a new word, which can be a different part of speech from the
original word, e.g. interview, interviewer. Affixation is the process of
adding a prefix or suffix to a word.

Antonym
The opposite of another word, e.g. hot is an antonym of cold. Base
word: see root word.

Chunk
Any pair or group of words commonly found together or near one
another, e.g. phrasal verbs, idioms, collocations, fixed expressions.

Collocation
Words which are regularly used together. The relation between the
words may be grammatical, e.g when certain verbs collocate with
particular prepositions, e.g. depend on, good at or when a verb like
make or do collocates with a noun, e.g. do the shopping, make a plan.
Collocations may also be lexical when two content words are regularly
used together, e.g. We went the wrong way NOT We went the incorrect
way

Compound
Nouns, verbs, adjectives or prepositions that are made up of two or
more words and have one unit of meaning, e.g. assistant office
manager, long-legged.

False friend
A word in the target language which looks or sounds as if it has the
same meaning as a similar word in the learners first language but does
not, e.g. In French librairie is a place where people can buy books. In a
library in English, you do not buy books but borrow them instead.

Homonym
A word with the same spelling and pronunciation as another word, but
which has a different meaning, e.g. bit (past tense of bite) and a bit (a
little).



Homophone
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A word which sounds the same as another word, but has a different
meaning or spelling, e.g. I knew he had won; I bought a new book.

Idiom noun, idiomatic adjective
A group of words that are used together, in which the meaning of the
whole word group is different from the meaning of each individual word,
e.g. She felt under the weather means that she felt ill.


Lexical set
A group of words or phrases that are about the same content topic or
subject, e.g. weather storm, to rain, wind, cloudy.

Lexis, vocabulary
Individual words or sets of words, e.g. homework, study, whiteboard, get
dressed, be on time.

Part of speech
A way of categorising words according to their grammatical function and
meaning, e.g. noun, verb, adjective, pronoun, adverb, preposition,
conjunction.

Phrasal verb, multi-word verb/unit
A verb/any part of speech which is made up of more than one word (e.g.
a verb + adverb particle or preposition) which has a different meaning
from each individual word, e.g. look after A mother looks after her
children.

Prefix
A prefix is a meaningful group of letters added to the beginning of a
root/base word to make a new word which can be a different part of
speech from the original word, e.g. appear disappear.

Root word, base word
The basic word or part of a word from which other words can be made
by adding a prefix or suffix, e.g. photograph is the root or base word of
photographer and photographic.

Suffix
A suffix is a meaningful group of letters added to the end of a root or
base word to make a new word which can be a different part of speech
from the original word, e.g. care careful.

Synonym
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A word which has the same or nearly the same meaning as another
word, e.g. nice is a synonym of pleasant.

Word family
A group of words that come from the same root or base word, e.g.
economy, economist, economic or by topic

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Match the symbols you have been given with the underlined letters in the words in
the
table.


TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 3 Phonology Participants
Activity 1

Phonemic Chart

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For questions 7 - 10 choose the correct Word(s) to complete each definition of
phonology, mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet.

7. Two words which are different from each other by only one meaningful
sound are.

A. Minimal pairs
B. Homophones
C. Consonants

8. In the sentence She gave the ring to John it can be implied that.

A. She only gave the ring to John
B. John was the person she gave the ring to.
C. She could have given the ring to somebody else.

9. The way the level of a speakers voice changes, to show meaning such as
how they feel about something is.

A. Linking
B. Stress
C. Intonation

10. Words that sound similar because they have the same ending.

A. Rhyme
B. Rhythm
C. Contraction


For questions 11-15, match the minimal pairs with the phonemic symbols listed A-F.
mark the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.


11. darling/dialling
12. cart/cut
13. tile/toil
14. pull/bull
15. worse/worth

A. /
B. /
C. /
D. /
E. /
F. /



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Key to Sample Task
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7. A 8. B 9.C 10.A 11. E 12. C 13.B
14.D 15.A














TKT UNIT 3 PHONOLOGY; GLOSSARY,
Taken from www.cambridgeesol.org

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TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 4 Functions

1. Find ten functions in this word puzzle
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TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 4 Functions

2. Read this functions list then match them to the exponents on the next
page


Are they formal (F), informal (I), or neutral (N)? write down on in front of the
exponent


Asking for an opinion


Introducing yourself


Introducing someone else


Clarifying


Praising


Requesting


Advising


Agreeing


Inviting


Thanking


Refusing


Suggesting


Complaining


Greeting


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1. Thanks a lot

2. Do you think you could possibly open the window?

3. Come round to my house for a bite to eat?

4. Can you open the window, please?

5. No way! Im not doing that.

6. I agree with that.


7. Hello, Im Josephine.


8. Im sorry but Im afraid I cant.


9. Would you like to come to dinner?


10. I dont believe weve met. My names James Sanders.


11. Open the window, will you?


12. Mr and Mrs Smith request the pleasure of your company for dinner.


13. Yeah. Youre right there.


14. Thank you very much indeed.























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TKT Module 1: Describing language: Functions
Sample Task


Exercise 3

For questions 17 match the example sentences with the functions
listed AH. Mark the correct letter (AH) on your answer sheet.

There is one extra option which you do not need to use.


Example sentences

1 Lets go to that new restaurant.


2 They might win you never know in cup
matches!


3 Watch out! Thats dangerous.


4 My son can speak three languages fluently.


5 Is it OK if I open the window?


6 Shall I show you how the camera works?


7 Could you pass me my bag?


Functions

A describing ability


B describing
possibility


C asking for
permission


D requesting


E asking for advice


F suggesting


G offering


H warning



















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Key to Participants exercise 1


1. words from the puzzle.
Praising, requesting, advising, agreeing, inviting , thanking, refusing,
suggesting, apologizing, greeting.

Key to Participants exercise
2
1. thanking neutral
2. requesting formal
3. inviting informal
4. requesting neutral
5. refusing informal
6. agreeing neutral
7. introducing yourself neutral
8. refusing formal
9. inviting neutral
10. introducing yourself formal
11. requesting informal
12. inviting formal
13. agreeing informal
14. thanking formal


Key to Sample
Task
1 F 2 B 3 H 4 A
5 C 6 G 7 D
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FUNCTIONS GLOSSARY
Taken from www.cambridgeesol.org


Candidates should already be familiar with common functions such as asking, telling, replying, thanking
and suggesting.

Appropriacy noun, appropriate/inappropriate adjective
Language which is suitable in a particular situation. See register.

Colloquial
Language normally used in informal conversation but not in formal speech or writing, e.g. Give Gran a ring, OK?

Decline, refuse an invitation
To say that you will not accept an invitation, e.g. Im sorry but I cant.

Enquire
To ask for information, e.g. What time does the train leave?

Express
To show or make known a feeling or an opinion in words.

Express ability, e.g. I can swim.

Express intention, e.g. Im planning to visit him next year.

Express necessity, e.g. He needs to get a new passport.

Express obligation, e.g. You must wear a seatbelt.

______________________________________________________________________________________________



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Express permission, e.g. You can have a look at my book.

Express preference, e.g. Id rather have coffee than tea.

Express probability, e.g. He should be in later.

Express prohibition, e.g. You mustnt use your mobile phone while driving.

Formal language
Language used in formal conversations or writing, e.g. Yours faithfully. See register.

Formality (level of): see register.

Function
The reason or purpose for communication, e.g. making a suggestion; giving advice.

Functional exponent
A phrase which is an example of a function and shows the purpose of what the speaker is
communicating, e.g. Lets ... This phrase is one way to make a suggestion. It is an example (or
exponent) of the function of suggesting. See function.

Greet
To welcome someone, often with words, e.g. Hello, how are you?

Inappropriate
Language which is not suitable in a particular situation. See appropriacy.

Informal language
Language used in informal conversations or writing, e.g. Hi John. See register.

Informality (level of): see register.

Instruct
To order or tell someone to do something, e.g. Please turn to page 12 and do exercise 1.

Negotiate
To discuss with someone to reach an agreement, e.g. If you help me now, Ill help you next week.

Neutral
A style of speaking or writing that is neither formal nor informal, but in between. It is appropriate for most
situations. See formal language, informal language.

Predict
To guess or say what you think may happen, e.g. I think the story will end happily.

Register
The formality or informality of the language used in a particular situation. Formal register or language is
used in serious or important situations, e.g. in a job application. Informal register or language is used in
relaxed or friendly situations, e.g. with family or friends.

Request, make a (polite) request
To ask someone politely to do something, e.g. Please could you open the window?

Speculate
To guess something based on information you have, e.g. I think it might be an easy test.


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TKT Module 1: Units 5-8 Describing language skills and
subskills Exercise 1, express your opinion.


Teachers can help students read a text by reading it aloud while they follow
in their books.

There are no major differences between how we read in our mother tongue and
how we read in a foreign language.

To understand a reading text, you have to read and understand every word in it.


When doing listening comprehension in class, I prefer to read the transcript to
students rather than use a recording. This way I can speak slowly and
pronounce words carefully.

