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Creative Illustration by Andrew Loomis
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CREATIVE
ILLUSTRATION
Andrew Loomis
THE VIKING PRESS . NEW YORK 1947
'Jo tbe Jurtberan"
oJ our eraft oJ iIlustrating
as a proJession Jor young mericans,
tbis volume
is respectJully dedicated
ACKNOWLEDCMENT
May 1 express here rny appreciation of and gratitude for
the valuable help given me in the preparation of this vol-
ume by my beloved wile, Ethel O. Loomis.
CONTENTS, INCLUDING ILLUSTRATIONS
(The illustration pages are indicated by italies)
QpENlNG CHAT 17 Find Eye Level 01 Copy and Make
'Tm: FORM PRINCIPLE AS A BASIS OF ApPROACH 21
Figures Coincide 43
Approaching Sttbject in DiDerent Ways 44
PART ONE, U NE
Perspective Alane May Add Variety 45
Frcmtispiece 24 Usi rrg Une to Produce a Focal Paint
1'HERE ARE SEVEN PntMAI\Y FUNCTIONS
in Subject 46
OF LINE 25
Providing an "Eye Puthway" in Composition 47
Llne la More Than Mercly "Outline"! 26
Attenlion Devices 48
Line Is Propartion with lmugination 27
Get Attention by Building Contras!
Line Produces Formal Design
28
of Line or Sho7, e 49
Line Produces 1 nfoT11U11 Design 29
TIJe Relationship of Une tu E"wtional
Overlapping Lne and Areas the Pirst
Response 50
Principle uf 30
Bad Compositiun Brings Negative Response 51
Uring the First Functm of "Une for Itself"
Various Types 01 Vignettes 52
for Composition 31
A Vignette Is a Design PUTe and Simple 53
Composition May Be Based on Letters
Simple Line Combines EDeetively u;ith
and Syrnbols 32
Solid Black. 54
Composition M ay Be Bascd on
Combiuill g Pe11 1 ... llle Treatment 1vith
CeometMe F orms 33
Block Areas 55
The "Fulerum-Leccr" PrincipIe Applied tu
Pen Drawillg Is Dutlt on a PrincipIe 56
C omposition 34
Pen Drawing l s Concemed Mostly with
Use Formal Subdidsion fur Symmetrical
Shadow 57
Composition 35
Pen-and-1nk Procedure 58
lntroducng Infomw.l Subcl vision 36
Follow the Form with lhe Pen Strokes 59
A DemcnlstraUou 01 "Iformal Subdinision 37
Decorative Treatment in Lirl e 60
Figure CamposiNons Based on
Tlle Brush Used Like a Pen 61
Informal Subdipision 38
Informal Subdivision Is Purely Creative,
Dry Brush 62
Not Mechanical 39 Adding "Spatter" to Une Mediums 64
Perspective Cuide Lines Help You to Dry Brush and Black Pencil on
Composition 40 Gmined Paper 65
Everything You Draw 15 Re1ated to an Black lnk, Block Pencil, ond
Eye Levcl 41 Poster Whit e on Coquille Board 66
Eye Level, Camera Levtll, and HUriZOIl 1"here Are New Po,s,s,bilities in
Mean the Same 42 This Combination 67
9
CONTENTS, INCLUDING ILLUSTRATIONS
on Grained Paper 68 Old Mol/.,. Hubba,d l. You, Problem 97
Block Pencil on Grained Paper 69 TECHNlQUE IN T ONAL MEDIUMS 98
Drawing Pmcp-dure 70 Formulating an Approach 99
Drawing. Above Al/ Else. Puls You Over 71 Technical Approach 100
Black and White Pencils on Grey Paper 72 Delail 101
Poster W'hite and Black Ink on Grey Papef' 73 The Treahnenl of Edges 102
Claarcoal on Grey Paper 74 Where lo Look lor Soft Edgcs 103
Dry Brush on Grey Paper with Whites 75 The Lens Sees Too Mueh 104
"Scratch Board" 76 The Eye Selects 105
Craftint 78
Stressing the Planes and Accents 106
Breaking Up the Too-Smooth Tones 108
Ad;usting Tone and Pattern 110
PART TWO, TONE
The "Big Tone" Approach 112
Frontispiece 80
The Direct Approach 114
THERE ARE FOUR ESSENTlAL PltOPERTlES
The Soft Approach 116
OY TONE 81
The Brittle Approach 118
Basic Intensities of Light Versus Shadow 82
The "Blocky" Treatment and Others 120
The Four Properties oC Tone Explained 83
The "Blocky" l 'reatment 121
Setting trp a Consistent Relationship 01
PainHng D own or ACTOSS the Form 122
Lighl lo Shadow 84
"Seumbling
..
123
The Meuning 01 Key and Value
M anipulation 85
THE TONAL MEDlUMS 124
The Four Properties of Tone
Charcoal as a Tonal M edium 125
Explaincd (continued) 86
Chareoal and Chalk on Grey Paper 126
A Simple Lesson in Value Relationships 87
Grey Paper with Olher Mediums 127
Composition by Tone or Pattern 88
Carbon Pencil as a Tonal Medium
There are Four Basic Tona] rIans 89
(Smooth Bristo/! 128
How to Look far the "Ment" in Your Subject 90
Carbon Peneil on Regular Bristol 129
If !t's Worth Painting, !t's Worth Planning 91
Garbon Pencil on Illustration Board 130
"Thumbnail" Planning of Tonal Pattern or
Wash with Dry BrtlSh 131
Arrangement 92
The Subecl Itself Often Suggests the
Wash as aTonal M edium 132
Wash ls One of Ihe Best Mediutns
Tonal Plan 93
Four 01 the Thumbnails Traruposed lo
for Reproduction 133
Black-and-White Oil 94
Opaque Water Coloras a Tonal Medium 134
The Campleted Sketch 95 Thin BUzck-and-Wh/te oa Scumble 135
Suppos. W. Tak. a Subject and Work It Out 96 How ARD PYLE 136
10
CONTENTS, INCLUOING ILLUSTRA 1l0NS
Comments on Howard Pyle, Theory Outdoor and Indoor Color 170
of Approach 138
How to Experiment with Color 171
Tonal Sketch .. of Sorne 01 Pyles Petures 141
Experimental Color Roughs Worked Out 172
The Relationship of Tone to Color 142
A Subect Worked Out in Color from
The Form Princip1c Applied 143 Copy 173
Preparing Samples in Tone 144 What Is Color Charm, and
Submitting Samples 145
How Can We Know Jt? 174
Should WC Eliminate Black from
Oue 175
PART THREE: COLOR
Frontispiece 146
A NEW ApPROACH 147 PART FOUR: TELLING THE STORY
Presenting t/le Spectrum as Related tu
Frnntispiece 176
Lght und Shadou.: 148
CoLOR 149
T HERE ARE F IVE 177
All Color Is Relative to Surrounding
\ VHAT Is I LLUSTltATlON? 178
InHuence 150
The Essentials of Tcll ing the Story 179
Color Is Strongest in the Light 151
Staging Your Subject 180
Color Is More Than Local Color 152
"Thumbnail" SetUngs 181
Look for Color on the Edgc of Light 153
Hute to Get Suggestions frnrn Clippings 182
The Limitatiull uf Color in Pigment 154 Figures Su.ggested on Tracing Paper 183
Relating Color by Tonal TnAucnce 155 Plllnning Dra1Twtic Act ion and Poses 184
Toning the Spectrum or Palette 156 Establish the Action Before Hiring a Model 185
FOUf Subects in "T(med Color" 157 TI te Essential Arrangement 18A
Don't Be Alruid of the Grey, of NatUTe 158 Armngements Based on One of the
SItie Green, Yellotv, alld Cool Red
Previuus Ruughs 187
as a Sclt eTTW 159 Emhcllishment 188
Painted witlt Yellow as a "Toner" 160 Using the Camera to Obtain Working
Color Considered as "Tone" in lts
Material 189
Natural Relationship 161 The Illustrator's Scaling Screen 190
Color, lts Function and Chann 162 The Scaling Screen al1d Camera DistorUon 192
The Primary Color GTOUpS 165 Camera Distortion 193
Tbe Primary Color Grollps- Color Shades 166 Drawil1g to Avoid Photographic Oistortion 194
Color Selection and Background 167 (;amcra Dramatics 195
What t Do When Your Picture Is A Single Lighting W orks Out Best 196
Dead in Color 168
Use Your Camera to Catch Emotion and
'!'he Emotional Errect, 01 Color 169 Expression 197
11
CONTENTS, INCLUDING ILLUSTRATIONS
Studying the Character 198 PART SIX, FIELDS OF ILLUSTRATION
There Is No End to Facial Expression and
Frontispiece 224
Character 199
Manufacturing Convincing Emotion
THE MAGAZINE AD 226
200
ExpressWns Tell the Story 201
The Approach to Good Advertising
Illustration 227
Loss and Cain in Backgrounds 202
Using YOllr Freedom 228
Examples of Background Loss and Can 203
Twenty-Four Types of Ads 228
What Is Faking, and What Is Imagination 204
Types of Magazine Ads 230
Never Guess When You Can Find Out 205
Relating Your Illustration to the Whole Xcl 236
An Imaginative Sub/eci Need Not Be
Developing the "Co-ordination Sense" 237
"Faked" 206
The Originality ls Within the Conception 207
A Typical Magazine Ad A.5signment 238
A Typical Agency Layout 239
Rough e ompositions for the Picture 240
PART FIVE, CREATING IDEAS
Final Arrangement Based on Photos Taken 241
The Finished Advertising Illustration 242
Frontispiece 208
What Is the Future in Magazine
A LOCICAL METHOD 209 Advertising? 243
The Plan of Working Up a Questionnairc 210 Better Taste in Magazine Advertising 244
Searching Basic Appeals for Ideas 211 THE OUTDOOR POSTER 245
A Sample Questionnaire 212 How a Poster Is Divided into Sheets 246
Rough Ideas Deoeloped from the Typical Poster Arrangements 247
Questionnaire 213
A Typical Poster Assignment 249
A Different Approach from the Sarne
The Idea Roughed Out 250
Questionnaire 214
Creating Ideas from Basic Appeals 215
Halftanes of the Color Roughs 251
Scribble While You Think:
The Finished Poster 252
Think While You Scribble 216
DISPLAY AnvERTISING 253
Your Scribbles Are More Original Displays Are "Point of Sale" Merchandising 254
Than Your Camera 217
Working Up Ideas for Displays 255
Get U sed to Sketching from Life 218
Types of Lithographic Displays 256
You Get Something the Camera
Working with Display Lithographers 258
Can't Give You 219
Sentiment the Keynote of Illustration 220
CALENDAR ADVERTlSING 259
P'ychology Applied lo Cover, and
Basic Appeals Applied lo Calendar, 260
Calendars 221 A Calendar Can Be Anything TIuit ls Good 261
There Is Even Psychology in Comic Ideas 222 Essentials of Good Calendar Illuslration . 262
Ideas in General 223 Painling for Calendar Reproduction 263
12
CONTENTS, INCLUDING ILLUSTRATIONS
Covms AND J ACKETS 264 PART SEVEN, EXPERlMENT AND STUDY
'Sorne Jacket Arrangements 266
284
STORY TU.11STnATION 268
EXI'ERlMEI\'T AND STUDY 286
Wh.t Do Ihe Magazine, Want? 269
Finding SuLjects for Experiment and Study 287
Putting thc Fundamentals lo Wdrk 270
l'our Pencil Can Keep Busy 288
Exciting and Unusual Arrangement 271
Practice HeadtJ, Alll'ou Can. 289
Style and Technique io Story lIlustration 272
Stud y nf 011 Old M 011 290
IIlustr.tion, That Sen the Story 273
A Sample lllustration 291
Questionnaire for Starting an Jl1ustration 274
Skctching 292
Working Out a Typical Story IIIustration 275
Figure Painting 293
Miniature Rough$ tur the lllustration 276
Outdoor Sketch in Color 294
Dcveloping thc Actual-Size Rough 277
Porlrait Sketch in Color 295
photo 01 ,he M odel 278
Study from tlle Piloto 279
The Final Interpretation 280
, Head Studies' for lllustrations 281 CLOSING eHAT 296
Cetting into Story TIIustration 282 ANS' \ 'ERS TO QUERIES 299
13
OPENING CHAT
DEAR READER:
With the wonderful response given my carlier
eJlorts, 1 believe that through this vaIume 1 shall
be greeting many of you as old friends. The ac-
oeptance oE rny last book, Figure Dratoing lar AU
It's Worth, has encouraged me to continue, for
tbere is still much worth-while knowledge in the
Seld of iIIustralion, beyond Ihe actual drawing of
figures. that can be set forth. It is one thing to
draw the figure wcll, but quite another to set that
figure into a convincing envirorunent, to make it
teU astory,and fo give it personality and dramatic
interest. In short, the figure means litde as a good
drawing only. It must accomplish something-
seU a product, DI give realism and charaeter to a ,
story its personality must so impress the bcholdcI
that he is moved to a definite response emotion-
ally.
My purpose is to present what, in my experi.
ence. have proved to be the fundamentals of iIIus-
tration. Tu the best of my bclef, such fuml,,-
mentals have not been .organized and set forth
before. So 1 have attemptcd to assemble this
mucb-needed inforrnation, trusting that my own
eHorts in the active fi elds of llustration qualify
me to do so. 1 shall try to make elear the funda-
mentals that apply to the whole pietorial eHort
rather than to speciflc draftsmanship of thc figure
or other units. 1 shaU a.ssume that yO,?- can alrcady
draw with considerable ability and have sorne
background of experience or training. In this .
seose the book willnot be built around the early
effort of the beginner, nor is it for those interested
onIy in drawing ., a hobby. It will be for those
having a bolla fide desire for a career in art and
the determination to give it all the concentration
and effort such a career calls foro Success iu art is
by no means easy. or a matter of puttering at it in
oddmoments. There is no "gift" or talent sO great
. tbat it can dispense with the need for fundamental
Imowledge;much diligcnt practice, and hard ef-
17
fort. 1 do not cOlltend that anyone can draw or
paint. 1 do contend that anyone who can draw or
paiot can do it better with more knowledge to
work with.
Let us assume, then, that you have ahiJity yau
wish to put into practical ehannels. Yon want to
Jmow haw tu set about it. You want to paint pie-
tures for magazine stories and advcrtising, for
billboards, window displays, ealendars and coy-
ers. You want every possihlc chance for success.
Let us not be under any illusiolls. At the start 1
must admit that therc 15 no exact formula that
can nssure sueccss. Hut there ate unquestion-
ably forms of proccdure that can contrioute a
great deal toward it. Such a formula might be
possihlc if the character, technical appreciation.
and cmotional capacity of the individual were not
so mnch a part oI the ultimate result5. For that
rcasan, art cafinot possibly be reduced to exact
formulas devoid of personality. Devoid oF per-
sona1ity, creative art \VQuId have little reason fOf
existence. In fact, the indiyidual expression is its
greatest value, the thing that forever lifts it aboye
picture-making achieved by mechanical means. 1
shall not presume to quarrel with the camera. Rut
1 c..'ontend that even with all its mechanical per.
fection, the real value of photography is in the
individual perception of the camernmau alld not
in technical excellencc aJone. 1f art were only per-
of precise detail. the camera would dis-
pense with the need for artists. But until we have
a lens endowcd with emotion and individual
ccption, or having the power of discrirninating
between the significant and the irrelevant, the
artist will always dominate the situation. The
camera must accept the good with the bad, ta.ke
it Uf leave t- must reproduce the complete un-
elllotional and literal appearance of whatcver j!;
placed before il .
May 1 impress upon cvery reader that iIlustra-
tion is life as yon perceivc and interprct it. That
OPENING CHAT
is yaur heritage as an artist and is thc quality
which will be mast sought fUf in your work. Try
never to lose it Uf subordinate it to the pcrsonality
of another. As far as yon anrt yOUT work are con-
cerned, life is line, tone, color, and dcsign-plus
your feelings abant t. Thesc are sorne of the tools
with which we aH work and which 1 shall try to
enahle you to use. You wiIl work with these tools
as you see Rt, but my hope is that from this book
yau may gain added knowledge of huw to use
them.
Throughout my own earIy career 1 felt an ur-
gent need for just this kind of help. The need is
still evident, and 1 have taken the problem upon
rnyself. My ability as an author can be set asirle as
of little importance. We have the comman grannd
of knowing that the things 1 sha11 attempt to taIk
about are of tremendous importance to both of
us, to our mutual succ.:ess-since 1 intend to re-
main as active as possible in the fleId. 1 wish you
to succeeu as much as 1 wish to succeed myself,
for the sake of our craft, which is more important
than we are.
If iIlustration is expression, it hecomes a trans-
position of thought. So it is thought transposed to
an illusion of reality. Sllppose 1 speak of aman
with a faee as hard as flint. A mental image is con-
jured 1Ip in yaur imagination. However, the image
i5 notyetsharpand cIcar. This quality ofhardness,
a subconscious interpretation you feel, must be
combined with realismo The result will not be a
copy of a photo nor of a living model. lt is a
transposition 01 your individual conception to a
lace. You work with your tools of line, tone, and
color to produce that quality. Devoid of feeling,
you c'Quld hardly paint that head.
Drawing for mere duplication has little point
to it. You may do it better with your camera.
Drawing as a means of expression is the justifica-
tion of art over photography. Art directors have
told me tbat they use photography only because
of the mediocrity of available artists. The demand
for good work far cxceeds thc supply. Therefore
cornmercial art has had to lap over into photog-
raphyas the next best bet. Rarcly does an art ru-
18
rector prefer a photo tu a well-executed painting.
'fhe difficulty Hes in getting the painting or draw-
ing that is good enough.
If we are to carry our eraft forward, inereasing
tlle volume of good art to anything like the pro-
portiunate use of photography or meeting the
indisputable demand, it will not be through
the imitation of photography, nor even through
greatcr technieal ability. It wiJI come through
the grcater seope of the imagination on the part
of artists. It will come also through greater tech-
nieal freedom leaning away from the merely pho-
tographic, and through greater individuality. To
try to compete with the camera on its own ground
is Cutile. Wecauuot match its precision of detail.
For straight values and local color (which we will
hear more of, Iater) there is little we can add.
But for real pictorial worth, the gates are wide
open.
You may be certain that the greatest pictorial
value Hes in aH the things the camera cannot do.
Let us turn our attention to design, looseness and
freedom of technical rendering, character, drama,
inventiveness of layout, the "lost and found" of
cdgcs, snhordination of the inconsequential, and
aeccntuation of the important. Let liS incorpora te
the emotional qualities so sadly lacking in photo-
graphic illuslration. Let our product be as differ-
cut from the photo as our individual handwriting
is from printed type. If we make the drawing, the
values, and the color sound and convincing, froIn
there on we need not compete. FroIn that point
on there is nothing to stop us, und from that point
on the public actually prefers art to photography.
The drawing, values, and color are only the
stock-in-tradc, the jllmping-off place. That mueh
is expected and taken for granted. What we do
beyond these wilI determine how far we go in
illustration.
Drawing as drawing alone is not too difficult.
Drawing, for the most parto is setting clown con-
tour in correct proportion and spacing. Spaces
can be measured, and there are simple ways and
means of measuring thern. Any old Hne around a
contour may be correctly spaced. You can square
OPENING CHAT
off copy. measure by eye, or project it, and get
~ t k i n d oE drawing. But real drawing is an nter-
pretation, selection, and statement DI a contouf
with the greatest possible meaning. Sometimes
drawing is Dot the actual contour at a11, Lut the
one that will express the grace, character, and
chann of the sllbject. UntiJ the artist begins to
think in line, think of expressing in this way the
things he wants to say, he ha .. not clevated him-
seH mucb beyond his pantograph, projcctor, or
other mechanical devices. How can he hope to be
creative if he depends eutire1y upon them? Re-
sorting to their use in place of drawing for self-
expression is a confession oI lack of faith in his
abilfty. He must realize that his Dwn interpreta-
tian, even iI not quite so literaHy accuratc, is his
on1y chance lo be original, to excel a thousand
others who also C'an me mec.:hauit."al ueviL'es. Even
a poor dmwing exhibiting inventiveness and sorne
originality is better than a hundred tracings or
projetfons.
If 1 am going to give yOtl information of value,
it must come from actual pracl.ce and ffom con-
tact with the actual fieM. NaturalIy 1 aJIl limited
to my own vie\vpoint. But, since the fundamentals
that go into my own work are for the most part
the same as those llsed hy others, we eannot be
too far from a common goal. So, T use examples
of rny work hefe, nol as somelhing to be imitated,
but rather to demoustrate the basic.: elemeuls lhat
1 believe must go nto aH successfuI ilIustTation.
By showing you the means of expression rather
than the cxprcssion itsdf, , lcavc yon free to ex-
press yourselves individually.
My approach will strip tself as far as possible
from the theory of imitation as a means of teach-
ing. Far this reason the approaeh must vary con-
siderably from the usual art text formula. 'Ve
shall have no examples of Old Masters, for,
franJcly, whal rncthods and proccdurcs thcy lIscd
are virtually unknown. You can see great pictures
everywhere; you probaLly ha ve your files fun of
ttIem. Unless 1 could ten you how an Old Master
arrived at his great painting, 1 could add nothing
of value. 1 cannot presume to give you even an
19
analysis of his work, for your analysis might be
bcttcr than mine. Mcthod and procedure are the
only sound basls of teaching, for without them
creative ability has no (,'h anee. 1 dare not neor-
purate even the work of contemporary illuslra
tors, since each would be infiniteIy more quali-
ned to speak for himsdf. T shallleave out 0.11 past
performances of my own with the rest, far we are
not as intefested in what 1 have done as in what
you are going to do, working with lhe same tools.
There is but one course Opell for me if 1 am to stay
on solid ground, that of sharing rny experienc.:e
\Vith you for whatcvcr valnc it has. You will thus
have the chance to select what is of use to yOll ,
and to discard that with which you do not agree.
The art of illuslration must logically begin with
lineo There is so much more to Hne than is con-
ceived by the layman that we must start out with
a broader understanding of it. Whether con-
sciously or llol, 11ne entcrs every phase of pietorial
effort, and plays a most important parto Line is the
nrst approach to design, a.s well as the delineation
of con tour. and ignorance of its true functioll can
be a great impcdiment to success. So our book
\ViII start with line.
Tone eomes next. Tone s thc basis of the ren-
dering of form in its salid aspecto Tone is also the
basis of a three-dilllensional effect of fonu in
.' pace. A tmthful representation of life cauIlot be
made without a clcar understanding of tone. Line
and tone are interdepcndcnt, and this relation-
ship must be ulluerslood.
T o Hne and tone is addeu <.'olor. Again the rc-
lationship becomes inseparable, for true color
depcnds almost entirely upon good tonal or value
relationship. We may draw an illustration in line
onIy, aud it slands compl ete pictorially. But the
minute we go beyoncl line as contonr only. \Ve
start to deal with light anu shauow, or tone. Wc
arc thcrcforc plunged immediately iuto lIle com
pIex laws of nature, since only by ligllt ancl
shauow, or tonality, is form apparent to uso The
step from tone to color is not nearly so great,
since the two are dosely relatcd.
OPENING CHAT
Granted that we can comprehend the basic
fundamentals of line, tone, and color, there is sti1l
more to encompass. AH threc must be united to a
pictorial purpose. Thcre aTe arrangement and
presentation. even more important than the sub-
jcet matter. There is organization of area and
tona] mass or pattern in arder to create good pie>
tures. To these ends we shall work.
Beyond the technical rcndering comes the dra-
matie interpretation. In the final analysis the il-
Iustratar is holding a mirror to life, and cxpressing
his feelings abaut it. He may paint a pot of Howers
beautilully. but it can by no stretch 01 the imag-
ination be called un illustration. Illustration must
encornpass emotion, the life we live, the things
we do, and how we Eee!. So we shall devote a part
01 the book to the "tclling 01 the story,"
If we are to iIIustrate, we must create ideas.
Illustration de1ves into psychoIogy for hasic ap-
peals, to create ideas that must reach into the
personality of the reader, compelling de6nite
responses. We need to understand the dcvclop-
ment of ideas as the hasis of aclvertising, too, so
that our work may 6nd a market in that 6e1d, and
be suited to its special nccds. Therefore a part of
the book will be given over to this subject.
20
Finally, we must separate the various Gelds into
a variety of approaches, each tuned to ~ partic-
ular purpose. In each fleld there is an individual
basic approach which the suecessful artist must
know. To do an outdoor poster is one thing. and
a magazine ad another. AH these points , hope to
make cIear.
There is the matter of experirnent ami study,
which can contribute so littIe ur sO much to your
uItimate success. This can assure freshness and
progress in your work as can nothing eIsc; it is
the thing that lifts yon out of the TUt of daily rou-
tine, and places you hcad and shoulders aboye
your assoeiates. It is the biggest SCCTct of success.
1 have searcbed out to the best 01 my ahility
the workable truths. 1 have organizcd thcsc into
what I shall can the "Fonn Principie." Within this
is the whole basis of approach to the material of
this book. These truths have existed long befare
me, and will continue ever after. 1 have simply
tried to gather them together. They are the things
which are present in all good art, and should be a
part 01 .11 that you do, They spring Irom the laws
of nature, which I believe is the only sound basis
far a book of this kind. So let us get on with our
work.
THE FORM PRINCIPLE
AS A BASIS OF APPROACH
No MArrER what subject the arOst uses or what
medium he works in, there is but Dne solid basis
of approach to a realistic interpretation of lue-
to the representation of the natural appearance
of existing forms. 1 cannot lay claim to being the
6rst to perceive the truths which nndcrlic this
approach. You will find thcm exempliRcd in all
good arto They existed long befare me, and will
continue as long as there is light. 1 shall atlempl
onIy to organize these truths so as to make thelll
workablc for you in stmly and practicc, in cvcry-
thing you do. Tu the organization of these basic
truths 1 have given a name: the Forro PrincipIe.
This principIe is the basis for everything which
will be discussed in this book; and it is my hope
thatyou wil1 adopt it and 1lSC it for the fest of yOllf
lives. Let tlS start out by dcfining the Fonn Prin-
cipIe,
The Form Principle is tite rendering of forr1l as
to its aspect at any given mament wifh rega'/'d
to its lightng, ts muZ terture, tagetTte'/'
with #8 true relatiumhip tu its environment.
Now let us see what this means. Any pictorial
effect that will present a convincing illusion of
existing form must do so first by the rendering of
light on that formo \Vithollt light, as far as we
are concerned, form eeases to existo Thc nrst trllth
of the Form PrincipIe that we are concerned with
is:
lt must be detennined at once what kind of
Ughtwe are working with, fo'/' its nature muZ qual-
ity and the direction from which it comes will
aUcct the entire appearance (Jf the formo
If it is impossihlc to fender fonn without light,
then itfolIows that the nature o[ the form becomes
visible because oC light. A brilliallt Iight prouuces
well-deIlned lighl, halflolle, auu :-;llauuw. A Jif-
fused light, such as tite light of the sky un a grey
21
da y, produces an effect of softness and subtle
gradation of light to dark. In the studio the same
relative effects are produced by artificiallight for
def1nition and by the natural north duylight for
the soft gradation.
The direction or position of the light sonrcc,
then, dctcnnincs what planes sha11 be in the light,
halftone, or shadow. Texture is more apparent in
a direcl or bright light than in a diffused light. The---
planes of tite fonn are also more apparent in bril-
liallt light.
This brings us to the next truth:
The lightest areas of the form tCill be within
those planes lying most nearl!! at right angles fo
the direetion of fhe light. The !tal/tone Illanes 1dll
be those obliquely situaled lo the dimction 01 the
light. rhe shadow planes will be tJwse planes
lying in or beyomZ the direction of light so that
the light of the uriginal sauree cannot l'each them.
Tite east shadatCs are the results of the light hav-
ing been intercepted, and the shape of Stteh nter-
cepting form s projeeted to other planes. In dif-
fused light there is little or no cast shadow. In
brilliant light o/' dired light thac is ahvays cast
shadow.
So you will see that the kind oC lighl immedi-
ately has lo do wilh lhe approach to your suuject
amI the ultirnate effect. Having less definition, the
lliffu:-;eu or over-alllight will be lIlost difficult. For
"snap," take direct light. For softness and sim-
plicity, use sky light. Direct light produces COD-
trast, sky light produces closeness uf value.
Direct light produces much more reflected
light, and this is most appamnt witltin tite shad-
ow. Tite amount o{ reflected light '/'eaehing tite
shadow will determine its value. Everything ttpon
whiclt lhe lghl falls becumes u suurw
uf refleeted light and willlight shadow planes in
THE FORM PRINCIPLE
the same manner as the original source, being Faked lighting breaks clown every other good
brightest on the planes al right angles lo such quality.
reflected light. All things represented within a given light
Light can operate in only one manner. It hits bear a relationship 01 tone and value fo one
the tap planes squarely aIld brightly, theu slides another.
around the fonu as far as it can go. However, in If this relationship is not maintained, then the
the shadow, the source being of less brilliancy, form cannot be true. Everything has its "local"
reflected light can never be as light as the original value, that s, its surface tone appears to be some- _
8ource. Therefore no area in the shadow can be as where in the scale from black to white. Bright
light as the areas in the light. light can raise the value, and dim light can lower
Morc art falls apart for this reason than for any it. But the light raises or lowers allother surround-
other. Both light and shadow arcas must be sim- ing values correspondingly, so that the value of
plifled and painted in the fewest possible values. the subject holds a constant relationship to other
The object is to make aH the Jighted areas hold values. It will remain, in any light, so mueh lighter
together as one group, as opposed to the shadow or darker than its neighbors. For instance, a man's
areas as another group. If the values of the two shirt may he so much lighter than his suit. In
groups are not thus scparated and held apart, the any light this relationship holds good. Therefore,
subject s bound to lose solidity and form, no mat- whether in deep shadow or bright light, we can-
ter how well modeled and how well drawn. Much not change the value difference between the two.
of the reason for pictures' falling apart is aIso The object is to raise both or ]ower both but to
hecau'ie simple light and shadow is not given a keep tbe approximate difference. The relation-
chanceo Such relationship is dcstroycd by inscrt- ship of things to one another will be the same
ing severa] sources of Jight. Thus whcre halftone always, either in light or in shadow.
and shadow should be to give the true character A single source of light is best for our purpose
of the form, it is lost by other lighting, alld the and produces the best effect pictorially. This aIso
values become a hodgepodge of middle tones, gives us refleeted light. We can use a reflector
highlights, and aecents. There cannot be a white (usually a white board) to reflect the original
in the shadow area. There can hardly be apure light with heautiful effect. This, when working on
black in the light area. A safe approach is to make thc shadow side.
all the areas in the light a Httle lighter than yau Rclatiomhip o{ value,'J is more correct in natu-
thinkyouscethcm,andall thc arcas in thcshadow rallight than in any other.
a Httle darker. You will probably come out with a Sunlight and daylight are the perfect lights for
better thing than the other way rouud. true rendering of formo You simply cannot beat
All forms within your picture should appear to thcm with all the trick lighting possible.
be lighted by the sume source arul be lighted con- Overmodeling comes from incorrect values.
sistently with one another. If, to make the fonn go round, wc exaggcratc
This does not mean that light cannot travel in the values, we use up the rather limited range be-
different directions, such as the light around a tween black and white, so we do not have 1eft
lamp, the light of two windows, reflected lights, the proper and lower values for the shadow. The
etc. But the light must be a true eHect of light, picture becomes dull and lifeless, since we have
such as sunlighl, sky lighl, moonlighl, Iwilighl, used values Ihal do nol bdong lo Ihe lighl and
artificiallight, etc" in its real effect and relation- could not be in relationship. The opposite is true
ship. There is only one way to get this right. Do it when we put lights into the shadows that could
by studying from le the true aspect, or take a not be, destroying the big relationship between
phOIO wlch will give il lo you. It cannol be faked. Ihe whole lighl and Ihe whole shadow.
22
THE FORM PRINCIPLE
The big f01m makes lhe subject carry and ap-
pear solid, not the incidental surface forms.
Many of small and intricatc forms must be
subordinated to keep the big form solido Folds,
for instance, can ruin the eHect uf unclerlying
form and break it "p. Draw onIy the folds that
express form and the natural drape of the IilHte
riaI, not every fold just it is there on the
model Of in the copy.
The besr. pictures Tun in a t ete simple values.
This will be taken up later on.
The design makes lhe picture, not fhe suh;ect
OT material.
Almost any suuject ca]) be lIsed with chann
through the help uf desigJl amJ arrallgement.
Pre<icntation is more vital than subject matter.
The same lorm may be presented with great
variety by a careful arrangenumt nI lighfing. Just
any light will fl.ot d,o . lt must be tlIe best ()f '!um-
era! experiments.
A landscape beautifuJ iJl early morning or eve-
ning light may be dun anO. unnterestiug at UDDU-
day. A charming head may be ugly in bad Iiglot-
ing. The best plan is always to choose the lighlillg
that tends to big simple form, not form too brokeD
up in light and ,hadow.
Light (Jtld shad()w in Uself produces designo
The plainest of suhjccts can be made artistic
by weaving pattems of light and shadow lhrough
it.
Value l'elatlonsllips betwecn objects produce
designo
For examplc, a dark ohjeet placed against a
light one, alld both against a grey fidd, wOllld he
designo Units may be placcd against clo,<;c valucs
or contrasling values, thcrcby gctting subordilla-
tion in the first instance amI aCf.:entuation iu
second. The planning Uf cOlllposition of tile suu-
ject is really dealing with the Telationships of
tbe values of certaiD units as combined with Of
opposed lo othCTS. This rcsnlts in "pattero," and
be fur thcr combincd with li ghting.
All pictures are fundamentally either arrange-
23
ments 01 lights, intervening tones, aOO darks, or
else linear arrangements.
You cannot avoid making your suujeet either
a tUllaJ s!alt::lllc nt or a linear statement. You can
combine burh, but yon cannot get away fTom une
of H yau do not undcrstand tonal relation-
ship you cauIlol seeure a fccling of "existence,"
Line ' contour; tone is form, space. and the
third dimemsion.
Get this clearly in your mind.
Contour cannot be contirlUously defoned all
around all tmUs and a sense uf space be achieved.
(;ontollT becomes lost and fOtllld and nter-
laccd or woven into otheT areas in IICl ture, If
lhe edgc is kcpt hard all around, it cannot avoid
stidcjug lo the pichlrc planc, losing the feeling
uf spat'e, oc one eclge in back of another, Edges
will be takeu up in more dctail latcr.
The frmdamerltals are the same in al! medilllns.
Each medium has aH illherellt quality of its
OWll, Once you master tlle Form PrincipIe, on1y
Ihe peculi}lritcs of the meclium remaiu to be
You will simply have to find out how
to express a.slmrp edge, a soft erige, light, hoUtone
ancl shadow, in tite medium, which is a pnrcIy
tcchnical matter. But you will render ronn in
esscntially thc same \Vay in all meJiums,
T} e darkest part ()I the shadou; appears near-
est the lighl , bel.ween tIte haiftano of thc light and
the refle<.:te(llight Whl tlle shndow.
This is called tlle "ridge" or "'hump" by thc iJlus-
tratar, and is most import<lnl. It keeps the shadow
lllminous and the form Touud.
Thf! F()rm Principlc s the cu-urtlination of all
factot's dealing with line, tone, and color,
This book is la id out on the Forro PrincipIe,
sillce il enl ers into cvcrything yOtl will ever do, OT
see, in lhe Geld of illw.tration. We shall attempt
to darif)' its variom applications as we go nlong.
1 suggest th"t you come back to thr:sc funda-
mental truths oftell, fOT they are the answcr to
most of your problems.
So we start with Hne!
PART ONE
THERE ARE SEVEN PRIMARY FU NCT IONS OF LlNE
1. To eonvey its own intrinsic beauty.
2. To divide or lirnit an area or spaee.
3. To delineate a t houghl or syrnbol.
4. To denne form by edgc or con tour.
5. '1'0 ealeh and direct the eye over a given eourse.
6. To produce a grey ur tunal gradati on.
(Y' 7. To create dcsign or arrangement.
'-... '
AOCBB



111 11111111.

