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forming the sides of the funnels wliere there are more than one, is the breast. In ex-
ternal walls, that side of the fnnnel opposite the breast is called the back. When there
is mure than one chimney in the same breast, tlie solid parts that divide them are called
withs or withes : and when several chimnej's are collected into one mass, it is called
chimneys. The part which rises above the roof, for discharging the smoke into
the air, is called a chimnei/ shaft, whose horizontal upper surface is termed the ckini-
nvy-top ; on this is placed the chimney-'pot, or contri^ ance for dissipating the smoke,
for creating a draught.
Tlie covings were formerly placed at right angles to the face of the wall, and the
chimney was finished in that manner; but Count Eumfurd showed that more heat is
obtained from the fire by reflection when the covings are placed in an oblique position.
lie likewise directed that the fire itself should be kept as near to (he hearth as possible,
and that the throat of the chimney should be constructed much narrower than had been
practised, with the view of preventing the escape of so much heated air as happened
with wide throats. If the throat be too near the fire, the draught will be too strong,
and the fuel will be wasted
if it be too high up, the draught will be too languid, and
there will be danger of the smoke being occasionally beaten back into the room. The
chimney of large furnaces and for boilers is called a siedk, and built very tall in order
to create sufficient draught for the fire.
Chimney Piece. The assemblage of architectural dressings around the open recess con-
stituting the fireplace in a room, and within which the fuel is burnt, eiiher immediately

upon the hearth itself, or in a raised grate, or open stove. Formerly fireplaces were
provided only in the principal rooms of a house; those in public rooms, as town halls,
became fine pieces of architecture.
Chixkse Architecture. In the tent is to be found the type of this architecture.
characteristic quality is gaiety of effect. The coloured roofs, porches diapered
variegated tints, the varnish with which the woodwork is covered, the light forms of
the buildings, all unite in producing a style very different to that seen in other coun-
tries. The towers called pagodas, and the arches, are two of the peculiar erections
that country.
Chip. A piece of any material cut by an acute-angled instrument.
Chisel. An instrument used in masonry, carpentry, and joinery, and also by carvers and
statuaries, for cutting either by
pressure or by impulse from the blows of a mallet or
hammer. There are various kinds of chisels
the principal ones used in carpentry and
joinery are the former, the paring chisel, the gouge, the mortise chisel, the socket chisel,
and the rippivg chisd.
Chiseled 'Work. In masonry, the state of stones whose surface is formed by the chisel.
Chit. An instrument used for cleaving laths.
(Gr. Xopos.) The part of a church in which the choristers sing divine service.
In former times it was raised separate from the altar, with a pulpit on each side, in
which the epistles and gospels were recited, as is still the case in several churches on
the Continent. It was separated from the nave in the time of Constantino.
In nun-
neries, the choir is a largo apartment, separated by a grate from the body of the church,
where the nuns chaunt the service. In churches in Italy, the cors is moveable, and is
held sometimes in one p-irt of the church, and sometimes in another. See Chancei-.
Choir Screen or Rood Screen. An ornamental open screen of wood or stone, dividing the
choir or chancel from the nave, yet so as not to obstruct sight or sound. The modern
choir screen at Hereford Cathedral has been formed of wrought iron and decorated.
See Jube.
Monument. (Gr. Xopos.) In Grecian architecture, a monument erected in
of the choragus who gained the prize by the exhibition of the best musical or
entertainment at the festivals of Bacchus. The choragi were the heads of
the ten
tribes at Athens, who overlooked and arranged the games at their own expense.
was usually a tripod, which the victor was bound publicly to exhibit, for
purpose a building or column was usually erected. The remains of two very fine
of this sort, viz. of Lysicratcs and Thrasyllus, are still to be seen at Athens.
geometry the straight line which joins thi; two extremities of the arc of a
; so
called from the
resemblance which the arc and chord together have to a bow
and its string,
the chord representing the string.
Chaturam). A Tatar term for a post hoTise, lodge, or hall for
is only used in the Madras Presidency. There are various sorts, from
(chauvadi), one in which images are sometimes placed {mandapam),
to the
expressly as an inn or caravanserai.
resembling a piscina, near the spot where the font originally
to contain
chri-m, or holy oil, with which, after baptism, infants were anointctl.
Kvpianov, from
Ki-pioy, Lord.) A building dedicated to the performance
The basilicse were the first buildings used for the assembly of