I always give the students a copy of the transcript Im going to read so they can
follow it while Im reading.

I never use passages for listening comprehension which have unknown words.


Writing is more or less the same as speaking. I dont think there are any
particular things to teach students.

I always give my students a model or example text to copy from when we
are doing writing in class.

Writing lessons are boring just sitting and watching students write is not
interesting.


Doing a speaking lesson is easy. You dont even have to prepare!


I dont think there is much value in doing speaking activities in class. Students
can talk to each other in breaks or at lunchtime.

Students dont like talking to other students because their English isnt very
good. They prefer talking to the teacher.


TKT Module 1: Units 5-8 Describing language skills and
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subskills, match the following definitions to the wordlist



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TKT Module 1: Units 5-8 Describing language skills and
subskills, WORD LIST



editing


paraphrasing


note-taking


intensive listening/reading


listening/reading for gist/global understanding


using interactive strategies


deducing meaning from context


skimming


predicting


scanning


summarising


listening/reading for detail


inferring attitude/feeling/mood


proofreading




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TKT Module 1: Units 5-8 Describing language skills and
subskills

Which of the subskills are connected to each of the main skills (reading, listening,
speaking, writing) in the table below? Some of the subskills may be connected to
more than one main skill.


Main skill Subskill

Reading









Listening










Speaking










Writing










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TKT Module 1: Unit 5 Describing language skills and subskills
Sample Task

For questions 15, look at the following terms for language skills and three
possible descriptions of the terms.

Choose the correct option A, B or C

Mark the correct term (A, B or C) on your answer sheet.
1 Summarising is

A explaining a text in detail.
B writing the last sentence of a text.
C giving the main points of a text.

2 Oral fluency is

A speaking without making any mistakes.
B speaking naturally without hesitating too much.
C speaking without considering the listener.

3 Paraphrasing is


A using phrases to say something instead of using complete sentences.
B connecting sentences together in speech or writing by using conjunctions.
C finding another way to say something when you cannot think of the right
language.


4 Scanning is


A reading a text quickly to get the general idea.

B reading a text quickly to find specific information.

C reading a text quickly to identify the writers attitude.

5 Oral fluency is

A speaking without making any mistakes.
B speaking naturally without hesitating too much.
C speaking without considering the listener.
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TKT Module 1: Units 5- 8 Describing language skills Answers

1. Listening/reading for detail
2. Deducing meaning from context
3. Note-taking
4. Skimming
5. Proofreading
6. Intensive listening/reading
7. Editing
8. Listening/reading for gist, global understanding
9. Inferring attitude, feeling, mood
10. Predicting
11. Scanning
12. Using interactive strategies
13. Summarising
14. Paraphrasing

Main skill Subskill


Listening/reading for detail Listening/reading for gist, global

Deducing meaning from context understanding

Reading
Note-taking Inferring attitude, feeling, mood

Skimming Predicting



Proofreading Scanning

Editing

Listening/reading for detail

Deducing meaning from context

Listening
Intensive listening/reading

Listening/reading for gist, global understanding


Inferring attitude, feeling, mood

Predicting


Inferring attitude, feeling, mood

Speaking
Using interactive strategies

Summarising



Paraphrasing


Proofreading

Writing
Editing

Summarising



Paraphrasing



Key to sample task


1.C 2.A 3.B 4.C 5.B





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Concepts and terminology for describing language skills
GLOSSARY
Taken from www.cambridgeesol.org


Abstract
Relating to complex thoughts and ideas rather than simple, basic, concrete concepts. A text or
language can be abstract, e.g. words to express thoughts or feelings are often abstract words. See
concrete.

Accuracy
The use of correct forms of grammar, vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation. In an accuracy activity,
teachers and learners typically focus on using and producing language, spelling correctly. See oral
fluency.

Authenticity: see authentic material.

Coherence noun, coherent adjective
When ideas in a spoken or written text fit together clearly and smoothly, and so are logical and make
sense to the listener or reader.

Cohesion noun, cohesive adjective
The way spoken or written texts are joined together with logical grammar or lexis, e.g. conjunctions (Firstly,
secondly), lexical sets, referring words (it, them, this).

Cohesive device
A feature in a text which provides cohesion, e.g. use of topic-related vocabulary throughout a text, of
sequencing words (then, next, after that etc.), of referencing words (pronouns he, him, etc.), of
conjunctions (however, although etc.).

Coherence noun, coherent adjective
When ideas in a spoken or written text fit together clearly and smoothly, and so are logical and make
sense to the listener or reader.

Complex
Complicated, not simple.

Comprehension
Understanding a spoken or written text.

Concrete
Relating to real or specific ideas or concepts. Lexis can be concrete, e.g. words for real objects like
clothes, food, animals that can be seen or touched, or abstract, e.g. words to express thoughts, feelings,
complex ideas, which cannot be seen or touched.

Context
1. The situation in which language is used or presented, e.g. a story about a holiday experience could be
used as the context to present past tenses.
2. The words or phrases before or after a word in discourse which help someone to understand
that word. See deduce meaning from context.

Discourse
Spoken or written language in texts or groups of sentences.

Deduce meaning from context
To guess the meaning of an unknown word by using the information in a situation and/or around the word to help,
e.g.
I drove my van to the town centre and parked it in the central car park. Van must be some kind of vehicle
because you drive it and park it.

Develop skills
To help learners to improve their listening, reading, writing and speaking ability. Teachers do this in
class by providing activities which focus on skills development.

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Draft noun + verb
A draft is a piece of writing that is not yet finished, and may be changed. A writer drafts a piece of writing.
That is, they write it for the first time but not exactly as it will be when it is finished. See re-draft.

Edit
To shorten or change or correct the words or content of some parts of a written text to make it clearer or
easier to understand.

Extensive listening/reading
Listening to or reading long pieces of text, such as stories or newspapers. See intensive listening/reading.

Extract
Part of a text which is removed from an original text.
Fossilisation, fossilised errors
The process in which incorrect language becomes a habit and cannot easily be corrected.

Gist, global listening/reading: see listen/read for gist/global understanding.

Infer attitude, feeling, mood
To decide how a writer or speaker feels about something from the way that they speak or write, rather than
from what they openly say.

Integrated skills
An integrated skills lesson combines work on reading, writing, listening and speaking.

Intensive listening/reading
One meaning of intensive listening/reading is reading or listening to focus on how language is used in a
text. This is how intensive listening/reading is used in TKT. See extensive listening/reading.

Interaction noun, interact verb, interactive strategies
Interaction is two-way communication between listener and speaker, or reader and text. Interactive
strategies are the means used, especially in speaking, to keep people involved and interested in what is
said or to keep communication going, e.g. eye contact, use of gestures, functions such as repeating,
asking for clarification.

Key word
A word in a piece of discourse or text, which is important for understanding the text.

Layout
The way in which a text is organised and presented on a page. Certain texts have special layouts, e.g.
letters and newspaper articles.

Listen/read for detail
To listen to or read a text in order to understand most of what it says or particular details.

Listen/read for gist, global understanding
To understand the general meaning of a text, without paying attention to specific details.

Listen/read for mood
To read or listen to a text in order to identify the feelings of the writer or speaker. See infer attitude, feeling,
mood.

Note-taking noun, take notes verb
To take notes means to listen and write down ideas from the text in short form.

Oral fluency
The use of connected speech at a natural speed with little hesitation, repetition or self-correction. In a
written or spoken fluency activity, learners typically give attention to the communication of meaning,
rather than trying to be correct. See accuracy.

Paragraph noun + verb
A paragraph is a section in a longer piece of writing such as an essay. It starts on a new line and usually
contains a single new idea. When a writer is paragraphing, he/she is creating paragraphs. See topic
sentence.
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Paraphrase noun + verb
To say or write something that has been read or heard using different words. Paraphrase can also be used
to describe what a learner does if he/she is not sure of the exact language they need to use, i.e. explain
their meaning using different language.

Prediction noun, predict verb
A technique or learner strategy learners can use to help with listening or reading. Learners think about the
topic before they read or listen. They try to imagine what the topic will be or what they are going to read
about or listen to, using clues like headlines or pictures accompanying the text or their general knowledge
about the text type or topic. This makes it easier for them to understand what they read or hear.

Process noun + verb
To actively think about new information in order to understand it completely and be able to use it in future.


Process writing
An approach to writing, which thinks of writing as a process which includes different stages of writing
such as planning, drafting, re-drafting, editing, proofreading. See product writing, guided writing.

Product writing
An approach to writing which involves analysing and then reproducing models of particular text types. See
process writing.

Productive skills
When learners produce language. Speaking and writing are productive skills. See receptive skills.

Proofread
To read a text in order to check whether there are any mistakes in spelling, grammar, punctuation etc.

Re-draft
When a piece of writing is changed with the intention of improving it. A writers first draft may be
re-drafted. See draft.

Receptive skills
When learners do not have to produce language; listening and reading are receptive skills. See productive
skills.