U VEN if it may sccm a bil olJVious, let us start fnnct on and purposc. 1 want you to think of it in
the bal with the very beginning of artistic cx- thM li ghe .Everything from this day forwarn that
pression, that o( lillt:. There is tfulr mllch more (o yOl! do artistically will bear a relationship to tine,
line in the nJi1ll1 uf the artist than in thal of tbe Jay- eilher goou oc bad. You can eithcr makc li ne an
mano T the Jatter, linc is but a lIIark of a pencil asset to your work, or yon can let jts importauee
oc a mere scrntch of a peno To the truc artist, linc slide by you. fiut if you choose lo tite func-
ean reach great hcighls, rC4uire exhaustivc: skill , tions of line, yOLll" work will make abad statement
and convcy unlmiteJ beauty. Line in its variolls of yOllI aui]ity. Line is bound to enter yonT work
functi ons has coutri butcd as rnnc.h to hUTll<l.lI for Let ter ur wurse. You cannot escape it,
progrcss as or steam. AH linc should lw.ve Let us see what can he done aboul it.
25

Lne LJ
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--
C"::EATIVE. ART B'f.GINf WITH CR.EATI\l 1=.
LINE.. LIMe CANQNLY !SE."TtlE
L.INE Al YQU JE.E IT ANO PREF.ERTOf':JRAW\T.
PROJECTING' LITERAL COt;TQURf BY ANY
MEAN! CAN ONLY IiC.E.IUL.T IN
STIFLlNG'YOURMOfT VALUABLE AJfE.T-
NOIVIDUAL!TY. DRAW F=RoM COPVA$'10U
WQULO L..IFE.. HAVe. AL'NAYJ THE.

COUlOtAce. TO DRAVV tT YOuR..JEl-F.
THlf eOOK Ho.f DE...,J"lGN.E.D -rO CARrt.V J:OR.WAR.D THe FUNDAMEN"t',,W fILTI:=OR,."TH IN
, ..
FIGUR.E. DR.D.W I NC' FOrc. ITJ WORTH. IT MUfT Be AJ"fUME.O YOU HoVE. AN lNQ
26
r
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UNE IS PROPORTION WIrn IMAGINA TION
A PLAN OF HE.o.O CONfTRUCTlQN HA!

JE.T FORTH IN FU'" \NITH A F'E.NC I L.
1
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n ..ll f J I,40Wf Ha vv TO GET THE PROPORTl d Nf OF ANY POJE..
-1-
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OF 'THe. PROPOR.TION AND CONfTRUCTION OF HUMAN FIGuRE. IT Ir MY PURPOJE NOWTOHELP
VOU DEV ELOP THE FIGUR.E PICTOR..IA LLY TO PRACTI C6L. GOALf AND TO A LI VE!..I HOOD.WOR.K!
27
UNE PRODUCES FORMAL DESIGN
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.rUBI)IVIJIOM 8'( DLAGONALf,VEFtTlCA1..rANO HORIZQNT,/:l.L.r UNlIMITED DEJIGN.TRY L1:
CHOOJ'E POINTf, !lELNG CAR:EFUL.. TO R.EPEAT T\4e. DIAGONAL eETWee.N ALLSIMIL.6.R. PO I NTI.
TH\f p.6.Ge II TO IMPREff UPON YOU THE I5AJlC
RELA"TIONfH I P OF II N E.. TO OIV 101 NO
" "
eQUAJ..I-Y PRODucej DEJlGN.
. "
IF A IJ" 6.6.rEO UPON UNOERL-YINCj' THEREFORE. INFORML.. DE.flaN ISay UNEQUAL
UN2:AR. DE:JIGN,ITWIL!. .. PARTAKEot=IT.rUNITV OIVI.ftON. COM'POJITION tfONe. OR OTHER.
28
UNE PRODUCES INFORMAL DESIGN
ARCJ INTERlACED
COMBINING HORI ZQNTAl.f ANO
PERPENDI CULARJ" WiTt-I

-
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06Llo..UE. LINEf INTr:RLAC.EO.
Ir-
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QVERL.AP PING OVAl-f OVERLAPPINO CIRCLEJ ..f'Q.UARES OVE..Rl..AF"PINCi TRIANaLEf
OVE.R\..A'PPIN<7 RAOII OVERLAPP\NG WAVY PARALLeLS OVER\...APP'f'lG' ANGL..Ef
OVER\..APPINCi JPiRALI OL.e..r HORIZONTAL"- 6.Nb Pl:RPEN01CIJL.,A.R.J"
29
OVERLAPPING UNE AND AREAS THE FIRST PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITION
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THE PRI KCI pL.e OF Na AREAT, FORMf, ANO CONTOURJ 1.1" THE 8AJ"IJ OF ALL PICTOR..I A L
CRI!.ATION. J'lNCI!l LIH. IIOUFl FIR. .... T I"1I!ANr OF DI!P"ININO THE: JE,Tt-tEN I..INEAR
BECOMl!.fOURFIR.JT AR.6. MANY WAY..r Te 0'0 ABOUT IT.
Nature is one vast panorama oE COlltours and artist'sapproach. almostanythingis picture mate.
spaces. Everything is form, set into space. If we Tial. since !t s design and a,rangement that
wece to cut a rectangular opening in a piece of f1Ulkes pictures, regardless 01 subect. Cut a card-
t-ardboard and 1001 through it, nature would board so as to make "picture 6.nder," An opening
present us with a picture. Within the foue limits oE three by four ioches is large enough. Look
of the opening, the space would be(,'Ome divided through it. Jot clown, in miniature compositions,
by spaces and contours. To that spacing arrd the linear arrangements you find. Your sense of
arrangement of contours we will give everlasting arrangement is the firstreal indication of your cre-
attention, for it is the basis aI all pictarial ap- ativcness. Walk about the house or grounds with
proach. The novice sn.p' bis c.mer. carelessly al a sm.U skelch p.d. Don'l go any farther until you
nature. The arlisl seeles lo arrange it. From the have done a dozen or two sm.]] roughs.
50 ,
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Creative Illustration by Andrew Loomis
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USINC THE FIRST FUNCTION OF "UNE FOR ITSELF" FOR COMPOSITION
COMPOSITION MA Y BE BASED ON LETTERS AND SYMBOLS
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COMPOSITION MA Y BE BASED ON GEOMETRIC FORMS
~ - ~ - ~ - - I
33
THE "FULCRUM-LEVER" PRINCIPLE APPLlED TO COMPOSITION
RULE
T\1E l IEAVIE.RTHE Mo..U
oro!, wF.IGj-rr) THE N t A'A,fP.
\T JliOULD 8E PI-ACF t I
TO Tl-H':' MIODLF. IINC
011 YOUR. PIC-rIJR.E

IJ
--'A
O ft. THe. JMALL- ONE',
N 1':" f'>.I"_EJT
E.GVAL
,n" OULD "APpr-AR
ro BE
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n .. c UEAV Y WEI (.; H T
L...:I. N BE' N F. A R..efT
EAC H w e. \ G\n
.YO THA"T IT'"'APP EA IJS
T O eE IN e A.
lHn,l
I
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,
,
To be the material within a picture each side). If lwo forms are equal, let one over-
nceds balance, or should seem to be pleasantly lap the so as t change the contoUT. Variety
reposing within thc pi cture limits. Balance is ob- is the spice of compositioIl. We make a small
viously "uff" when wt' Ceel that thc limits would weight balance a heaver one by p1aCiIlg: it farther
seem better if moved over, oc more space added away from the middle uf the or ful-
or cut away. This is the guide we have, for crum. which is the middle point of balance. Bal-
thcre are no infallible rules of composition. Aboul ance in compo.c;ition is a sense of equilibrium be-
thc only rnlc is that we give the greatest variety twccn thc masses of light and dark, or of the area
oC spaccs po.c;sible, no two duplicating nDe another and bulk of one thing balancing another. The
in size or shape (cxcept in strictly formal arrange- heavierthemass, the nearer themiddle-thcsmall-
ments, where a11 things are halanced equally on er the mass, the nearer the edge-is a good ax.iom.
34
USE FORMAL SUBDIVISION FOR SYMMETRICAL COMPOSITION
I I
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fOR.MAL DI\lIJION APPLIE.J 6E..rr TOJUe.JECT,f 01=- A DIGNIFI E.D OR. R.E.LtGIOUJ NATURE.
There are times when we wish tu achieve great
diguity of arrangement Since the Creator's basic
design faf animate forro is the duplication of Dne
side by the other, such as the two sides of thc
human body, arrangement hascd on thc same
plan takes on thc same SOft of dignity. Tt cloes not
mean that cach sidc must duplicate exactly, hul
there should be a feeling of complete equali:a-
Han of the uuits af Ulasses, the hne and spaces,
of one side with the ather. Church murals invari-
ably follow this plan. It may be Hsed to great
advantage in symbolical suhjccts, appcals for
charity, h('roic sl1bjccts, af to suggest peace and
35
serenity. Formal balance was almost the only
approach in earlier times, and great compositions
have been built with it, It is largely the formal-
ity of design which lends such magnificence
to the \york of Michelangelo, Rubens, and
Raphacl.
Formal subdivision may also be used inLor-
mally if Olle is adept cllough, 1 have iutroduced
on the next page another method, quite apart
from either formal division of space or dynamic
symmetry, 1 have never found either as satisfac-
torl' as this ncw approach, and 1 hope it will
prove of great bcnefit to others.
INTRODUClNG INFORMAL SUBDMSION
3
This is a plan of subdvisiou of my own. It offers
gre.ter freedom to the . rti,t. Study it. It will help
yon ta divide space unequally and interestingly.
Start by dividing thc whole space unequally with
a single (opUonal ) lineo Tt lS hc.c; t to avaid placing
the Hne at a point which would be one-half. ooe
third, or one-fourth DE ,the whole space. Thcn
draw.one diagonal of the whule space from diag.
onaUy opposite corners. At the intersection of the
diagonal and your nrst line, draw a horizontal
line across the spacc. Now draw diagonals in any
of the resulting rectanglcs. but only ane to a
NOW URA"" A [)INiottAl
:'O AI'IY k I!C.T .... N<n-e.
UKII!! 'ni' f00"
NOT TH L$ g
600 I'\EvJ

f'ER.;'>E NOt CVLJl,U- AS You CI'IOOS (3.


A:i ti C-N .rPACE.J-
C ....... "',..,.D.
36
.
BY TH IJ 1(1 ND
01= DIYISION
NO 1WOJVACE
ARE. DUPlICA"fE,f.
l!EMt:.Mt') e.R.
NOTrO OIVIDt::.
A.NY L.' U;.
THIJ ..
BUI LD IN YOO JUBJ E c... 8Y ADHF.R.I
Muen AS p o .r S I tsLE. 10 \ \-lE .,:
\
DOH'r GIVE UP.

space. Two diaganaIs crossing like an X would
divide the rectangle equally, which we do not
want. Now you may draw horizontals oc perpen-
diculars at any intersection, thus making more
rectangles to divide by diagonals again. In this
manner you wiU never break up the same shape
twice in the sarne way. It oHers a grcat dcal of
sllggestion for the placement of figures, spacing,
and contours, with no two spaces being ex-actly
equal or duplicated, except the two halves on
each side of the single diagonal. If you have a
subject in mind yon will begin to see it uevelop.
A DEMONSTRATION OF INFORMAL SUBDIVISION
') HAP Offi,..'f AN IOEA Irt MINO o: S'l4OWtNG A LO. 01= U'TTI_E
J(rt60MU" PLAYINc.- YIItTH A PEN. I HAD NO IOeA Oft'O\v'
i WOVLO THEM. I Ot..,IDEO MY J PAcE. AI sHowN..
;'TttE ASSrRACT .fH.P&.f THUJ .rUGGE!TEO THECOMPOIlTto,
I'ROM TH'j' PRELlM'''ARY WORK,THE. FINISHED FRONTISPIECE TO PAII.T ONE. W.S aE"Te.D.
37
,/
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/
,
,
FIGURE COMPOSITIONS BASE[)'NINF()RMAL SUBDIVIS10N
,-+_.oJ'
~ : i

INFORMAL 5UBDIVI510N 15 PUREL y CREA TIVE, NOT MECHANICAL
MAKE n"I UMBNAILf. THE DIVIIIONS HE.R. E J UGGEfTEO TI-IE fU BJE.CTJ ANO AI<:RANGE.ME.NTI.
Sincc, whcn a space is divided iJl the manner ing up ideas, layouts, small compositions. As the
shown in thcsc pages, selection plays a great part, ideas develop tltey can be carri cd out with lIIod-
and invenlion the Test, it cannot avoid being crea- e1s, clippings. and so forlh. Wllc n tile original
tive. That is ils slrongcst rccornmendation, in subdividing lines are eraseu, t is amazing how
comparison with forms of subdivi sion that start wen lhe composition balances or "hangs to-
you out with a "set" Of formal arrangcment to gether,," 1 urge yau not to pass this up without a
begin with. You start inventiug wi lll yOUT Ilrst tryout. lt has oftt' n saved thc da)' for me, anu 1
.. Une whcn yon use informal subui vision. It hclps admit that even 111 my own work 1 am often su
to get you over the emptiness uf bhtuk paper be- "stymied" for a good arrangemcnt that 1 turn to
fore yOll, without an idea in your head. Tllat , 1 it in grcat relief. \ Vhi] e aH of the compostions of
asrure yOll, is the feeling most of us experienl..:e, lhe book are not so baseu, ffiO:llly oC thcm are, and
and you probably alreauy know what 1 mean. If in my estimation the hetter ones. Auy one of the
you have a subjeet in mind, it will clevelop with arrangements on this or the precediug pages
ODe or two trics. If you have no suojecl in mind, would be intrigulng to do a.o;; a painting, anu l ouly
pretty soon lhe lincs will start suggesting some- wish 1 had the SpUI...'8. Most artistc; develop an eye
' thing, as these did in the httle drawtngs above.lu for composition eventually, Lut this dcvicc \ViII
starting out 1 had no intunation of what the sub- get you weU on the way. Draw the dividing lines
jects would be. This method is inva]uable in work- Hghtly so they can he easily erased.
39
PERSPECTIVE CUIDE UNES HELP YOU TO COMPOSITION
T-NO VANIStilNO POIN"T',f'
A WA'( "TO COMI"OS rn eN. MAIU'
OFF e.veN J"PACES DQWtJ EACHSIDE..
R.UN L..INES O()TTO YANISHIG POLNTS',
THIiZU PICTURE., vou CAN NOW USE 'YOVI<-
E'(E,FILlING' J'PACE AS D-.sIRE.D.
or-./Ii! VANoJ"HING' P O I NT PE.RJpeC;; "TIIIE.
'TAK!!. A POi NT ON ,He. HOR.I'z'ON, PRAW
R,AOIArr Na Ll Ne:.f IN ALL.. D(REC:' ONI
f"'ROM rr. YOU CAN NOW eUI1 .. DON.THOIe
\....\NES ay CHOI CE . OP' COURJ.E. --(01.) NeeQ
iO t<NOW peR..fPeCTlve -ro 00 IT .
ONE. PONT r-O R.INTE!.I"IOR..J",
THE. PE.RSPecTIVE: LINEr Ai2.E MERELY LINEf TO HeU>"'THE. e.ys. .
=-
---=---===---
- -
-
YOVR. PICTUR,.E IN M''''' ATURE. THII WAY. YOU C6.N LA"TER. JQUAR.e. IT 0-=':;'
t=oR. e.NLARCiEMENT. I USF_ TlH.f PLAN A kOT ro cal!T R.IGHT IN,-O b GNeN .rueJecr.
-rHI.,f 11' A MO.fr NOw IF you DONor UND6R.STAND
PE.R,J"F"ECTiV'ti. ,You'o eeTTER. sruoy IT .YOU CANNOT GET ,6J'I'<w .... e.QE. WITHOllT IT.
40
EVERYTHING YOU DRAW IS RELATED TO AN EYE LEVEL
It is impossible to draw correctly and intelli-
gently without the l:onsideration of a viewpoint
and ao eye level. The viewpoint is what known
as the station paint in perspective. Howcvcr, that
is rea]Jy the spat on the ground plane whcrc you
are standjng. Art;ticalIy, the viewpoiut js the
center of the {jeJd of vision and is not to be
confused with the vanishing points. If \Ve look
straight out at eye level, the vicwpoint will be
exactly opposite a poiot iaeate(] in the middle 01
the horizon. The harizon is the ere level. Think
af a great fan-shapcrl sheet af glass starting at a
pont just back of our two eyes and spreading oul
at our eye level and reaching as far as \Ve CQuld
seco This entire sheet af glass wou1d be the picture
horizon. No picture can have more than alle hOTi-
zon. It follows that all receding lines paralle] to
the ground plane that Teccde from points aboye
the horh:oIl musl slant downwaTd pictorially and
end in the horiwn. Then alllincs hclow the hori-
zon. also paral1el to the ground planeo must slant
upward to the horizon. Our viewpoint, thcn, de-
termines the horizon.
Since a picture may not, and seldom does, rep-
resent the whole fleld of vi .. on, the horiwn may
cross the pidure plane, or be ahoye the picture
or below it. Suppose you have a large photo of a
group of buildings. Without changing thc hori-
zon or perspective lines. you -might erop out any
small scction of the photo for your picture. But
no maUer what part yon take,. the relationship to
the -original eye ]eve1 (or viewpoint of the cam-
era) is apparent. You or the camera ]ook down
on everything be10w tlle picture horzon or up at
anything above jI. AH things will show only thcir
top surface when below the eye level or picture
harizon. 'Ve can look into things only when
the eye LS above them. Round lines like a belt
'around a waistline must curve up when below
the horizon, and clown when above. But how
many times we see too truth disregardcd! How
mten do we see necks. shoulders. paying no
attention to an eye level, roofs slanting down or
-up when the reverse should be the case! It must
be staled bero that loo large a percentage of art-
41
isis go into thc Acld of iHustration and commercial
art woefully lacking in a knowledge af simple
perspective. lt becomcs apparent when the artist
has obviously workcd from two clippings or
photos, each having a difIcrcnt eye leve!. You may
be certain m'o clips will seldom be in agreement
with cach other in this respect.
Perspective must be understood Ly Ihe artist.
It applies to every bit of oopy he uses. He can
start with ane thing. for instance a photo of a
piano. That wiU establish the harizon of his
tnre. Then everything eIse, inclllding figures ,
m11st he drawn to the same eye level. He must
redraw the perspective so tilat the vanishing
points wiU faU in the same horizon sel by the
pjano. Or, selecting a figure. he may adjust the
perspective of the piano to 6t the figure. The besl
way to do this is to make smaU sketches so that
wide vanishing points may be uscd. Use a large
tissue pad. Then square off the small sketch and
enlargc to the size you want.
To lcam perspective oll]y a stnall invcst-
ment at the bookstore, and only a few evenings
set to learn it once and for aH. Why an
ist will jeopan.lize his wholc OUtpllt and a life-
time of effort by a lack of such knowlcdgc is he-
yond mc. For sorne reason, the mau who docs not
kllow perspcctive imagines it is much more diffi-
cult lhan it really s. It is just one of those things,
like tite study of anatomy, which an artist may
keep putting off eternally and suffer for luck of,
cvcry day. Perspective is a part of el lery form
under every condition and ccmTlOt be avoided. It
affects yOllT very next job aud every one there-
after. If yOl! are workng from a single photo the
carnera may do it for you. But if you change or
add one single to your photogTJlphic copy,
you will not be able to do it corrcctly unless you
understand this principIe of eye leve1 and view-
point. If you do not understand perspectivc, by
a11 meaos drop everything else and get it at once.
You will never draw until you do. ( There are so
many good texts on perspective that it would be
superHuous to give further space to it here.
Your bookstore can help you.)

EYE LEVEL, CAMERA LEVEL, ANO HORIZON MEAN THE SAME
J.

EVl:. l.EVEL. WITHIN THEPlCfVRE
..
/EYE' LF.\lEL eE.Low THlO.. PlcrUR:E.
EYE l..1::.VG.L "'fil',E
r
PICTURE

42
Perspective is the Rrst and foremost means of
depicting space on a flat picture pIane and thc
natural or normal aspect of things. If modern aft
chooses to ignore t, modern art chooses to suf-
fer the negative response thereby evokeu. But in
illllstration we cannot ignore it and make our
work appeal with any conviction of reality.
You can casi1y check any copy to find the hari-
zan. Simply carry any receding straight lines back
unol they meet in a paint. Thcse lines, of course,
shoulU be parallel to the gratlnd plane, like two
floor boards, two ceiling Hnes, two parallel sdes
of atable, Of the tap and bottom lines of a door
or windows. The point at which such lines meet
will fall in the horizon. Draw a horizontal line
straight aeross through such a point and that is
it. \Vhcn you have your horizon, note where t
cuts across thc figure. Then it mllst so cut across
aH other figures, at the waist, hrcast, head, or
whetever it comes. AH added units must have
their vanishing points in the same hotizon.
pose yau have a clipping of an interior. By finding
the horizon you can estimate the height of the
camera. By adjusting the figure you may wish to
draw within that same interior with this camera
level, yau can make the figure seem to fit in
spective. Cameras arc uSllal1y at hreast level, so
see that the horizon cuts through thc figures prop-
erly. This is aboul the only way there is to inscrt
pwpecly, so lhal lhey will all seem to be
standing on the same fluor.
Another advantage: if you know beforehand
ahollt how high the horizon appears ahoye the
floor in the intcndcd copy, y011 can thcn adjnst
your camera to that height when taking picturcs
of lhe models wham )'ou intend to use in the pic-
ture. You cannot shoot al just an)' level and make
it fit your copy.
When redrawing copy to fit a new eye leve1,
first find sornething of known measurement in the
copy. For instan ce, a chair seat is about eighteen
inehes off the Hoar. Draw a perpendicular at the
comer of the chair and measure it off in fect. Then
yau ean take any point in the ground planeo The
FINO EYE LEVEL OF COPY ANO MAKE FIGURES COINCIDE
perpendicular acts as a meamring line for up-
right ... Draw a hne from the bottom of meas-
uring line, through the chasen point on the
ground plane to the horizon. Then carry tlle Hne
back to the mcasuring line at whatever height
desireu. Ered a perpendicular ut the chosen
puint, amI tbe similar hcight is now carried back
to the place you want it. This is cxactly the same
principIe as placing figures 011 thc same ground
plane.
The accompanying skt:tches will serve to iIIus-
trate the various placements of the eye Jcvel or
horizon (which i5 the same lhing) and thc rela-
tionship of ane unit to another. To make it a liule
cleaTer r have drawn the artist outside his picture.
reprcscnting yau and your viewpoiut. ] have then
squared off thc picture material. These will show
why the horizoll may he at any height in a pic-
ture, and also that it is determined by the height
and point froln which vicwed.
I have talen a piano and some figures showing
bow they mus! be rc1atcd. 1 have also tried to
demonstrate the variety of cffcct to be got out of
any subject by usiug differcnt eye Icvcls. This
opens up a world of opportunity for crcativeness.
A subjeet rather urdinary al ordinary eye level
may bccome quite startling when viewed from
aboye or hom down low .... A high eye leve! is
good. whcn you want to break down into text
space. A ground-Ievel viewpoint is good when
you want a horizontal base lineo
Understanding pcrspective in the figure, you
can transpose Agure copy to various eye levcls,
thus pemlitting you to use copy which you other-
wise could not. So long as yOI! havc drawn your
figure dHfereutly and in your own way. no one
can object. This is not always casy. It s really
:better to paya model, pose her as you wish, and
the thing out 00 your own, if you can afford
'it. Money spent On mooels is lhe best invcstmcnt
you could make as a creative artist. Your picture
-fhen is indisputably your own.
3

el.J p.r *
UNRELATED
1 '1
i ,
,
J'lNCe. NONE QF JAME e.YI!5 ..... VIa.L
MUJ"T .re.Le.CT!!D ANO lHe on-leRI AOJUJT!!D
TO IT' FIR.rT \..'/i.T Uf TAKE. TMe. PIANOA1',JI-IO'WI'l.
ve
Il.t(V PIoIOTO WIl.).. ESTAIH. IJI1'
tT.f OWN Rye; L.E.Ve. ....
hl<ACIN<1)
..
OI ..... ". 'S .... ,...O PlliRSPI!<:'TW. LI Ne:S OOTONTILTI4EV
ME"'''' , N A Pt>'N'T. "'tiA' PO,.".., IS OH Ttll:. HOIt.IZON. NOW
DIlU>W T"" ).. 1""'. A,CIlOSJ

CottREcr PeItJP!c;TIVE M
:e
APPROACHING THE SUBJECT IN DIFFERENT WAYS
44
CiIf:.N .....
J:OLLOVVlr;q ",IANO <:(:>Py,
$l! c.oND J,QU<Hl SKe,CH
!"Ol-I-O'-"'ING
F ... ':u-r ... uR-F. f"'J
J'1'!. fi.M'TO"'Op CHflFM.
llame
PERSPECTIVE ALONE MA y ADD V ARIETY
1'1
li ,1
1"
TotlRD ROU(;iH fKEcTCH tcOLl-OWIHlj
OF .... "'CONDAG'URE.
ALtO ArlIMPROVf.MeMT TME
f'IIi:.IT t<.OUCiH
rr 1$ AN IPEA TO TR.Y OUT AHY JUBJE:CT "'ROM DiFI'=E;aE.NT OR YOU C4.N Ot:TE.N
"""1(.15 .rOMETriINO -fTb.R.i 1-1 NO' OUT OF JOMIiTHINC OR.DINRV. JI"' VOU DON'-r t<NOW PI!:RJPEC,IV,,",OONT 'POT LT o;: ....
It will always be thc problem of the artist t
take his subject and approach it as differently as
possible. There is no doubt that if thought is
given in this direction, something unusual can
result. John Jones sees almost everybody at about
his own eye leve!. Raise the figures and lower
John Jones, and you have hirnlooking up to your
characters. There is a certain grandeur and dig-
nity thus given them, something of what we feel
when looking up to an orator, a minister in the
pulpt, or an actress on: the stage. That is good
psychology to remember, and it may be used
to good advantage.
Opposed to this is the sense of superority af-
forded the reader when made to feel that he is
looking down on our characters. How much more
beautiful a ballroom filled with figures looks froIll
the balcony than from Hoor level! How we like
to climb the hill or mountain and look down on
the landscape! The gre.test thrill 01 Hying is that
sense of height. You can lift your observer psy-
45
chologically by this means. Too often ordinary
petures are ordinary beeause no thought has been
gven to an eye leve!.
To illustratc a chld's story, tremcndous sig-
nificance ean be given the iIIustrations by draw-
ing the pictures at the child's eye level. To the
little child everything is so high up, so hig. Dad
towers over him like sorne great giant. No WOIl-
der he must somehow put uver his uwn impor-
tance.
Using dfferent eye levels breaks up your pic-
ture arcas in very different patterns. It is wise to
try out small suggestions in this way. This is one
method of testng your nventveness, and when
you get something unusual it pays good div-
dends. In story illustration as well as magazine-
advertising illustratioll, something rather drastie
has to be done to get attention, or "impact," as
illustrators love tu call it. Here is one way to go
after t. Get a stepladder and try it out. Or He on
the Hoor .nd sketch.
USING UNE TO PRODUCE A FOCAL POINT IN SUB]ECT
A,.v =,... ... 0... JtlHC,., OH O" UN ar A I=QCAL PO' N-r. .Ul' Nave R. 1'"' LA CE. a. por ... ,. .Ii)( AC:'T LV IN .,."'.& C""1!!Q.
AM'I' '-INaJ ,"0,1'04"'1: INO 1'0 A. VA.HIS,"",'N:C PO,N"T OQ.. JUNC,.TIO,.. 1"141(C 01" vouR. prCTl..Il'l.E. AIlAA. IT 1$ AWo WII.I. .. 1.. To..o."'OII> UflNG
A ,"OCA!. POINT, /Jo, He.AD MA.v VV&L.1.. tE. I" ... AC.C A"l'J"uCt4 1>, DtA,CONALS I5IJeCT A.$ MAIN L.INIi!J.