Relevance noun, relevant adjective
The degree to which something is related to or useful in a situation.

Scan
To read a text quickly to pick out specific information, e.g. finding a phone number in a phone book.

Skill
The four language skills are listening, speaking, reading and writing.

Skim
To read a text quickly to get a general idea of what it is about.

Subskill
Each of the four language skills can be divided into smaller subskills that are all part of the main skill, e.g.
identifying text organisation (reading); identifying word stress (listening). See listen/read for gist, global
understanding, scan, listen/read for detail.

Summary noun, summarise verb
To take out the main points of a long text, and rewrite or retell them in a short, clear way.

Text structure
The way a text is organised. For example, an essay typically has an introduction, a main section and a
conclusion.

Text type
Texts that have specific features, e.g. layout, use of language, that make them part of a recognisable
type of text, e.g. letters, emails, news reports.
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Theme noun, thematic adjective
The main subject of a conversation, a text or a lesson.

Topic
The subject of a text or lesson.

Topic sentence
A sentence that gives the main point or subject of a paragraph. This is usually the opening sentence in a
paragraph.

Turn, turn-taking
When someone speaks in a conversation this is called a turn. Speaking and then allowing another person to
speak in reply is called turn-taking.

Version
A particular form of something in which some details are different from an earlier or later form of it, e.g. a
written text may have different versions.




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TKT Module 1:Unit 9: Motivation Participants Worksheet 1

Put the teacher characteristics in order (16) of how important you think these
characteristics are to be an effective teacher.

The teacher knows English grammar well.
The teacher speaks clearly.
The teacher is friendly.
The teacher is well-organised.
The teacher can speak a foreign language.
The teacher knows her students well

Exercise 1

Compare these ideas with your top tips for teachers to maintain motivation in
students.

1.Give students something to work towards. Have goals for yourself and encourage
students to have goals of their own.
2.Be enthusiastic in lessons and enthusiastic about the material you are using. Sell it to the
students.
3.Make sure your material is well presented and attractive for learners.
4.Give clear instructions for tasks so that students can achieve your aims.
5.Provide a good variety of activities in your lessons.
6.Provide a variety of interaction patterns in lessons.
7.Find out about your students interests so that you can provide material on topics that the
students are interested in.
8.Encourage students to relax in lessons and encourage them to talk to each other and to
help each other.
9.Praise all students when they have done something well, especially weaker learners, to
build self-confidence.
10. Encourage students to continue studying outside the classroom.
Exercise 2

Match each of the activities below with the top tip above that it would put in action

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A. Demonstrate tasks so that students know what to do. Check understanding of instructions.
B. If students arrive early for class, encourage them to chat to amongst themselves. C. Try to
do different activities in a lesson, e.g. speaking and reading rather than just
reading.
D. Start your lessons with a warmer to raise energy levels.
E. Set up a research project. Get learners to look things up on the internet.
F. Provide a questionnaire with topics so that students can choose which ones they like best.
G.When monitoring a speaking or writing task, select some examples of good English to put on
the board at the end for everyone to share. .
H. Use pictures on handouts and vary the font size, layout, etc.
I. Tell students what you intend to achieve by the end of the course and find out what they want
to achieve.
J. Do pair work and group work and change students around so they can work with different
people.

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TKT Module 1: Unit 9: Motivation Sample Task


For Questions 16, match the general advice on motivation with the techniques for encouraging
motivation listed A, B, C or D.

Mark the correct letter (A, B, C or D) on your answer sheet. You need to use some options
more than once

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Key to Participants Worksheet 2

1 I 2 D 3 H 4 A 5 C
6 J 7 F 8 B 9 G 10 E


Key to Sample Task

1. B 2. A 3. C 4. D 5. C 6 D


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TKT Module 1:Unit 10: Exposure to language and focus on form

Read the text quickly and answer these questions:

What theory of language learning is discussed in the text?

Does the theory avoid the teaching of grammar completely?


Second language learning

If you look in a dictionary to find the meaning of the word acquisition, you will find it defined as
something like the process of learning skills or getting knowledge. So what then is language
acquisition and how is language acquisition different to language learning?

Some theorists believe that there is a difference between learning and acquisition and that the
difference is this: language learning is a conscious or intentional process which may involve
studying the language, paying attention to grammar rules and possibly following a course of
instruction. Language acquisition, on the other hand, is considered to be a natural process and
involves picking up language in a non-conscious way through exposure to language, not by
studying it.

Children acquire their first language and get to know its rules through exposure and by being
exposed to examples of the language and by using it. This is part of the theory of first
language acquisition.

Second language acquisition is the process, and the study of the process, by which people
learn a language that is not their native language. This is a fairly new field of study and there
are still many questions to answer about how languages are learnt. However, teachers and
theorists believe that we do learn a second language by acquiring or picking up language, but
there are some important considerations for second language learners.

Second language learners acquire language through exposure to many different examples
of the language, by reading it and by hearing it in their environment. We listen and read and
develop an understanding of language over a period of time before we eventually use it
ourselves. The period, when learners are taking in language, processing it and perhaps silently
practicing it, is known as the silent period and is thought to be an important stage in language
acquisition.

Once we use the language, it is important that there is an opportunity for interaction so we can
use the language, to experiment, to make the language work in communication.

The final consideration is the need for a focus on form. Second language learners need to
focus on the language, to analyse and identify it and practise it. Teachers and learners will also
want to look at correcting mistakes so that learners can think about rules, and exceptions to
rules.

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Exercise 1: Read the text again and answer the following questions.

1.What is acquisition?

2.In some peoples opinion, how is language acquisition different to language learning?

3.How do children learn their first language?

4.What is second language acquisition?

5.What are the three considerations mentioned regarding second language acquisition?

6.What is exposure?

7.What is the silent period?

8.Why is interaction important?

9.What is focus on form?


Exercise 2: Look at the activities and decide if they are related to (A) acquisition, (I)
interaction, or (F) focus on form. Write A, I or F in the column on the right.

Activity A/I/F
1. Students read a newspaper and choose one article to study in detail.
2. Students read a newspaper article and circle all the examples of reported speech





3. Students repeat model sentences in an open class drill.
4. Students tell each other in groups about different festivals in their countries.
5. Students read each others essays and suggest improvements.
6. Students listen to a recording of a job interview.









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TKT Module 1:Unit 10: Exposure to language and focus on form Sample
Task


For Questions 15, match the teacher strategies with the aspects of learning listed A, B or
C.

Mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet. You need to use some options more
than once
Techniques

A Focus on form

B Silent period

C Exposure



Teacher strategies

1 I know some of the students wont want to speak straightaway, so Ill leave them
to just work things out.



2 Im going to set my students a project where they have to use the internet and do
some research into different aspects of the topic beforehand.



3 This exercise will encourage the learners to look at the language in the text and to
think about why and when it is used.



4 I know the texts have a lot of unknown grammar and lexis, but I think Ill use a lot
more authentic material in my lessons so that my students dont have to rely on the coursebook
alone.



5 Ive built in some time for correction on the board with the whole class at the end
of the lesson, so that I can pick up and deal with mistakes that Ive heard during the class.






TKT Module 1: Unit 11: The role of error
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Exercise 1, The following are all errors commonly made by students. Look at the
sentences/questions and correct them. Then discuss possible reasons that these errors
are frequently made by students.

1. I have a good news for you.

2. He has not yet gone to the bed.

3. He came by the 4:30 o'clock train.

4. I have a strong headache.

5. Tell me why did you go there?

6. Does he needs a ticket for the bus?

Exercise 2. Look at these examples of student errors. Decide what the error is in each
sentence, and discuss why you think the error is being made. You should use the terms
in the box.

false friend L1 interference interlanguage overgeneralisation

1. She livz in London in a small flat.

2. He throwed the ball over the fence.

3. I have seen that film yesterday.

4. She told me a fantastic history about her last holiday.

5. Where do you come from? Im coming from Sweden.

6. You should better can to go now.

Exercise 3

1. Whats an error?

2. Whats a slip?

3. Why do people think it is important for students to make mistakes?

4. What can teachers learn from students mistakes?

5. What is the teachers role in relation to students mistakes?


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Exercise 4

Why do students make mistakes? Choose the correct term in the box below for the
following descriptions.

1. When the learners mother tongue affects their performance in the target language.
A learner may make a mistake because they use the same grammatical pattern in the
target language as they use in their mother tongue. The L1 grammatical pattern is not
appropriate in L2.
2. The process in which incorrect language becomes a habit and cannot easily be
corrected.
3. An error made by a second language learner which is natural part of the language
learning process because they are unconsciously organising and working out
language. These types of error are also made by children learning their first language
and often disappear as their language ability improves.
4. When a student uses a grammatical rule he/she has learned, but uses it in
situations when it is not needed or appropriate, e.g. a student says There were three
girls (correct plural form used for most nouns) and two mans. (incorrect plural form
not appropriate for man).
5. The learners own version of the second language which they speak as they learn.
They create their own grammatical system as they are learning, which is neither their
first language nor the target language but something in between the two. This version
of their language changes as they progress and learn more.
6. A word in the target language which looks or sounds as if it has the same meaning
as a similar word in the learners first language but does not, e.g. in French librairie is
a place where people can buy books. In a library in English, you do not buy books but
borrow them instead.



A. false friend B. interlanguage C. L1 interference

D. overgeneralisation E. fossilisation F. developmental error



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TKT Module 1: Unit 11: The role of error Sample Task


For questions 16, match the teachers comments about errors with the type of mistake listed
A, B or C.

Mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet. You need to use some options more
than once
Type of Error

A slip

B L1 interference

C error



Teachers comments

1 We havent covered the past simple yet so when I asked about their weekend my
students said things like I go to the park, I am very busy with my friends.


2 Im trying to get my learners to see the difference between the subjunctive in
English and in their own language so that they will use it accurately in English.


3 My students were really tired by the end of the afternoon so I didnt do very much
correction. I knew that they would know how to say the sentences correctly; they were just
tired.


4 Weve been doing a lot of practice saying // and //. My learners keep saying
/z/, I think its because they dont have those sounds in their own language so they
just use the sound they do have.


5 While doing an individual drill teaching going to, one of the students said I going
to buy some fruit. I repeated I going with rising intonation and he said Im going.








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KEY TO EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1.

Sentence with correction Possible reason for error
1. I have a good news for you. Difficult for students to recognize countable and
uncountable nouns and to know if they should use
the indefinite article.
2. He hasnt yet gone to bed. Go home, go to bed, go to school dont use definite
article.
3. He came by the 4:30 o'clock
train.
We only use oclock when the time is on the hour
e.g. 10.00.
4. I have a strong bad/terrible
headache.
Strong does not collocate with headache.
5. Tell me why did you go went
there.
Indirect questions have sentence formation and
sentence grammar, not question
formation/grammar, so no auxiliary and no
inversion is needed.
6. Does he needs a ticket for
the bus?
Present simple question uses auxiliary does, which
is
followed by the base form, so no s for third person.

EXERCISE 2.

1. L1 interference and problems with // and /i/.

2. Overgeneralisation of ed endings. This is an irregular verb and does fit in to the rule for past
tense endings.

3. L1 interference this tense can be used with a specific past time in other languages.
OR Overgeneralisation: learner doesnt know the limitations of present perfect which cant be
used with a specific past time.

4. False friend (history = story)

5. Overgeneralisation: learner doesnt know the limitations of present continuous which is not
used to for stating facts about yourself.

6. Interlanguage: the learner has made up this grammatical structure, which is neither his own
language nor the target language.


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EXERCISE 3

1. An error is a mistake a learner makes when trying to say something that is above their level
of language. They would not be able to self correct an error.

2. A slip is a mistake a learner makes that they are able to correct themselves.

3. Errors are considered to be important because they are an important and necessary part of
language learning, learners need to experiment with language in order to work out how
language works.

4. Teachers can learn what learners know, what they need to be taught and they can find out
what aspects of language they have processed. This enables teachers to adapt their teaching
programme.

5. The teachers role in relation to students mistakes is deciding if, when and how to correct.

EXERCISE 4

1 C 2 E 3 F 4 D 5 B 6 A


Key to Sample Task

1 C 2 B 3 A 4 B 5 A


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TKT Module 1: Unit 12: Differences between L1 and L2 learning


Discuss the following questions with a partner or colleague, try answering them
yourself.






language?

second language?

same as the difficulties children have when learning a first language?


Exercise 1 Text 1

Read the text and decide on an appropriate title for it.

We learn our first language as a baby and as a young child and continue to build our language
as we grow older and learn different kinds of language and language skills.

Babies and children are surrounded by their first language. They hear and see their families,
friends and strangers talking and interacting with each other and friends and family interact with
them. Children are constantly provided with opportunities to use the language and to
experiment with the language as they are learning it and they receive constant praise and
encouragement for their efforts. Parents encourage and persuade their children to talk by
simplifying their own language and directing simple questions and requesting simple
responses. When childrens language is inaccurate, adults very rarely correct them or make
them repeat accurate forms and they will, more often than not, respond to the utterance in a
natural way.

Babies and children learn language by acquiring it through exposure and by picking it up. They
are generally highly motivated to learn their first language because they have a great need and
desire to communicate with others around them. They hear and see friends and family
communicating with each other and they will listen and take in this language and process it
during a silent period, possibly lasting many months, before using language themselves.
When children start using language the language they use will be about things they see around
them and they will play and experiment with new language. They learn through this
experimentation and through interaction with family and friends.





Exercise 2 Text 2
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Read the text and decide on an appropriate title for it.

Most people learn their second language at school in a classroom. Some start at primary
school or secondary school and their learning might continue in later life. Some people begin
second language learning as adults and attend lessons along with the other things they do in
their lives.

Second language learners do not usually hear or read more than three or four hours a week of
the second language, so they do not have much exposure to the language. The exposure they
do get is generally in the classroom, where they will hear recordings and read texts and will
have the teacher to listen to. Teachers often simplify their language so are not necessarily a
source of additional exposure to language and they usually correct students frequently. In
class, the opportunities for second language learners to use the language vary, as does the
amount of praise and encouragement provided by the teacher and other learners.

Second language learners, like L1 learners, do learn language by acquiring it through
exposure but they are more likely to learn language in a classroom and the language they learn
is selected by teachers. They learn by interacting with the teacher and with other learners and
by using language in controlled practice activities. In the classroom, learners often want to
produce the language as soon as possible and do not always welcome the opportunity of a
silent period. They use language for talking about experiences and things relating to their lives
outside the classroom. Learning is often dependent on motivation and this can vary in second
language learners, from learners having little or no motivation to learners being very highly
motivated.

















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1. Complete the appropriate column in the table with information from texts 1 and 2

Group A

First Language (L1) learning
Group B

Second Language (L2) Learning

Age


Context


Exposure


Praise


Correction


Simplified
language


Way of
learning


Motivation


Silent
period


Language
used for





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TKT Module 1: Unit 12: Differences between L1 and L2 learning Sample
Task 1


For Questions 16, match the aspects of learning with the type of learner listed A, B or C.

Mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet. You need to use some options more
than once.
Type of learner

A L1 learner

B L2 adult learner

C Both L1 and L2 adult learner



Aspect of learning

These learners seem to respond to praise and encouragement and it helps them to
1 develop their language and skills.


These learners dont need to be constantly corrected. They need to experiment
2 and to play with language.


These learners will listen and process language and will not speak at all,
3 sometimes for many months, before beginning to use language.



4 These learners are able to share experiences and talk about the things they see
around them and about experiences in their lives.


5 These learners need some controlled practice and a focus on form.












Key to Participants worksheet 4
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Group A

First language (L1) learning
Group B

Second language (L2) learning
Age Baby, young child Primary, secondary, adults
Context At home Mostly at school in a classroom

Exposure

Surrounded all the time
Three or four hours a week, recordings,
texts, the teacher and other students

Praise
Constant praise and
encouragement

Varied, depending on the teacher
Correction Rarely Frequently by the teacher
Simplified
language

Yes, from parents

Yes


Way of
learning


Acquiring language through
exposure
Acquiring some through language
exposure
Interacting with the teacher and other
learners
Doing controlled practice activities.
Motivation Highly motivated Varies none, a little, a lot
Silent
period

Yes, sometimes for many months

Often not
Language
used for
Talking about things they see
around them
Talking about experiences and things
related to lives outside the classroom

Key to Sample task

1 C 2 C 3 A 4 B 5 B


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TKT Module 1:Unit 13: Learner characteristics


Exercise 1, Complete the puzzle with learning styles using the clues below.





Across
3. A learner who finds it easier to learn when they can see things written down or in a picture.
This type of learner may like the teacher to write a new word on the board and not just say it
aloud.



Down
1. A learner who remembers things more easily when they hear them spoken. This type of
learner may like the teacher to say a new word aloud and not just write it on the board.

2. A learner who learns more easily by doing things physically. This type of learner may like to
move around or move objects while learning.


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VAK Learning Style Questionnaire

Exercise 2, What is your preferred Learning Style?
What kind of learner are you?


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Check your answers. If your answers are mostly A, you are an Auditory Learner. If your
answers are mostly V, you are a Visual Learner. If your answers are mostly K, you are a
Kinaesthetic Learner.


Exercise 3, for what kind of learner would the following strategies be useful?

1. The teacher creates a substitution table with the target language on the board.

2. The teacher contextualises target language by telling the students a story.

3. The teacher asks learners to come to the board and to write their answer to a task.

4. The teacher says the new words she is teaching three times before asking the students to
repeat them.

5. The teacher does a mingling activity, where learners walk around asking questions to find
out information from each other.

6. The teacher shows learners a picture of the object she is trying to elicit.



Exercise 4

What learning strategies could learners use to help them improve in the following areas?