IN FORMAL PE.:rtGN TI-lE. PQCAL POINi 4Bo'la THr.r eA.r I e AR.RANCiI!.M e.NT CAN &E. UJe.c P"OR MoI,NY
ORo f3 .. jooIl!lFU!. .rACOOD 1 ...,A:VOvT. PI!!.J"ra'NS.aUILO'Yourt JUI3.JECTAJ""(OU W.Jrl.
fPIRAL.S MAY AI..SO e.E. U.rEt> TO FoCU.r .b.TTe. ..... "T ION. -rAKm. 1'1 AS' A t"W1-G
THAT UNES J"HOULO Le.AD TO ANO CR.OJI AT THE MAIN POINT OF IN1ER.EH.
You WllL OFTeN WONDER HOW TO FOCW ATTEN1\ON ANO
tN,.E.Q.EJT UPQfII, A CE2AIN HeAP,F1GUR.E. OR..fPOT, JTUDynilJ
PAGE CAR.E,FULL.."(. SVER.y COOD PreTURa HAVE
,.Ha vANISI-\\NG POIN"T Ir ,He. A MA,IN AND ALL L.INEJ .fHoULD DR,AW"TTtE.EV.E.
"POSL"TION OF HONoR.':PLCl'OR.IAlL-Y, 1"OWARO THAT ..froT. THt=. OLD IAYI NG "ALL ROADS UAO TO ROMe'

IT fHOULD GOTO MAIN IS I=UNPbMENTAL IN Gooo COMPOJITIOH .YOUR. RDADS .oRE LINSJ.
46
PROVIDING AN "EYE PATHWAY" IN COMPOSITION
~
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Srop
ANALYJIJ"
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iHE:R.E JHOVLD BE A PLANNI';.D eASY ANO NATURAL.PATH LLN ES LSAOING OVT OFTHE. fUBJECT ft-tOUI.J) BE.SroPPEO
FOA. l'HE aVe ro TRAVE L.. IN EVe: RY GOOD PI CTVR.E. 6'( toME DEVICE ORo ANOTHER L.INE.. L.E.ADIN<i THE EYE BAC.K
STOP
S"", P
THE. E'(e fHOLJt.O E=..NTeR AT Tf-lB 5OTTOMAND EMERGE .ARe"'" eVE:TRAPS" eeCOUJ'E Of:THELR. ';UNCTIONS,TRY
~ T't-tE -':OP-M.V.Iio. R-AT -vt-ts J'IDE.S'. JiNe&;, Q::JIaN s.R....,- 10 L..EAO T ~ E e:YE AvvAY FROI'VI O Ro AROu N O THE;.M.
\
YOv CAN MAKE. THE: EYE F"OLLOWA GIVE:.N
C.OUR-fE AlMO.fT Al '(OU WISH F.ff SKI LLFUL
U.re. OF LINe' LEAD THE ~ Y E IN, ENTcRT.o..lN
47
fT WITH A JPOT OF INTeRE.rT ANO THE.N ALLDW
IT TO PAJI OUT. tT JHOUl-D SEA PLEASING PA.TH
AND NOT 06STRUC'TED ORo GIVE:N IVVO WAYS TO G"O.
A TIENTION DEVICES
ANYT H 1 NO J'HOWl N<.i rp , 1 t_ .. ....
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48


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MOTIQH -fOlJllUH .o:lllt'fItAMCE: . -J1't!fkifH .
50
BAD COMPOSITION BRINGS NEGATIVE RESPONSE
,-4-5-<:' 'TOO FRoN'T
PorE "abO. 5''''TOO AU KE l:\N.P EQUAL. .
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PUT 1111 ON UNES' W";ICli WQULD CARRY EYE BY I-!b.VI NG TH E. lITl LE; GrR ...L. CLOSE:R
OUT. pOSE IN K6li.PINO UeJkCT, 10 OOM I N 6, e. THE Ll:>NDS C.6. PE.
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mYTOPUo.N.E. .... e.R.V,HINO YOU DO. ANClo &.VENl.'f SPACIiii..P,.
51
V ARIOUS TYPES OF VlGNETIES
FREE. OF THE UMITJ: TlI::l;l TO"TWO OR. MOR.E flDES . you CAN
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M6.KINC; ,HE. WHITE PaR., OF HE PICTURE ,'.JERYUSFUL.
52
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-
VICNEiie.
A VICNETTE IS A DESICN PURE AND SIMPLE
ATLtlNTIC CITY
'flLHOU VICNETTE.
(DAR.K MASf AaA I NJi LJGHT)
YOllR Hf:AUH 1:5 TBt NI\T10N:S WE/lLlli
OIFAMERICA
="1OQt kW{111
00==",:.::-" ':..:':::E:....:W:....:' T.:.H:...":....:S:::O:.:L:..:' _ I y IG NETTE TI ED TO I::>RQO U CT.
COMe.1NA-rION YIONE-rTE DOMINArlNG OYE:.R..SQUAR..E UNIT..J.
VIGNETTE TIED TO COPY SPACE,
53
SIMPLE LlNE COMBINES EFFECTIVF.LY WITH SOLIO BLACKS

I
!
V
I j"-i.--
il,r-f-/
v
----J.. '
54
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COMBINING PEN UNE TREA TMENT WITH BLACK AREAS
DEJlGNED ev JN"'OR.""'A.L JUeOJVIJ"lON' eL.ACKr ADDE.D WITH eRurH' JAMe PeN wAf !.ifEt)TI-IROUQHOU".
ATTENTION 13ROUG'HT TO MAIN FIOUlOi!e BV boNO vJe OF"'X"IN THE. POfE.&.lIt.CKI He.LP
55
PEN DRA WING IS BUILT ON A PRINCIPLE
Tl-liO WORKJNC PR.INC 01' P,"-N OR.AWINC 1$ THE DEVE.LO,,"""EIn OI="ONE=. BY A MIXTURE OF TI-iE LlGHT 01' THE WHIH!. PAPE':R
WI'I-I THE OAR.K OF 1..11'1 ... Ir 11' LlK E A WII<:.e. fCI':.EE.N IN A 'NI N DOW. THE HEAVII2,R rHs. 'NI R.E. AND rl-< I'< c..I...OJER. TI-IE.. MEfH,
THe MO!;!E. IT D<l.I:2.I<:I:'.Nf THE. kl Gwr .1"0, f.ETAl"IOUT "0 PROQUeE. A GI"!';.N YALUS ey THE AMOUNT 01" vv\-llT.I!.. THA'TC.OM".r
nlR.OlJGH. YOU CL.H M6.KIi. A" 01' PION VAI..Uc .. Te wI-IICH 'rOO CAN ALWJ;.YS RE.FE.R.: THI!.N YOU KNOW Aeou, HOW I..IGHT Oli'H&:).YY
1'0 t-1.t1.K. '((.luR. LIf'lE.r,Al...fO 1-10 .... CI.O.rE ,OGSTH.ER. THfiO.v .1"1-101.11.0 6E THE TONSOR. ,<,ALOe. YOU \'YANT. t-OI..LOV'i TitE. F'OR.M I!.ITHE!<.
, " '
L.e.NGTHWIJ1O IT ,WITti ,reY' 1'0 K&e:P OPE.N ORo. WHITE JP.!I.Ce. AJ A PArloT 01' Tl-tE o.l!:.nc.-N.. DRAW MOJ"Tl..Y
T\-IE JI-IADOW,f t TONE AI..L. OVER. "J" veRY OIF""C.U L,T. PI.AW JTR.OK.e.r CARoe ..-Ul-L y e.tJT IN 1'(: TH 8M 1N D\: I"'CT)..'1 A"II;> y
56
PEN ORA WING IS CON CERNEO MOSTL y WITH SHAOOW
THfE. qE.NERAL H '-0 PEN DRAWI Nq
15' THI:. .rAME 6.I" .0.1-1.- OTHER ME.DIUMi-Tl-I E_
R,!;.ND!!:R.ING OF l..lGHT ND.1"Hl:I.DOW. ,HE
ONLY OIF-FER.eNCe 1$ LE-I5 MOpe.I....ING IN
THE L.\GHT. KI:.&PTHt5.M .I'IMPL..
, ..
DON'; WOR,tI.'" JO MUCH OVE.Ro. AS" QVEIt THE. OF <:',;000 !UA(,.K
57
PEN-AND-INK PROCEDURE
JTART WITH AJTRONGLY
Ll GH' ED PIE. C E O F
c.OPY-C)..E.o.R. LlGHT
AND SHAOOW, NOT
GRE:;.Y ANO
MA)olEA PItELIMINAIlY R.OUGH,SETTING OOwN TH!'!.
J'TATEM I!!NT 01" MArI AR.R.ANGI:.MIiiNT
POUlaLe TE;R,Mf. DO Nor ...... OR.R.V VET4&ourTeo;;..NIQUI:;:.
CONCE;RH '1'OLlRJ".E.lF WITH oeSIGI'\I 01' l!ljACl(f,GIl.!'fJ,WHrrIlS.
THIS WIL.L. PRODUCfO A GUI to V4lUl!.$ t'CSt! PUT IN
F, N.:Io./.. WO;UC: A\'ID TH e "PATTIilR.N -EFFSCT 01'- TI'lIii
GOOD PREPARATION II MOR.E THAN HALF THE 6A'TLE.
M.KE ..JTuOIEJ' OF THE HEAD
OQ. OTHER. IMPOR.TANT PARTS,
IN. OQ.DER 1'0 PlAN VOUI2.
(THlf fAVE$ MUCH GR., EI='!)
SECQND
YOU CAN MODE.l WITIiI
A TONE 8YCRofr STROKES
,
1
'
/
WHEN YOU KNOW WHAT THE VALUeS Af'.E GOINC TOllE,IT 15 EA.rIER TO PUT rHEM DOWN NEXTTlME.
58
FOLLO'J' THE FORM WITH TI-IE PEN STROKES
fUNOAV F T ~ R N O O N
59
DECORA TIVE TREATMENT IN UNE
"

::::.- / 1" \
....... 2'4!J:J) ~
"
,
,
,
,
COM3LNATION Pe"" UNE A.NO 6R.USH ON WHITS JMoQrH J""r' .... ATHMOR.E. BRISrOL.MCr.NyGOOD EFFEcr ARE
POf.rIBLE 3Y Tt1IS COM13INATION,THE oe.rlGN WAJ WORK.ED OUT 6"1' UStNG INf=ORMAL SU60IYI.flON.
60
THE BRUSH USED LlKE A PEN
" hl l'
,,1' "1 ,
, '
'BRU/H DQ.AWHG OH JTItATHMOR.E BR.\ITOL BOARD. COf'1"'OflTION BAIE.D ON CIRCUlARARRANGEMENT A
'RO.OIANT llG\-lT"SEI-IINO tlEAO. nu; N.E.VER.FA1Lj' E:YE INTO youR. J'UBJEcr DRAW RAOll r=1R.S'f.
61
DRY BRUSH

,
._ >J:.




ORY BRUSH
. ,

.'
>
..
"
,
\
I
ADDINC "SPATIER" TO UNE MEDIUMS
' 0 .. ' " h.U._. ... "..
'_e."" .. Uv&.,... .. """, .. " .... ,.."'oc:.
...... B .... "O, ... "' ... '"
.... . _."0"" T'O "" __ n ......... ur ..
.. _TO' u....".. ..... "'''''L''
.OT"O(IoO .... Me . , ... n."
a .. O! ' ... .1 ....,'" ."" ULI .,,""'. _'nA
'u 0:000 W>'T T"C ,.."" ..... , " TY >' ND "
. , ... '/".u", .. " ...,,, "" ....... , .. T"""'"
DRY BRUSH AND BLACK PFNClL ON CRAINED PAPER
I
,
65
BLACK INK, BLACK PENClL, M 'D POSTER WHITE ON COQUIll.E BOARD
00
ll-lERE ARE NEW POSS1B1L1TIES IN mIS COMB1NAT10N
-
. f .
".
D"" .... W,T" ..... ,n-'A.cO.O"' "<..ACI< 9 3,. """"'L ''''',,,'' .. .,. it .
DUCKJ .<l E ""'Hf&D w,.,. .. "'CC' N.I BL" CO:: " ..... W'HO ... 0:: . CO ..... ...... ,,"-.1
... FULL "'" " .. cuu SOL, .. ftL,oCI<"Tt) ""H'TOl. 'T L'NII ",IIP!<OD<X;"ON
"UT CIVU .. IICT. '''N'' 1'0" ""NN, HD ... <;u "'''H C . ... p .. " O H PULP
,.,. 11 u. P"", '" _,'''0 w,..-H. .. ,..- T<><> .lo .... ..o ... ,o Pm-H . ... '" ""-U"-".
'"
"SANClIII\.'E" 0.'" CRAINEO PAPER
.............. " ....... r
..... .... ",,"'. n .., _ """ .<1""-"
....... __ . t. " _ . ~ . _ ..... ..., .....
COG ..... _ ~ ..... ____ ....
Lo " ..... ~ .... "., ... " .""'''0"_ -.. .
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RLACK PENClL ON GRAINED PAPER
r-- ---
'1


........ w" H -....:cx.oa euc .. lOatoc::ll ""
....... OOOUIL .... '" :o.. ''''T Pl'lDOUCU
.....,..""'" &P"KT """" ..... ="YC'T1C1'1.
_ .. IN OUT""". wootr< Ir I1 1"' 11_
""=" .. &DCIG_-.r .... DO" .. ' DO_ ... ...
..
.,

ORA WING PROCEOURE
-.
(i"T <1000 COPY, !!UT_
oo,'r .!lAVIJHl. Y capy ,r !
...... '" """" ...,AV, ..... r .......... ,r
a """,C.o.L .-QOCa,pu",,-Do," r
T"". TO 00
" .. u_ ... L1c; .... , ........ " .. .. ""
...... DO "' ..,.. "'''''''''' ........

;0
-
I
r ouqv .. J"TACE.
AODn' ON OI'THE
'''WL,(lH11 aMO
AoC.c: unl"
TM'''D ITAGI:.
OF
PLAHU
I
"'RIT flAcr:
\ OVTL'NI!
"
, ,
L_ .....
DRAWING, ABOVE ALl.. ElSE, I'UTS YOU OVER
--
/
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.'
...... "" L,,"T T ..... I 0"''''''''''''0 ' N CO,.., ............. ...
JO" y..'LL I "OW "''''_OC_""",,,,,,, . '"111:1' ... ,'"

O ........ W, " CJUlTC .. ...., ..... O ........ "<.e. '\'tIV"""LF
oo,y "'IoL . THe ONLV W AY OUWIS'lO
", t..,W C: Qf<y' t< V AUY. _eN 'fOU 00
1"tOI"'Ie. t< TV'"' ,,, vou e H AT IT- YOU i.OfII!..
BLACK ANO WHrrE f'ENcn.s ON GREY PAI'ER
I
t
f'OSTER WHrTE AND RLACK INK ON GREY PAPER
ANYTHIN{j CAN HAPPION !
DO"'" .. "r ..... O""O""',,'TY
8V <11'
ANO WI<LTE "" <lIleY fAO!!I!.


"A/"IlH.,JAN"'" NI'.,
0002" ..... "" " ..... 't'ON" ( .......
""" ..... CK PClC,CULC
..... """ ....... JUJT
.wII'&N 'JO .ur Jo .. nl<' N a
.w .., .. 'Q"" ANO o'..,,,, .. ''\...
"
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CHARCOAL ON GREY PAPER
n." " .... " <,",a." _ ".
_or ,. _,"'. " >V<I ....... ,,,
_ ' ' ' ~ ' ' ' ' ' . ' ' ' ' ' ' .n. '"a
<"" ... L .............. ~ ~ , .
"" " .... /TO ~ <T' .. ...
..... , ..... . ~ . , ~ ' . ' . >un
_ .. U "".,_ .... .. ,
u..-,,.. _ "' .... .
... .... ...... ,.., -"",""" .. """
_,'" ... _06l. '" ........ " ' l".
DRY RRUSH ON GREY PAPER wm-l WHITES
"SCRATCH ROM[)"
~ /
I \
,
\
.". ~
........ """ .........
"SCRA TCH BOARD"
,
.'
-
TO DRA"'" ON Ro.r.r(.rCRA"TC.H) BOARD Ir 04, ""("!-IR..! LL..l Na
A.OVIi.NTUI'tE.. L'J" 11'.6. CObT.5.D eOblU) I'o'\OCH
I/'AIUE.TY OF TR.&-ATMENT. """ITH IT
77
Lllo'{ OUT YOUR. fueoJt:.CT (PI!.NCJ l.)
DRA.W f-IAL.f'TONJ!.r WITH PEN. PAINo.,.
IN fOL.LO J'HADOW,!, (J .... ALL
JCR,A'TCt1 IN IN fliADOW,r
WITH JHARP P01N'T.(Pr:N t<NIf'E:)
C'Af1lNT
,
~ .. "..--.... , .. q '"'' '''''''0.0 Gu "" .... , .. ,u .. ,,... , ... ./QU<e M/" , ..... _ ..... co." ..... D,ovr ,
YOU ... " .. , ...... ..,..,.- Qoo ....... OOO ... , ... ....... .. 0 ... .1, ... ..... , , ~ ' ' ' G ' " ,.. ......... ....- , . . . , ~ ~ "'H
........ , ~ . "'"' .... , ... , . ~ .......... ""'''''''' .... .. ......... . , . ..... ... . coa ...... , ....... , ,.., . ..
'M ...... " .. ., ", ... 0 ... --...,-&_" UHG"T . ..... " " ' ......... DU"" .. .... , ..... J , .. ........... ... ,.
78
CRAFT1NT
... .. ..,...,. ......
.. O ............... M_ .. .. .
o . .......... OM .-wON " . ...... OCj". _ ... ....
'0"' ........ OO .. _no ... re- -,_'" .... ..........
..... _ __ h ._M .... __ .. O .... ,_ ... O ... . O ... ... _
"O .. ........... _ ..... .. ... _ _ . .... . U
oJ c-T ....... .. OT), 00 ' . .. _ 1<, " ... " ... V . .. .. . .. ....... O.O. 'O.
"-i"o'- ..... _.0'" -"' .. ' .... ...... " ... . _ ..... . ....
rAIU TWO
I'SSENTIA L PROPERTlI, S OF TONE
l. Intens ily af light in relal iOl1 to sh.,J ow,
2_ Rdation<hip 01 "alue 10 ,, 11 adjacwt tones_
3. 01 the n.'(ure and quali1y 01 ligh.
4. lncorporalion 01 he inlluencc 01 lighl.
01,,, 1" 0 k,w"""
, , oc da,"._"" o/ a
,
,"" ,dl"".,,1 o.> ""fa"", 0'
.1" "..,,,.
"01 ""," wl,;ch can l.,
" ,bckof t.n",
dh,<.t o/liglet 0'
" " in the 10.0,1
,So ", 1",,, 'p' _'Hk of ton" "'" ",e,oo
;. ;.;" re),';oH 10 otl"" .I ,ing"?
t t < w,1, .he
, "''''',
. ,KI '" 1",.1" TJ.w .1"," , <in in 'dght ligio' "';ght
"Pf"'" "'''y Hghl , 0' Hgh, ,h, ,""')' da,-k I ;n
m.,Io", 0' ,; 11",,,<1,1 "ga;",t brigh. Hgb, . \I'e
' I,,-'ak of a d .. es,", H;b , p; "' , ",;JJlo g'")', or ela,.
"I<K'_ \I'c ,,,e ,h"" of loc.1 \' ah.; m roh'
,,"ti ",)[ of tone. l o 'o" e yal,,," the ,al,,,; d",s<
'" gil t be "n y Qne 01 (1\,-ti""" val, ",.< acCQf di" g ' 0
(l., e""dit o", 01 the "",,,,,,,,t o, "i"fl",,,,,,,," of
ligh!, ,1.,,00"', Ot ,dlc-cteJ ligh'_ II'heo d","'ingor
pai"ti"g, wc tho' ehe 1", (he eff"", ' ''g. , d.
h, 01 it "' knom, to ti, '0 he 'Ioeoll)'." ,\ 1_
m""t the o"ly time ,he local val,," .nd ,h< 'Onc
""1,," or" ,he ,.' '''' ;, ;" " "eottal dHfv.ed ,by_
l;glO! .
BASIC INTENSITII,S OF UCHT VERSUS SHADQW
FIR/ f I "-I TE"-IJ l f V
1""' ( . a)J""OOW
, .

,
HOtIE JEPAAAIIOll O.
'-'<1 .. ,
FQUP.TH INIENSITV
,
JECOND IfHUI/lTV
LI<;,,1 J ... OOW
. ,
f lHH I NTEII / ITY


>
,

>
TI-lE FOUR PROPER' I1I;S OF TONE EXPLAINED
'i. 'bo, KI-<IIIIM "",Ioi,o " , l io i, ,>01 ,,!ly
'j, in.
oh.OOw <aH be
"".-
''''l<', , ... , "",!fu
i, ,,1,
'one tru,hf"ny ... '" 'bc '1<
"
, " 1" 'clcr' J,,,JOK,
.. ". 1,; TiI.
"
logh" , I\/' I 1"" I .1
di,. light the
.s.."",
't " ' i,
",1, ... , ... <kg.",,, dlf.
.""",,,00.. ... ill
,-,-"";,t.,,,I,.
'\ f()t c",m
, .10."
Ilgh ....,.,Id 1",
.m. 1" .be lig"t. al!
lf thelighl , "'o,"W'r, tI""c
lOJ>eS 01 ...... "l'h.,,,. ",h"te-.
... In Ihr ligl, ...... '", .. , ]l"lnt ,1 ..
;,.. ,;" d keT. The bui< di!fc""",",
'" .bou!.1> i"k",I,;"" lo< . h.t j , .1"""
, 1 .h " 1
"'OW "".",,;0., lo , ti ..
lngq_ .. ,11
,fao.,,,.he ,i, ,
" i", l h
,
.re ,1 ,. e>: h.""" "f .1,. i"!en.",'" S<> .!.ere;' ' '''
""lo Ihing .. " A ... l ",),t"m, hit' ni light to
sII.dbw. Loco[ 1". hu [,,,,,, '" <lo.> with il, a,.,j
.11 bdo"" t(t ti.. r om, I'rincipt., tbe ".'pect '"
"""""n', '" ... b'ioruh'l' 'o I!, ... t"
n. IOI;""';';1' Qf ca/u. ,,, ,,11 "'/ .t:< n' 'Q"" .
In ."r ... > ligl,., .1I ,hi"".,.. ...,m..m I'gl" ..
'" d.toi;e,- tI,," .. -bo. ,tu-,'. PI""" og.,I,..t, or ,,'-oO,
, .. ,,,,,,oJ. ,h"", "" .. "po""'''''" 0< .",a,
within " pi ct"'. "/" ". rebl "" .. !.ip ' o 0'.' " n
1I "' .... 'U, f,,,, "",nop!., i, ' " '' ,_
tlt .... ,h,.-, a''''' ...... 11 .... a ....... to,oe--<brl<.,
[ , 1101. ",.ho .. ,hlp ,1 .. , be
!told, \\,,' (' ,,, ti ... ,,, 1' 1"", in Ik
"",le lO lo"g '" " .. 1"1' ti", .. ,,,"Q ''''''' a .... "
Th", .... ean Lo.,. .II,h.e ,.,.1,,.,. '" Jo....,.,j
.tm "",,,,,;,, ,he ",L.""",hip. [ lO l,le mi 10"'"
" ,\'" m" "",,1 ,,,,le.,, hid, "'''' be p1> )",,1 lo i h u l'
0' lo". ,1"..-" "" ,1,,' whok l c)'o.,d. ,\ "011." 11
l",trol"," ,noght be ti ... " .. klng'" a I'Kl" 01 <b>1,.,.
1"'''1 01 1'1o,"h, ... 11 , .... nI""" png ''P '" <10.>" ...
'<>go;II ... '(" !fu, ,,,. " ,.I>llng , .... "" .. 1 rcl:ol ;o.,M p to
o, .. Th>l ; wh .. "''' "",, n hy "ky" ""
JI ,,>eh _ ,.I.>ho."hip 01 "'."""" 10 on
othN ,- _ held, 11"", ,hu .. l>jc l.!!. 01""'.1ooeo
,,11 brill,.,OC) ."o:! re!r,' ioo"h,p, .,.!
;, k"""' n .. "'muddy" i" '11><. ;" the ,ea"'"
Ioot ,10,11, .....
s. <>1 q...,/ily <>I/igl,'-
ti", l i,.,j ... ! ",Io'(o,,>Ioil' '" ,.,1...,. ti", pie-
l"", "" ,1", ki 'lil ,,,,1 q""J. ,y ,,1 ligio,. 11 11 ..
, . 1."".,. ,gI" .1.0 ."bjo."'" "l'P"" . ... 'f\ be;., .un
ligio!, Of "'Slol bg'u., ,1 .. C2S" '''''r be .
l'uu n .. )' be =tai" ti .. , t:he '1".lllyolligh')W
("to 11" ' , ,, b..ct .. " . long in m,king
,loo ,Ofure .. 1""10(, " 01
.. . One ],,>r' uf a p;e!"'. ",ith .. """S
,-.1" .. ""y "'811"! a .. li;hl_ . .. 'ot ..... 1'"'"
d, ff" ,1 !, gl , '- Thl< ",,, "1' '" lo oro,, " '!"O(')" "' ,1,
N I"", ",,,\ 1,,><Igepodge 01 y"' '' pie,,, ... ,
AH ligl' t "g "'"" 1>. ","""lo", ,I>"",poo.." wloic!o
" ... n. aU , .. 1""" n>u>! f.1l .. ithln "'"' of th.e in'",,
,il.", 0100 l. , """""'''', ko>- anly
",i.h ,,,'" ,,,lu,,, e.u wc ,,, iOll lighl,
SE I IING UP A CONSISTENT RELA nONSHIP OF LlGI-ff TO
THE VALUEJ UJED BElOW FO!?1lllUGHT R.EMAIN COOflANT. S'HAOOWJ
l.D IIiTEN/ITY -JHAOOWJ IET 2TONEf
THAN WHATE"EFlVALUE UJED 1t-I1HE
4
T
" IIiTEHnTY"SHM>QWj 4 TOHEI Db.RJ<ER. 5
T
.. INTENflTY-jI-lM>OWI 5TONeJ
NOTe THtt.T LlGHT Af>PEARJ fTROOCeR Al JHb.oowJ ARE THOIJGH
MIl( A fCAU OF IOHT VAI.UEf FIWM WHrTIi TO eu..CK . ANY '''' ''"''''''''' '
WORK DOWN l"II:OM WHIT'E 10 OARK. TllEREI'ORE we OloN OHIY ATTAl N BII:ILUAtlCY .,"'""
1'01< tiIClH-KEYED AWt> DI!UCo.TE LIGHT,UfE ACLQfe fl-l!01,ATION.rHIP Ol" "'",-"""
!'OR i5lULUANCY FORce,use A I'OUR DA. FI"6. TONE SEPARA'IOH. R.M'"
ALL THa LIGlfTS lI.WO fHAPOINJ Mu.rr H':'VE A cow.nfTENT TONAL p.:.II.,ATIOJ'!
ASHACrOw II O&VIOUSLv LlGHTENEO BY IU!A.rO NOF RIilFL.CTEO
84
A SHAllOw IS O B'iIOUJL'I' L! OH,.ENED BY OP REFLCTe.O
8.
THE MEAN1NC OF KEY ANO VAWE: MAN1PULA110N
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r" .. ..-'" ..... 6l."<!..
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HIt '''ME Ilr.LAr'''''' JH<PI I>I.L DIlOP PEo
A "IOI<E "'" 'W'O' rK, 'S '" M,ooo..e le!"
"- "'''T'CHII''' OR' '"OMIlN'" LI' --. ""'. NO
.. " "AO .. , N" L v.o:w\'" NOT" ..... " QQAt<.
,H,e O"T"1i L.<> " ""O, YOu .. . v .. ...
K"OW w .... , o>o.r..-,e, '-'T'''''' LI. YOv" S<I(I-
JEO ........ 'L '<'CH) ""' .... R IM"NT. ' ..
OT""" v,=c. ... "lA'" TH,,. K' ... C!!
lHE rDUR PRQPERTIES OF TONE EXPLAINED
,l. """"1"""';00 01 '"1''''''''''' of
light,
:\u ... ",1.0" " '" .pu' uf ha,", l"t. ", I' )' ,,
ligl". ,,,, ",un t i .. oooud"utio" ti", I,o!
tNt u..,oo.." N'ing.n '''I<:''';ly rd..-
ho ... hlp .... "'hioh p"" , b"" IO ..... "Y ........
l" .. "' .... .... . ka ,ubjl '" OIh<r nHu<n<t'
uroo wh,d, ,l., hghl ,h!...., g"'C< njl """"
01 t1o"t Hgl ,' i,. Ilg1o'. So , I" do",. <-<mM"
loo "",le to 6, ."y lB", ""I ,el)'. If li g h. i, ,lo,,, n g
O" .. ",,te I",,*groo..""'. """..-. U)' "' .... 01 ti ....
11gh' .. 'JI _ in .... ,,. 01 .. 00.,-" oI obJt< """
SI> th .. bod_ 01 ,I> ... me obj<d in the .. me
h;hl ,piW' \ 1.>0, .. or d"h . 01 -
fI tcJ ligh', '" . e>nllng 'o ",1" , ,b. I"n"c"""
h lrom ", I\'ca<l y .1I ' ..
to;" """" rdIoc<"d Irgltl in anyd.)1;"", 00", .... " .. 1
1" ,,. n\a)" '1'1'''''
'uu. datk (and photog .. ph .. blaek) UI\b. .. ..,
,uI'I'ly <,lh<, ""' .. 'cll.",ted light ... . ..,..,.Jkd
"fil l,," l ighl. B" t ti", l ight . 1"",ld l., >GI,
.,K! 01 b in'",,''')'. r", we '" . llr . ,,'.(itu'ing
for ,1", ,..." .. 1 <11"0. ""'u .. "oukl .... S,"'-
liglu ,..,u ....,.. no bgtu lO bo rlgh, ud
Ihoogh .11 . ,00. of ,d .......". .... -'
i" ou'doxo< " .... .",..p., d up'. If ,1 .. Rn;"
ligh, I" ''' ," ple i, not ur><k"t<:<:>.1. , ho '", ,,l. "",le<
lol:od ,,>d . ,". h"" , h,n oddi"g " .. li,m.<><I
ir "lO)' o"'u, Ur J",I">ct.
HeIo:<..",1 ligh ,hen.. lo. -]'1 ... '(Ir- ro ,1 ..
1""", """"i,y . ,.1 ""lO' bo.., ooOC"lood. 11<-
IIo<tod ligio' , .. .Uy I",nl"",")' "",hin ,1 .. ,1.;,,1-
oW, 11 el"",, ,'<' , , ho .cl gc ni .1., ,hodo", "" orc,' lo"
ligIo< will Wu.lI )' l e,,1' ,1 .. in,en,it)' ,,,Ltl'O,, ,hi>,
By taking .1", ",11<:0<1 ligIL. '''''y. ,1", ""'dow
dro. ro ,he bo<Jc ,*"..,.1')" "'b'io, .... 'p. SI> .... ,eh
1<lO" d, ... f"" migh, l00I0 . , , ,h .. ""'y' -no;, 61 .. tI-
"'" """Id h .... ,1 .. ' 0, .. 1 dill<Jen<O o/ .U ,he
0,1 .. , ,1 .. ,10", ....... ' . 11 _ f", .1", ]'."ie,,', , e-
It," So !lOO>< ''' ')"
""eh more ,.A<ctcJ ligl .. ,l..o OI!.<r, ",itlo,,, ,he
...... pIcIo",_ n.e lJ\,th lo th,, if >"' do "'" i"
dude rhe n;l\c(:ted J'ehl ......... it ....... Id """"">lIy
0pp"ar. )"<IW' /onn hw:o JOlidty
",h ui" in Ih. , ,,",1,,,. . II
" ' PI"'" ' 0 ,. "",,",,_to
A """o" amount
I"'"'ilolo w'-' ""
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,+u,,(;<. /.,t ",lo" " .. .,
.... ""-Y 1..." 11
01, .. , drc SWI .t .... Ou'
"'''''''" ..... y.
'u" so<> ",.Iet ' lo)'> "",k. _
10 00 i, ' " "" the ,htoh .. i<k 1",, ;
it ha,,"
to... ],
"" ... "'''' ",.lkI if ti ... """,'
for ."olh.. 1 ror !he otb...
"'''''os t ,
, kotd, . n." I1 "" d , im > le
' '''',,' to Sd . 11 effect. A 1","
<ho/:" ,
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''e 08<,. -rJ.".n ""'\8' ",n..ful
n'.!t'O'i. 1. AnnW ",;,10 ,hu< dI. el>,
[,.ck "K!
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01 , .. Iu" . 00 1
how fu "" con " ,
bl,u,k . r.d .. -M",_
A SL\1PLE LESSON IN VAWE RELA110NSHIPS
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COMPOSmON BY TONE OR I'ATTERN
Hy thi. time it ID"'" h ,'id"", tl\.O, we e'"
""'hin, p'cl<>rially "'-;,hout
tOn 01 a .fa""""'''. ",,,,,,. ,,'c .. n aoo"'",
th>.' "".h'''' """ 1", ",,-,dm,J ;n the .. red oIlig\l'
",,,1 ,hadow w1too.,t '<)1'., Li,", beco""." ,,-,,,.
,'",,'uoll,. "he., cJo.e .. ""''''' 000 "''''
"ith (]u, "',.,-, Tone ,tm has ""'row-,
.. "'ro i< ",Lote<! 'o 1;" 01 ''''' . , 1 ... '"
1" .. ,11><", i,I """, f""li"g tn '001 "'rong<:""'n' ,
S,,.,.. ...... b""",,1OO by "",'oon. bei .. ,oI ;I ...
<n' \,.1 .... 1><<< ..... -po""'" -1'0" .. " 1< 'R or
""g""'''''' , ,he". of li, .. "nd to"o, T" th.o " .ly
po, t 01 th.o 1""'" we bucJ ""'"p"'itioo\ on I"".
'00 ,_'.ve ""', b.gD. the .. "-'y ""m<!. bu-
n, n on 'OO<. Too", .-nlly "-lo"""" ,..,ro ....
"'., ma>. 01 f<>rm. "kl ,1 .. ' 1""" Il<t wn ",lid
thi"g.<- n....I<w. it '"1"""."" the ,i.,le 'PI""""
...., 01 "". "",itoo .... ""t .. """.kd 'o ,. by
T, .,,"'"ta.,, .... ,he .. ,.-f0l '" d .. ro.<:Ier 01 " .... ,
><-e withi" <,0'"00''' Q' Ig"", 11,1, ;, <o"",.
,It "'1: I;n. can,,,.. do 0"""- B,,,, ;, ",..10 .-...I, ""
01 loo",. W. ""'y ... lIlt "<hatlins." """'"ing m,
uml"g ti", fcrm. o.- "" m.y .. !I ;, "modol;ng: In
jI> 'me '0",1 "pe<' .,,1 r.latio",I, ip \11,10 0,1" ...
thin!: ro'''M! '1. Too """y )'O""g ""lil> oo,ly
",Iude- ,hetr dr.>" irIp .1 poi.tlng. ... ;,1>0'"
K<"lng '''y real ooI. li')' or """'",,Ion, !':"c'y bit
01 ,0",,11.::.1 , hading nH'" b ll "",,",,otl}' h,'o.1><!
,".1"" "",lo f""" blad k> whll<-.Of - ,ni .. (]u, oo.,"
Sb>do .... U in ,he ... ,"" , ... 1""
N. gi,'c 1;11 10 """" ,h." ..-.-.,.llo<l .... ,oo....
o-Irl , "",,,,,Ioing ",Igihg "", li"lo Irom ,",
p;t1"", pla ... l>m with ,,,,,"'., the "PI"""-''''''
oIlif,,-
So.1! 'h' n" Iu,..." ,.10 .. Ix;t wm' 000
AII ,h" g11 ha.' c . ... 1 ... ' Vfdlng bl Bgh,
.",I.Mdow AIIllring>.w'pOnote from "' .. anotl ..
" i,I,,,, OUT &old 01 ,i5..., 1""""", ,. , .. 1"" . So
w< ca" I.gtn \lit!, ,1",,,, , .. lo.., , 10,1'"', ''''coJ ..
lu,l)' .nd o)"'ply . s p" ... ible. \d P"'<,;.. iJy ,le-
,,<>.1 of model,,,!: COI swf..., d.taiI
lhdng ..... h ,i"'ple ..... 01 ",Ioled , ... 1""". ""
''(\1\ lo'er b\ll ld "1' ,he po!!;""h. ch' '''01<' "' [he
""/.",, or fo .... ,. 110;, sin '1'10 l. our ". l,,,,
whidI ... ,n build "1' , ... bi, m'""" of !he
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,,,Ljo, .. ,t. o.d '0" fl or
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'" t .. ,<> to ",,-,,><1 ,he """. in
,
U" 'on. ''I""''''. Allowi"g ... ..., ",,,.,, JO(
1""""" gr. ... In loo, po"..-ns.
bw1d p"'''''''' .. im a wh;!<- I""l<'m
,."k" , , 1ba,
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0., ,1", no ,,'
ti-..... f"", ,-..Iues .. 'C gri lour
In....,h......,,,,,,, is ,
" ... IOf bool gnxooo t ,
,re 1' .. 00<1 'g>;''''' i . Eaclo 1'1>" \ ill
'''-ibili') .-.0 ';blit), ".y pi,"" "e '"
in ,bis way win ",""e -[H>lloh- a.
.,.1 ""n.m a", .""ctm<'<l ,
lt ;, 1,." 'o h",'. "'''' 01' 1.., 1<IUl ".1"",
i ... ", ,1", "'h .... n, .",,,,,1 >t.a 01 'pooI.
.. " con " .. ..-hite ...
.r><1 d .. k.