1. dealing with words in texts and recordings that you dont know

2. remembering new vocabulary

3. learning new grammar

4. improving pronunciation

5. developing oral fluency

6. developing comprehension skills

7. becoming more independent




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Exercise 5, Match the learner strategies below with the areas for improvement on
Participants worksheet 4 Exercise 2.


A.Reading more authentic material (magazines and newspapers etc.) outside class, listening to
English radio/TV programmes outside class, asking people to repeat what they have said when
you dont understand.

B.Learning the sounds and symbols in the phonemic chart, asking teachers and other students
to correct your pronunciation, recording your self and listening for pronunciation errors.

C.Using the internet to research language and vocabulary, using English-English dictionaries to
research vocabulary, choosing an area of language or vocabulary to revise/learn and using
resources to self study

D.Saying new words in your head over and over again, writing new words down in your note
book, writing new words down with a translation in your own language next to them, writing
words down on separate cards and storing them in a box.

E.Guessing the meaning from context, looking words up in the dictionary, writing words down to
ask someone about later.

F.Speaking English only in class, speaking English whenever possible outside class, practise
speaking for one minute on a topic without hesitating.

G.Practising the language as soon as youve learnt it, repeating different examples of the
language, writing down the different grammatical components of the language, cutting up the
different components and arranging them in the correct order.








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TKT Module 1:Unit 13: Learner characteristics Sample Task


For questions 17 match the learners comments to the descriptions of learner preferences
listed AH. There is one extra option which you do not need to use

Comments

1 Most of the time should be spent doing grammar exercises.


2 I prefer working with other students to speaking to the teacher in front of the
class.


3 I really like knowing how language works.


4 Rules just confuse me its better to work out language from examples.


5 Why should I listen to other students mistakes? The teacher should talk most of
the time.


6 I just want people to understand what I mean. I dont worry if I make mistakes.


7 Its important for me to know how well Im doing.


Preferences

A The learner wants explanations of grammar use.

B

The learner enjoys explaining language to other students.

C

The learner enjoys practising language in pairs or groups.

D

The learner enjoys doing language practice that focuses on
accuracy.
E

The learner doesnt want to work with other students.

F

The learner needs to feel a sense of progress.

G

The learner focuses on communicating.

H

The learner doesnt want the teacher to explain grammar.

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Key to exercise 1

1A 2K
U I
D N
3 V I S U A L
T E
O S
R T
Y H
E
T
I
C
Exercise 3

1. Visual 4. Auditory
2. Auditory 5. Kinaesthetic
3. Kinaesthetic 6. Visual

Exercises 4 and 5

1. E 2. D 3. G 4. B 5. F 6. A 7. C

Key to Sample Task

1. D 2. C 3. A 4. H 5. E 6. G 7. F

Key to Procedure Step 9

Additional exercises.

What are some of the different learner characteristics of children, teenagers and adults?
Differences in
length of time they can pay attention/ concentrate
ability to stay still
ability to control behaviour
attitude to making mistakes
attitude to taking risks
levels of self consciousness
being able to bring life experiences to learning.

What effect can learners past learning experiences have on learner characteristics?
previous experience of learning may be very different to the approach taken by the
current teacher; this change may or may not be welcomed
learners may have tried to learn a language before and failed
learners may have fixed ideas about the best way of learning.

TKT Module 1:Unit 14: Learner needs

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Exercise 1.

Exercise 2, What can teachers do to respond to learners needs? Match the following
answer with the concepts in the boxes below the answers.

Do a needs analysis and/or find out about your learners personal needs, learning needs and
future or current professional needs.

Select topics and subjects for lessons that fit with their interests and needs.

Select material that meets their needs.

Choose activities that fit with their learning styles, and are suitable for their needs and
interests.

Decide on pace and interaction patterns.

Think about the balance of skills work (reading, listening, speaking, writing) in relation to their
needs.

Adopt approaches for teaching language that respond to their needs, interests and learning
styles.

Think about how to give learners feedback on their work.

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TKT Module 1: Unit 14: Learner needs Sample Task


For Questions 16, match the needs of each group of students with the most suitable type of
course listed AG.There is one extra option which you do not need to use.

Groups of students
1 These young adults need a range of study skills before going to a British
university.


2 These adult beginners are going on holiday, and need to learn how to
communicate in an English-speaking environment.


3 This group of young children have a short attention span; their parents want them
to learn English while having some fun.


4 These business people need to meet and work with people from other countries
at international conferences.


5 These secretaries and receptionists want to focus on vocabulary and skills which
are useful for them in their work.


6 These scientists need to keep up-to-date with the latest developments in their
subjects.

Types of courses

A a course focusing on basic language skills for everyday situations.

B

a course focusing on listening and note-taking, and writing academic
essays
C

a course based on role-plays and situations, such as greeting visitors and
telephoning clients

D

an activity based course with lots of games, songs and stories

E

a course based on grammar revision and written practice

F

an oral skills course based on cross-cultural material

G

an online course in which students read texts on specific topics and
answer detailed comprehension.


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TKT Module 1:Unit 14: Learner needs Answer Keys



Key to Sample Task

1. B 2. A 3. D 4. F 5. C 6. G

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TKT GLOSSARY, UNITS 9 TO 14

Background to language learning

Achievement noun, achieve verb, achievable adjective
Something reached by effort; something done successfully. Something which is achievable for
learners is something they can succeed in.

Acquisition noun, acquire verb
To learn a language without studying it, just by hearing and/or reading and then using it. This is
the way people usually learn their first language.

Attention span
How long a learner is able to concentrate at any one time.

Auditory learner: see learning style.

Clue
A piece of information that helps someone to find the answer to a problem, e.g. a teacher could
give the first letter of a word she is trying to elicit as a clue to learners to help them find the
word.

Cognitive (processes)
The mental processes involved in thinking, understanding or learning.

Confidence noun, confident adjective
The feeling someone has when they are sure of their ability to do something well. Teachers
often do activities that help learners to feel more confident about their own ability.

Conscious (of)
To know that something exists or is happening, or to have knowledge or experience of
something; to be aware.

Demotivate: see motivation.

Developmental error: see error.

Effective
Having the intended or desired result.

English-medium school
A school in a non-English speaking country, in which all subjects are taught using English.

Error
A mistake that a learner makes when trying to say something above their level of language or
language processing. See slip.

A developmental error is an error made by a second language learner which could also be
made by a young person learning their mother tongue as part of their normal development, e.g.
I goed there last week (I went there last week).
Expectation
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A belief about the way something will happen. Learners often have expectations about what
and how they should learn.

Exposure noun, expose verb
When learners listen to or read language without being consciously aware of it.

Factor
A fact or situation which influences the result of something, e.g. the factors which decide
whether someone learns a language successfully or not.

First language: see mother tongue, L1/L2

Focus on form
Paying attention to the words/parts of words that make a language structure or to spelling or
pronunciation.

Goal, target
An aim that a learner or teacher may have.

Guidance noun, guide verb
Help given by a teacher with learning, or with doing a task.

Ignore (errors)
To choose not to pay attention to something such as an error made by a learner. A teacher
may do this if he/she wants to help the learner with fluency, not accuracy.

Independent study
Studying without a teacher present or without the teacher monitoring and directing the learning
very closely,
e.g. learners could carry out research on a topic using reference resources. This could be done
at home or with minimum involvement of the teacher in class.

Intensive course
A course which takes place over a short period of time, but which consists of a high number of
hours.

Interference
When the learners mother tongue affects their performance in the target language. A learner
may make a mistake because they use the same grammatical pattern in the target language as
they use in their mother tongue, but the L1 grammatical pattern is not appropriate in L2.

Interlanguage
Learners own version of the second language which they speak as they learn. Interlanguage is
constantly changing and developing as learners learn more of the second language.
LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION

L1/L2
L1 is the learners mother tongue or first language; L2 is the learners second language.

Language awareness
A learners understanding of the rules of how language works and his/her ability to notice
language.

Learn by heart
To learn something so that you can remember it perfectly.

Learner autonomy noun, autonomous adjective, learner independence
When a learner can set his/her own aims and organise his/her own study, they are autonomous
and independent. Many activities in coursebooks help learners to be more independent by
developing learning strategies and focusing on learner training.

Learner characteristics
The typical things about a learner or learners that influence their learning, e.g. age, L1, past
learning experience, learning style.

Learner independence: see learner autonomy.

Learner training
The use of activities to help learners understand how they learn and help them to become
autonomous, independent learners.

Learning resources
The materials or tools which help learners learn, e.g. books, computers, CDs etc.

Learning strategies
The techniques which a learner consciously uses to help them when learning or using
language, e.g. deducing the meaning of words from context; predicting content before reading.

Learning style
The way in which an individual learner naturally prefers to learn something. There are many
learning styles. Three of them are below.

Auditory learner
A learner who remembers things more easily when they hear them spoken. This type of learner
may like the teacher to say a new word aloud and not just write it on the board.

Kinaesthetic learner
A learner who learns more easily by doing things physically. This type of learner may like to
move around or move objects while learning.

Visual learner
A learner who finds it easier to learn when they can see things written down or in a picture. This
type of learner may like the teacher to write a new word on the board and not just say it aloud
LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
Linguistic
Connected with language or the study of language.

Literacy
The ability to read and write.

Maturity noun, mature adjective
Fully grown or developed. If a learner is mature in attitude, they behave in an adult way. A
learners maturity
(physical, emotional and mental) influences a teachers approaches and/or decisions.

Memorise verb, memorable adjective
To learn something so that you can remember it later; something which is easy to remember.

Mother tongue
The very first language that you learn as a baby, which is usually the language spoken to you
by your parents. Also called L1 or first language.

Motivation noun, motivate verb
Motivation is the thoughts and feelings which make us want to do something and help us
continue doing it.

Demotivate verb demotivated adjective
To make someone lose motivation.

Unmotivated adjective
Without motivation; having no motivation.

Natural order
Some people believe there is an order in which learners naturally learn some items in their first
or other languages. Some language items are learned before others and it can be difficult for
teachers to influence this order.

Needs
The language, language skills or learning strategies a learner still has to learn in order to reach
their goals, or the conditions they need to help them learn.

Notice language
When a learner becomes aware of the language the speaker or writer uses to express a
particular concept or meaning.

Participation noun, participate verb
To take part in something, e.g. a lesson or classroom activity.

Personalisation noun, personalise verb
When a teacher helps a learner to connect new words, topics, texts or grammar to their own
life.

Pick up
To learn language without studying it, just by hearing and/or reading and then using it. See
acquisition.

Proficiency noun, proficient adjective
LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
Level of ability; to be very good at something because of training and practice, e.g. speaking
English.

Silent period
The time when learners who are beginning to learn a first (or second) language prefer to listen
(or read) before producing the language, e.g. babies have a silent period when they listen to
their parents before starting to try to speak themselves.

Slip
When a learner makes a language mistake that they are able to correct themselves. See error.

Target language
The language a learner is learning, e.g. English, or the specific language that a teacher wants
to focus on in a lesson, e.g. present perfect.

Target language culture
The traditions and culture of the country whose language is being studied.

Work language out
When learners try to understand how and why a particular piece of language is used.

Unmotivated: see motivation.

Varieties of English
English is spoken as a first or second language in many countries around the world, but the
English spoken may be slightly or significantly different in each country or in different parts of
one country, e.g. different vocabulary or grammar may be used. An example of this is the
English spoken in the USA and that spoken in the UK.

Visual learner: see learning style.

Page 87

TKT Module 1:Unit 15: Presentation techniques and introductory activities
Exercise 1, solve the following puzzle.


Across
1. To ask questions or use other techniques to check that students have understood a
new
structure or item of lexis (two words).
3. To introduce new language, usually by focusing on it formally.
6. To tell students what language means and how it is used.


Down
1. To put new language into a situation that shows what it means.
2. To get students to repeat words or phrases.
4. To use body movements to convey meaning without using words.
5. To ask specially designed questions or give clues to get students to give information
or an opinion.

Page 88

Exercise 2. Look at the introductory activities. For each activity say:

what type of introductory activity is it? (warmer, ice-breaker, lead-in)

why would the activity be used by the teacher?



1. Students stand in a circle. The teacher throws a ball to a student who then introduces
himself and says his favourite game or activity. He then tosses the ball to another
student who repeats the procedure. Give each student a chance to introduce
him/herself.



2. Divide the class into two teams, choose a category, and ask each team to think of an
object in that category. The teams ask each other yes/no questions. Whichever team
guesses the objects with fewer questions, wins.


3. Students work in groups of three. They brainstorm and make a list of the advantages
and the disadvantages of living in a big city.



4. The first student says something about himself, then changes that to make a
question for another student. For example, "My favourite colour is blue. What's your
favourite colour?" This can be another circle activity, and it works with large groups of
students, too.



5. The teacher starts off by saying: "Yesterday I went to the park." The first student
must include what the teacher said and then add something they did, e.g. "Yesterday I
went to the park and ate some pizza." The second student must include what the
teacher and the first student said and then add something else, e.g. "Yesterday I
went to the park, ate some pizza and went for a swim in the sea."



6. The teacher asks students to say what news stories they have read about recently.
Several students contribute and the teacher encourages students to ask each other
questions about the stories they have read.




Page 89

Exercise 3.Choose one of the task types (A-K) for each of the activities below (1-7)


A Grammar-translation method B Guided discovery C Lexical approach

D Presentation practice production (PPP) E Task-based learning (TBL)

F Test-teach-test G Total Physical Response (TPR)




1. A way of teaching new language in which the teacher presents the language, gets
students to practise it in exercises or other controlled practice activities and then asks
students to use or produce the same language in a communicative and less controlled
way.

2. A way of teaching in which the teacher gives students meaningful tasks to do. After
this the teacher may ask students to think about the language they have used when
doing the tasks, but the main focus for students is on the task itself.

3. A way of teaching in which the teacher presents language items as instructions and
the students have to do exactly what the teacher tells them, e.g. Open the window!
Stand up! This method is good for beginners when they start to learn a new language,
as they have a silent period and can make fast progress.

4. A way of teaching in which a teacher provides examples of the target language and
then guides the students to work out the language rules for themselves.

5. A way of teaching in which the teacher asks students to do a task to see how well
they know a certain piece of language. The teacher then presents the new language to
the students, then in the final stage asks the students to do another task using the new
language correctly. This way of approaching teaching target language can be helpful if
the teacher thinks the students may already know some of the target language.

6. A way of teaching in which students study grammar and translate words into their
own language. They do not practise communication and there is little focus on
speaking. A teacher presents a grammar rule and vocabulary lists and then students
translate a written text from their own language into the second language.

7. A way of teaching language that focuses on lexical items or chunks such as words,
multi- word units, collocations and fixed expressions rather than grammatical
structures.




Page 90

TKT Module 1: Unit 15: Presentation techniques and introductory activities TKT
Sample Task


For questions 16, match the teachers actions with the introductory activities and
presentation techniques for different lessons listed AG.

Mark the correct letter (AG) on your answer sheet. There is one extra option you do
not need to use.
Introductory activities and presentation techniques


A

B

asking concept questions

eliciting language

C

D

doing a warmer

miming

E

setting the scene

F

G

explaining

drilling


Teachers
actions

1 The teacher asks the students to look at pictures of Paris before they listen to a
recording about tourist attractions there.


2 The teacher asks the students to repeat sentences after her.


3 The teacher checks whether the students understand when the new language is
used.


4 The teacher does a short game with the students to give them energy.



5 The teacher asks the students for examples of different kinds of fruit and writes
them on the board.


6 The teacher does an action which shows the meaning of a new word.
Page 91

Key to Exercise 1

1 C O N C E P T C H E C K
2D O
3 P R E S E N T
I T
L E
L X
4
M
T
I U 5E
M A L
6
E
X P L A I N
I C
S I
E T

Key to Exercise 2

1. Ice-breaker students getting to know each other

2. Warmer to increase energy levels, to relax the class

3. Lead-in to allow students to bring their own experience to a text/topic, to create
interest in a topic/text

4. Ice-breaker students getting to know each other

5. Warmer to increase energy levels, to relax the class

6. Lead-in to allow students to bring their own experience to a text/topic, to create
interest in a topic/text.

Exercise 3

1. D Presentation, practice, production (PPP)

2. E Task-based learning (TBL)

3. G Total Physical Response (TPR)

4. B Guided discovery

5. F Test-teach-test

6. A Grammar-translation method

7. C Lexical approach
Key to Sample Task

1 E 2 G 3 A 4 C 5 B 6 D
Page 92

TKT Module 1: Unit 16: Types of activities and tasks for language and skills
development

Exercise 1

Choose one of the task types (AK) for each of the activities below (111).


A guided writing B role-play C problem solving D survey

E brainstorming F chant G jumbled text H warmer

I rank ordering/prioritising J visualisation K jigsaw listening /reading

1. Students find out information from others by asking questions or using questionnaires in
order to practise speaking skills and/or specific language.
2. Students repeat a phrase, sentence, rhyme, verse, poem or song, usually with others, in
a regular rhythm.
3. An activity that a teacher uses at the beginning of a lesson to give the class more
energy.
4. A text is divided into two or more different parts. Students listen to or read their part
only, then share their information with other students so that in the end everyone knows all
the information.
5. Students think of ideas (usually quickly) about a topic (often noting these down). This is
often done as preparation before writing or speaking.
6. An activity where the teacher asks students to close their eyes and create the pictures
in their minds of the story she is telling them.
7. Students produce a text after a lot of preparation by the teacher. The teacher may give
the students a plan to follow, or ideas for the language to use.
8. A classroom activity in which students are given parts to act out in a given situation.
They usually work in pairs or groups.
9. Students are given a list of things to put in order of importance. It involves discussion,
agreeing/disagreeing and negotiating.
10. Students work in pairs or groups talking together to find the solution to a problem.
11. Students are given a text in which the paragraphs or sentences are not in the
correct order. The students put the paragraphs or sentences into the correct order.