iI , l::i,be, 'loe cl.,k
g,o"",1 Is 111
toruol orr.mg<'D""" . ,
oot In *""",1 ..... }., .,od
mil} I"to o' ,,, '-
, "" ",m ,1, .... rl'" 01 ,,,, .. 1
""""" i.
proI ... iooool
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,'aloo .nd wi,hi" ",
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THCRC ARE FOUR BASIC TONAL PLANS
ON W "'l"E .
lo G""Y OH LT.GR. EY
"_'" bo,k tooal 1'1," i, your b"" , ,,,,,c, .
n.. ... hok ti_y 01 pictu"a1 ."jgn i:I organi.
of 1;.", . ,, " 'O,\<;. ooloc. The
'oll;ng ;r <l<gan;",.1 ;"'0 , im_
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' i c.mouA' g" ""'0'
are 'ubj<."!s which wMn
il no' knd ,bo:;,"",lv", to ,uoh
J. 9' ,,"C>< ,WH ' TE ,CT, GREY CoN r;.K . .:;-.REY,
". ""u.r .... D W H 'n" Q" B LACI<; .
ir n.", "O! . ,Ioc")',,".,,, ", di} "', )''''', "")'
lO good p;ct", e. Therc ,"" "',11 b",}':' "" mo
>ak, trI'" 01 picture, which rnight be lil:ened lo
. " 00-"",,. 1 fUg;" dc>lgo, 00- th"", mlgbt ."ily
he. io ." o, I"" wiso d""ig", "'''' "' bus/' p"_
'em, bmion into b" of patto,", "'il"" , 0'
patches. Thi, i, orten J",irabk ,nd ellect,'e.
pjc'Ufe. ore boJ beca"", 00 atlernp' ot '''''''
O1g,njmtion ha> been m,de tb.n lor .ny oth""
,"""",. tt "' 'o gOl d,l 01 tI", wc,k, W' .d'cd-<lu'
d l". '" Ihe dull, h",,'Y, .od o",<1<1y u; of
,.,Iu<s, .ha. lb" apprw.m j, oUered,
HQW TO LOOK FOR THE "MI,AT" 1,'.1 YOUR SUIlJECT
Jt <"" 1.>< ,"ke"., . >ounJ ruk tha! the ';"'I'kr
,he pre>ent, tioo <ti, ,,,I.;e<ot. ti", 1",,, ", jI ",;111"
p;cro.;, lly. A ,;mplc l',ollhtioo thncally
""Ir ;,.'0 . k w ,;''' pk , <ca,
O/, fo,," ,.,lue . To r , o' -e my po;"' , ' ul'!"""
c" lc, a .....,,, , w;!lo P" P'''' , OT 011"" mate
, ;al """,""<1 , """,.," "" ",,,,,1
, bout. \Ve h"" the im",.,(Jiale r<.ct;on 01 " -' 0'
h'g eI, ", to cb" up plo"" r to ''''''' pe fr om
ir. ' I",.k 01 " 1' 1" ", ., ocing
'M I., 'l'J,,,, 1,,,1'[""" ;, lo", ;, i, Jitto,..,,1
with con',,", 0' co"(", o,, 01 t"" "",1 ,1 ,, elfo".
h ""1'1.""",,1. Pk ture, can just " 0" 111>,, li' _
tc",1 " ,. 1 ",, ", ''"pl o, ,,,,,t. So ir 6", glancc
ca" r, ,,J ,.., ,,,a,,,, , fa< " h" w; .. b ;"g <ti
' one,_ the eye will pa" "1' ;"M 1';"""" fo, " ,,,,,,e
o.g'''''.cd 0" 0. Thi, "'" the "" in u e>I 11",
groal 110"", ,,1 Py'" I,i, 'i' '' l' lki' y ""d o'g"" i. c<-
,joo uf too<. \ \'e <h,1I """" 01 Ioim
TIo, i, tloe ,",,,,"et of .dverti'ing m,(er ial o,
'", y .... 1, ""kiog to rom"",OO , t tentioo,
[. d ,,' <"''''1'",;)",,,<1 ,lo" , jj il mo.e I'b' ing ' o
look a' ,1", "xl,,,,,,,, ,,-.,,,,,,,, '" hl,,* , nd ",hite
if " 'I' l""ted by ea,y n"",al "'1'.""'" of g" T
'n. , wi)l au' on" ' k ,,)I)' .. the d"h ,00
ligblr phceJ "'ilh' lh" g" ';" . F", oyo "'"eS
",,, ,,,,,t iD,';,,,,tiw l)' , 1Orofo," ,b< ' POI 01 i,"",_
"" ,000, ld 1", ",,,oc-o ",,,t,,,,, ",;,h il> ",,\'i,on,
mm'. )o;o,e ho,," in (1", """,1, II, i, J "OO fomtb
1'1" m t lo., eye goes al oncc Lo (1 n, w hi "" , ... ;e.. n
,1><; r. ,." 1'1.,,, i' to go to tbo blaol;. I\b,-'"
",bile u,,-,d "'ea! 01 gr<y ",ill
"l""p roomnat>d im,ne<li>t" , ,,,,,,tio,,.
It ",.U)' doc, roo! Im ite!' mueb "hi,,), pb", ;,
u>e<1 so 10"g"' lk "' C", 01 the 10m ,-,Iue> do a'"
beNme too "lu,ke' .-.- 'k ",bol" !hing '00
L'oken up. SlI bjec1< ,d, i,h """, oc "" en in
'1"kU)', ",eh" post"" O< di' l' L.y<, , 1", ,1,1 oc in
'oc si nlp lo." "", i), le t...-.. alTang omen'. S,. , ;"'"1<
lm'e moro lime lo 1., look1 .t """ b< . little
'''".-.; in" k . to, il """d be.
h-o,y ",bCet c,n 6", b< a",I1'-',,1 loo- the
oalhl '0", 1 "''' 'cat'' i n i t, Ily that we n>c"" ",ha'
are ,b< ' ooal l""" i),i lit ic, JI ,be rubject ba,
wm eth i" g of broad e"I""'"' of ,"c b " ,r.ow,
00
,h- , brood metch e>I "" "" , da,. . .
0' m
1 m u " ,<\
""t " p " ".",t,l ;=go of tono,
<t i"di""l} "", ' 0 ).; l",i<; ph",
,Iliod ' o ,he i"'-' go. 'lba' k,a ,' ",
pla"ni"g '" of the . t
jo' el i" ' '''' of , big" aga;"'t the
to"", '" hrger aro.."
Tu gi,' )'0<' >vme lo' . , "."
lolkrwing;
n"k r. g' ''' '' i" " ""'"'''"''' "" O.
A""", wi,h" 1" "" "" ,lo; lom,)r ph
A ligll' """ iLO ,he 0/'" ><",
thi,d plan.
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n,,;-oOO ,be "::;.'
),,,,,< , le'" ""i"Km,. 11'0 o
lo, (1", i"to,,,t "",1 l't,y tkm,
' ''lO, in"oad of , l"oc ag"i"" 0' ''-' .
<XI<) "" t",o v,I"", ,nd ' pot or
'),Nugh ",,:a,. 11",,c g;WH)'OO
"mll pielorial a, '" "gc ,l><' nI< j ,," ,,; ,;;,
od, 'The oo,;c w", 1 ,,.,ogo,,' ont, "e
<)\],,, to be , Imo,t j' lC,h,u,ti),l o,
d,' " ' ",, d tho methOO. I k,,'c "
11 ", r. " l 1"'""il nl"gl" ' o L' g'" hl
i l" ,b.'n ",hIN one 01 ,be,., lor
,htd " Uut it goc> on ""d un,
""''' ' " . ,. 1 l ifo fall "'" " ,
''''''''' . 101"'" (o pick ou, ,he
n"me i, inexJ"u,tiblo fo,
"",n' anu in"rnH"on"" ,
urging )'011 to go to the ",,1 ""',,"" loo-
;r V'" " ",-, "")" 011' t 1 '" O L 1"" m,o',
1. \" , a"d inveotivo""" too, T"e ,
anu , f"d ano pet'cil . lmo>' cvc,)'wl"",
kep bu>y, Yoo will "" 1 . 11
yo", "nd th< ",1",),;
,
d e,r, I ,-", y"" lb<, o
p , 1
lF rrs WORTH PA1NT1NC, rrs WORTH PLANNING

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..... ...,.,Jd produce !he .... '" .... "1
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The ml&lo. be ligl ,' , .. ,I k
... n 1')' il . ", ., I' gnt 'g'iml ,lo, l O< 11",
",,",,,,, A sley mlgh' 1., (I",k. o''
. nd OIh", n", je,d migh'1., "R, l l>oth
"'l'- \1 .... ' wc"'" . 1, .. pri"Ofily ;. ,trli,,!: (le
.11" 'ble M ir " "" ,,,,od, """'.1mpo<1'.'
... ... wbi' '" mot..w i""l'- IId"g pie-
a.w io>_ .... , m_;ng. per""-'" ""'"
_10, '''''' .... aot ... 1 ",,,<1,,,,,,,,1( of 'he. .. bjoet
ha,,,, dt:co<lW "" """,,,Io;"g.
J you h,o,'" ",.11)' "'0;",><1 )"''' Om.
""f".nd >ubjo )'"'' ",,11 6wl ) ..... " .. 11 <loo.,bly
0!t<f<,I i" COfr)' ng ir 0"' . tt''' ;''g runlI'w
... rel:<';"dy ""'pie '0 ",",k i, O", wi,h
Jf.U.oc!. modol ,'orting <>u, "" .. lo "" <'(1_
pIi<o>. O< dtpe-nclltlg "1"'" -" .. ppi,,& !JI'.
'-1:" you SO .Im,- " migl"y P"'" ",,,dure
.11." lwOWU'.ugain>l il 01 the """<1. Wlth_
.. "'" _1 plan)"'U ",11 """",11 I.lIi"l\
...... bod h.hit '" .... l ,og mosI of Y""f
aII,., ....... I(;h',as JOO' figu",," ,1", ""oe "")',
drp<oxIlog,", ''''' """it, o the """H, lo"" Of
' ''''''lO &")'W by, lt " " , gd "<0)' 00,.","",,, 'n
"",,", o..ig" i. 11'0 be" bel. "ro,d)'
.""I(k,\,. 11 )" .. '0 be t.al..,,,,,cl, .Im_
pIo5od or " '1>p<d 'o """"'i.b, .00 w""II)' "iocl
.... -.nI ..... yo lo .ni>.., a ' the 1,.,.. <>ne. Alm .. 1
'" the .... 1'<>1 I"'n' "'" b. tied toge<h..-
'" i,d",Ja.c.,;l ..-lth otJ...- 'po"" or 1""", lo pn>J_
. ..,-eo "" ... ",1, .. .. ".dl ... <>1 JI> rom_
1'1.:-1< '" id.nlil)"'ng .",,"" ... lIy ""n-
."", I "lo"" .,[,.['< ,,+,Id, mi gk' id.."hl)" ;, .. AI
R", .jl ho:>uet, A I"'g i" .ill""",Ue '" ight 001 b.
,l., ,,",,,, 1""",1,1,,1 "'siSo"," ""1'''"' ' ' .. 00"'-
1' 1"," ,b"g_ l.'!! .... ,1 ... " " be !\lOS! 1.,.,,_
til" 1 ., h,,,, r d" .. ! '" <>11 ." 1" .... , ,h. 1'" ,n"_", _
witn oIloer .h. l .... yo" "iII ,big"_ Su"_
.00 .", .. Jo ... ,'O" 1'10)' ........ hog .. -;'10 ,,,_
' ,iguinS h<-oury, a> '''''Ir Of 0010.-. A rouple
o """Ioj be ,he .ubjo of. m",,'''p''''''
The 1""'''' i<, j, "' "'" I h. hotr: al .11, it " ,1", i" ,,'1,_
ti, .. ,.,.. "nJ <10."" wi,l, ,,-I,;d, you port,,,)" il.
So "",,)' ,,1 ' .. "" 10 10 "",,1, 'o " oe """ulal
.lId '""i<'d. "" I; uk 'u ,o. <k<;g" ""d """ 'S"
f ;" \\"0 """'1" ." .. , 11)' w;,lo"", ",""";,,g.
\\',. "' C '" "gOl 'o ,loe 1" ",I;",t "'0001 (01"
,b".., '" ,1 ..... ) oud 110"" "' ... 1". '-""'>:'''''''' "'"
o n,,,,,,,,, "",1 ''Y 1" .. I it .1''''" .... -J ",noo! "' ...
.... yo" ro< It iI ' )pI<ol. a", 1 "'" por"' "'"
,hot the """ 1"'1'" of prod"'o, b<!tcr ,",.-1 ,.
,I'''''''.o;h "o,.he m.terlal_ ... _
"" ' ... he ,1-.0")(1" hi ' "",1 load ne>-",-
d "'k<.J l.,"", >e 1", 1 .. <1 n. ".. "'" '" "-"" '1" ile ,he
pro""," gcl ,I "" I", 1", m'glot be .hlt; ' o
cl" w, S I ,.ero"" .. '' oc 1"" no)' he" """Id , wH 1,
1""o.look 1,.. Ioim. 11",,1 ,,<,11100 ho>" ' o '01110 ;",
,1 .. , ,c.1 'C""'"', 101" ... 1><> " . .. 1.., '''''.IIJO ,ha, lo,.
""''' ",,,,,1 i> ,>01 "', ... "".U", 1 .. ,I.$ig" a"d ron-
"'1"ion? It iI .,. ",u)' . "d " cl"",.nds ,he ",,,.,,,
<01 ywr 'i .... o",igo , ''-e lOnt""'''''''''
,,lb, lo n.,.,. )"" lO r<", .... U ;n llU( O""
""y. II ;,; ti", 'h;"S 11, .. )0" 0' boa'" )"".
",Ioon ","'),10 ing ,."", , .. kl .",1 00.-..,_
, '-.""01 u'ge J'"'' 1,. 11 ""''''gh 1" gi"O ''''"'gil'
""d I' I"m""g !Q ,1", ",,",," ,k, 'd " ,he ",.,11<>,
jo b. A' b" 1", ,,,ti,, 1" )"'" 1 ,""" no o"." ," 1x1-
'" '''')', !I y"" b.'e ,OM j'leclon)' ,,'ber "'.)', how
<"''' }"" oc .."e? A 1",. <>1 ,I"""l>na," !>mm.m
"'" 'ime ,ha" }OU lO"". wI,h 1""1 .... "_
'THUMBNAIL" PLANNINC OF TONAL PAnERN OR AR",
i
THE SUBJEcr ITSEI.F OFTEN SLlGCfSTS THE TONAL PLAN
-
FOLlR OF THE THUMBNAILS TRANSPOSED TO BLACK-AND-\'lH1TE
THE COMPLETI.D SKETCH
.

,
SUPPOSE WE TAKE A SU8JECT ANO WORK rr OUT
Ole! Motile. Hllbbo.td
W..,t 'o cupboud
To gd herpoor <loe 11. bono!.
\Ven oh., got lhe ..
n.. cupboord "'"1 bare,
" !ld 110 ..-;11 ""11 be, unlea "'"
do $OIIIethmg abo", il.
Th .. ' lIbreet . Ihe simples! nursery rhyme. The
00 ea.sy maller. Now, ",ha! is )'Ou, COIl-
oeptioo? YOUrf .nd mine are going 10 be
df(erenl. WOO WQ Ole! Momer Hubbud? What
dld .he loolc H e? How wu she drtued? Where
did she Uve? How? What "'as the interior? Wha!
klnd af . dog? Wbat i$!he dramaor .Clio.,? How
am we len the Slory?
TI.., finl thi ng I'm going 10 do oS 80 1[1 In the
QDrner and thinlc ro. ,. Iiltl .. ",hile. ) se<! alntle old
witb 11. f"lI skirt, 11. whlte kerehief In.:! bonnet,
hobbliDg about witb a ame. She coukI be n&ged
aoounkempt Ol neal and den. 1 Ih .. \at-
ter. 11>e dog 1$ 11. big dog. sor! of old $poued
hound. In the ki t.:hen 1 He I n o1d hand <nler-
pump in the, 1nl.. 1 _ ciw:ross window pe.nes in
the tbe sink, and lhe open cupboard
alollgside. 1 lee her !ellng !he dog Ihere is non"
pd lbe old hound Sef:mlng lo underst.nd, even
forgive. Ves, th_ is a klt In the subject. Now,
how do fIO" *' It?
Let w tbillle o 11 i n . elatlon lo '" tone plu.n. l t .,
obviously . n interior, ",nd that would probably
be pry. Al leas! 1 see I! IS gny. So tha! e1imilU.te's
both tbe wbJte and bbe!.: u !he dominant tones,
tblowing WI ;nto the seQ()nd or third lonal plan.
Crey Is melaneholy lilce the subject, wbleb helps.
No"", already, here Is blaek aod whllt apiru;!
grey, lSoundapproacll. 1f wed. e5Rd ber In gny.
then !he interior OO\Ild be darle, Of dark l hadows
mlght be introdul>l'l<l.. To get a white patteTII we
CIIIn 1M window, he!- bonnet l OO I pron. a
partIy whlte dogo Maybt Mlmething white u an
plleher, bowl. The blaek (Mttem
Or lpots wil l be t4en care nf by 1M old Jady"s
96
dreu. the shadows, or in whal"," ... way
The finl lempll linn would be lo roo ,.
MotIIer CA'( re book. Why? Because we
_ what snmebody else dld. We lacl: Iny
denC<l In ourselves and hope lo gd sorne
That's ooe WII)'. That il 1M worst way,
o. lgfn.al way, . 00 Ihe one t"lng no( to
Moth.-r lI ubb..d is jurt as much ynun
or . nyone els. Who Imows wMn,
where SM I ved, and "'Meares? M, ... " ,
Is just MI mueh designo so much chanCle.,
much story. If we bave tn be too
will delve into bistory, spend a loto!
lng In liltle more than we . lready have
with. Maybe _ eould <me out with
tic dress. But we are not maldng a
Of ,1. 1'$$ a drtn. Let us malce It to mI! U$
only real v.lue l. in whl\! we do with it.
Let us eonceive oursubject, th"",
tn lind I faoe whlch spelb: Old MOIh ...
IS slle Bis ou. OXIn<:epti(lIl . 1 ",,.
oun.ngemenls. These were wlthout
ropy, fo. just now I"m not "0 .0'
but the design 100 Slory. Of !he four. J
las! one. 1t would nO! be ve.,. ..
B mndel, and die CO$tume, tM dogo
It would be lo
!he plcture. Bul !he impoi tant par!
I 1m no! reaUy as Iw-re wi!h
you a Bnshed Ob as in, ::::: you how !
llave appro.ache<l!his O!
mlssion. 1 can JUSI imagine what fun
Roch-en would llave ",ilb
tlful Ile would end up witb 1:0 shnw
I"m Sure be would do eve.y Ineh 01 il o
"I"hat u what made him grelt.
your:self !he llame ehance.
Ce! out your pad and pend l .nd
Jack Sprall irulead 01 Old Molhe.
."y ooe ni I hundred others. Bu! take
Ir)' 11, fOl" perllaps tbe 6m time, lnd
mind DOW tbat you wiU do il lhat -r
oo.


..
OLD MOTHER HUIlARD 15 YOUR PROBLEM
-
I
. ,)
TEt'RNIQUE IN TONAL MED
T.,.;>JNlQW i5. ver)' t'Olllroveoial subje:ct al best.
There are perhaps al; man)' viewpointl reganling
teclmique as here are individuals applylng it. JI
Is not m)' pul'Jl'O$e herc 10 one tccMic:al
approoch over anothcr. or 10 attempt 10 leer you
away from;ln individual applicatlon of mediums,
fo.. theteln Hes )'Our OWI\ peTsonalized style, If
rou do not Dllow younelf 10 be too much tnOu-
enced by some single dol,)IOo will devdop yOll'
own teclmique in spite of yourselL l ;5 bound 10
be a par! of )'OUT pefK)lla1 characleristics jusi as
b )'OIlT handwrit ing. M y tnlenl Is lo srress
Ihe genenl metbod, and Ihe reasoning back a f ii,
ralher Ihan tosay how I hall be applied. \Vhen I
speakof teclmique he.re I am thinking: af qualitiu
th.t should be incolpoi aled into good tedmique;
those qualilies bcing the 50und Tenderiog of form
in true values, the considerntion ol edges and
acoents frorn in artisti e puio! of view, the design
tnd bala.nee. oonIN.U. $ll bordinatlon . nd w:en-
tuation. If you can achlew: r.hese. lt wilJ not
malter how yo\! do ;1.
1 abo 10 poin! 0111 oert ain
of the rnediums tbemselves, and the inherent
quaJities of e:adl whieh are nol atways obtainable
rn another. It js hardly neeessary 10 SO Inlo !he
formulas for materiak, palnl-rnixing. ami so forth,
since Ihis hal been e xpertly COw:rM by otiler
wri teo. The pennanenQC o{ your materlak I do
not con.sider espedally importanl al Ihis poinl.
si nce ll:Je problemo; presenled here may be Iooked
upon as prnctioe and or experiment on
your parto
Mos! of Ihe elements oI good technique He 1
Individuallnterpretation oI lhe q ualll 1es of tbe
rnediums. You may use a sl id .. oI erayon in anr
WIly you wish, bul the valoJH, the proportions, Ihe
COnlours and edges. are more or lirniled 10
good and bad drawing. Dn,wing c:an be really
bad for (01), Orle reason: lhal!t faHs 1() cany ron-
vidion 10 the beholder.
AIter aIJ,
convincing or no!. Ir we
nol expecl inleresl or response. In Ihe
thert: Is no real $ubl titute Ior truth
quite $(1 Iastlng. For llu.t reasoP r feel
tain iba! real lsm in !he
him as distort ion 01 Imlh i i
ten him Ihe trutb as he
is. 1 believe, done
oopy. lt kaves you free.
bavng lormulated, even
expression, !hen by all
avoid faklng or in its fi nal
.,
and copy,lhere is no polnl in
nvariabl)' prepare th(> best
terial in Ihe way of work1g fmm
camem shots and stml )es, bo", can the
lakes and 'NOJ'U blindly. hope 10
The rsr mltter rol'
liroeif you \VIII; l'd rather
Start witb the tksue pad. bul
too many clippiogs, see if )"JU ,;,"'
tbing from a standpoint of mass
haps you do nol ye! know lhe detaill
Ihe acoessorics. But make little
6gures goiog through the action and
$pOued into masses oI w"_
. nd blade. YOII can Ihink
mal::e up tbe mas:ses. JI may tUIn 001 lo b"
o d.'U'k or lighl fUTRit ure, a mass of
whal 1l0t. Bllt work f<)f y_uw, d "
98
FORMULATING AN APPROACH
t..d<g.ound "",.l]y ","oll' '"
, " .11, 11 .. '''''Y
;1 a"y "

."'" oh.ado.. pero
TI",,, ' ''ppo;<
\\'bol ;, dlt'<O
, 11',
; 11
twn ",o "'1'<'
,,1 n"gl"
,,,,,,,,,,,,<1
",
;
ch.' no< w1l1 "oat", Or
h j 1 1 .
, '""lisog '0 Jf )"" i
rt'""',,,,, t. 1" ..... 1\, .. 0' c"@ , il
<:Ojly a photog ph )'<N' 1 .. ". 'ok. "
Ioow .,.., ]00 SO tb<- ""'" m,'"
"
. ]>OWbly "",ke
t I! . ,,<1, ,lgI,] t )",," , y""
el."" ,"uel> .o thoowo /,""'.
1 ,ll lo .... , ..
,"
he bo1 ..... ;/,.,.. ,,;11 k>nn lhe I .. blt or
,,""gh,n3 the Id,:. 00' ro"" 1",- ",,,,dl, Afie< yow-
,)",.,00.,1, h.w' 1"",,, ph"....,.J, oh )"" ha""
)"'" elips, phoI.,., '" "00'''. mok. _..".. of
t"",.,;, .... tale"""l al ti" ,,"'hol< a!I
",ont lo ",,,k It 0"', Thl. g;"'" )'0<1 e" "Y d .. , .....
lI> ;"'1"0"0 I,on> ,r., ""1; il 01,,,,,.,"1' , .... ,1,IB.
il l"""'.", lo "" .. ,n no'
lo b.. ",",h 00 ,1 ... proJ",'" p" l>.>ps
.ft", ho,"", <>< .., "",k, M,y'" ti,. R!t""
.t0)tl1d be """-.:el"' ...... or n;...l or,1ropp<d. M.Y"
be 110. M'"a 01 v,I,."
Por I,n 1" the i"""" mis ht h" I .. tl..-, y"" ""' .. " ' no W
thooe'hing. unlllllooy ,,,,, ... ......,,, ",te<\. y"" .kon',
g<>OO rl<l .. "," by d"ng;"g m;"d i" ,he
",lddle of ,1.., 1'''0<'0<''''.' ),'0 ... "1; .. ,,, loo)., ..
;"",I WOT. od "",- ., 1\ <10M "he" 1,1 . .. ,,00 .<><1
pul ....... .., fruh. ' 0 "'r IMl h laho _long
tI", o ka", ,hi< . ... ,1 "", .. 01 I'.ill, It;,
''' 'l",.bk to ,1,. ad"'""ges o! .
"'-.,.." "npn>m>l" CM"'_ 5eUluU , .... "'1'"
....... U l>cl''''''') ..... "".el> lhe
Rn,1 .' 0'''' , .. b.fotc yo" . poil ,he" lo;'" b;g ,h", 1
.-.1 "'p<n.;,'c "-..!,,,-ro!oo-I,,,,,,d. h
lf ,1,..., l. lo"'" iI .. 10." .. , 10 a MI ... ody
uf. fosun,. ,loen "","" frv", ,he ",,<ly "Ih, ... tll,"
1, ,,,,, ,he ot;g;'" 1 rop)', '" f""" Ih. r.1"'. ,,!o 11 ..
r.".1. J ,.-al;", tJ.;. i, no! al .. "),,, l_ihlo:_ (M "
poy< o,,, in d""",,,,,,,,, freoh'I<>S . nd 100,,,,,,,
a!J h .. J 'o ",.k. i1 fre .. " "ti 'J'O'''''.'ou, th. ro,,,
Ii",.. w n ,t'uxgle lo "" <Ira",;,,&> ,-.1,,",
fo,"" ."d d .. ,,,. all,].cm .. al """"", ..... it .
;n'lpoil,J.; lO ,lo ;t e-""y ,j""" B " " k<>
w<rl. bul i1 "" . .. ,,,.., 1 .. ., "",1;, So tI .. I>cs\
i00i.1 io th",,,oo.'I, tI>< _gh, ,b.
lhe" ti., R""I , h " . """,bln .. "" ",1"", "ill
lo.,,(! lo 1"'.1, lf )'ou o" "",k. lho io 11 ..
.. , ... ",,,diUln,'" ,"uel> lbe 1 ... "' .... 1"" )'{N, ",ifl
.. ,-de<! ",,1 .10: probl ..... i" .. 1< .. ,0.
A, 1 lndloatod. yo", p. "tio<, ""
' pp""""h, Y"''' ",."" .. is.,,- yow- >1)'1., m.,., be
y<)<lr ""TI; .. -hi<h ca",,,,, b.. del""
", ,,,,,1 or .. ",n \'y n)'O'>< !l" t "" an
, !he ","gh ,],:cl<-J,. tloo,,. . ,,,, .. ., ,1 .. "' )""" olspo<>l, .... ,,,.,
thcdltnl does '>01 .... ,or <>ne,your an.l 'bm '" thc .",,,.leo _ .... d )"'" .. mk that
'"
TECHNICAL APPROACH
mUSI be incorpaled fnto)'mor slyle, whatevcr iI
Is. The irsl CQnside. ation i5 Ihat 01 detail.
Tllr. PROIILRM O'HO'" MUClI
This ts something thal you win decide, in the
eoo, foc yoursel. Jt is almo<l oortaln Ihal )'01.1
win have 10 begin with lhe ahllity 10 give com-
plelen css o, "fl n,h 10 your wor\ when Cltpceted
o)'Ol.l- And by nature)"OlI may a dosely
accu.nte and fini!hed typcof work. Thcu i.l llQlh-
ing wrong In working lhat "'-ay, and bere will
... Iways be 11 place ro. !lIeh a melhod. Howevct.
sl!lce photogmphy the Ihlng iKl well,
I m)1clf prefcr arl !hat ge!5 a.s far away from Ihe
photographlc as ptmibk-granling at lhe san>e
lime that !hi, 1$ ,1I)t poIsible. 1 en-
deavo.- to 8i\'c)'Oll throoghout 1M, booI:eumples
carrit.-d out in eaeh . lllee i! i. tme lha!
mOle dient. prd"r finish Ihan loos.;:nCSI and free.
domo Al you alre:ody know, 1 believe Ih" futurc
in art lfes in indi\' idual lty of corw.:cption, afld 10
me, iudividuality II exprcw....d by a big
broad interp<et::IIion thn!'l by belng too aewnte
a!'ld literal. BIII lloe early wo,k Qf any arti!l !:now",
for brcadth aoo loose,1eSS usually shoW$ !hat he
had tu master dctail before he could suhordinale
aoo e]Jn]i""te it.
It m"'i't be admittecllhat the tep froon detail,
once mastered, to alld suggeslion, .is
e:mcmcJ)' diffi cuh. It Js Ic>.H)' much to
pai!'lt loosely than lightly, for doing i t eith.cr way
must <:arr)' convi<;:tion trllth, if not tite .... 1

t'lIth. TightncS! beglns wl!h ooing &O ooncero"d
with $urface lhat we be I,lane ami IDIlSS, and so
coruel(lUf of oonlmor and cdge that wc 00 ])Ot
sofk," (Ir lose il. A ' (lIUld funn can be so smoothcd
in gradMion o tone tl\llt il1rJscs an charaete . One
may soc!he tumillg 0' Ihe fann fu a of !'l\"-
eral tones. The lic Ue. artist modds fOlm in
but two o. duee planes_ The fe .... er Ihc planes
the the work, fo, breadth o, exccution
js Teally breadth 01 \'i!Ion. O .. e =)' seto " n eodge
sharp and dell .. cd. wdl aOO good, hui he nceo
oot dig Qut .. ..dgC5 that he C3n't $(le 3nd sharpc]\
and dellne also. Oefinition Mil ""''el' he
100
!he 00;' o art, b .. ' :"'
subor<1inatlQ!'I. Making ,,11 Ihings
picturc cqually imporlant is like
notes of " compo<ition Mtll

<:qual fntcmity, withQut QlX'Cnl Qr
picture rendered in Ihls .. , """"0'
lhat UAh_h_h!""" II can easily l ... eI<
spirit .
Delail can be , hown in thingJ
,mke things re<:cdc, fo, m m.LlI ,esoIve i
inlo plane and mallS B.J il gOO$ bllck.
happens in our vision. \Ve do
teH o. Iwtllvc fect, nor liny
no! sce lhe sli,:: b! vari R]>Ce 01
\Ve $C(: jusI Ilgh!, ha,lftofIC, :0.00
c .. ollgb back, we ins! lisht and
Muelo 01 the error 01 loo much
mi l t<..<d lho\,ghtloessly. The "' "liSI takes
01 a modcl, a"d then ,laces
,
.harx.r tQ a grcatcr Jep!h of foeus.
be belieYed Ulllil roo make lile
experimento Hol UF Oll(: Rnge.
fron! QI Y"u. Look al
C:lOII Y"" lee detail in
nail? Everythl rlg behllld il becumes
lucen In" double m!ge. l '
dis'an"", behind il, ;l.nd you
Closlng one eye, you sce a; 1
NU. ey..:s c:am1<:)I: foeuJ on two
$ll. metimtl. Yoo In h
lI . harp. To P"OVC il ls noto a
hi. lumd a few inches ro the
(ace. Now <lOilCtlutratc OIJ the eenler
Whilc looking al !he chin, how cl.u
se<! his halod? \VI....., )"O" are 1ooI:mg
haw clCQf are the featll res in hl
is thal lhat m:trvclous instnomeM
slantly making foca l adjustmellls,
lhat Ih .. whole 6el of yision
&tnce it . I
ouly une distlll<.:C al a ' lme, lf .
;1. poi]11 o, foca l inlere$!,
,hal area d iglotly . "bordin:l.led
001 <lig out l.-dges ti", ! he can', and sha.rpcn
and dlOSe aliOO, Defin itioo will ne\'ef he
100
a n' foca l inleresl, wilh
tllal area s1ightly i ubord""te<!
DETAlL
" ,
. ,
/<nI pol>1t Jo";] ""O
""'"' "',.-. P""nl!'.,j .. ith

. 0Dd """""""'. ,h" de.11 ""000 YO"
wil1 RO<! ,1,1, in l\e mbro",lt, "el" .
, 110m".", So,g,""
,
'''"1'' w a (J(
... OOrd l .. ,;o" of pi".
fo,- and
by "uu,' 01 "1,
_ k "" " ''''''''gh, but.<I
,
o>
,
;
" , ..
or!<> ,1",
, ,
, .
. ,Id ,1' "
,1 '.
,
"'e tloe """,'C,
For ".,,,''1' ....
lurol ...
, ,
'.
I det.n .. onrw>Y' TI.,
.. oro """"moti ,.,'" To dot.1I
bl ..... 10 ,ldine ""' ..
"'" TI", Il&<'Ilha, lb< "",""'" "" ..
oI"'P1y ,h." ,,,,, ,loe< ,lO! m, (,
, piel"' ,,, 11'" . '" p" i"Hng ,O
, <>1 111. "' "" "'" ', ,..,. --..
,.

So ,ho ...
the lO"". ..
'"
Jes. ti .. .la .... (""",ning 1_ 1 .. 1(,,,,,,, l . ,he k<i
", ,ha,k",., ,he R.""," """"",,,, gf
, m pie IIgh' . ,><1 TI", ,1 1-;"",,, ca" hc
"""'" ah...,., J .... ,.,. in ell"<'Ct. 'f ,y 1' . r>d . "',,,,,
Y"'"",lf .. ith O", ,I .. ..... ,.I 'I, .. I;,y i'
&""'" n,I> lo "f"'<">.11y 'n., in ""tdoor .... bj<'<. .....
'11....., , .. do abo", ''''' '" f_ (,,,,,,
"1",,, 1 ",. I "o.,. ,h,l gt"y >[>01 .. ,u> of ,he
,li. 1 j, on X ","1 ' wO J". ", CM "". lI y "p.
pea" 'o ),,0\'. 01 . .... "Id ,r.. dial, JI 1
....".. lo 1"1,,, 11,;" .. tting.OO 11 .. oP'''''''''
" ... .-Iy on ."" ckd. I "." .. Id ... y r"';"1I
of ,ho rl,,,o.-..:e .... ,"""'" 00 ,he docl """Id .i,
,;glO( "p." ,I,e r,,,,,, lo"" "",'do 'n "')'
1,.<Xl . 1'01 In n",,' '" o", p"",,," ,. doy ill ,,<,,",'.'
,h"" oo.", ""'" .nd o,ldlo,. gW<l n,..-., Tbey
.IO ,It>w" ,.-1 .. , ,"'y k""",.o 1., ,1"""" bu,
0>0'.' tI .. y "nl-_ it. [, .. "'ouY'Ib>.r>d """',.
....". ",,",, .... "lr '" pnned. ",.ce f"'O"'.--d 00'. n..
,ri<, rnu" .IO""'" h,,,,,,e .\1''''1'' 'o
,le,,;] "nd lo .... In lo\< ow" ."J ,'';o" .
o",, , ' e,H," ,1", h" "isio<, " 1<0"",,0<1 lim .. '
"""'. 1><0.",,/"1 ,1"", ,1 .. ",mor'" ti h.,..;1I 1m'
'n,>! II I! he . 1001 ;" ,h., IV""" h<-aul), be
m,," """ .. 1 .. , ,I .. detoil n-gi<terOO by Ms
eo.--. .-.111 lb." abi<k by s",'i<hIy. lO ",,11
1", oclt r be l ... ", 'o "m' ,1 .. ,"',' ..... Jes. a,,,1
b"]" , ,, more i,. 101> Qwn .. ",0<1 ]",,1.
nI(, tJ)i"g lo..., ,..I,n ,,""'" .o>d Im. g .... ,;"",
o"ly In ,hls " .. y tan h .. ,",o,k _, t<l o,,"
OIUinahle ,,,,,,"'mcally.
P...-h,,,, ..... un .... ,oo' )<:, "",>OO.d 11""
,b"", .. '''y p i beyoo>d del.U .",!
IN hun 1001;., ,1 ", h oJ , ,,,,p" """ mi<ly ,lay .. ,J
..., lb< ,,,,.1 I.o:'''''y '" ,,,boo-dl .... tio'c 'd h;",
.t<..Jy ""Id""", In "";1'1:1" .g.o.ln ft .. mnl:"'r.
,h" '''Y'",r)" ., rnoooIi&hl <On'Iwod lo ..ood.y.
Le! him dro>e' ros"",;n s ..... , be ",11=
to,,,,, ;n k>ol: bo)'o,,,1 f.lli "S '""W, or =
senp' olr hl, ' "" p picm.-. ,,'ith . 1",ld'O kofo,
1>O.'rlY ,h." ... b,d \:d", .
'11""" i< . ,lOO! opm lo a11 01 "'. ;/ "'" " ill bu!