Exercise 2

Look at the activities again. Is the activity a comprehension task or a production task? If
its a comprehension task, which skill? If its a production task, which skill?


Page 93

Exercise 3: match the approach to the procedures given


Frameworks for activities and task Approaches
1. Activity with a task and discussion of the task activity to
focus on language used in the task

2. Grammar rule students translate a text
3. The teacher presents language items as instructions the
students do the actions the students give the instructions

4. Lead in pre-teach key vocabulary gist task detailed
comprehension task follow up productive activity

5. Activity with a task to see if students can use a particular
structure the teacher presents the new language to the
students students do another task using new language

6. The teacher presents the language in context controlled
practice activities less controlled freer practice

7. Activity with examples of the target language provided
activity for students to work out language rules for themselves
activity for students to practice the language

8. Activity for students to notice words or chunks of language

discussion of the meaning of the chunks of language
activity to practise the language






Page 94

TKT Module 1: Unit 16 Types of activities and tasks for language and skills
development TKT Sample Task


For questions 17, match the classroom activities with the types of speaking practice
listed
A, B or C.

Mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet. You need to use some options
more than once
Types of speaking practice

A oral fluency practice

B controlled oral practice

C neither



Classroom activities

1 At the beginning of the lesson, we got into groups and talked about an interesting
newspaper article we had read.


2 The teacher gave us word prompts such as cinema and friends, and we had to
say them in sentences using the past simple, e.g. We went to the cinema. We
visited some friends.


3 We listened to a recording of two people talking about their hobbies, then did a
gap-fill comprehension task.


4 The teacher gave us roles such as film star or sports star and we had to role
play a party in which we chatted to each other.


5 We had a discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of the internet.


The teacher read out some sentences, some of which were correct and some
6 incorrect. We had to shout out Right or Wrong.


We had to ask our partner five questions about abilities, using can, e.g. Can you
7 swim?


Page 95

Key to Exercises 1 and 2


Exercise 1

Exercise 2

1. D

production
speaking, controlled practice, less controlled practice and
free speaking.
2. F production speaking, controlled practice
3. H production speaking, free practice
4. K comprehension reading or listening
5. E production speaking, free practice
6. J comprehension listening
7. A production writing, controlled practice or less controlled practice
8. B production speaking, less controlled practice or free practice
9. I production speaking, free practice
10. C production speaking, free practice
11. G comprehension reading

Frameworks for activities and task Approaches
1. Activity with a task and discussion of the task activity to
focus on language used in the task
Task-based learning
(TBL)
2. Grammar rule students translate a text Grammar-translation
method
3. The teacher presents language items as instructions the
students do the actions the students give the instructions
Total Physical
Response(TPR)
4. Lead in pre-teach key vocabulary gist task detailed
comprehension task follow up productive activity
Skills-based lessons
5. Activity with a task to see if students can use a particular
structure the teacher presents the new language to the
students students do another task using new language
Test-teach-test
6. The teacher presents the language in context controlled
practice activities less controlled freer practice
Presentation, practice
and production (PPP)
7. Activity with examples of the target language provided
activity for students to work out language rules for themselves
activity for students to practice the language
Guided discovery
8. Activity for students to notice words or chunks of language
discussion of the meaning of the chunks of language
activity to practise the language
Lexical approach

TKT task
1 A 2 B 3 C 4 A
5 A 6 C 7 B
Page 96

TKT Module 1:Unit 17 Assessment Types and Tasks


Exercise 1. Discuss the teachers comments below on assessment. Do you agree
or disagree? Why/ Why not?



1. I think its important for students to assess themselves, so sometimes I record them
when they are doing a speaking activity and then get them to listen to themselves.





2. I dont like giving my students tests and exams. I think they are demotivating,
especially for young learners.





3. I get students to mark each others written work and I tell them to just look at it and
say whats wrong. I dont ask them to check it against any criteria. I dont think they can
look for particular mistakes like spelling mistakes or grammar mistakes.





4. When students are doing a speaking activity, I observe them, but I dont make any
notes and I dont give marks. Sometimes I talk to students about their strengths and
weaknesses in tutorials though.





5. My students choose pieces of their best work during the course and keep them in a
file, which can be looked at during the course. I know some teachers use this as the way
they assess students at the end of the course, but Im not sure how that works.









Page 97

Exercise 2. Choose the correct term from the box below for the types of test
described.

A. Placement test B. Diagnostic test

C. Progress test D. Proficiency test E. Achievement test




1. This type of test is used during a course in order to assess the learning up to
a particular point in the course.


2. This type of test is used to see how well students have learned the language
and skills taught in class. These tests are often at the end of term or end of the
year and test the main points of what has been taught in that time.


3. This type of test is often used at the beginning of a course in a language
school in order to identify a students level of language and find the best class
for them.


4. This type of test is used to identify problems that students have with
language or skills. The teacher tries to find out what language problems
students have. It helps the teacher to plan what to teach in future.


5. This type of test is used to see how good students are at using the language.
The contents of this type of test are not chosen according to what has been
taught, but according to what is needed for a particular purpose.







Page 98


TKT Module 1: Unit 17, Assessment Types and Tasks exercise 3


Exercise 4 : Which of the activities and tasks are subjective tests and which are
objective tests?

Page 99

TKT Module 1: Unit 17: Assessment Types and Tasks - Sample Task

For Questions 15, match the descriptions of different tests with the types of test listed
AF.

Mark the correct letter (AF) on your answer sheet. You need to use some options more
than once
Types of test


A

B

progress

achievement

C

D

subjective

proficiency

E

diagnostic

F

placement


Descriptions


1 These tests are designed to test language taught on the whole course.




2 These tests are designed to help teachers to plan course content.





3 The purpose of these tests is to test language taught on part of the course.





4 These tests help teachers to put students in classes at the appropriate level.



5 The marking of these tests depends on decisions made by individual examiners.

Page 100

TKT Module 1: Unit 17: Assessment Types and Tasks Answer Keys


Key to exercise 1

1. Self assessment
2. Formal assessment; summative assessment
3. Peer assessment.
4. Informal assessment; formative assessment; continuous assessment.
5. Portfolio assessment; informal assessment (could be formal if submitted at the
end of a course for evaluation); continuous assessment.


Key to exercise 2

1 C 2 E 3 A 4 B 5 D


Key to exercise 3

1. Cloze test/gap fill (in a cloze test the gaps are regular e.g. every seventh word, a
gap fill is not regular but selected by the teacher or assessor)
2. Comprehension task open comprehension questions (students answer in their
own words)
3. Matching task
4. Multiple-choice task
5. Sentence completion task
6. Sentence transformation task
7. Sentence ordering task/Jumbled sentence task
8. Odd one out task
9. Essay/letter writing task
10. Speaking task

Key to exercise 4

1. Subjective (many possible answers)
2. Objective
3. Objective
4. Objective
5. Objective
6. Objective
7. Objective
8. Objective
9. Subjective
10. Subjective

Key to Sample Task

1 B 2 E 3 A 4 F 5 C

Page 101

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE ESOL EXAMINATIONS
English for Speakers of Other Languages
TEACHING KNOWLEDGE TEST
Module 1
001
Sample Test
1 hour 20 minutes


TIME: 1 hour 20 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Do not open this booklet until you are told to do so
Write your name, Centre number and candidate number on the answer sheet if
they are not already printed.
There are eighty questions in this paper.
Answer all questions.
Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet. You will have no extra time for
this, so you must finish in one hour and twenty minutes.
At the end of the test, hand in both the question paper and the answer sheet.
INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
Each question in this paper carries one mark.
Page 102

For questions 1-5, match the language sample with the grammatical terms listed A-F.
Mark the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Example language Grammatical items
1. Break in
2. My brother is a pilot, is he?
3. If it's sunny, we'll go to the park
4. The exam should have been given to everyone.
5. This, that, these, those

G. Tag Questions
H. Phrasal verb
I. Passive voice
J. Determiners
K. Echo Questions
L. Conditional

For questions 6-12, choose the correct option (A, B or C) to complete each definition of
grammatical items. Mark the correct letter on your answer sheet.
6. An interjection is
a. an exclamation which shows thoughts or feelings
b. a meaningless string of sounds
c. the same as an adjective
7. A verb that has a subject but no object is.

a. Transitive
b. Intransitive
c. Passive

8. The subject that does and receives the action is.

a. Reflexive
b. Possessive
c. Relative

9. A group of words that include a subject and a finite verb is.

a. A clause
b. A statement
c. An idiom

Page 103

10. A word that describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun is.

a. An adjective
b. An adverb
c. An article


11. The words someone uses when they are telling someone what somebody else
said or asked are,

a. The past tense
b. Past conditional
c. Indirect speech

12. A verb that does not take an auxiliary to negate or ask questions is called.

a. Active
b. Modal
c. Intransitive

Page 104

For questions 13-16, choose the correct Word(s) to complete each definition of lexical
terms, mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet.

13. . Are any pair or group of words commonly found together or near one
another.

A. phrasal verbs
B. collocations,
C. chunks

14. A word with the same spelling and pronunciation as another word, but which has
a different meaning,

A. Homonym
B. Antonym
C. homophone


15. A group of words or phrases that are about the same content topic or subject,

A. Lexical set
B. Synonym
C. Word family

16. A meaningful group of letters added to the end of a root or base word to make a
new word which can be a different part of speech from the original word,

A. Prefix
B. Particle
C. Suffix

Page 105

For questions 17-21, match the example sentences with the functions listed A-F. Mark
the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.


17. Id rather have coffee than tea
18. You should be here later
19. What time does the bus arrive?
20. I am sorry, I am busy
21. Please turn to page 10


A. Suggesting
B. Expressing probability
C. Instructing
D. Declining
E. Enquiring
F. Expressing preferences


For questions 22-25 choose the correct Word(s) to complete each definition of
phonology, mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet.


22. Two words which are different from each other by only one meaningful sound
are.

A. Minimal pairs
B. Homophones
C. Consonants

23. In the sentence She gave the ring to John it can be implied that.

A. She only gave the ring to John
B. John was the person she gave the ring to.
C. She could have given the ring to somebody else.

24. The way the level of a speakers voice changes, to show meaning such as how
they feel about something is.

A. Linking
B. Stress
C. Intonation

Page 106

25. Words that sound similar because they have the same ending.

A. Rhyme
B. Rhythm
C. Contraction


For questions 16-30, match the minimal pairs with the phonemic symbols listed A-F.
Mark the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.




26. darling/dialling
27. cart/cut
28. tile/toil
29. pull/bull
30. worse/worth

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.




Page 107


For questions 31-35, match what the writer does with the writing subskills listed A-G.
Mark the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use




A. Edit
B. Proof-reading
C. Planning
D. Drafting
E. Brainstorming
F. Extracting




31. I change or correct the words or content of some parts of my text to make it
clearer or easier to understand.

32. Before finishing, I give my work a final check for accuracy

33. I organize my main ideas into different paragraphs in note form.

34. I start writing, developing my main ideas.

35. Before I start, I try to imagine everything I can about the topic and start writing as
many ideas as I can without an specific order.

Page 108

For questions 36-42 look at the following terms for language skills and three possible
descriptors of terms.
Choose the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet.

36. Extensive reading is

A. reading long pieces of text, such as stories or newspapers.
B. Part of a text which is removed from an original text.
C. written language in texts or groups of sentences.

37. Accuracy is

A. The use of correct forms of grammar, vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation.
B. When ideas in a spoken or written text fit together clearly and smoothly,
C. Understanding a spoken or written text.

38. Oral fluency is.

A. The use of connected speech at a natural speed with little hesitation, repetition or
self-correction.
B. The use of connected speech without making mistakes.
C. The use of intonation to express feelings.

39. Listen/read for mood is

A. To read or listen to a text in order to identify the feelings of the writer or speaker.
B. To listen to or read a text in order to understand most of what it says or particular
details.
C. To understand the general meaning of a text, without paying attention to specific
details.

40. Intensive listening or reading is

A. To focus on how language is used in a text
B. To listen or read in a intensive way
C. To listen or read with an intense interaction

Page 109

For questions 41-46, match the students comments with the learning characteristics
listed A-G. Mark the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use


A. Acquisition
B. Focus on form
C. Ignore errors
D. Interference
E. Interlanguage
F. Learner autonomy
G. Language Awareness


Students` Comments

41. I feel quite confident because I am making less mistakes that those I used to
make when I was starting to study English
42. One of my most difficult problems when speaking English is that I make a lot
of mistakes because I unconsciously use grammatical items and vocabulary
from my first language.
43. The teacher really likes paying attention to rules and how language is used
rather than letting us say what we want even though it is incorrect.
44. It is strange for me that the teacher just lets me talk and doesn`t really stop
me when I make mistakes, even if I can notice them.
45. I am learning English in a very particular way, the teacher just uses it in real
life situations avoiding grammar revision, I feel like a child learning in this way.
Page 110

For questions 46-53, match the teaching methods description with the names listed A-
G. mark the correct letter (A-I) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use


A. Activity based learning
B. Communicative approach
C. Holistic
D. Functional approach
E. Total Physical Response
F. Grammar-translation method
G. Lexical Approach
H. Presentation practice and production PPP
I. Task based learning TBL


Teaching Methods

46. A way of teaching in which the teacher gives learners meaningful tasks to do,
but the main focus for learners is on the task itself.
47. Teachers try to focus on meaningful communication, rather than focusing on
accuracy and correcting mistakes
48. An approach to language teaching in which the teacher uses techniques and
activities taken from different methods together in one lesson.
49. A way of teaching new language in which the teacher presents the language,
gets learners to practice it in exercises or other controlled practice activities
and then asks learners to use or produce the same language in a
communicative and less controlled way
50. A way of teaching language that focuses on lexical items or chunks such as
words.
51. A way of teaching in which learners study grammar and translate words and
texts into their own language or the target language.
52. A way of teaching which uses a syllabus based on functions
53. A way of learning by doing activities. The rules of language used in the activity
are looked at either after the activity or not at all


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For questions 54-59, match the teachers` comments on the strategies described with
the names listed A-G. Mark the correct letter (A-G) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use


A. Eliciting
B. Substitution Drill
C. Transformation Drill
D. Restricted practice
E. Freer practice
F. Role-play
G. Survey


Teacher`s comments
54. I like asking targeted questions ahead of time to see whether my learners know
what I am going to teach them.
55. I like giving my learners a base sentence and then providing them with different
words for them to change in that sentence.
56. I think that less freer practice is very important because I can work on accuracy.
57. I think that every time I do fluency based activities my learners feel more
confident to speak.
58. I like having my learners to put what they have learnt in context through real life
exercises.
59. In my opinion using internet for my students to find information and then working
based on it in class is very motivating and encourages interaction.

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For questions 60-67, match the practice activities and tasks listed A-I. with the course
book instructions, mark the correct letter (A-I) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use


A. Brainstorming
B. Sentence transformation
C. Jumbled paragraphs
D. Labeling
E. Gap filling
F. Matching
G. Odd-one-out
H. Reading for gist
I. Listening for mood


Practice activities and tasks
60. Listen to the following conversation and describe how the woman feels.
61. Read the paragraph and select the best heading for it.
62. Look at the list of words and underline the one which does not belong to the
topic
63. Choose the correct verb in column A and the appropriate preposition in column
B
64. Look at the pictures and put the correct names on them.
65. Listen and fill in the correct word.
66. Read the text and put all the paragraphs in the appropriate order.
67. Look at each sentence and use the words provided to re-write them.


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For questions 68-73, match the aids and resources listed A-I. With the uses described,
mark the correct letter (A-I) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use


A. OHP
B. Realia
C. Puppets
D. Computer
E. Dictionary
F. Board
G. Skills practice book
H. Graded reader
I. OHT


Aids and Resources

68. This can be used by the teacher or learners to show what one or two people are
talking about by moving it and making it look real.
69. This can be used for a range of purposes by the teacher to show real meaning of
concepts.
70. This can be used to display greater pictures on the wall or to work on group-
reading.
71. This is an excellent tool for students to research information when working on a
project; it enables them to share what they find with other people.
72. This is a tool help learners enhance autonomy.
73. This is a tool used by the teacher to display grammatical structures, vocabulary
items, etc.
74. This is a resource that enables the learner to extend his/her knowledge about a
language area.
75. This is an excellent tool to encourage extensive reading.

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For questions 75-80, match the assessment types A-F With the definitions described
by a teacher, mark the correct letter (A-I) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use


A. Formal assessment
B. Informal assessment
C. Self assessment
D. Assessment criteria
E. Objective test
F. Subjective test

Teacher comments
76. I like giving my learners tests that make them reflect on their own progresses.
77. I like using software to evaluate what my learners learn in a neutral way,
without interference from what I think about them.
78. I want my learners to take a test based on a third examiner`s opinion.
79. The topics for next exam are the following; simple present, simple past and
plurals.
80. Put your name on the answer sheet and write all answers on it.

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TKT MODULE 1 KEY
1 H 41 E
2 K 42 D
3 L 43 B
4 I 44 C
5 J 45 A
6 A 46 I
7 B 47 B
8 A 48 C
9 A 49 H
10 A 50 G
11 C 51 F
12 B 52 D
13 B 53 A
14 A 54 A
15 A 55 B
16 C 56 D
17 F 57 E
18 A 58 F
19 E 59 G
20 D 60 I
21 C 61H
22 A 62 G
23 B 63 F
24 C 64 D
25 A 65 E
26 E 66 C
27 C 67 B
28 B 68 C
29 D 69 B
30 A 70 I
31 A 71 D
32 B 72 E
33 C 73 F
34 D 74 G
35 E 75 H
36 A 76 C
37 A 77 E
38 A 78 F
39 A 79 D
40 A 80 A

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