THE TREATMENT OF EDGES
rm..1" ,,", ,_, impon ... , ....... " in o!:toAit>-
illg J,,lom.<Id .... h "",-.d In tho ,_,-
""'"' 01 ... , TIter.. 1$ "10., .,] lou.u" 01
.dg .. al ti"')' truly"PI""*' la ""'"""" 1Iu' ,h.,
muo! n..,1I 'o S n , 1'0" m"y oot bel,,"
t\., q""U,y In ""'U"'. I.,.; i. haldl)'
W.." "nI;1 you t<d it n..n. ""'y be oh,.,., ....
001'"0" ol .dS'" ... fo< ;".Ia""". ti", M,I"."
>fflu<ld ,he l .." .,. ,loo I",'Y .. Igo 01, flt, cape,
bu, ..v, ..... ,Jo". <><'<\11" ""'" "" '-d
",1"", ,,'hieh .... 11y"'c. Ii .... 0< . !",d ""f."".
Ik< ti", fOOl .kk. 01. oqu'''' I"" , h<-<! "M., O<
ig .... iu<h.'" hard .o '1"' ...... 01 ,oodo, u ...
t1'Rllngly _ .... y 1"" It.<m i,,'o 00' _ k ..
00'''''' 1, "g h. ,d . 11 "'OIInd. Tha t l, p'" ti "g do", 11
"M' .. .., bow lo m.u b", "'" ....,; g i', J"""" o,
ti," ",01 t .. bl< lOp ."tI ...... will ro"" ' h. cJgn .'e
diIlm,, ' t.1I ,1", W,Y "",,><1 n.e f",,, ",;11
P"'" b)'"""", , ...... h .. OHm lO """se "',h 11Iom.
Jn otl><, pJ..,., ,!..".,..;n ".,od ou' ..... .Iy In 't-
l id, '11", tap n,.y h".., ,olkc,io! .. oI liglt, ,,'oh.
n""''''8 ....... .dge. be .I""l" ond ,J.t.,k te-
lIN1ioru ,..hieh Inoy m,k. 'beMlo "n<Iofon.d. So
Igoo 0<0 ' "'ti of the I'<>rm 'II"" ,hoy
are ...,10,;",,,, ,ho 'wY<H>l>IlllIg '0_ And i"a, .. oc-
ed 1,)' .heir "".In>o"""" n... ",me..!ge "'")' he
,h"' I' O< ",Ir oro.wd, og lO 01 ,he
"""",n'.
l...,k .bou, "'" ,,-hm:, roo ..., .itting righ'
no"" TI", .sI Igc.)'O<, .,0 ro"",,",,, of ... ,ho
one< \\'1 .. ", .. """"deno.bic ""'!rost el .. 1.,.
- 1""1 opino< ,a. ,k ... ti", ... ...... ' n,,,,,'you .. ,11
fi od ,1><' ""0 _ tb. t .,. oot 'I"" . s ;n,"'"''
in l"intiog)'Ol. """Id 'lar! lhes<: "'me--
... 1",. lO be qU;"1ed 00.. ... .....,..'" 'hq
,.ally.", thot ' \';Iy ",1",,, rompa ... ,llo ,he '['''''b
,.."., I\ext,)"" 1";11 &nd ",hldt
"" .. t.y aOO ... gl nw ,hod<rw. y""
haY, tO i0oi: .. d 'o ..,. .bom. fi, .. lIy, I f.o>.;
tI", ... , "ill be "''''c )-"" 'ff lIy ""'""0' ..., bu' "ilI
only are tIto=, n-"'" ,be lgeo '" be
IosI lo p"inting. It " by . t.odil !",al-
""'''1 of the Ig.,. ,hot '''e lI'" lb< ill ... lot; ol
..-
lf .... i0oi: lO>' , J,",I''''''''',.J dd",."ion.
>02
,Ita' i!I .11 "" png ro .' ... ,
" .. .,. """Uy W 1.,. 001.",-"". fOf
,
iI'
,he ,,"'. 01 ,loe ,,,,11r pea' ",1, .... U
,1", lile,
,
'1 ,d
lo.anl .,. . 11
d,JJe< I
1" , ot it
\\'e h.", "", ..,,"ktt>' th ..
..ten', aOO hec>_ ""
" .. ron'''' with tI", 1I
"' y",-" e''''' ....
In ,Ie,'<iop )'OUr
" .. 1gb' 1 it
,hi< i .. o,
" ,
,
l o do with ,'".",
I it
"
w"'-C)'OI> OTO '0 ruLd
,",'iII b,,' Iook ,..itn l""-" <y.:<. tLl
.... ""'1 kndo 01 ool,

pr<><1,""' i"
""uroe ,,,,,h .. .
...... Ir.., Ihls i!I obt.Inl
.. c"ntour,
",,;00 .dg<o of ti ...
" .... '" IT'oI
hgh' l"" '.!
11., ISO ,,,,If ""'y be
,,..,-"" .-aiPg ollhc .... lun
In !",ttb>g "' 1", b", .. I" h., ,
"p,.''''ge'lrorn ''-
"PI'=' han:! .ud ""lo""" .pi<'" '"
We .. "'., .=n' ","OO ",,<><wJ-,.,e
WHERE TO LOOK FOR SOFf EOGES
"
, .. 1 ..... ,
r ,,'
,
... "",;0" '"' 11. bu,
"",oh ",,,re 00_
11 , '"
, .
.... , l l,od .... "'S'" i, d, l.,.,.""' ....
".".., .1", ""'se ,--", ,l.
, ' 1'1'<' ''' ag.I"",, lf
"',fe'o los. ti"""
, You con w< ,h" . b.,p",,,, .1",.
it 00.. ....,.< goooJ. 11,k i, , ... n"
V"r >gol, .. ,
, ;
" ,
.. .. , """:' " '. ':':'"'''''' <' un '"
kt ,,' oou.idC' d.hb.tI\,c lo"",,,
l' <ru..n",. th. >i<tQtbl quollt!<. '0
....
""
" ....... l .... '" hiU <r<b>a bmnd head. 001" ....
tite 1;"" .... ,., hdl .. >uII)" """"" i1.,...,.. ,he
""od. I! "'" loe m,1os I"el '" th< h<.d, ",h
,.., ""n ,he l ..... <>f had; 01 , ""'i, .. it "ott"
.1>< I",>d, o' d .. ro" t"'" 01 ""}' fOITll p,,,.ng "'_
h"" aOOlIo; ' ",,,'our, It he)" ,I,,-n, fmm .,<1_
t<:>g<tn..,
6. 11 ... l>t ""lo"",, .rod dll",,"," ;",-,,""_
P"".,.::d "" ....... ]y ortlotio E""""d.tiOOl. tu se< .id
., '=>11 ...... ",1 .. "". ,\ """;" .1>. d ...
too""" JIOt\olOlIy Ix- wi,b mo<eoof,
''''''' """ In ,"" 'o g<>t;, hock
... -bere i ' I.,I",,!!, .nd '0 ,1", '"
'!"'''''. n.o """ .. '1''''' , .<tmUy more "'POI'-
."", th . .. tI .. Ir .. , ooth h "", .100, 1'
""",]J w.h 1"," I" IrOto' (""" ..... 1 "1' 'o
tl", pi",,,," 1'\"'" 'Ohl""" fol><,
Do 00' i"'..,,,,, ,hit '" ...... aRi,'8 J"" " .... '
1"'lnt e\W}'lhi", 1" . 1", Im"l .. hare! .rod .m"
nd " ' "'J1hln( In lbo- 1",,",, .. 1l'<ZJ' and .... ' of
1"", ... 11..,.., .I>ould loe ........ in gf
,';'100 al>o., 'h< .. ioolo "'" a< ,ho"gl. 'h<
"'1o"IJ"" " .... ig"'oo, TI", ch..V" .Joo.,1d
i>e gr.cl na 1 ,,J . " hll . not '00 00""'''_ TI""" <:"""
Le "'f" ..... 1" 'h<J d." Jse, 'oo. mingbl wi,h
,he crispTK"'l', ' "'' 1'>1 ''' ' "" me in tI>< .Jg ..
h.d;, lh. piel"' """1.11",,," 1""Bn8 of
'00 .. ,lo<k 1" .... l.ctt.S d """"" so "'" dill"""
area> do "'" ..., .... .. I ... e> _ di:!t;IK'Ily ..
.. ".,Id !he "",,,,,lo< '"' ""p_ ,ny
."",nd oboold Si'" 1, -""'.". loo,,,"' '1",11-
'Y. ,,'i,h """" .ubo<di .. ,,,,. in ,hiug< '"
dista""" 'm" ,,-, ""'" "r, Al! ,h."p .,- had, ... 11
rm"Y .,- hod, Th. b<t."ly 1..,. ,,, p",yl"g "' ..
.g.i"" tl", ",h Sl ody oome ro ne ",', 1,001 , lo",
",,,'poi,,, , .... il l O"'" )"our eyes , Bul m",,,ly
'r)" ,,,..., i' in I i ,' 107 )"'Hf"" 1 Lit > 11.....-.. Ix" so
.ubdy Iml il rn ... 1 l>t >t,....,.j , " .. "'" . h""I)" 1""
'1"''''. 1m' .. .., 1 .. ,.., ""ly . onr-pb ... swl."" lo
... 0& "1"'" .00 rn,.., tl<>""""""in! .lmoo, druti<:
'o ge! rid 01 Ihlngs teeQl;'>J!r ",stcd "o> oru;I ",d;-
;,'g ti""". Too m ..... ... tra'"'8 i, ,ha,.
!
1
-
TH], LENS SfES TOO MUCH
1 [' re>eHt he a 1'1",,0 which 1 ,hall "r><l<.,,,,
'o p>illt fmm in"' !;o;,h", p"'"lolo_
1 ',y'" hold , be ".Iu> and ti", ' W} ,mOOlh
,"odd"g 01 ,he fOTm, F.-."U)', ,h, v.,1I be 01 tbe
!lO-call<d ",liel" ')'P" ,,1 I";"h"g, which oev<'"-
t""l"", 1.,,1,\,. pI."" io OUT emlt. Thc p" inting
w;lI.ppoal to gTe, t m,,O.-ity.-.l el;.,,,,, ",ha T .. I
1)" li ke ", (,,'on here we can be.t
ti", .. "",,I and exact image p,,,,,,n'c0 lo} .he
10'''_ \Ve 00" al Ie"t ,oOOo-di".,,, ,1", o,-e ... hu"d
""ce of d.t,;I, esl"x';"lIy " ti>< dreS!, .nd ",m,,_
,
"
""1, ,,,,,,,,, ,,,,, it, T
j ha'-e ",ught ,," ,' ,Ige< are not
l .. ve ,,,I,,,,d;'la''' many tl"t "'" "
S',ody I>o t h d"..,ly, >,('a 101 . ' 0'_ 1 do
ges! .hat )"'''' I",-i,,' ,his wa)', il ;, but "' ..
Yo<, ",II pajo, )'OUT OW" w"y, ., yo" f ,
paot.
P"'I'1e will (l/ten unknowingly pr,;"',o .,.""
"Tha, loob juSI Bke , pooto, bow
-"rfull' The,. are ",d w()(d" 'o ,1 .. w n<c;';n-
mcralt>man. Yot os.n illUltra' or we "",,' l.""
tb. 1 ... ,ru., PC"'''''"ge 01 peorle ore
W"""tioo>, lhat d.hil pie. "" horo. We c'O-n
r" ,l.tm ,k ... iI ",hen we h"", to, e\", ri il it hu,"
,btt]", Bu' .. le.S! we oo.n oboosc wl,M octail we
... r>iog tu g;"c. ,ubordina'ing wh .. d"
lO! Ijk pi,,*, i, full 01 unple .. " n' dotail.
.de",')' pho'o ha< , he 1'0,,;10 ;1;' ;';, of """",!hing
dwmiD&_ So " " mu>t "udy h.,d lo doc;de wb.t
005
" ,.11 lx "no wh. ! ,h.U 001. 1f , he ,'al"", ."d
p", n,,, go " ",el l, ;1 .] '" ",I! '>c'" ".-.cl ,l'''pn",. ore
taken care 01, .uro "" b 'a,,' ,ld . ;1 ", ;11 not lx
m;' d. W< <,n ,-<, t the cam .... , I",c,,,,,, tI .. ,
c.",,,,,, ""-,, n," ,IOOO$c no, ,uoordim 'e, ,h, n\;
He",en.
Not" tloe "" ,,"00'01 ",It edge" wi.hou' p":xI",,.
ing a I "zzy or v.'ooll} d ie,," , t. wm lx
'0 note lh"! )'Q\l wiU " od "''OC "l'j"'-'<o to
,11 th"""gh, no! .lI """ no< .he othor,
Th", lo.- ,t.c y<>""g .,.;" ",1'0 ",e' loard
. "d brittle,
STRESS1NG THE PLAl'.JES ANO ACCENTS
-
.' .

gh'c )"" "'y pl '''' og''' ph;" ''-'1'1- I,,,,_
;, ., ko, O""go ' o b y )"O""elf open
,hu" But ;1 I am going to oeh it is ooly h i, 'o le'
)'00 ,..'" w lo" t 1 om w,,", ki n f ",,", T" ,h;, pl><>l o t
, hu, ,I\(; l>ad' g, o", ,,1 nlo, o;oglc. "eh,,"t,
", ,,1 why ,><>1 cl;",;'.'<tc .1 ,,, whok
Lhng ancl g"c ooly eoough '0 ,h" r' g"'"
Irom be;ngp.!ted 001 . ",hito page' At ka" ,be,"
, I,,,,, IJ be ><>me fecli og of ,he figure, n
' P'C(; , 1'1.0 " ' '"'"'' ;" g 'hing to mo I"'f< ;,
form, and "",,,ndly ,h" """ "'''0._ '(1",," ;, so
mueh ;ntrieate form ;n the gauncnt "",If, " ;,
'1uH "",' gh lo.- the oye to hke in,
Ag' " "'" 1,,-.. tI", ""me_", l>=\u,e "'o e.o d i",-
;oate romj"ti"g
,,-II. I k,, 'c <t<ccd
,nd nt
, 1"
"
,1.,-,
"
rompld" t ,, ''''' g " IH,""I" " .. 1
oo t, In "ch afeo )'0," v.-Il "",1 a
light ag,imt simple h"lftone and 1
.1, 0"" R.tI ,,,,d , "'pk , h"oow_ I
a m,, ;m,,", of ,"ok"" ,
,totement of ,1>< p'"",
oemond lo.- this rone<ntrated
01 "pl',,",ch, Tt k ,oJ. it",l! .dmuobly t
,, ;lIu"'a,;"" ,
BREAKJNG UP THE TOO-SMOOTH TONES
Jlo,";, onothor 1'00'0 sclocted .. ropy. OHO
01 ti ", ",,,in tb" d,,",;fy, pl><>lo OS a 1'1>0'0
i, the ul".-" noothn"" 01 ,ho In worbng
1,0'" rol')' , I 10",,< b<ok"n "1' "'''''' vi ,he
tone, 1,.-, .0'"< of ,h "Igq . ne ,J..,'.il
01 the d"",< f,,,, oc.,n ,uootd;H"'coJ. The rouoo
h:u b<c" rnade ,oJ.,;,dy ol)e" ;mI""'""co ,ru.n
,he !JgHn;, ",;,10 le.. de6nition. Tfw big
plone, 01 ti.., fi gH.e "e >1tO'''''1. T tr;cd '<l
>,,);,1 "' much" I"",;ble the tia',,,,,> 01 the t""",.
\\'h;)e ,he",.,e time, w],co Ibtne<.!;, dClLroble.
""
Qften "' "" fX'in'od too flOl and ,._''"
p"" ",;<\<\y" ,"d )ll<>OOlo<\o", . So"",
tone within a tono. ' o roal;, '1
.,
,
. ,
n .. light, 1"'0
",'m T],o ..
o<\,,J ;" ' lO!.< 'o "voiJ ,1", ma"oto"}
the 1'00.0.
I
,.
\

\
AD] USTINC TONE ANO PAnEKN
, I
1 w" h. "e a photo, ",J w' ordinary i" o:blgu
and !"ekiog ,J ," oon',," ... J b<illi.ncy n""""", y
fo, good ,ol"",h'ot"", To follow JI too dosel)'
"'otold produce. d,,11 pictu'e, So a p, n"",
is i"'ro<i n",,,l oro the b.el. gruomd,.OO ,ho
01 the coudo '''''''' lo giye l' mOr" ,'.riety, The ro,, _
ore """",,1 by ,dding <1",.,. pillow
'g"i,," the whi'e re, .. ><I Ihe inteml,} oIlight
'o ,hado", J, "-"",,,,-h,, Inore""d, At 11>0 , anlO
time >O"'" 01 lb.; <-d g'" aTe sol 1 (w mod "la'M,
TI>.; ",ft,,,,,,,,, introdncd do moch ' 0 , olb'" Ibe
HO
photog"' phio 1001. 11>< l' I
' <epI the dr." it
"'1"' ''''" n, '" '' t
oth", , onal area" 1 1 Ii lo
lo ,.t ;,[y , 1"""" ,ny d ien! li i
I"lh"" .. 1
,han it ,,,,,!ly ;', ro long os lhe
.nd p""ing, 1
;", 1<,1" oockgeounJ , fo, t
000""" lo '1"'"' of ", 111 "
"'e haci ' o in\"e'" """ 'o 'nito
ll-IE " BIC TONE" APPROACH
J .::hose lo <n1\ 11m lhe "ig
approac1l. rol' that is exactly ",!al it is. It oould
jqSl as weJl be n.amed lhe
\Ve i lulllaim lo set Jown Ihe big lonal pattcnl'! of
our w bjed as simply .as posslbJe. Pattem, after
al1, is big-Ione efreet, oue area opposed 10 :mellher
in \'flllle ancl all working logethcr toprodl.1ct: !lOme
SOr! o a Thcre i$ rcal 1y de$igro, eilher good
or bad, ",hcucvcr we pul of variable Iones
togclhoer. JI dawns on us as painlers Iha the effect
of lhe arrangem,ml of such is really more
importllfll pictorial1y Iban the subeet elr the
things we are paiotiog.
Hert) is anothcr reuoo ror the nol-too-liler31
intcrprclation or nalur romplex forms !lud Sm-
faees. Lu! r:nber Ihe $eekiug of design Ihrough
Ihe material natllle presents te us. You can iu
slandy sce how Ihis iovol\'CS laSle, selection, and
;uvent ivouess. Such an apl)Tooch, Ihm\, ,. cn:alivc
!lnd oot a passiveae<:eplanceof fae!. Yon are add
ing Ihe inle1]igencc o \fSion so sa.dly lacl::ing in
your carnem.
Sometimes the simple post eryrtatement is bel.
ter than the more 6nished thing. for il ii oonceived
and e>; eculed in truth-trnth in !he hrger
rather than p minute IlIspection 01 truth_ Om: big
truth is more tI,an a Jot of little
Oltes (wi !h, perhaps t1'TOugh ignoranceot ncom
p.ehe,.sK.>n, somc of he more Important on....: Id!
oul). So dore do rome of !he arutraet arli$t$ comc
te il, )'el JUSI mlssing Ihe dcmcnts tbal might
make tllemso mucll grea.!e., IOn alliance wlth crea-
!ion itseH. Jt doo:s 11M sccm possible Iha! 3nything
that wor!<s out as well as lhe greal naturallaws,
which have ro. a few billion ycars and con
trol Ihe ve!)' univerliC, oould be quite a$ ""oog a$
tbese artists routeml. Could il not be a bck of


112
insigh! or pcrccptiOl? At leasl 1
Rl'ti,ts, befare you go too far into
inoomprehellSible, lo thlnk
card the wealth of mate.;.:,1 nature hlllS
UPO" yon. Yo.., ,-",,,nol Hvt! wlthollt
ncilhcr can your a.l
On the oJlposi te page we ha\fC taken a
figure SIlLjr:ct. I I;clicvc my t'
he perfectly ll nrlenmndable to
show d,e power of simple
shaduw, al a]J iet! 10 Ihe Fonn
be a good painler goillg 110 farlhcr ",," ,
gelting these ton"", and fOTms
dra"'ing. values,
according lo the light, aud ill
surrounr:!lng dcmcnts.
11 is really $O simple tha! lhe general
undersbudillg of i\ Is amazillg. Most of
cully, 1 Ihink, arises from the fact
sldom mnde, or moclels posed, ;11
and sl,adow. I\'aturally ir you
inal simple Iones, a,e the bes!
p<mlbJy have, .
have no fOlm lefl,
yo\ Jlnd yoursclf Irying
lo no
break up form as easily with

ro star! wllh, if you are ever lO
Iig],1 yOnr subjoct froht ooek o.
rcflect it ir you w!sh,
whenevtr IloMSible for the I>e>;!
fu=.
Nature takes ca,e of that, ontJoors.
thlllgs up ... hen w<: take over inside.
ll2
~
115
THE 50FT APPROACH
This. is , delightful way lo paillt. It is dosel)'
.lIied with the "big .pproaeh.. lIowever,
instead oI pIIinting lhe largO! 1000es in lo 11 sharp
and wftcnln& them later, Ihe large lotl('! are
lel in Rml immediatcly softcn<ld. 'Che de-
la;] itadded dum lo he 50ft 1011/:$ ji' overpainting
",hl le 11M: paint is wel. The odges are de6ned
",!.ere needed. le;",i.ng Ihe gen.cool ...,ftnes:s as
Th, is onoe 01 !he besl Wll)" lo comba!
hardness or l ightnes:s in p'-inUng. Tightness
comes from smaH fonns, too much procision. alld
everylhfng. Alled lO 10 9. sharply deAncd Igt
everywl\ere.
1 bel ieve lllis approach will come as a revela-
tion lo mao)' )'O\.II1g paiDlcrs wha have nol tried
il o. do nl>l koo", about ;1. It raul ts in & fediog
of tnucn morcqual ity, . nd al lhe lame t ime adds
a threedmensioMI effect lo one", work iI I has
beenpe.sistently 51icking 10 he ' ront, or picture,
plane. 1\ eliminate.il much 0' he "pasted Oll" effect
of Ihe units of your pie!:",re. Try 10 hold as much
of Ihcsoftneu<>s possible. A few dcdeJ"QUs slrokcs
may adtl al! Ihe finish you wanl. I fcel quite ctr-
tain Ihls musl have !he approach of both
Sargenl Rnd 'lnder$Zom, wbQse paintings rcfIect
(he kit.d 01 quality !his approad l gives. It applies
losolidly panled pictures better than othcrs, bul
can be elfectively "sed in sl:etchcs, vignctlC$, and
almost . ny Iype 01
It will be ..... ell worlh your ",hile 10 IIllIke sorne
e. periments ato"g line. I "ever bel ieved in
c:onfi ning ol1e', approach lo R $ingJe rnethod. I
1m.., lo ""(!Crimenl wilh everything 1 can think
or, o. lhat may be suggested 10 me wherever 1
_ l. I Jike 10 use a mcthod or rnedum as much
in lune with the as 1 can. Sorne things
_m 10 tall for "britt!e" treatmenl. while olhers
eaJ1 rO. "delicate nnd sofl.
M
Whilo yo" are lcam-
ing, leo;orn lO apross yoursclf widcly. Therc is no!
.so tlmcl. danger lhe" in Mburntng out" your ap-
or Inaking il grow lirtsOlDe 10 your PI'
You note that in Ihe &rsl slago 01 Ihi,
a fair!yca,ef"J duorroal drawtng was made. ThIi.
Ihe Iarge tones were bid in over Ihe Axed
ooa!. Even In !he fint thero 1, a fcelii
of Ihe ligh! a"d fonn. nl is is ho!:ighlened in Uf
""xl sIRgo by ollly a lew stroket bid ov ..... \Vi"
lhe detall el l he realUres and Sllllne more Ilght aria
dar!: aettnls, il beroroes compJeled. In ordtr
.<how yoo lhe stage. I had 10 mal:e !our
' ubjts. Wit l> you il wou!d be bul One. Bu!
ma.king lhe (our. die lrut Olle was pe.lntcd I
""1)' sflor! time, slncc J h.,d had the e..::w;nerr,
of Ihe nlhers. l'is approach IS quite direct,
JI possi\.llc shemld be oomplcled while Ihe PIf'
js wel. By ackHng some poppy 011 10 your tUl"JMl!t
tiroe ",11(lII painting in oi!. you can shw down
dryrng.
TIlil Ippro;ch would apply bette. ro
",,,ter color tMn 10 transpareut. It I! qultto a a'
ro kecp il ",el longellCmgh ti! gel lhe Joflnw.
il cQn. be done. Cmy()]l and charco." Rr e
able r", Ihi$ apprO&ch. Or any mediUln that
116
be rubbed, lhen pid:ecl oul .... itl> nn eras.....
So many students hope 10 wateh a profess'
10 !el,n teclllliqu<l- Technique I:s yourown.
od or approach is aJways a mal! .... of
There ;$ 1\0 reason lor any artls t who hns the
of erarl al heart ro l-eep $uch Ihings a
Icry. Ted''' 'que cannot be !enrnco hy .
ollly by doing. If 3n artisl can len you how it
dORe, JI Is !lO ""udl Wle, watchl ng 101m
e,'en lhan copying hi5 e/Jorts.
1'ry OUI !he soll approach If yo.. like il. If
do ooI!ike lhe effeds lO It, lhen pass i \ up. H
ever. II Is a very, \"o.y good way 10 bea! old .
carnera, or projeclOr. We ean't trace fu:ay .
ases. Mnybe you can fu.."y up tlle har<! unes
lhen bring tblml bad. l don'l kllOw. 1 de it w
eyes, I>ands, "nd (1 hope) Ihinking .
116


,

ti?
,
. " .
THE BRITTLE APPROACH
When Ihlngs are in a ]iglll, or ",Ilen
the SIIhjecl IlseU "'!Cm. 10 tall for a rertan cri,p
Or bri ul e qunlty, 'Wan! yoo lo be lo Il.ink
in Ihc$e Icnns. UsuaUy Il, is sharpness wou\cl be In
subje<:fS Q good COOlrll$l, using plCIl!y of good
lights nd darh.
He. e Wll ha"e .. bn,nette in a blad:-and-white
slr ipM drcss. The dre:ss j i nnd Ihe stripes
gve II SOlap." I JUSI ca,,'! iICe Ibis subjcd
in mystcry and !.OftnOOl. SCI we pul J, ., blad: hnir
againsl pr;lctically a white, carry Ihe criSPrM:"i
intl) lhe ..... d<ground nnd all Ihrough !he dres!.
Becallse the dress is bluy In >altern it _m, 10
,,$1, lar So we do 1101 ln
"1' Ihe pict,,'e with loo .nueb ol her paUern.
Almos! al! edge:s are dcfl ncd here. tholl!:h if
the dres:! "'ere a single loue Ihe wuuld be
100 hard. Bul lhe stripes break up tbe afea, pull-
ing the ere wilhin the conloul"$ ralher trn.n maJe-
;ng Orle conscious 01 Ihcm. TI';s .... m o"t:rpainled
quite a 101 on dry rain!. " nl<)thod whieh i. Ihe
0rpoSi le of be rrec..>din8 rof! approot:ll. ;lnd
whid , adds Ihe vcry q" all lY 01 briUlcness whieh
Wll trk:d !oavod in Ihe othcr imlanoo.
M0l51 YO"lIg arli.tli po ni .-al!.",r lo lhe hBrd Irn.n
10 Ihe sofl anyway. so Ihs will 001 nccd IIll1e),
explana!io". Abo", al! yo" can do wilh lhl s
Rppruo1eh is 10 ,ainl up lo yOllr edges, Dnd st0l'-
wil ich mos' of J<l'1 do, Su, i. 110! "';thou! value
and charm ",hen IICO.po:rnted inlo ,he right sorl
of $ubfect.
Ught and shado", re(llly Ioob: brittleout in Ihe
bright !UII]ghl, :md there b no reason ror no!
118
paillHng ;1 $O. There are m:my subjectli
crispn<!$' is lhe So txperlm<:nt. Tbe
criS]l clfccts ""u be oblained by paillting
OVe1" a darl: bul dry
call1'l'lS is perfed for th;s I ypc 01 aplIro ... ch. Or
c:a.n sl.in a I>CW <.'\t nvas with tono and
pentine aOO lel il dry. Opaque wa ter
k nl 101 brl nl .. or trisl' elfeet. 011<)
artlsl w()!"K" his r;glot
I Ibe whi to I
used Ovt1" toned pal'",rs Or
It <'1\11 be done very bo:.autiful ly.nd
ing effect .1e rubbing yon do
Ihe more $O il is "pe" I
lI owcvcr, paslel 00;11& a grnlny or
d iwn 10 ... ilh, mo:.:! 01 ils chnrm lics iu
ing lhe pastel pret ty much as;,
0\11 rubblng. It can gel $O smoothed OUI
lose! fU Ch" rleter elllrely Bnd ends up as_
or lIllidenl iGablc rnOOlunl ..
Any mcd;ulU 511OO1Id relain S(Jme of .
3<,ler. 11 shollld nol 1001:: lik .. something e!se.
R .. memher, er;';p""'" to app1y
ro bright Ilght.
combincd no!
lo go all lo Ihe hard, evcr, Ihal iS
back yon .Iarte<! , W" II , ",' ,,","
Wll)' _
Note thal thls plinting.is nol
wl"t"CM. It nec<b the few 50ft edges 10
crislllle5S by
118
TI-l E " BLOCKY" TREA TMENT ANO OTHERS
While 1 beUe\'e lhe melhod ol applying pig-
meol soould be lefllo the Individual, mere is no
harm in caUing altenlkm to vario"l trealmenls
which come .. nder tbehead of g<.lncr,\1 procedure,
wi,h a variety of effeel Al t;m($ lhe .ubjcel itseU
seems lo call fOO" a oerUin Iype of handhng 10 be
in spi,'! wlt h Ihe Ihing. EYt:ry a,!ist scel1ll' lo be-
romc afIIieled al 5OfIlCpcriod ,,"ilh a telldency lo
pailll Ihings 100 rouoo and sli(:k 10 givc the vilal-
Ily 10 h, worle tl ... l l", 001 iJ quile una
ware o ..-hal he can do . bo,,1 U. On<! of Ihe he,t
ways 10 give added form and slT\>elure 10
smoal!> forms is the Mblocky \realmen!.
Thl, s achicved mainly by tral1$poslng monol-
OIlO"S curving contnU1$ . nd fonn! 10 a ,.".ies or
slraighl linf!$ and by ;ainting straighl er and JU.I-
ler I,bne.s. Strllngely (.'JIough. tll<! fonn retains its
dcliCliocy. b"t seems of a Itrong'" feeling
of oolk and solldity ,..hen treate<! Ihis way.l"he
plane is camoo as far as possibte in <.lile n tue and
Ihen givt!n OYer lo the next. eare mll s! !le exer-
cised nl'll lo smootb Ihe plancr lOO mnch 0l\C iuto
,he "exl yvu !;u ruund. "!'e he!;!',, ' ,,!; uf tl..,
.hadow Cln he held lairly distinctly a'5 a tone
with an odg<.l jusi beyond tb<! halflOJ>e. The con-
I O<,U"S may be acocnteJ witll hits ollitra!gb.1 OUI-
!ifle. The \-alues lhemsel w:s are hcld 10 tbe true
\-a[ues withoul undue fllT<;illg." 1f you will study
lhe lI.e<:Olllpanying pIlle 1 hel ieY{! Ihis lexl will
betomedeu.
Tho blocky Ircatmenl applie, CSpecillny wen
when fXl!nUn; hca<h, when Ihere ;"
no!. much bone strudw-e, resulttng In CItrcme
smoothlless. Baby be:ads re:spond beautif"ny lo
Ihls IppNICh. U i5 aboul !he only ..... y of giving
extl1l ro a ralher.tick 5ubject. 11 applies
10 rocb. clouds, or almO$! ally form,
alld helps 10 !he phOlographic Iook of
pninting. It is well worth
120
There are other b"e:llmcnls. Orle ls !he
small strol.es fol1owin; crosswise 10 !he
whicl! enhanoos !he sIJuctun.1 a>pe:inllOe
solidiLy. Sucll treatlllenl adds
",l ,ercas painl ing clown Ihe form defincs it
. ha'1,ly ",I th a hard edge ln08 lhe bru. h
lhe cdge of Ihe conlOUT. lt aould be laken
axiom IAAI wa,,1 ic sharp .nd defined,
1I(.TO$S tll(!
lhe edgc.
The blg- or wide-$trOke pailll<!rS usually
up and down lbe formo as Sargenl,
and Sorolla. Wilboul loss of vital lly we
exampteJ of ,he "'CI"OSI-form painle" in
stroke$" In EH<Jre Tito, Chitde Hassam,
Garber, Edmund Tarhen, Zuloag;,. IInd
others. Thls form of has tb<!
;
hi
ar<!l., ,
,
Ihe Impr=iom'lls.
\Ve nlso have wha l. known Al '
tles of lhe is lefl in lhe poainl
is palctte_knifc painting, perhapt lhe
all. whlch can be corr.bined with Ihe
lIeated as an entire approach.
I have gi ven a rew e.umples of hese
menls herc andc1Scwherc i" Ihe book,and 1
Ihey wiU identify tl>cnm:lves 10 y<>u. 1
01 tllese are W<Xtby of expcrimentat ion,
anuro yo" tllal there are many good
e:.ch type.. SlIch tcehniquet can Le
tonal merliwns. It i. iLtere:sting 1'0 tet "p .
Cct and pll-inl jI in Variol.l5 ways, (Ir pi
and inlerprel it in =y wa)'S. Th<! n Ihe
works you, ,IQI you for tbe 1lholo.
120
PAINTING DOWN OR ACROSS THE FORM
o', . ..
......' ""YO' .,.
'N' ""_ ...
.. U' 00.0..,.,.,.'.". ".o,c""U '"0<.
' OO ..... . , ./, O ' "AT
V<N .. ....... "".,. .,. ... ,.
122
122

..
THE TONAL MEDIUMS
A,,-y MIIDI UU which will produce a seale of V!I.[ues
between black and white may be regarded as a
lonal medi um. Such mediums call fcrr a saeen or
balftone pro<:es$ lo reproduce. When' dmw!ng for
rcproouction on clltar paper or ncwsprinl, good
coutrnsl is nooessary. For he roer papen more
$ubtle gradation can be achieved by a fine.
screen. So f yoo UJC a grey Iod:, or auy greys
wlhi" ti,,,, .,i...ture, il ",in he mOO"e upct', lvc lO
reproduce h.n thew-caHed line cut$. The excep-
tions are lhe Ben Day or emftin! screerl, o' a
graioe<! surhoe Iil:e lhe Coquillo board, which
reaJly produC'eS a series of fine hlack dolS which
will reproduce by Ihe Jine cut proces.s.
There ls such a hlng as a highlight ha[flone
whicl> omits an D"eral! $O'een so that !he whi tes
come up purt whi le. Bul this belongs to he half-
tone type.
I shall make a series of subfects 10 Ide"'l f)' tl..,
medium 001)'. 1 suggtft yo u try thcm out. It will
no! be lIccomplished in a day. Evcry mcclium,
hoogh confonning 10 Ihe approaclo of he
Form PrincipIe, will have its peculiar
tics, What you $hould really attempt todo in mas-
lerog n nlooium is lo be ablo !SI lO slalt your
planes and vl1ues COITe<:tly. Then learn lo make a
sharp JOftedge. Leam lo achieve a sofl grada-
lion of tone when wanloo, or a crisp and blocky
01 JCUlpluralclfect. Lcnrn to placeacccntsor ligbt
and darl<. llIal saH t1lCre is in any medium, but it
Is nol 11$ eas)' as il 5Ounds. I lhink wash and waler
rolor are just aboul the mOSI dimeult mediums of
aU, hullWO of !he masl beautiful when handled
",eU.II isodd thal masl artists slarl in water oolor
as HuI choice. 11 seems lo me tha! erayon, char-
roa}, carbon pencit, dry bru.lh, and slnilar me
diums, all Oler mueh simpler opportunity 10 ex-
IKl'$$ yourself in tone. Then tho step lo olbe.
124
I)'pes will be much easier. Bul do whal
in the way of medlwn" lhey are all
periment " 1Ih. and 10 "elp you /lnd
I do nol believe in isolating Oll(!
working in Iha! alone for Iha rest
Prollciency in one hell)' in
pencil has helped me lo painl, mure
Ibing clse. Cerlainl)' it is casier l O do a
.... wing .... he" )'O" Nl n stale simple
,hadow "'eH in other mediums. Tonal
of the drawing typc a H
as paintl ng. But make up your mind
whale thing Is all ono, and thal .... ith
and pr:actice)'Ol' <'<In say whal you are
In any medium. Thnt b Ihe way II
.... m broaden your .... hole srope el pktorial
and no! onl), keep yOIl going looger, hui
you unronllned pleas ure in yourwork.
Sud> "cuatl!t)' is not n=rly lO
might appeaT, wMen !he furnhraental
1lplled. 1I is rea1ly quite thri llir,g lo Inm
5ubJeel [rom one medium lo anolhcr.
lhe prelimillllry work ma)' be done in
dlum, ",hen Ihearti!lt
mental s, then transposed to
eGn5cious tlrart.
11Iere ! no harm in studying , ., _ mi"
men in vurious mediums, even copying I
practlce u"ly, uf cou,..,) if you [eel !hat
leam JOmethlng thereby. But anything
from tife is your own, aud 1 realJy beBe"e iI .
far Ihc beS! plan. YOII aTe hen developing
OWJl approach from the Ilart, and it may
lo be something most dl5tincti"c and
Cet$Ome lonal medium,
thlng on yOUJ own wilh Ibem, he very
ean. Tochnique has a ...... )' al !al.:ing care or '
Your case will be no exceplion.
.. , .. /
;,.., ... ,
"'JI .A. " .. 'C.,.,.. ' ~ O . ' .... /toC. COV' """, _. O'VU 'HL
.... ., ,. MAl'" '" < .. " "". 0.. , ... " "'" "". " "".
<"'''''''' """,,. " .... ... ......... . , , ~ ~ . " " .... C' ,,..
.,
",. '0_'. "' ....... ,, , .. ', ""'.., "
. .
'''''POP. M'" "._ ...... ",.0.
CHARCOAL ANO CHALK ON GREY PAPER
,,",onu_.., ""'O"I("D OUT
, .... "...L'M'M .... V c ...... C041
nUOy M"'" ""JVLT 1M" MO .....

P,,' MT' MG, 10
126

126

GREY PAPER WITH OTHER MEDIUMS
~ . . , , . o , IS .. 6.IT .... 0 1Ii' .. E<;T1 ...... -O<l PL ..... II NO:; ROUQtU,ft(FTC .. V AN O <:OMPOST" O l-l S.
IILOW_Pe.NCII. .. C'lAFt<IJ!T.I'!''''''''O'' ~ O R ... eo"!! /KI.TCiI ..
\ 27
,
CARBON PENClL AS A TONAL MEDIUM (SMOOTH BR1STOL)
(
\
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o .... ",. "" ", .. ' "'.I!'" U M ' '' R
,,-,urT"-""'O". Lf ,T
,,. .. .,,, "," .. D OH J"'100TH O '''';. ' ><Y ""PU.' 'N I T"
.... V 0. .. , .. yy 00' " .... 1 HIt p''''>w' .. '' 'NI>( "'Aol O".r>< 001l!
, ,
rTR"'THMOI>." 1I""fTOl.. W I TI14 OIXO .. .. 790 "",,,(IL.
TH"-" " A"-" "'wo nI.. HI..,C uf WO\.. .... - CAReo"
("ReON P""C' L C lv ,,- , A w,e" RANa " 01' """V.EJ" "'ITI< coo .. '
...... COk/ ", .. " NO ""N". "'''' >< tH" ' T r..>< c: a .... L...1! N'" 1"0" .... <>'0-
OVeT' ON. av ALL "'" .. ,,, IM"-NT W,T" TH,r ", ,,- o'v'" .
YO" 'N',-' P , .. " YO"" ,,, ...... v,.y 01' " ' '''',"/'/"'0'' , .UT "'e,,<>
' T AA"-" .... ., D' ".CT, IT Ir ,.OT JU ", .. .. 'CU'-T Te "" .. OL" '" wM".
128
CARBON PENCIL ON REGULAR BR1$TOL
"' .rJ"'''<.an PUNo.! "" .
. ... ,,"' .. COOVro ..
>'OO. OUTL'''./" A.J """UoOT/.""""

..... UJT TURM "".N. JI,U r
..... .,... .....
I<NCl.O.I'I..,C
,
A ''If. r,;M t
t,,: ti'" f
129
,
CARBON PENCIL ON lLLUSTRATION BOARD
-
130
",,"<>N
< ~ ... p::o'" 7 90
<- ' " .. . ~ T ~
.. " .... ...
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WASH IS ONE OF THE BFSf MEOIUMS FOR REPRODUCTION
---
... -
-
....",_ .. -
-"'-_ ... '-
" .
.... __ ...... -.--......
. . .... ...... '_ .... __ rt,
..... -.n _-. ........ _ .... "" ......
...... _--
_, _._ ,'-.... .0 ....
, .... , ....... _T,,"'" ...... CT'''' .. .., _Do.n' _ .... _ 'T.
WAlH PRAWIN"G.
...... OF ....... .. ,r "'EIIl'OU 'H' ...."...
,." " YOU "" _'M" "'-U ..,., .......... ;KUM.
n If ,.,,0 o. , ... """ ..... , .. c, ...... .. U. O'" "'11
.... ... TM" Pu.Ma .... " ...... .l!.OCa.
"' .. . aovE 1 _ _ "10 "",souc ... -.oC"
''''OOUI , .. YO'-' "" ...... ",u ..
".w" .. " "0'-''''' ....... ''' 0 ............. cc. , """",-,e.,.
133
n""" ""'-"" C ...... ulI.V. WH' U I'I()no.,.
,MQ "" .. .". .. "IOr'l _ ,..,.. ......... "'-";&. w_ ..
rH""D(",,,, W .... AIK>-l _ 00< .. O'f /V ...... "' .
' .. IIIIG*" ' N"" " ,._e. ' ''' 0 "",,, ,r CfUJP
fQ>'lf C"O .... ,"1_"'" '' OUT O"-IIY
_ .... ,"'" .. "" .......... e ........ "",,"T ... "OIlLO'l"""<:'
' .. _ .... '0'<" ........ "'." "000 """,,Cu>U"". O" , m ....... .
.... .. "''''00 .... elu ___ ._ AH" P"I<CT"'I .... U,eLa,
HOWARD PYLE
FORTONATl:LY r am aMe 10 give)'OU, in hi o>wn
wards, he general theory 01 appmlch "scd by
Howar,l Pyle, as il ",as given out 10 his sludents.
It has been copied and handcd do",n from artists
01 one generation 10 another. 1 musl frankly admit
ha! JI pused through mao)' haudli, so here is
nothing to verily ils abSGule authentlclly, bul In
il : as Prle himself wrote JI down. Mr
ropy "'as givcn 10 me sorne twenty years ago-I
canIJO! now recaE by whom. Sillce PyltI ha. h<len
revcretl as Ihe "Father of American Illuslratlon,"
and sinee he ga"c Ihis out frce!r, 1 bcJicvc ji is
proper ha! it shO\lld be recorded pcrmancnlly
f()r Ihe snke 01 he cmh. There may be very feY.',
if aRi, olher existing copies by nQW. there are
bul few o his st"dcnts living. Unless Ihey !ke.
wise s<;:1 down his JI could be losl !(Ir.
tlVer. 1 leeJ fortunate in beng aMe thus to (lMs
011 his woros. and 1 assure}"OU that you are equal-
Iy fortunale in having them.
AS TO "l<t.nn: .. 'lTARY INS"rnOCT'ON
AS TO OOWH -'NI;> f OHM
Light-AU cf /lo/ure are nl6de visible
to he sight by he light 01 !he SU/l qhilling upo'"
Ih e",. The <emll u IMI by mellM 01 !hu we lee
the ctllc"s and texturu DI tite ooriow obec/3 o{
!!<ltuTe ..
F,om chis m.!ly heseen that color and ter/UT"
are th" property 01 llght and thal IMy do 1101
enter (he property o/ shodow. Fo .. shadow is
MIkM" in dllrlme.ss II,ere i$ "eitl,er form IIOT
color.
Henu foom IInd color be/mgdisfl ncuy toIlghl .
Shadow-Ar the objecl iUum;natetl by he $1111
is nlOTe or less op<lque, so "'MI> the light 01 the
$1111 1$ owcured by that CM s/oadow wlti<;h
resul/3 is more or les3 black ami opaque, belng
lUu",irnJted on/" by ti .. light re/fecled into I1 by
.surrollnding Qbem.
By oiltuc 01 8/utdow all obects o/ .
.$1"tme form or wOpt!, for ii there were no s ()W
011 wou1d he " ",,1 gu.re cf llghl . color IInd fe: ..
ture. : .. But ",hen the shadow OppiIiU$, 1M
ecl takllS lorm ond $hape.
lf tI,e edges 01 an obuct ore rOtlnded. !h6ll .

ed;$ 01 the sltado", lmcome rolcened; If llIt
ed;6S 01 an obect <de then t/w
corrcS"Jrmll ng/y acurc. So, by meant al lhe 1.
ne$sor ac .. leness 01 the $hmk>w, tM wundne$$
{JI he SlJlid obut is made t'nlltdfC$t.
Hence, U wo"ld /oUOtl> 1},tJf. tite pTOQiTl<'
slwdow is lo prodrlce torm /lnd shape, and ilial
1" itul! ;t p<Js.!l;SfCS na p01li ll1" at
imprl.lMWII Qf colar or tcxlureo.
l /",ve trled 10 sto/e the$/! tU)(l fMIS buawe
t/w9 are Ihe 1000ndation uf /lU plcture making:W
;n the co .... espnndi"g mltnic seplltMion o{ liglit
""d dork. tite mimlc Image 01 Nature is ITIG'lk
moa/len. So he junctioa 01 aU art
be lO teach the pltpil to arudyze
Sepamtll thll /lghtsfrom t/w darb, "tJt
but mentalb;. That wMch a Pl'pI! mon neech
the wginning is nol /1 $!jstem 01 arhlrdtlj ro
and mctlwds lo' imitaling Ihe 01 (ln ab o.
lhal uhlcl, he new to be taught js he
"ndyng lig/I$ 1100 8badowr "mI cf teprmnlf
tite'" <l<:icwdingly.
1. Haljlan6$ l/tal corry /In ;mpt6$Siotl uf '1i
IUTe ond color sbou/d. be relegaud to tr,e
ol/ight. a>ld $holdd be rrwde hrighteT hao
appea, 10 be.
2. Halfloneg thal c<my an impTe$.SWn 01
should be Telegafcd to be prom"nce 01 shatW.
and 8h01,ld be mud, darker Iban //wg appeat"
b, .
136
This i.t the #CTeI cf simpli<;ity in arto. Tire ?</l!"
iOn mlght be reprosomed l 'u.l$:
136
HOWARD PYLE
,

form and s:oJldily)
Halflone-RdlecUOtl-
3 ,
S .... d_
1
wU;h arll ... :rnCt! tMt what he ;,
lIOt drvdVrylme I.t the nec.--y
... qf which-and r:mly by med''''
'""y be alf ,., ffUlnjfut /he u-m.
lll<lgination.
huI', in 11 . ., can .... ction, that
ceme la ..... o", olway$ 1/(1 crmfwed
" "00 quaJtin cf Ilght and Ihadow, ond
1IlJ!ftO"llU hu be
137
come lO oonfirrnd, !Me it tau. oftentimu_
era1yen,., 10 teach them anolym "no;! $implifica-
tion, yet without this power al ana/!l and.
plific4tlon, 11 Is, aJI 1 sayo impo#tbk lo produce
"00 tru/y P'rftct any wori otart. For lhat..eparo
/ion ir fundamenlal lo th, "W of Natun, IInd u,,
ta it bcm " 11 hobit of Ihought, no
worA: of arl eran b. prooru:ed.
It is sugges ted that you ",ad and lerud Ihis
many l imes for yow Own Whi[e!t
bw:Imes perfeetly clea. in time, J, by u-pefimenl.
ha"" found lbat il taies a considerable perlad lO
regisle. in one's .nind as lo actual prac:tioe. That
this js no! unusual is verified by Pyle' own $tam'
Ihat JI oftenlimes several years" be-
fore tI l:s fuUy oomprehenc!ed.
Becouse o Ihe profoundneu of thit theory, and
the WKpmence al most tud<!nls in Ihe .pplioa.
lion of il, 1 shall presume 10 ao. rry the expbuurtion
of il somewh.t further, ... llh due apologles and
with the reservalioo that IUCh interprelation may
be al fanlt hecau.se aE bd: of comprehensian 00
my own pul.
COMMEt'\ffS ON HOW ARO PYLE'S THEORY OF APPROACH
HQwud Pyle il <kad, bul he lclt this treaslln:
11,,],1,,<1 nim. It i$ perhaps Ihe g.ealesl beques!,
be)''Ond Ihe ",eallh in " is painting<, tlul our erafl
rould b"e h.ad ool_-ed upOII il. 1I is par! al hlr
gre21 mioo, ",heh ha. had rucb a profound inf!, ..
enCf) upon Ame.iC1ln ill us trotion. If il may 5eenl
ro Ihe young a.ti"$ of todly that has
.... "" l rerHls. let us understand Ihat
lhe diff""eo<'t! dQe1 no! lie in any eru.nge oI Ihe
fuooamEnlat Ih""gI11''''' has here S"en uso The
, hillg! he has observed and se! do"'o rOl w; are
without question basie tmth! , and 11 is Ir"e Ihal
good pictures CIIn be b ... ilt in no Qlher way. Time
CAnllOt dJa/'e !hose basie lruths '''Y more \han
lime cah the oI naluce, ff)l they are
one "nd Ihe $o1n,,,, If t!>e.e l. auy uPf"""" ,Ha",-
ence belwcen his \YO.\: and lhe l'fcsent t.end, Ihe
t1iHcrenre in eh)nges in concept or pre$ellla_
tioon rather Ihan In cbanges al wor\:ing 1<oowl-
edge. In oor day .ingle bead agai..,1 a ,,-hite (Ir
lO,,",! bacl:gro""d may be C'OI""tnMld as a ..
l1lustrabm, bnt as .,'ch il is simply a shori cut ID
eA'ectiv.ncss, wilh masi of Ihe innni te "".e. Ihe
grC41 h ..... al alldu"lion, dw.rnctL't'_
i$lie of his OWII ellor!. vi.tuaUy al.l5<'nt.
There is not ", ,,eh latitud.. Id t Jor !he fullesl
ment to erafl, any TI'IOIl) than it "uiId be
10 omlt the basie ingrcdicnts of, !.ay, a
piere of rr.etal.
Ladc of Ip;I/'e, ('fe, .. ",.., of productioa
the need of 11", slartling, the difFerent, of sIMa-
producing effecb, ha,,,, had thei .
introducl i m Di the c:mdid camera and hi
... ily of tho. eOUrn' ra SO "
more Iawude, hu also had an efl'ttt. Bu
product i< no !.>ene< than his, not eWn 11$
Su<:h haye not 1=,>1 Ihe "alidi;t "
his pr illciple$ nr tl,cir value to th<: artist. ln)!id.
the good lIJllltralOlli today are 1m prin<iP!-
walking around in ncw dothes.
Ho\\-ard Pyle'$ mind "'3$ SO analytioal, SO
""I""blc d S""'ping trulb. Ih. , !.io theory
down al'peared oolll[lletcl)' ob,wll,! 11
lm. Yel 1 thal in motit cases ii il d!f!icul 11
grasp tlle big'ltSS of it in actual praell'l', 10
hape 10 He with an,1l1ing like!he uOOerst
he speahol. 1 admit I h;o.,'Oj read it pe:hapsaliia-
d.ed at ''lIrious pe.iod of pe<Sonal w.u-
lioe. and ti'1\(! theno JL"eOU tQ be .
mering 01 meaning which Comcs OIJt ot !he Jpp"
cat ioll l haye made of it. Perhaps ycu
fost<: r thu l . For tbose wbo do not , r oH .... hcr
exp.essbll whell alJ Ihe RIler q\lalitiel of t:(Im- guidauC<': 11.$ 10 what was hil fu 11 illlenl and
positioTl, 1000. aud pattem,light, ",lo., and tex ing. My interpretation is. 01 CO\ITle, subjo<:
IU"" ar"de!eled fn)rn i11uslrlltion. J C11llnol belie,'., argument, and I urge you. ti )'0\1 belie,"" it i
iIl ustralion <'11. " bold mud> upans:oo. progress, rttt. to r.'IIIl ke your _ .... Or, you lI':"y q
OT bellormenl 1"""" 'J1.o" illu.t",,,," whelh". il need s interpretulioll al att But ho.
having Ihe abllily 10 express tl'lllh in bcautlul wo.ked wil h student!:, I know th" dange. in
temlS r.1lone, rolor, and de$igll ,.;11 al"'ay' be suming tr.al faeb whieh s .. cm quite
thc Olles sooght OUI, and will Itllnd head and yOl1 al al] ins tructor, wilh a bacl<gro-.II'Id al
slM)\,kIm aoo..e lhe Icthargie camel'll oopyhl, Ot . ien<;e, ",i lJ be eqUlllJy obvioo.l5 ltudeo Ir!
lhe mere irnitalo< 01 hi.! neighbor's product. Ollr lact. be .... ""en beliew he undcntands
interesl in HQW;lrd Pyle is nOlfo. hil hil; own dro.t provcs he does no!. The da )
$Cmal g.eallll,sl alone, bul a1so rOl tI,e greal thingl of a lruln comes with ils actual applicalion,
he f tood fo.-. I'or sheer draltsm",uhip, keen 1Il . lbe day 11 11 hcard , And it ""lu.p in _u
sight ncbander portrayal, the ser..fe of!he tira. wilb self.discovery of its me.iU in applieat
ITI(Itic, 01 roooc\, the ahiti!)' 10 tl i. trt:l tise begins ",it" Ihe stalcmeut Ihat
'el his &gtJ.rel ;nlo Iln a"d Ihings a.e made visible by Ihe ligllt or the
environmenl, t ml,l$t l;e honestly t dmined tbat shiniDg "pon them. This iI 1101 mcan\ liternlly,
!he. e illIOone 10 equal him today. NOt>e 01 these e\-en a c\oody day is1ighleO by the un pellt
quaJiliEs can be di$pensed wilb .... ithout detri- ing!he ..bite clouW, but !he effcct is tot:ally
138
quaJities can be with .. ilhoul detri- ing!he clotJds, bul Ihe effccl ls totaU)' ,
138
COMMENTS ON HOWARD PYLFS THEORY OF APPROACH
imlt rom th:.t produccd by fuD hrighl sunlighl. ",ifi prcsent a vcry d iJIereot color aspect lo lbe
.III! this is a dill'crenl ql1aJity o liglol, Ihe aa me lano;HClpe Ih"n ",JI nlidday 01" grey dny.
hlrr,ntofllght and shailowwmbecorrcspond- "11 bings wil "" tha light will parlake af alld
Thesc of his we ac!d to their local rolor Ihe color (jf lhe ligh!. Too
alt malyze. Aga;n, 1..., aS$ume!l lllat we are intd- soil Iba, ...,.,1<1 be a neutral groy on JI. dandy day
ellOllgh 10 re;lSOn thal auy ligl,t product$ mar beQ)mc red-,r.mge ;n thal ligh!. nw: MIs
.w;n, en form, whcthcr il 00"1"" from the sun, aud foliage become goldeo, ... OO losl In d eep violet
acandle. or a molIem ek><:trie bulb. He is SpeIIIc:. .hadow, tI\., t appcared blue.gn,cn againsl
in very generAl tcnns,and we muS! blue .hadow. I hc1icve r'rle "tended thal we
analyu our 5uhject for [,,,th< alld ahlde
' e:.:ce>l ion lo his stlllcmelll . by wha! we fj nd 10 be tr\Ie. He "'0IJ1d, 1 (1m sure,
In !he ..... Xl paragraph he 51;1.1 [hal color an<! cnoourage liS h'l sh.ow all tbc p"ri tyof color with-
do 1101 enl.". lhe property of sh:ulow. n the ligio! thlll '" consistent wllh truth, and
,
.too Iitcrally, Ihal ",o"ld ,"can Ihat "'OOld "'ant 1.'5 l O il in Ihe ligbl w bere il be-
fI'I . re devold of rolor 3l>d lexture. 11,,:n all longs. 1 am e1:lul\ !ly cena!n he wO\J ld have
\\'s ,,"ould be neutral grey or Liad. " Ild per- us SC(: 5hadow R!i it arpea .. lo tU, ami oons lllent
IMU)- Ibt. 1'0 p. ove he doe:s not iI I"rally, wilh lhe rolor a' we see it. NOIh;" g can so dull
01 rellectcd hghl,.rl<I admits lhal ligh! oo. elfoll I S lack of vWon coupled ...,ilh blilld
propcrty of 0010. 11.00 ICIture. Therefore adherenoo IOformula. 1 wO<Lld say to anysludenl :
ed I;gb! can pro;ect rolor aR<:! !CJC!ure into If ya" <:aullO! re<: Ihat whic/ is pr<lSl:,hcd in a
lifadow. Whal 1 heli el'c he w;1 nls ti.! lo tlnder fortr\ula, yrn., ci ther are nol rcady fo. it 0., as fa.
is tba! ooler and 1""lure uro mosl as you nJXl <:oncernod, fonnuIa is _.lhl=. Fo.
enl wl,'n!he I;gh!, and Ihose qual;t must your vislon ami illl crpret.1lioll come of
.1 ooffi or . ubord innted wllCll ,mtering . hao anything el..., in d.! 1.erminng yO\l' pI:.et! in 3rt.
lhe Ina;n funct iOll of ,hadow is not 10 Whal yo" do in the hcginning ronl1"". ncith.".-
th.yi .... presslonof oolorortextur .. , butprl- Ihe right or wrong of what y O\! $tllnd for o Your
y 1(1 define form, My ronlention, . ubseqnenl cJ.:,elopme-nt aud perooptlon will de-
will be taken up latcr-thal oolol"iHcduccd termine Ihat. rl is weJl lo give caref"l atlcnt ion
fIf!,ell5ily i" lhe shadow, is backed up by Haw- 10 al! i,t:I.uc Uon amI give a b l. trial. And il 15
f!1Il'S OWn theoJ}', whicll sbookl b ring oon wdl, .Iso, 10 give yoor vis\on e,'..sy enance, un-
to die reader. TlM: Ioo:al rolor, in . eduocd dc .. tand ing thal you do L101 a ooI"tion al
''Y, b ob'iously ",ihin the shadow. A lhe oulse! of iny problem. r o" a.e uot in a pos!-
b iI.ed in cHbe.- light o. sru. dow, but admito lion lo rondulO" ifl$truClion wtho"t trial.
llII#iHs brlgh lcrred in Ihe lrghl. Al,o, thal shadow Pylc ells 115 thal halltonc5 belonging lo tlw
inOne nocd in color by Ihe rolor of relleeloo IIghl should he pai nled lighter than Ihey aPIX'ar
' u fur c:cample ti", blue of the sky. HowaM to lle, whi!e lhose n lheshadowdwuld be painled
<loes nol queslion Ihis In hls-own wo rk, antl daner. 111\$ is (lerfectly true. Recogniting lhe
lIS lo make a similar analysis. lim;tod mugeof val"e 101 <)u, dlspost' l u rompa.rcd
S_ tilo visual qualilies of color and rurboc with Hghl, " -':: sce Ihal it Is no! pos,iblc lo
,1 lo Ihe nMure and rolor quaH. set dowll the full mnge of 10 d9rkncss
f \'arGus of ligbt, it follows bolh that may In nature. For the pictc>rial elfect
'aud $hadow are d..pendcnt upon ligh! and iti:; IU {ar as possiblc, lo hoId lhe whcJ1e
ligb t. plus the1r color inllueore On Ioe!ll nu.ss o. contrasl of light Y(lmI$ shadow, alld lo
I rOl' Ibe pictoria.1 colo. " 'e interpret o rile keep them in simple mass relationship. Olhe ..
or ()fange light of Ihe Ia!e afternoon iun thcy may 00c0mc hopelcS51y los! in ou.
139
"
/Ior lhe pictorL,1 color we iJlte.p' ct. Tlle kccp t ~ m in simple J\la5S relationshlp. OtIw.rwise
or omnge lighl 01 Ihe late al terllOOn 5un they ala)' become hopeleuly Ion in OUr short
139
COMMENTS ON HOWARD PYLE'S THEORY OF APPROACH
r.mge. The subject can euily be<:ome
OI,Lt" from Iack of cont ... Jt, OT muddy
beco\1Se lhe light and shndow are too c10se in
,-alue. Pyle is $Ilying lhat w" canno! hope to >aint
pidun:s in !heir troe aspecl il we disregard Ih",
natural troth. convineel "S that he 11
righl. If you do 0101 beIiC'o" Ih"" Iry il fOl" )'OOr-
,ell. Th" overan rclationship of Iight 10 sh:tdow
is mueh more tn\e and importan! lha" the parHeu-
lar upect o a val"", whieh, if follo\\-ed aocun.tely.
would rob U$ of Ihe f"""ling of 1igb!.
S"PPORl we compare tln underuJlo$OO nega-
tive and prinl with a prope1"ly expose<! pairo nw..
ur\dtruposed se! does nol bring Ihe \'alues in Ihe
ght out bTigh! enough in Ihe brack_and_whit ..
ICQlc, nor !be d.rk! low et"IO<Igh;!he effoct is d"lI
aOO lifeless. 1I therefore laeb propcr contrasl of
light 10 shadow.
11Iere is only one poinl he makes lhal 1 have
neve. been quite . ble 10 wilh. This '" tllal
sbadoM' are more o. !ess opaque, not being l! fulJ
light .nd lghled OIlry by ",Heded light. My con-
lent ion is that juSI !be oplOSte Os truc. n.e lights
are opaque and the shadowa are transparent. My
argumenl iIi thal anything in lhe Hghl stops he
ligbt and reBects ;1 bed: al you. The only time
ligbt is trampiU"cnl is when il can penetrate the
material, suoh as water or l>Iher liquido glau o.
other tn.ru:parent material. \Ve ca.not seepasl or
beyond Ihe lgh1 011 opaque objoects; Our visi<m
i fOIl$ al lhe lighled 5urface and rests
opposi le is lroe 01 sha(\oW!. \Ve d osee '

h..-ing heen ca1 by.
effecl of lgh!. Orle ls a perfect
othcr, any way you take il . .out t
Ihe iUUSlon 01 myslery .nd da,kne!!l. i
of $unace and form lying deq> within i
slill trnnsp .... "rCM within

140
tmnsparency can
nol say "op:aquc," 50.1
oper>-which in i!se!f is
grcaln<!:S!.
The opporlunily 10 stu<.ly Howard
Is limi ted, $ulC>e il
may nol have lhe prvilege of being
lt . I do not ti.,,; ",,", ;;,
be JOO.Ired 10 be induded
h ... m. d,,, o,
PerlUlp5 ro
hls worl:, evCOI roughly.
140
TONAL SKETCHES OF SOME OF PYLE'S PICl11RES
- -
-

141
THE REUTlONSHIP OF TONE TO COLOR
Ikf"", lcaving the .ubjeo:l ollOt>t< ,,,,0.1 t:ltllliS
lnto cobr, \here are Ihings of irnportanoe 10 be
ronsidered. FirSI is the of looe lo
rolor. 11 yoll will Ihink of he bl.ock_andwhile
,-lile sale, Wn try Ihln);ng of a roklr arranged
In he mIln"",," frolluomething as light .$ we
('3n make JI clown to a \"aloo almos! as darle u
hlad<. )'011 will 1l1>dmllnd ",hat 1 meanl by
"value: or is sometimes refcrred lo as "Ione
\"alue"" In color. Later 00 I shall atll.:rnpt 10 show
}'OU enelly how such a _le in '''''''y cok>< Cf,1l be
acoomp!ished. For the presenl , lel :!le say ha! il
.... iIl be more lhan a mIni:!" of lakirg a color and
Iightcning j \ wilh white. CoJor starts In !he mld-
dIe of Ihe wlue $Cale. wil], Ihe strongesl
b..ing J,1Uled il ligh,o"., or mixoo.l ",ilh ...
"10111."1"" lO make il 10 a YihoIe <cheme.
11len todarl:en il .... e ,blrt again al lhe middJ., of
th"SC3lt, and add black, lIS completncnl, or some
addiliol"..al lo Iowet- its val ue. Thal ii why
good rolor 001 SO ea.ly U good blacl< Ro<! whlte.
( i\ were Irue Ihal a ptlle-blu" dre" were sim]>ly
hlue an.:! white mued In Ihe lighl. Nilh Ihe pure
dark hluc in the $hadow. color would be easy. BIlI
we will ma! !his ls "o1 !roe: the paJe..blue
dress l1ako a pale.bl .... dress in il> shadow. the
value bring 10weTed hy sorne means whicl! wiIJ
nOI destroy the of Ihe original oolor-
",il! nOI ,,,.,ke it look 115 though Ihe dres.s ,nigh!
ha\"e been made up of Iwo shade. of bluc.
Wt! ,,"nno! ' (llh" Form Principt.. ulltH
\Ve can ,ender 100m tOlIe!: lruthfully in ooIor, u
we dQ in bllcl: lnd white. The Hesh, lar inlilanee,
is lhe '11M I:indof Resh In ,hadow as il i$ inlighl.
So we caono! palnl lt plnk Besh where (he Ighl
f.lb and omnge flesh wher", i! i$ i'l If
Ihe are lighted up with warnl lighl.
thal u a dif(c", ,,1 matler, for lhen all !he shadows
will be so Itghled. IhroogOOlIl the nbject. Sh3d
ows can becilherw;nmer or oooleTthan Ihe lighl,
a'Ording 10 Ihe conditions wt: are wocl:ing ",llh.
The poinl 1 am trying lo rT\$ke i$ wc camlOt
possibly pul color ;nlo a formula of always being
_and . Every ooIor ,ubjcct imrnel' a $CI of
oondi!ions al light, color, .nd rdected. rolor
142
whlch lT.uSI be adherod t<) ir !he reslllt is

ent such as tite uy and!he SU",
being a lOurce (lf color alld tite
much difcrent!y fmm the "'"ay he .
woukl appellr ir>dooo: in. oold liglll,
lighl.
Color, !hen, is nol somelhillg in '.
lo be lighteood wi!h white,
we are palnting in bJad< ."d whit. l ' w","
do a slud)' 1" 1t1o.cI: at>d whil ... do a
Iro ... Ihe ' tandpoinl of vahte5, we i l
OO! do it beller in color jusi bec=o.ue il is
,-".
what m;J:cS $O IIIlIch lawdry
color work in OUT ,naguin"". [t
upon Ilteeng,.."",r; il lIIust be dropped
bp of the where he Cl'Tor truly
M05t .,1 !he bad ",ffed <."OO1eI t bool
nl( of <>llor ",hen 1''', """"""'$ , ... .n, ,'o
idea as lo whallhe fundamental roJor Imllls
are.
T/u/ rotm rrinclple i.t Imlll t>" roluu.
cannot gd Inywh ...... w;lhO\lI Ihem, .
when painling in rolor Ir0l11
pholO, the fundamental valoos Iha! are
pOOIO ml$l $omehow aOO be gol
do no! mean that the
rate as to that boce.,lJ;e I
appcar bbck i
be pa;ntod bb
lo ooued Ihe
these sh:ldo"", throwing rcfk:cted li&:hl
lights' to bring Ihem 0111 ro tllCiT i
When pholO-< are taken outdoort, the
f:lirlylrueand Ir
I
lure, forget il al once. FIesh can be
almosl any so lhat the value!s
the color ooosisteol wilh the
ments.
Tite besl ""ay in the workl !o Iea:-n
weU 1I5ro1or $ 10 work lrom U".


C()nditions of light, color, aOO r e ~ e c t e d oolor
"
142
TI-lE FORM PRINClPLE APPUED
-'!..
from li le, )'0\1 Me
y take those things beIore
are in nature's colon aud trampose
bladcaoo_whitc wlul!I. You wi.1I find
t . that roo wi U do il
wlll your films and $cnsitiud papero
Iook for Ihe li in the ligl>l aMI
h tbe
compa.-e il wi th
. In this m3nroe\" yOOl \hin\: of
too..e In the ligh! a'I op>O$e<l
in he shndow. They must no! $O
" " .,,, ",p",d 1O$t, hecoming neither
. The lights mllst hold logelber
groU? while the group of shadows
be "'s tcpped down
M
enough so they abo
logetber.
Instantly klentify
: ' Uf Ihe ot ller . Con-
too duk, roo canllot boId !he ",bole
he plcture logethe ..... , <>pro-! to Ihe
elfect or hadow. The s:une Is tl"ue of the
. If yoo let Ihe rofieeled lig!>1$ wllhln lhe
lOO Ilght , your piclure gels mixo;d up
lO!Jes unity and brilliance, rOl" lhe o'er-
"' . ... "' U, ,h"
01 lighl . Note Ihal I do ,1()1 say a
ClOnol be lighler in value lhan
ebe mght be in 11gb!. Plesh, for e.ta,n-
be light..,r In Ihe $hadow (lIOt much )
<hrk l uit would be in he Ilghl . llut Ihen
sult against u....1 Besh in shadow "'"(luId
bladc. TM reWicrW' ip &/ thing, lo
. the ""me 61ways, ethe, In flght or
. TIUlI ,e/ollmo.shlp mw1 RWlintained
this dear, lel U$ you put a
ol polper 011 a board. Ncd 10 i\ you
tones da, ker, and a third two
Ihe $oe((Ind. NO"', you can put
", '" "., it IOW$hadow, bul
143
you cannot cbange lhe ba$1c rehtiOll$hlp of lhe
Me square.s. Thal is what is n"Il!1lIIl by the rea-
tlonship uf Ihnss lo one anotl' er. Now
the squares \Vere tMe<': cubes of !he same
,,.loe . c1aliol1shi}' a, the IMe<': pape' squares. Yon
",-(luld !hell ha.w; 10 lake Ihal relatiof!ship inlO
hght. hatftone. aOO shado",. since)'<'u would be
deaJ ng ",ith soI.u. A.H !he $;des in Ilgbl would
sl ill be IWQ 'parl, the ,ides in halftollo
wO\Ild kccp Ihe same two of $cparatlon be-
I...-ecll o.oe anothe . lhe shadows woult1 al.o
, 1iJ! be two tooC$ a?-UI on each eube. Such rda-
l ionship wQUId be Jet Inlo ono of Ibe liglot ntells;-
!ies ru; described p,eviOl.osly .
The biggesl obslaclc lo good ""OI"k is lhe lacl: DI
consislency in tI,es<! relationships. If you W'O,k
from lire you wlll grRdually seo the I,uth about
val...". I'holOS, howeV1! . espceial1y those in which
halldmen Ourees of lighl exisl. can gel " "00-
ful1y mJIed up in Ihis respect o 'n olher Ihan a
single SOutOO of llghl. Out robes oould gel lo be
3nythillg in value aoo miroo IIp ror rclati(m-
,hipo In Ihe JRUle way, 50 can heaJ$ and dotllCS
and anything elle in Om
Yoo ""'y 1HJ cerlain ,ha! ,elallo"s/Iil' 0/110/,,11$
wlll be mqte wrreGl in ti nat ura! wurce 01 f;ghl
ti""" URy other. Yo" >mIy be certain tlLQ/ il!J01'
puinl ti" natural relatiolo.shfp of oo/ue
lhingr yoo ovill a belte. pICIUftl.
So befo'e tenvng black-and whlle d udy ( in
fad.)'O\1 wilt ne ..... ' luve 11 ), try 13 understand
that 10rm Is lrolh of tone and ' lOthing else. Good
o;oIor is abo ""th of too/! ","1M brightness
of pigment. Thete are 10 many w:ays ro
faults in color .... ork lhal oftell they are no!
npparen!. Sol up a stitl lite. Mue a smalt black-
and-wt. ile sl"dy. l1",n try il in color. You wJlt
thus Imderstand wh.l' am lalking about betler
roan tllJough an)" b nguage at lI1y disponl. You
may beli(l\'e )'<'u are good In eob a OO also in
vnlue relationshlps, but when roo really hegin ro
see Ihese Ihngs lIS Ihey aTe ill Nalnrc. )"ou will
find manyerron In your work. \Ve all do. Corrcct
""lues can make picture have tI' al "quality of
ellislenee. -

J43
PREPARING SAMPLES IN TONE
I have trled lo cover mosl of the tonal mediums,
and Ihe \'arious effeels lo be had oul of eaeh.
However, J am limited In these lo my O\Vn ap-
proach, as you wiD be lo yours. jf yoo will really
make Ihe errorl lo work in as many of them as
possible, yoo will Gnd that ",hat you do in one
really does help yoo in another. You win eventu-
aHy filld youoeU doing the same things in any
medium- thnl is, you will pul into ea.ch all the
undcrst3nding YO'" have of values, dtawing, and
othe. q ualilics. Your work wil! tl"Ike on an individ_
uality all your 0,,"11, which \ViiI be evidenl in any
medium.
There is room for good peu.and-ink men, and I
am quite sure tha! Ihis med ium is roming back
very strong. There Is not half enough good ehar-
cual work, or carbon-pcncih .. -ork Thetc are only
o few really good bbck-and_white-wash [hulra-
torso BLock-and-while oil wiII olways be practical
and desirable. Pcrhaps you can work in a rom-
bination of mediurns to produce a new Dnd un-
usual e ffect. Dry brush is oue of the ooming mc-
dilJms for newspapers as ",eU as magazincs.
Ooe Ihiog 1 would like lo impress oontinually
upon every reader of this book: There is nO espe_
cial way Ihat iUustralion ls supposed 10 be done.
OccasiorutlJy an art diredor wilJ dIag oul anolher
man's work andsay to you, "Now, this is After
things are all finished and approved, il is very casy
ro say, "Do illike Bul il 'JO" do une thal is
tiked, romOOnC will he lelling the nexl fellow lo do
it yo", way.1 repeat : There Is nO bener way than
Ihe ,,""ay IjOIJ. do i l best, and Ihal is bollnd lo he
yo", way, with your own laste and abilily al
work,
In theprcparation or .samples, do not base your
work on pidllrt!S by olhet arlisls. There is notb-
ing wrong in working rmm almosl flny pholo-
grnphic copy for samples as long as Ihese an.l nOI
lo be sold. The are full of mo.lerial
whleh may be used in this way. nut it is belteT 10
lake your OWll photos, or use your oWn model,
and wor).; up samples from these. If you loo).; at
nalure you certaillty can can whatew:r yoo do
your owo, aod it is by far the bes! policy.
A few good saml'les wiII make a better i
sion than a 1m of mediocre ones. Try not 10
"'-o samples very mueh al; ).;e. Two Of
Tious types 01 heads are enough. They wil1
what you can do. Babies an<l chiWrcn al
roake good samples. Mo,t 3rl direcloo ha
hard time Ilnding artists who can do tMm
Don'! make great big samples, with lruge
ages to open 011 the art directors time.
portfol;o thal can be opened easily by unl
nOI something that witl be done up in ya
crackly brown paper, to e1utter up bis place.
is irritaling, Ir you carry canvases, have
framed ligh!!y and nea!!y. A single piewof
galed board ticd nround them js best.
For sllbjects, try hard 10 Sgure whal y01.lrlY
I'cctive dient \YOuld be most He1y 10 use. S
,,""ork, u.oleM appl cable lo rus regular needr;
nol inleres! hin>. especial1y lile drawings. rr
lake minute flnd careful peneil drawings an!
as sa"'ples. Peneil clra\Vings, unless prncticall
rcproduction (meaning good blacks. !lO!
shiny) lIl"(! bad. However, penen dmwing:-:
mitte" as layout Or romposil;"nal work, or
mughs and sketches, are excellent. Bot USo!! .
fat black-looking penct il you want tu i
him. The ",ork should look as il it were
ensily fast .
f1 you use a mediom thal rubs, be sure it is
or pul a sheet of ovcr it. Mal you.
dra""ings and rnake the'" as neal and elean :os
sible. Have your 113m .. mnd addrcss on lite .
of every sa' ople so thal if an arl director
hold il, Ihere will be nO trouble in 6ndi.og Y1
in rlurning ;1. I ha\'e seen a man lose out
order simply becnuse Ihe dirc<:lor forgot
W3S and thercfore roold look him
e.pect him lo remember names: he is too
wilh everylhing clse.
Tbe bes! of aH is for good
girls. Characler subjects are aIso gond. Jf you
10 \YOrk with square or compositioll31
inelude sorne as .samples. Ir you 'cel you d,\
do Ihem well, stick to heads, figures, aoo
nettes. 1f intere:stcd in .\1illlife, dJaw wme
- -- -T --- - -' , ' --- -, ,,. ,, , . .. " ", J -_-v _ _
nature }'ou certaill ly can can whale\'er yoo do
your own, and it is by far the best policy.
144
do Ilem "",l!, to heads, 6gul"e$, ami
nettes. 1f interestoo in sl ill life, draw sorne
SUBMI I 1 ING SAMPLES
anfibiog x.chged-something thnl looks as ir
I:wmst;lling 11 product, not JusI a "ase of 8owers.
1, or a few books and sorne eyeglasSC:$ .
.... f?od produre is IO$CIc an aeh,ul product
}advffiised and make you.r own venion of
ring mustratioo for il. YOIl e>n b y oul
ad as a rough. using the C(lITect nam(!
Iogolype. JI loob busifle5$li ke 10 Bu
in the OOok we are go;ng ;nlo lhe preparo-
f ""'OI"k for Ihe various Ilefds or illustraliou.
esl you Ilnish lhe 0001.: beforo you gel too
.ID gel ;UIO actual ....orl.:, if }""OtI are nOI
in it.
always believed Ihal wl.en you are in
pkse ollhe cornmercilll Iype or ,,"ork, )"VII
d h.aw, a wealher ere ()Ul l or he nen. Pero
u are already cn.ployed. Kcep making
I aoo beltcr samples. no maUcr what yoo
iIoing. They will come in handy and may
r a10ng dghl in yollr O"'., place. by leuing
tmployen know ",hal you ca" do beyond
egular job. If you want 10 be an illuslrator.
etn be working al il al! tlw: lime in your
,Iitlle, going 10 sehool. experi lllenling willo
pr:actici ng all you can. Jf )'Ou hllve good
'11 ready .... hen opportuoity koocks,)_
go up rast . If you ha"!!" 001 lakell lhal utno.
t!e,.you wilr 001 be Ihoughl of as beillg ready
'!Ir"iIlg more lhanlhe Job ,." u are doingreg.
Mi
y
mcu $Iay in mediocre jom bccause Ihey
really done Jiule or nolhing 10 gel up 0111
. Your ,,"llples!Ve salesrnen. lf yon have
turnoo down al a place, ... how up agan in
r01h5 ",ilh sorne IU)W
11", VI sOOwing your SIlmpl", a round, you
lhe,. eauso [ittte fa\"or;lhk reaction al lhe fin!
al placcs, boUer gel rld of Ihem and
. es. Cood work is Hked, and b<ld work d $-
"n almusl all places. Do not kc.'I.'Jl showillg
,(hat bu fnu,kly been o:msidcred had by a
presentalive art [,uyers .
. g in is largely adaptablity. emnled you
ibility, it iS a matter of adjusting Ihu abilily
lo a purpose. That wil l be lrue or cverything you
ever sell. 1 am Jure lha! motI yollng ans{$, if lbey
really lhoughl about jI, OOl.lld be mueh betler
salcsmcIl Ihan Ihey IIppear 10 be. Jf yo" wished 10
seU a man a suil of clotbes you would nol bring
in In Ice 00.:. Bul I h a,c.seen aspiring young a.l-
im lake Ma yaro or pansi<:s: or sllbjeds equal1y
inappropriate, Ilf()und lo all Ihe importanl ar!
tl iredors;. Tbere iS a place for calendars, fashion
TlIwiugs. pol'ler1, dramalic iIlustraliQns, prctly
girk;. foodstulIs and slilll ile, childrcn. or alnlOSl
anything 10u want to do. But ma1.:e il A good
sample diO be wrong o.. righ! aeo::wding 10 where
il is shown. A had sa mple will neve< be , 'OOd 00
maller whe,e shown.
Try 00( lo work too smal!. Mal.:e Ihe sample
as imprcssi"e as is compatible wirh COl\vcllience
in carrying. Tiny heads have little arpeal. Makc
)"wr s.ample f, om o nc and I half 10 tw" limes
lhe probable .ize of "ny final reproduction-
larger "m in the case of painti llgs. Preselll
neither b.oadsidCi !lOr poslcards. Wo,k on good
gOoOd brutcl Qr i11""lralion board,
never 01.1 lhin CfUmply paper, ext:<'!pl io lhe case of
layouu and skeld,es. These Q.e !>elle. on :\ good
bond IQyout paper so 111111 Ihey will not be trans-
parenl and sOOw Olle drnwing Ibrollgh another.
Somelimes ronnl: artilil! Mk whethcr llamC!l
have anylhing 10 do with getti ng a lilar!. Moslof
the time an artisl noed 001 wony .a.bouI hiJ sur-
name. lf you happcn 10 hav!! (lOe Ibal is very dif-
r.cult lO . cmembcr. Adolphus ll ockenspieler, rOl"
example. adopt a simple one lhat is e;$icr lor
cverybody. Pcr haps par! 01 il, like " Dolph
Hocker." Many art il ls "se R single name, w ually
Ihe surname, 101" Ihls , eason.
The point lo rCffiemher is: Do evcrythiog wth-
in your po'o"cr to simplily Ihings 101" lbe arl di-
rector wllcn yoll app.oach him- your cho ice 01
sub..,cu, your ","o.k. yonr altilud<:, you. nler-
view, aoo e'"Cn your name il musl be. Above all,
donol "ralk ur" )'Ou, workoryour ability. He can
decidcabonl Ihal for himserf. You do not eU yoor
merits-Ilw:y K'1l themselves.
Now let IU look ti color.
"",,, ...
is largc1y adapl.:l.bllity. Granted )'OOI
, ~ ' ' ' , , of adjusting Ihal ability
145
UI.'C!tu! aoout tnAll!)' lumsell . ~ Q\I dO no! seU yoor
Inc.its-thcy s-ell thcm$dves.
Now lel uslook al oolor.
PART THREE
A NEW APPROACH
b. tU
LET US, FOR ONCE, APPROACH
COLOR AS ALSO BELONCINC .
TO NATURE'S CREAT PLAN
THAT ALL THINCS SH ALL
EXIST IN AND BE A PART OF
ATMOSPHERE AND LlCHT
~
PRESENTING
THE SPECTRUM, AS RELATED TO LlGHT ANO SHAOOW
BASED ON STANDARD FOUR-COLOR PROCESS PR1NT!NG
This gives you the colors wirh the values extended rrom lightest
Jight lO darkest shadow in a neutral light and without other
influcncc or color rcflcction. Considcr this as " local color."
COLOR
my . cade.! with he PrQblcms oE
a new approach ;$ nccessary. So
' o.m upericnoel hava found rolor
approached in he SCIlSC (lf something
.. .. T'" da
ti , as he $luden!
Iraosposing Ihe theory to
he Ihings about hion, and appl)'ing
.. way. We Itnow ha! all pictorial
;$ subject 10 thc basic tmilis OOll<:em-
shadow. If eoIor is al$o subject
laws goveming tone, lighl, and
il unqucstiollably Is, thcll Ihe only
,",.,", 10 color wh!ch tilo be of real
iOCOl'pOrale hese principle$. In fael,
wllhout encompassins it$ reb-
onl)' lo lig"! and shadow but airo
"'''',,_ ,,.,," ""a .enceted colM, is
dMgling mid-air, ror the$l,l things
<!Olor tha! w<:...,' oown pictooiaU,..
lo nah.rral laws 01 Jigll l and
tha! il cannot be consid-
I as a mallet or scienoe, tcmpen._
. To {lo liS any good, Ihe study ol
be clO$tly "lIie:! lo all othe. funda-
Il is so mud:: a of tone VolIlue'l
,k 1,= 'horn. 0010,
placed within 01.1. picture. Pie
color is bcaulilul only hecause of Hs
lO olher rolor, nd sueh rebliomhip
, So 10 pick a rolor rrom an
eharl has little practical val ... e, for
are Ihal it will be x.lally unrclalecl aOO
boughl in many hue. and .load"",
rn ... ch real value lO lIiI al lhe O\Jtset.
flrsl under$land mal lhe basis of all
'"'" nCild les In Ihe three pri.
; red,yellow, ami bllle. We starl wilh these
" 9
in Ihe. I' "rest possible s:ale. To these we add
while 10 lighten and produce lints, II ,KI bla or
011>", ",ixmre lo darken h., pure colors. Hy he
.. of red, yellow, and hlue, coup!ed
wilh blaelc and white, iI is possible !(l produce
almw every ronoevable color that will in
lu,,"oony withn our picture. Basically, yel.
low, and blue are "sed tu produoe every ro!or we
.el down, even 10 Ihe earlJ colors, hurnt sit.'1l1l0,
rawsienna, and he ocl,res. Now let ui look al Ihe
f>O&$ibllitis of the three primarics, plU$ bhcl:
l\lld white. You mU$t understalld that in rolor
printng OUT only substitutes for white
pB!""r, tIIat lhe lhinned.out dot on the white
paper of lhe tranger basie color is lhe prinler's
only means of getting light t ints by the ourcolor
h:dftoue prooess. So our lints may nol be repro-
duccd with abrolule aceuracy, snce our white
may coal the color som .. whll more lhan lh" white
P"l""t ",lxture wlllI Ihe pure color. In lhe case ol
water rolar, where no ,,-hite is used, the rerro-
duction will be more elact
Tho three primuie$, red. rellow. ami blue, by
mixiug in llairs produce the secoodary colors o
green, violet, and orangc. These, wilh the pri.
manes, gke lIS Ihe six ruu.t.rength colon al Ihe
spcctrum. Tbey are arranged in 5e<luence in a
eircle. Titen by rnlxing c ... wlb II!I neighbor,
We gel 5lx more oolor" calle<! the tertiary co\ors.
These are red m'unge, yerrow oraoge, ydlow
green, !.Jlue greco, blue vk.>let, and red viole!. We
now have twelve colon al m:u:lmum inhmsty
aud brilliance. Adding black and whl te we hve
our (ull color lUId roro. VlI lue $<.'ale.
Beginning ",ilh the color we can add '
",bite 10 produce a scriC$ of tints of the pure color,
frum fu lJ strengl h 10 palelt tinto Hegiol\ing wlh
,
me pure <':Olor _ cau an:y the color down 10
darkness, by adding blad: 01 by mixing with tbe
complement, which v.'O will speak of later.
This is where our approcla will dll'er froro lb ...
ALL COLOR 1$ RELATIVE TO SURROUNDING lNFLUENCE
f AlfE COLOR
THI,! JHAOOW COLOR
I N NATUlAll\CHTCAN
N01 Be A COlORWliICI"I
COMTAIN NOlO E OI'TIII:
OI'l.IC INAl. Ha W E V E R.
ALl JI"II."H>OW l.r .ruB-
JECT 701H!! ' NR..UI"CE
OF 01>UO"- COLO"- -mAT
M,.V &lO ReF I-ECTEI> ,mo
IT :b.NO r,UJ 1 HG W ITlI
1HE. OQ.IC;IWAl COLOR..
JO " 1M!! CUBI'!
A BlUE liGHT RIOFLECTW
11m) THE fHAOOW WOULIl
PR.OOUCE AGREEN.
I IlUDO'"
WO<'>LD THW
OOLOI:t(o.>. RK 4U"O
F:EDUCED 1 lO IN11!.N/ITV
IIV Ir;- IDMPlIiMIOIlTC/R'IU.

usual o'm. We ",iI1 se! aboul 10 carry a"y
Ihrough nI! the steps from the lighlcst lighl
uller darkness. This is sonlelhing of rcal ne
10 Ihe student, bu! ",hieh often, lo nly kno\Vled
has been b'l"ossly ignorcd. So we come lo Our
A color $ rcllllioo first 10 l!tu amo"",
I/gl'l s/ining 11/10" il w!tic/, gives it
dorkness. By way of illuslralion, we may h"It
sirl in" ydlow <lress. Sho may he in a brighl li
Or a low lighl. She may be in sunligh! or sha
Thordore wha! we use ror the color will ha\"e
rollle out of a scale of liShl 10 dark \Vilh due
ion of al! olher rolor influeucc. The dres
nol jusI yollow bul Iones of yellow grading 11]'
down. Jf she were in Ihe shadow, wilh Ihe
JiShl of Ihe sky a. the onl)' saure<) of Iight,
oo"ld nOI possihly pain! Ihe dress with ollly
)'ellow. So we ha\"e ano!her axiom. Colo. i$ r
lioo lo all sIIrro""di'l/j color inj/uenec. Sup
We ha\"o rolor in a wann ligh!. The wann
gel more illtense, alUl Ihe colors on Ihe L'OOI .
leud lo beromo more neutnllized. In a I.'OOlli
tl'e lendell e)" is Nalu'e uses her t
primarics to prod'''"e grey. Yet by Ihe same p'
ess a grcat ",,,,,he r of olher L"lors are protlu
",hclI the proporlions are ""equa!. l
\Vilh white, Ihe ",off" greyed rolor! are prodo
In [aet, with Ihe mldi t iolL of hlack or while lo
tonal colOr!, praclically ally oolor Or tinl ;ma
inahle can be reachcd. The main ohjecl ill se
ton of pigment Ii<:s in hrillianoo and ahilil}"
toward Ihe W3rm or 1.'001. Sincc uo
rolors can perfeell)' do Ihis, we use a "warm aaI
coo]"' of each. If thl color i!scl f is waml. suth.
cadmium red o, vermilion, we know il c:lorw:t
produce a good purple b)" mixture wi th bloe.
Therefore we must, if a brillian! purple is needtd,
IIse a cool red like alizarin e,imson wi th a rol
blue li ke ultra marine. Always painl yo", subjt
as brilli3nl ly as po'>.lible, and lel he engn>\"erdi
Ihe i.Jc,t he can with il. If yOll give him dtM
wl9r. he can'l make il any beltcr.
AII rolors aS we see Ihem are rolors modified 111

Ihe "rondit iolls of Ihe momen!." Warm light gillI
....... ...... \ _ "" .. JIIU. AIJ<I
II!!OVC&o.M I .. Tr:t>I,nV
ev n SCOl1Pl.tM9<lT0!l1<lia.
150
AIl rolors we see them are rolors modifitd .
thc oF thc Warm
COLOR IS STRONGEST IN THE L1CHT
pw.ler brilliancy 10 wann color. It 5ubtrac!.
lIiaocy [rorn a rold color. Lae\: o[ lighl lowe ..
.. lonalily, bright light raises it \Ve can the
original color of an objcct Ihe "Joc.ar color. We
painl local color ouly in neul ... 1 liglll .
\\'e mUSI loo\: upon our eharl as l()('al or unin-
hu.:tJ color. 11,C shadow rolors are representa-
Iilt of uninAlIenced .hadows-shadows tha do
ltII ha"e an)' Olhcr oolor rellected inlO them. In a
IMI1II norlh light you hadow, would COtlle
quite closc lo Ihose reprcscntcd. pro"idcd Ihey
nol olhcrwisc alfectoo by olhe, inHuc,l'.
T'bis chart al leasl wil! g;,'c you n practicall",.i.
!Ir "'hich lo approach yo"r SlIbjeet Ir you are al-
IImpling 10 pain! in color [rom blaek-and-while
mp>". il wil! hclp .1 great deal. Bul in the b.1C1: of
)OO. mind I:.,.,.p lhe following rulh, AIi coIOrl be-
_U(III"e 01 rcf/ecUlI color .cltc" in lig/I/1U1d
.nI1 rcf/ecl ,I,C..,5c1ccs i,,'o IC5ser liglot. To Ihis wc
MId anolher. ,\// colon in ,/wdow rtcipi-
"'" af otlter rcflectcd color aOO oclll clulUge oc
Cl)!dillgly, Thi. mean. Ilml you considcr
lUh plane of he shadow arca, ",KI whethcr il
would calch Ihe color of somelhing else. Thi. !101
oal)" .. Ihc unilS of yonr pic!ure set!rn 10 be.
bIg togethcr, il also prodU('eS hannony belWffll
you, rolor masSC$. It bring. nS 10 .1nother color
Irl!th. Any loco colo.' u;i11 be IIGrmoniQlj! !C1,en
...,or botl, con/uin lOme uf 1111: ot"er.l1,at , ",h)'
CMspectnom is harmonious aHlhe way around.
Atmosphcre has il$ e/Jcct upon color. Colors u
the). reoedc tend loward the rolor of Ihe almOS-
On a ublue da)'"' Ihey gel cooler. On a srey
da)" tltey become gre)cr. On a mi$ty day lbey
btrome tcmpcred and SnaH)' lost ;n Ihe almos-
pbtre. Color on a elo"dy day is mueh di!fercnl
on a 'u""y day. Rul whatever Ihc co"ditiOll.
ture lend, wme 01 ils ntmosphcre to .111 Ihe
tolors Ihey thus become relaled. \Ve wiU dis-
later how you can one coloror i"Bucnee
mix it IhrouSh al] )'our colo".
lI'e come lo In,th. The local color
,,Otdd never COlllplelely lose il! /de"til'} In l/oe
01lJ. For in.lance, a ycl low eube annot ha,"e

F AllE COL OR
THIf If NE I THER A
PI NK NOA"'REDCU8E
O'H, Y AT .... .. r<>ARI; Nr
... COIIL!> ""'v"-
COIoOIl UKI! ' HIl , ...... nK,
eCAu. GuL'. I!Te.
10L'" .IUllnANCfO'
.... c COLOn u "A .. /E.
TMt r 1r A PI NKCU8E
COI.OIl eo .. "OT 111' PUllf R
on .. ",1i1H000-
ew VNU!I/ Al''''' '-"'<lID\,
OR ,lA, 1IIIfi " llene GTE .
"'0 fMAf J\lAOOW',<AW' ";
AOI)'no ...... BAI L .. ' .... a'.
TI-II I 1I A REOCU8E.
1"" .... 0 ... " P, .. "'CU ....
L .. .. Ve .. o "ov .. ,.1 TQ
, ... , Co"'."" JoL'''.
I/Iwld complete/y lose ;/$ /de'ltity in I/' ..,
'. For instante, R ydlow cuIJe canllOt h:l.\'e
51
"'" " .. .. ,,, ......... u."
c .... '" ro
' .. O:OL.OAOO> '''".,rOL'O.
COLOR [5 MORE THAN LOCAL COLOR
SHOWING HO"'" 8R' lUANtV "'AY 8l': AOCfO
8Y '''lI'N/1 FY'NG THE"COLOJ:t ON 'nul OGE
OF TH 6. llGHTAFlEA N eXT lO ltlf" fHAOON,
/HOW \NG HO"", DIFFEReNT .. ,
COLOR THAN ev
/IMPlV MIXI NG Ii'lTHe L.lC HT
WITH 1HE COLOR INTHE / HADOW TO M.o.KE

THE UAU"TON E. we JUJT Rue
TI'fE LIGHl ANO/HADO"'" TOGeTHCR AN O
AHYT ",NG !IV' DULLCOl-OR.
aUT .I0MUIOW MolT OFUf JlILL OO/T.
PROVINO' E ft-MI! COLOIt <tJ>PI;Aro. f T O

SE 6RIOliTER AGAI NIT A GRE'IEO COLOR.
,. shadow witoout SOrne yeUow in il. On!he oIhfr
hand, a pink cubc eanoot 1ut\'C a red shaoo--
srnee lhe local o:>lor mm! be consisten' in cilba'
lighl or shadow. No color in ,/.<J<f1l1V elm hart
brig/ter color ;",ensily ha" ,..,me color u'o..u
have In /J,4Iigl,t. \Ve <:annOI changa Ihe
of ,he local coJor.
In our eharl yoo al$O find blaek-and-,,hitt
$C2le. If in )"Our blaek-and-whte copy Ihe are
Jon nteM 10 paint is of a cerlain ,alnc, Ihm tbr
color shculd be malfficd $Omewhcre ('lose lo tba!
,"alIJe, o. you wiH nprot the Ilatural se<jucnce'
,al"es ",h!ch Ihe lighl go\'e lo Ihe u"ilS in )"00/
ropy. The color in that mar be of)w
choice bul Ihe val"e is more or Il'S5 fixed to 1.>1'.
sc:ale ",ith Ihe reSI of yo"r picturc, lino should br
50 COf\Sdcrcd. The inlensily rc1atlonship oIlip
and shado'" should be planned :u carefurr)
color subjcclS a.! YOU "'!luid in blaek-and-whik
rendcril11,'1. Color can be made 10 falllnto "]t-
lern." A ccrtain valllc can be repealcd ",ilh gre>1
"ariet)', holding Ihe "alue bul dmngng Ihe rolor.
H Ihe color in Ihe shado'" c:anllOl excecd in
brillillnce Ihe local color as wcn in Ihe light, 11...
il follo"" Ihat lhe pUTes! an mOSI "tense roIm
bclong 10 lhe lighl. Note lhe bbck lill(! In tbr
dlarl, dividng Ihe color range InlO !!ght lDI1
shado"'. So lhe alIiom, /I/l colo" In IlIei. g.t6ICII
Illlcnslry o. tinl,ol rl'e color '1O,,1d btr .t/t-
galcd 10 IfgJ.ts and "oll/o.ICI. \V/terl
/lle sltlldow tlte$c colo" are reduccc/ or greyed. '"
II'e color c/mnged by "fluence 01 olhet col",
reflecling in/o /he ,lIadow.
152
1I i$ r>Ol lroe lhal Ihe color in u,.
brighlC$llighl is always thc nrongesl colo/. LigM.
bellg ",hile, can il"te color, just as can lhe "irit
On yoor palettc. In order to rcad, d' e high , ...
"'c may be foreed 10 lighlcn the color. Yel on !he
nex! which are Ihe hnl(tone planes, oolx
may be more i"tense, being s!il! in ligr.\. So ti...,
II,e "a/llonu ""'!' co"I(I;" I"e ",OSI brillJant""
,,,"e color_ Color can grcatly 10se ilS local color.
highlighls, ",hid, become the ",hite or color al u,.
light 501Irc:e. Working diredly into or agairul u,.
I;je. 8RIOIlTE.R AGA\ NJT A"GRE'fI, O COLOR.. .
152
LOOK FOR COLOR ON TI-lE EDCE OF THE Ll CHT
lO put 001 mosl brillianl color in
"' .i_ th.- lighl< 00 dil ote<! wilh
Ihe shadows are OUt only ehana.. Bul eveo
ligh! .gaiml die
mllch ((llor is app3.enl,
il W<)u ld be wilb Ihe Ught
one ollhe best ""'ys in Ihe w(.ld lO
of ((llor, 'JOm' co/qr ni""
tl'e vllhe Ilglued ureas, wlltlM
10 casI aura
I <.Uor ovcr dle " 'bol<! Iighled are=t..
color of tII e lighl and rubbing
,k.o< colo. of the shadow ( which mOSI
mast (>f ti", time) proouces 00 bril lianey.
be mt color in ligh!, !hen mud,
" , .... in Ibe shadow. This i. ono oC
h\Own 9.lId least practiced trutlu.
we 0011)(110 a slIrprising fact. Mo,' ollhe
color 01 "ulure. ,ve 1M not pUM color.
froOl brilliant IIvwCJ"S, Qod ""en Ihe.e 10
'.'."" " we fin d thal a color is lerDpcrcd wilh
, is grcyed or inllucnced in some way
.,;,. .. " even Hal oolar Ihroug"""l. Tbal
our pnresl color fo.- edgl"l, aca:nls, .nd
manipulatiou 10 cllhanoe the SOfll>J" gl'eyer
nature. For !his r<:a<OIl. 111<1 W""O' p<' ;'"
M","""'. ti polo \Ve musl reLale om
by ,,,boftlinale o. illtcnsify
111 fael, we carulOl , im_
i:( \V .. m"", 10 a lu ge exlcnt. ""8
Ihroogh trutllS gives USo An
is mudt more true and ir il
colO!1 10 Iook brigbl against . Crey 001011 are
oo!"",."
I ha"e lila! Ihepure colorsand pure tmts
are lO be a p. ... 1 of!he Igbl. That .is true. bul tt
cines r>Ot mean llu! al! color in Ihe lighl i$ pure
<.'OJor, l ince not alllocal color is pu.e color. AH
Out linl$ of the pure colorl aln be grt:)-ed, whleh
illo.;retie$ o .... <ange or color lo the .1<ies. IIICllning
Iha! !here am be toousands of Fo.
wll have a pure pil)k we may aJso
... )Iwert il lo grey pinl:, a dusly ]linl; , In orange
plUl:, a Ia"endtr pink, a brQv.'fl pi:, and 50 011 ,
alld U d l may be lo nm the scaJe rron> light
10 dar1<ne:ss. A dus!y pill" drC$S lI"lI.y have 10 be
.erode.ed aH 111<: way rrom bright lighl lo
.hadow . nd sl ,1! loo" lke a dusty pink drcss an
lhe way through. Th1ea" bedoneonly bycorrect
valllt.,; and a ""Ter ,,1 arljuslmcn' of the colo. cvi-
<knl in Ihe lighl, being CIlrried inlo Ihe shad-
ow and al thesan-.e time bcing Io" .... ed in tOtle by
.l:reys Of neu' . aliu!iou.
Sinee pigmeo! is already ]i mited i1l b.ilIinney
",i th trumparent ()J' projecled color,
10lles that are grey in the Iight offer th.. blggest
prob!em_ There is o"ly onc mnedy uscd hy fl\()!;1
good painten lo 1<<.'el' !he;' CllJlVa.seJ fmm gelting
unwholesomcly grey, and lhat is, ;f lhe color In lile
lig/tl 1M g.eytd. .. 111/' coJO#" 10 .. "",1
,,"idl Ihe lea", roo'} b, Inlemlficd in lhe
Itnlflones (1"d aIro / .. I/e &Iwdvw. Thi.!. amounls 10
,n .. tlw .haJow . Iightly WlI"''''' ur OO<Ilc( Ihan
the color in !he Ilghl. For mlan(e. _ may havt! a
grey ",bite lone in the Iighl. lllfl shadow, then, in-
stead of beiug a mere blad:-aud-wbite grey, wil\
rulhe. lAAn a lbt blue. somo of the blue takeon moro 0010. !han the [Igbl, being wanneror
aoo Mue violel ne>:1 OOoraln be :usadaled, cooLer. Thus lhe sha dow on wbite migbtlean lO-
o( Ilal ,.ellow, 500"11!! I and u-ard tite warmer to .. es or gJctn, yel lowisb nr
="",,;, ;','".... This Is an- ornnge grey. (JI' lean Ihe olher way to the blues
p8inling knowJedgo lhal can enli, ... n and I:.vende ... , aeeording lo the <)Iral ily of Ihe
I work. Sinoe riature is largoly grey, Jo'''' 1M ligio! aoo enviro"nlCll t A wan n &""Y can thu, be
""tu.,', greyt. Brrghtnes< is relathi!. A palnle<! .!ODleWhal cooler n dIO l ha<!ow. or. CQOI
will be lH"iglalt:r agaiml a greyed oolor Ihan gJey slighlly wanner. This plreooOloooo seems 10
agaiml another brigltl ono. Fine artiU exisl in na!urc, possibly due 10 reAeded <.'Olor
LIle grey nuke !he pict"re, meanog Ihat which is nOI alwa)')' obvioo.o.\- AllIny rale, adds
greys are Ihe oooessary foil lor tOO brighl life lo painling.
153
_ . " J' .. ... """ .. '" ti", a. J\t uny rale, lt
aro ti .. lle:s$llJ)' foil for tI\(: bright [fe lo painHog.
153
11-11; LlMrrATION OF COLOR IN PIGMENT
,
Let us understsnd !hat, alter BlI, color is !he bine 10 produce while in light. I n pigment t
most leni"n! and unformubted of all the funda- produce grcyor browll. So colors leno 10 "'",o.
m<Jnlals. You hav" greater lib<Jrly here for your iZ/j and dul1 011<J anoth<Jr unl(."Ss considerecl
individual feeling than in othcr dq>arbnents of val "e, (2) byrclated (3)
l'our eraft. Cood rolor cannol b<J acl,ie\"ed witb- Irast. Pictures built on a few' ,",.'"e,"
out intetrgcnt apprwch; at Ihe samc time, good one Or two mkldl(l valnes, and a dark,
rotor, long as a1l othe. tbings are well, as dcad. In the sccond in:slance, pictures b"ilt
drawing and tonal values, mal' be ac}ieved and colorscquenC(! can hardly godead. Wh", ro"',
slill be wholly apar! from literal fact. lodeed, if Ihus related itcannOI ncutralize itself.ln Ihe
the jI tight, it may almou be lhal irutanc-e, tbe picture rem.1ins bMie.,lIy
the color will not look bad. It is \"alucs amI tonal rcason of complementary color.
relationships Ibal spoil more color Ihan anything doad again!;1 i
<:Ise. Color is just as ccrta!nly correlativo or lone for fuller discussidn or rebtcd color amI
as tone i$ of line, all Ihree are ono and a part of m,.',,,, color.)
one another. All the t:i3Iwl eDecta vf nalure are JI is
lecn as col()1"QJ"QS greys hat can be l /rodtrced by \'alues, <> ""
color. BJacl: nnd white is man's and anothE"!", a ll vying with nne anolber fOl" al
simply reprcscnts Ihe color's value wilhout tho that he who1e brHliancy is cut down. You
tolo . Sccing wilhout color is either lack of per_ be sure thal nne primary plus ils
ccption Or actuolly defecti\"e visiono opposed by its complement, will ,,,,, ",;,
Since Iight /as (1 greater rtmge 01 brlgll/l\CSs These, snppor ted by greycd colors,
amI dork1l8$S Ih"n pigment, then color nlso "as and while inlroduccd. will always be
gremer brillilllu;e In lije /111111 we CIIn "BlIc/' In pig- /.s l/ safe .... le rwt lo '"we ull
.lIImt. Thereforo we must work wi!hin the value l/t1re stat!' in (In!! ORe I,leture. Tone one
limit:lt{OllS of pigment, Or belwecn white, col()1", thcllI wilh some of Ihe
and black. 11we is nothing cisc we can do aboul a little of lis complement (a mixture of
il. Du Ihe limitations are nol as bad as tbey Iwo). Do wmething so ha! l'(m dI'> nOI
onC(l \Ve understand what il is aU about. No celor luge mnss of eaeh fighling wilh he olbers.
can be made brlg/lter Ilk/ll it& full Qtrength. Itean do lighl, ooCllUle none nf Ihe primaries in
only be made lighter or darker, or less inlense by original slale have any ingredients io
l'Ilixlure. It can be made to vary in bue by addiog \Ve create hannony. Un!;! !Ve
other colors. wanner or coo(er, but liothing l'et lhe primarle$ in tliemsclua
loJo .... n can make it brighter Ihan white paint or ",""mOtly.
paper unJcss by actual addilional lighl thro\Vll Color may be relatcd by painling into
upon il. Purily of pigmenl is not Ihe whole objeo- over underlone. In Ihe fonr examplcs
li\'e of Ihe l>ainler; tone Ulld harmony come frsl. yellow, a grey bluc, red orange, and a
in painting comes rroro \"31ue relalion_ undertone were used. This principIe .p,Ii, ..
ships, not the rawness of pigment. lo mediums that are "'et, 50 tha! as we
Contrasl belween strong colOr! cannOI be tbe overlaying colors SOme of tbe undertone
wholealm,forcontrast is grealest when the strong mb<ed inlo Ihem. Tbil;
il; pitted aga/osl !he weak. all the oolor5, dmwing thcm in
It is nat ural 10 assumc tbat the pictUl"e conlain hannonl" 1I is an exccllcnl
ingthelargesl numberof colOr! wlll he Ihe brigbl_ thumbnails and small color
est picture. Unfortnnately, oolor does not work and L"auliful way or producing
oul tbal way. rhe rcason is lhat aU colors com- any color may bepa.inted into the lone,
154
'" ,,, u"",u "... ""} v, 1" V""'"'',, 1> ~ '''''''} "U',
out that way. The reason is that all colon com- any color may be painted into he tone, 10 loo
154
RELA TlNG COLOR BY TONAL INFLUENCE
"""""I! U.fED t>., ..... "' .. 0 .. ""'0 .. ..
ules up SOrne 01 Ihe ""derlone. Olher good
dts are obtainablc wilh dry undcrlOllc il Wlnc
of!be underlone is allowe:l 10 sOOw Ihroolgh.
When we spcak of oolor]U
ibal ,1 aCluallyconlains ""me of Ihe pigmcnl 01 !he
or colQrs i! ;s pul This ;$ like a bl00d
rNbOOShip among huma",. Cr""n i. likc !he $On
elyrllow and bluc, bcing I balf mUe!u,,, of each.
Abluegroen is like a child tha! toas laken Ihe pre-
155
dominan! d,mne!erishcs 01 O"e po"c"!; )'dlow
gr""n is more tloe othcr. Whcn a groupof rol-
Qn all conai" sorne 01 Dile p"'lieular color or "in-
A""",,",, fhen it is like a glOup of more dislan!
rdnlivcs. The $pc<:lrum is Ikc a Inmily wilh Ihrco
parenls. Yc\1ow as Ihe fntkr wonld Im,"e lhc
or:mgc childrclI lrom lhe red wifc, a .. d lhe grt'C"
ehitd,e .. from Ihe bluc wilc. Ralhcr complicatoo,
bul$Oisoolor.

......... _.---,.---_._-,
a chHd Iha( ~ s tnken th<ll'rc- bUI so ;'rolor,
155
TONING THE SPECffiUM OR PAU I lE
lIere is anolher way 10 rdale al! lhe colon of
your pa1ette_ Cboose (MIe color of lhe $pectrum.
Mix sorne O, il into e\"vy ~ h e r color. You can
rnake" '''''1 d"licale mixture. or "p lo aboul 000-
Ihinl. The more you add, he more yo" are eUlti"g
dow" th" briltiancy of alt Ihe rolon whieh 100f-
mally ronlain non.c of Ihe color yau are adding.
Bul your rolor wilt al] retain lis -ldentity." Ihough
brought inloclo$er harmony. The alxweareabout
the imil of mixture. Note in eaeh group oroe color
156
stays pure, and SO will the colors which
the toning color. : ~ ; ~ : ~ ~ ; : ~ : : ~ ~ ~ ~ :
llave .inted fOUT hcads in 1
thal il is possible lo p"int Hcsh
Stick 10 you. J(hcme when you Jlarl it. When
all done, yOl! m3yadd a ,,,",,,,, ,.,,,1 p" " "
oulside hc sehc"", ir you arc so temple.!.
more often yOIl wil1 like il bctter!,l.5 il
bcaut iful color may be arri,ed at in Ihis
My examplcs Ue only a hinl of lts
tllIl limil of mixture. Note in each group onc color My cxamples are only a hlnt of ilS possibilif
156
FOUR SUBJECfS IN ' TONED COLOR"
157
157
DON'T BE AFRAID OF THE GREYS OF NATURE
158
158
BLUE CREEN, YELLO\XI, AND COOL R:::D AS A SCHEME
159
159
PAINTED WITH YELLOW AS A "TONER"
160
COLOR CONSIDERED AS "TONE" IN ITS NATURAL RELATIONSHII'
w.
COLOR" ITS FllNcn ON ANO CHARM
Color is very muel. lik" a bauk account. If yoo maries 10 anylhiog contaioirog the !hn!
clip nto il too onucb 5000 you ltave nOn". To tho and ,he tenooncy will be lowaro eVeD
layman coJor 5eems quite limitcd, jusi sir pure liancy. reaching toward tho greys or
colorsof thespectrum. He s therefo,,, temple<! lo he color appea.
gel al1 si. into his robject lo gel ",hat he thin\:!; So in tOO primaries we really ha"e all tM' ld-
of al> "fuI! He thillb: in !"nllS of so many Jiancythcrc is in pigmento Assnming
pans or I"bes of color, using Ihis 0>'" fo. his and with tbe brightest possible red, yellow,
fua! Que fo. tha!. Ir he n UlS out of coJors Ihe" he and go fmm Ihe inlcnnixture of Bny two of
gocs and bnY5 rome more t"bes contllining SOrne- aTonnd h" d,de, we layout Ihe full gtI t.
thing still dilferen!, like a tube of magenta, so-callcd pure color, 0.11 the briIliancy, ..
maroon. or brown pink. Color is anylhiog huI disposal.
thal. I .hall Iry 10 point out thal color works out In.lcad o[ t1unl:ing of color as being Ilmj, ..
in JUSI he opposilc manncr. he six color! of Ihe speotnnn, lhinl: of tbll!e.
The lYI05l colorful and beaulifu[ paintings oflen Ihe of si:< grcal familios, like sx 1(6.
come from herostrieUonof color, ralher than the t1ers who are the foundalkm of Ihe
profuso application of il. Lel us tmdcrSland Ihat tion lo follow. Some of Ihe.traim itayp < &r,
the color in the spectrum is reaUy while light example al! color. whkh huve he inHu el
broken down inlo its elements. Thiltgs have color yellow evidcnl, or hlue, Or any of Ihe sU:.
onlr Ilf!C9.use eerlain surfaCf:s ha"e the powcr of become ro inlerrc1atcd that thc color
absorhing sorne of lhe elemcnt!;, ami reRecting most as color, and SO olher D:4t _
back thc othcrs. \Vere Ihere no color in ligltl, lacked on for identilkation, "ilher lelliDI!'"
thero coul d be no color in anythiug. Trueenough, Ihey are made of or suggosling
we can buy color.; but thcso are pigmenls, which look like. mio Ihis gr<>up fQlI )'ello,,", 0ClU). 1M
huve in themselves sueh power of absorplion OT ul1lbers, buml sien na, cobal!,
relection. Take aWlly aU light and Ihey are oolor- k",n bIne. rose uladder, crimson lak<l, a '1)d
Icss and, so far as "'e are concernoo, could aU bu crimron, "enni!ion, Vene!ian a ud India reI.
so l1luch black. gamboge. Mars renow, and olhcrs. These
So 10 producc good color ,.'e go to Ihe funda- ments whkh vary rrom Ihe origit131 pri
mental la",. of color. thal eaeh of Ihe pril1laricl; j Ihespectrum. Thcn we havcsuch names as "P'
3n element of lighl itself. Since we coonol see chartreuse, beige, sage, mamon, cerise,la,,'l-Mn.
oolor bcyond Ihe spcctrum with the naked eye, I.."non, nnd Otller!l, whicll are
sueh as inInt red, or ultra v,olet, oolor is limilOO be in the mixtures of the
to Ihe thrce elemeots tM! wc can sce. In pigment , This groal ruTay of oames is simply
since il j not aclually lighl, bul matter, the i"ler- lIoes nol belong in Ihe basielheoryof color. eoa.
mixlure uf roo, yeUow, nnd blue cannO! produce as far as \\'e as artislsare concemed issimpl}:,
white, as does liglrl, and so produces sedil1lent. )'dlo\\', bine, black, and ",hite, \Ve can lIS
The colors being ncutraliud by oue anollre. , Ihe Snbjecl wilh Un!! red, uny yello\\', or un!! bl "
result ;5 darlmess, eithcr in grcys. hrown, or blnck. our choice, with good nnd olerestiog
The tcndency thcn of pigmentary color in mixing HO"'e"cr, ir "'e r.re working for rcproduct"
Is tu rednce in intensity the thr"" primarios. TI", loglcal thal we start \\'ilh primaries ru;
recondary mixtures uf green violet and ora"ge possibk 10 Ihose Ibe prinlr works ",th,
are nOI quite as .trong and brigb! as Ihe red, yd- cure unifol111 results Ihcsc have had 10 be sw...
Iow, and blue olthe primarics. Tho; third mixlure, and so are known!\$ stlltldnrd primaria;
called Ihe terliarics, bCCOlnes eveo less inten$C. Tire)' are given in Our standard col",
Now beg,n to add Olle color conlaining Iwo pri- on page 148, 3D,] will acl as a guide for you. ,
162
called the tertiarics, bCCOlnes even les> intense. Thcy are Ilii givcn in Our standard col<)l"
Now begin 10 add one color containing two pri- on page 148, and will act as a gnide for )'tIu ..
162
COLOR
of . ny h,be with any l>:Une
lo point out !bat he engra"cr
0II1y colon th.t are Ihe resul! <i the
of the celon he mus! W()rk with. 1f
ni.! a eoM you are using oul of
priJuries, you can be certaln he can
color or any picture comes from a
few primarics. it aulOJnalically
B hasie . eblionship 01
It ean'l hdp il, becJuse.1I conlain
elerntnts or Ingredients, .00 reblion-
.o, "" .",'Iban in a buman fa", -
word abo"e hooao.ue can
if need be, lbao only
,and O"" blue. Wl';]e , fully
prooedure, bccause of the fael that
.ctaal mitture of !.be i,,1< excepl in
printer's
as by mixlure as oo'
"'" may use Iwo ol each >ri-
aad 0001 ol eaeh. This mean& o" e
"C"''?''''' he eircle. 1"hereforc "c
leaning to\\'a.d the on.nge as
,;. .. ",,'" lhe green ti
Ihe blue we ean use a ro-
even a liltlc viridian mixcd
fOl' tbe warm blue leaning loward !he
othe. blue leaRing toward Ihe viole!
ultrarnarine blue. The warm red
red (Ir \...,.milion an<! tite cool
crimson. Now, lIIing the double
"".;" ",ili b!ack and ",hi le, almost a ny
(Ir ti,,! w,der lhe SU" (!an be app. oxi-
expedoo him 10 pep il up. The only way he can
pep up yom picture is lo subtract lleutrll.litiog
00",.
One thing 1 wanl lo i< !ha! yon canno!
a ,mbjeo:.:l calorrlll by using aU pure color,
Iha! is, .. U primary and seo:.:ondary color. Color is
3 plus.nd mious proposilion. need greynes:s:
and lormess as a foil rOl" br illianl areas. Every
part of the pkllll"t $hould be a part of a whok con-
ception, " 'ilh the pures! aud concen-
trnled where il will do 11"10$1 good. Nole in lhe
frollispie: of he hu he brighl oolor has
beCR concentrated aOOut the girl"s head. and Ihe
other color is JQflcr and _ mule;;! by inlermJ.
turco To aU, th .. areaS tOWllrd 11m Sil<
speclnun oolors seis up competi tiOll which in Ihe
end is vying for allention and resulto iR less 001-
liancy rOl" any ooe area. Ttlen there is 00 way lo
gain any more oolor. 11>e oolor can be set down
!trOllger as color, bu oflen Iess Nalme
il seldom one nat bright pure color anywbere. In
Nature, colon ere made np of v.riety al! throngh,
which rneans warm and 0001 variations. 01" colon
broken or blended togethef. "The P:y is 1101 Olle
blue. Ihe grwnd oot OIle groen or brown or grey.
The follagn iu Ihe dislance is quite diff" r"nt in
oolor tllan thal clase by. The cltarm of color hes
in warm aOO 0001 \'lriation, in !he greyed or
muled color aJonS wilh be pure and brilliant. If
you can pul thrce red!; togelher t1:ey .. re more
beauliful lhan one red, aOO Ihis is pusible by lel
ling lhered \e:a n 10 !he warm and 00)1 wilhin lhe
sam" area. 1I i$ lIle ame with ever)" color;o tite
universe. Note oow the color varies in a f1ower.
ami bow the color is earried into the foliage and
stem. Note !he greal varieties of greem we have
in he same subject outdoon. This does nol mean
a greal Arfay of tubes of color, simply IntermiJ{-
lure of whal '" starled wilh, 1000wd Ihe 'vann
il unfie<:essary for !be arll$-t even 10 and 0001. I ha"e trie<! lo phy warm wilb 0001
of Ihe brilliancy ceJor in the fronllfplcce of PlIrt Threeof Ibis baol<.
DI , 001 it's !>eller 10 give This is diJcull lo dear lo lhestudentand
plus, th..n briUiancy rutcntimes lo a dielll. 8rillianoe reaeh<'S I point
, bul he ,,"ould of s.luration beyond which Ihere is DO more. We
painting and can say Iha! sugar il al ils muirnum of s_tneu
163

163
COLOR
in Its ra'" Ilate. In Ihe $lime way. color is at ts
m;u:;mum o hrightness in !J, ra'" state. Too muclt
ra'" sugar;, it mUSI be balanced >Vith
$Omethillg cisc. And is color. \Ve can bear faW
b.ight rolor only so Iollg. As. "ith edg6, chann
lies In !he softness colltlasled with me sharp, so In
color lt f1 lhe hIight OCII"Itrut ed ",ith tbe softer :md
gre)'e. colors. The gTeyed and more subtle color
will be anociated with good tute, JUSI M jI js in
otl ,er uses, with now am.! then a splurge of oolor
10 .elieve Ihe monoton)'.

For tno.sc whe do oot the mcaning
of pigrnenlary complementary colo., lel me llOin!
out tha! Ihe primar), complClllen oI a color II ha!
color ",hid, is farlhe.t l removed from it by mix,
ture, al COIlbining TIOflC 01 Ihe erig",,1 00101'. 1'hU$
lbe COIllplement oI SI)lim.ary would be a mixture
al tM othcr Iwo. 1'lley liBe ul' as follo",,:
1'1\J 1>' AJI. Y
Rol
'.k>w
Dlue
Crl.>Cn (yenO'" plus bloe)
Vlotet ( ,,!d pi ... ble)
Or.mge (01 pi ... ye!low)
Tbe seoolldary OOfr",pkments are those con,
13illing a strain bul farthes! rerno"cd by
tll . e. ney linenp:
Yellow Creen
Blue Creeu
Dlue ViW:t
R..d Vw:.Iet ( boch oont.ln blue 1
Rffi. Orang .. ( both conb.i"
Yello,,' en"ge ( bolh alIlb.in red )
Tho secondar)' conlplcmellts are eve" more
be.:luliful becau""" Ihe)' are rcIated, and not quite
al he extreme of colo. oontrasl.
00l.QII 01\ 1\U,Tn> OOLOI'I
Since we know that we can relate any two col-
01S by mix;ng sorne of olle wilh the Olher, Ih/) col-
or o he speetrum fall ill to Ihree groups in whidl
eaeh is rebled 10 !heothe, because eaeh contalns
SO""" ol lhe same pri'llIry. Thus an color, con,
taining ),ellow are related by the yeDo",. 1'he
same 5 true hen al n o'"
ries. In their pures sute Ih.!
given below. Bu! Ihe colon
more, and AS long as
gredicnt Ihey will
as foUo.."S:
TllI! YO:l.l.ow CIlO\:,
Vcllll"W (Ihe Slrain)
YellO'" O" "'go

YelIO'o" Creen
G,_
DI...: Cretn
Plw any greyed color
conlainlng "'me yeIlow
The $lome
d.'"
"

or of your
This produ\ll..1 a picture in a yel1O"'lsh ' ""
pervaded by a yellow light.
'11m lEn CIlOV'
Red (lhesl1'lllll )
Red O.allgo
Orango
Yellow Orange
Red Violct
Viole!
lIlIJe Vinlet
PI", any srerOO color
COIltajning l(lme red
;nftuencc.
TlIE ....... : CIlOUP
lIl" . (H .. sl1'llin )
BlueC."""
G_

lIl"" Viole!
Viole!.
Red Violel
Pl"s a"y g'ered color
"""tamlng tome blne
1'h .. abov" a< "pp\ied lo [lainlin!:
keyM lor a I'icture. So you can
)'ellow, red,
loo. Or for olhe' robjech you can
!her and key o. infl uenCIe. all
single color. For uample,
lbe dominant s!rain Qf inBuence
$tlme of Ihe 3 m ~ pri oary. Thus aU oolors oon-
taining yeJlow are rdaled by the y..,Uow. !he
164
singl.., 00101. For example. blue green
Ihe dominanl stran ()f "IIueRa: tlll"OugbOi.
THE PRIMARY COLOR CROUPS
105
Hl5
THE PRIMARY COLOR GROUPS-COLOR SHADES
tOO ('Olor o a moonliglf rubject:, rneanlng I'IOt
r
tbat all colors are bl!,te green bul tbat tho:y arc
tempered or by blue green. Tbe
cllcel of $\1clI:.J1tionshlp 01 ('Olor is extremely
beauliful. So long as lhe domlnanl color is or can
be miled from Ihe slanda,d primaries, II i, per-
fec,:tly possible lo it by !be standard
four..rolor proross.
It follows thal lo produce harmonyancl beuty
of relaCio""hip o color throughout your
you have the choice of reLaUng lhem by ( 1)
common ingredienl. ( 2) mi.1ing inlo a "'el nnder-
tone, (3) Intermil:ture 01 !he color of one . rH
Into anOlber, (., palnling the subfect out 01 one
of !he groups, (5) U$ing as a palelt .. lor you' s"b
.. el any Ihrce colors each 01 wheh wi\l ronlaln
rom" of one oi the IhrC(l dilrerenl primaric.l. Th ... J
Ihe Ihree primaries may oot need lo be pureo Yo"
can take .Jmo, I any oombinlion Y"'" choose, II
ono: conbins yellow, .. oother blue, and the thlrd
red. in ellher purc or adulterl led sta le. This re-
$ull$ln whal is known al ',iad . " Triad, are real.
Iy a meanS of remo"jng color from ils pure raw
b.lt!. Thus a combi.nalion of yellow orange lor
one. blue g'eeI1 inslead ol bI"e 10l numbe.- lwo,
and red violel instead 01 red. wouJd be, "triad."
YQo.J (:IIn make a triad o seeondary or lerliary col.
ors, you can use ooe prlmnry wilh Iwosecondary,
glEen and blue gteen are ,hade:!! 01 grecn.
shade <)nI)'
Ibe SIl me ingredients. BUI there are
more.hadelOf green, mea"ing thal red
mixture. We ma)' green, grey
bro ... n p-eens, sea green-golng on
nitely. ,re aU compo$Cd o
friends, ycllow and hloo, wilb
01 red, black, .nd whlte. I! 1, ob,,'ous
menl!l of a glven color do nol
great "a,iely Intl assortment ol bem, but
\:allno! be INerte<! hannonioully inlO I
or fhe Ihree cholCl primarlu of lhe "'''''''.
Ihis ele." There are Ibree primaries of !he
tmm,bul yo ... ehose your oum IlItee
your pkture.nd paintlhe
aoo those Ibree primarie5 are
your <:olor. They are no!
spectrum primaries. they may contaill
ingr..dienl$ of Ihe primaries. They are
manes onl)' becausc l!ley are the
,. ""
or any eomhlnalion you choose. ro Intensity in p'opor lion to he Ilgh!
long as Ihey come from "'ith lhe three it. we mllSl (:lit down ;Is
primaries. If yOll eI-ae Ih,ee eolors 311100 elase painling 1I In shadow, or il
togetbcr in the specb um wheel, SIIeI> as Mue, pieture is bad i" I1or by
green bllle, aoo blue "iolel, you W(lUId beKlllmil- iI is no( Ihe falllt of !he oolor, bllt 01
ed as lO no! have any oomplemenl3ry conlrast, relaliOluhips of lhe rolor lo ght
nnd Ihough Ibe r8$U1t mighl Ilill be bC3 ... tiful 10 reHcete<! llgh! and color.
through dO$e relationship, II W(Iuld 3ppear ",11 \Ve muSI di.! lingui:h color as
10 lhe bluc" and !he color nlllge would be very InlIuenocd. If we thJow 3n onmge 1ighl
short. 1I _ ... Id be a beaulif,,1 combination in a or wish to make the green lI.ppen In our
fabrie, bul scaroely enough .auge for I pict .... e. as f il wer" in IR orilnge lighl, we IllIlSt
Thls wi1l indicale Ibe "ery greal "ariety of Gp' Ibe local color lo wha! i! appe3t$ by
proaeh !here can be lo coJor. orange. is wllere color atlheres " oh.
\Vhat Is mean! by color .hades isof vast impor- Principie, being oolor in the "IIS>e<:1 of
unoe anrl should be darl8ed ht:re. The .hade (lf aOO tnlIllenc:ed by 1'
I color 5 !he result 01 the propor/ioo of it$ "gro- !he ligh! be coo1. ... " wouId IUIturally add
dienf coWu, or .. oolor pi ..... Yor insta.nee, yellow lhe eolor.
166
" " o ' . . , .. .. "
dient celor" or a color For irullllCf!. rellow the color.
166
COLOR SELECTlON ANO BACKGROUND
bechosen after
In Ihe nalUfe of you. sub-
reaeh out and cateh the eye with
. I In compelitlon with other
i with the primaries O(
pUle .tale. Purity antl <tly in
longesl whcn i\ colllains fewes t ele-
Therefore, when two colol1 oonlllin the
1 blue grccn. green. and
amb in blue, lhey mar be
ol brilliancy. Bul when
h , tend 10
turn 10 hl"Owns.
wheri mlud wh tll(lu compl_u
or grey In )l'"oporIion 10 tl,e <lmoun!
rompkm/mf(fTlj added. All llq.#rl mixture,
., Ihe 8(1 ,,1(1 brown when
palette, for IU ore amaing
mmuTe ,/",d
m"",,", and you
'ro tu
plu$ bl"",
,"
pure or lus bklck or
cmd wilh underst<Jndlng color be-
IUJlimited, w4/1t 1M pru:IbllillJ 01 hundruU
enten: he Importanl elcment of sim_
\Ve found wlh tone that a few simple
the best pi: ture; il tums out that
'"" the same WIIy, ror coLor and tone are
h !or a simple
. How simple it be has heen shown U$
greal nd Zorn , $argent, and
Zom used a verlnilion, a blue black, and
the eye iI wil! I>eed stulling contrasl o( color,
which . ea1\y means a pby of complements. Iu a
general .u1e po$lel'$, co\'en, Rnd window dls-
pI:!.)'! can be built "pon the principIe of a prima'Y
againsl its complemento o. using the KlOlldary
compl ... n.nt:>. ioc. But ti,,, suhjt ha., lO do
with Ihe choice of colo . Some lhal :!. re
b.igb! and happy nalutally can for bright color.
A picture of an inmate of a eonoentralion Clmp
would hardly be painloo wilh brlgbl snappy OOKlr_
By undenhmding themirture of color "''e ean_p-
proach ls (unclion. \Ve can 'tUll<:e color enter a
I<:ey, a mood, o' rellcct Ihe sp!.it of lhe tasI:.. Know-
ing relationship,you willnotp;tint a bright yellow
IOOOn in pure Mue skies. Pure or bright cuIor blar-
ing out falsely i1l rebtionship !loes nol increaK
lhe effectivenen o an ...d, even if those who do
no! understand color believe il does. A beantiful
relalionship wll al""lI)'$ creatc better response.
Beauliful .ela\io:m!hips aro IlOne the le:;: brill"'"I;
!I is simply kllOwing ha", to !ll"rh'e al lm1li ancy.
If yOUl dienl ub you lo follow 9 slceteh that ii
faW and ugly 111 relationship, lIlake him a tllumb-
nai l of:!. .dated seheme .. he..., one ami par takt5
01 a,lOIher, with a single are:!. Iclt p".e, and let
him see il. The diHercnceshould convince him.
color ;Iself, every color has a value.
Natw"ally coIors cIose in ,,,,"lue wi n Il' nd lo merge,
like a . e<! on a green el abo"t the same Yl1lue. no)
yellows are in the rugh Yl1lues, abo tintl. o!"the
olher 1"'0, bul Ihe pwplC!, reds, browns, and dark
blttes all hove, aboul lhe same Inw val"<15. So, lf
conlras! iII neede<!, lirsl see Ihat there is conlrast
in \"lI lue, and tben contrat in color will be tuily
reaehed, Bacl<:gro"nds aEording contrast 10 ma-
It'lial in front of Ihem mut be seIected Ihs way.
If the conlrast of value is tJu:re, the colo. contrast
,lI!ed nol be greatly sepanloo. The rerore a liD(: or
dark grecn lettering might be linean a ereamy or
Th15 means one pUle ROO two lan backgrou.od, Mes! ",ide expanses of color
colon. n e brilliancy lies in the relation- shO\lld be toned down with complemenl o. grey,
and tone as lIluch as in color. \Vo do lo give other color a chan"". "The la.ger the area,
the uUlIlber of colon, bul by the sortcr Ihe is a good axiom. Avoid pri_
.. "", mal)' colon for baekgrot:ndJ. Keep your bright
'O itspurJlO$e. Tocateh colon on your unils ol inleres\.
167
, ", '1)'"
COll!iider y<lur subject and Hs pur(105e. To cateh colon 011 your unlJl or intcrC$t.
167
WHAT TO DO WHEN YOUR P1CfURE 15 DEAD IN COLOR
It is import:o.nl lostreu he,e !he fact lhat <.:Olor
in:l minia tute sketch may be quite arresling aoo
plcasng bc:"""..e il is .small. In lact. the smaUer
lhe a,ea, dI<) brlghte. Ibe 0010' tltal ro" be used.
11"1 yo" m",y Snu lba in the Snal wo.k. when the
skelch has been greatlyenla, gcu, theoolor
10 get lO. bit raw. Te rearon i$ thal die oolor eones
in !he , eti ... 01 Ih" ere are limited. We have onIy
SO) ""'''y of eadt lhal registe. lhe dilferenl 0010<"
vibratiom. The ey., .... hen taking '" .. larg., arca
of p"rerolorqulcklytires, aud tCluefend thcokw
n"."'es op(lQ'li te oolor scll$ali(m \$ 54!1 "p. Sta.e
al8 bright red spol IClr 8 minute and Ihen look 81
a while A brighl grecn!pCIl wlU dcvclClp,
Ir you slu .. al a !Jlue sp<>t, !he imagl' wilJ b., ye!.
low 01" orang.,. In ead. C3$C il w11l be lhe comple-
menlary of !he O')lor, 01" !he color ",hid! ",ould
looe down ()I" neutralite lile origi .... 1 oolor ",hich
is tiring lhose ner\'es. Se:> !he Iooger we i0oi<: al a
hrighl 0')10. the dllller il seems lo gel. We can
I ..... rn rrom his thal if we ptovide .esl 1(11" the
ne,ves in aS$OCiali"g balancing 0010 .. within Ihe
piet", .. , aH lhe colon ",iIllt3y brighl longer.
\Ve Iherelore C1m associale a brighl area with
UC')'ed or muled color, or ebe comp1emenwy
color lo obtan aud hoId brlliancy.
\Vben yon. I' icture is dead or unplcuant, the
faul! is usu:>lIy loo mueh nlW unrelated color,
",the. lhan not enoogh. It OOes tlOt IIclp !Q try lo
pile stilJ br ishler or dilIcrent row 00101"$ nlo!he
lbing." '3UCry of prmary lI.nd seoondury 00101"5
a U ...,.ng \\ilh o"" lI.nother can complelely vitiate
the whole a.>1or dFect. FollowJng are S(>'IJ.C rome-
dies f", bttd color.
Try greyingaU bul two colon or mlJciog a J"gle
cokw h, IO al1 bul one ()I" no.v of the otilen, lI.nd see
whal llapperu. " Iso Iook al your sllbject On the
hass of a shnpler tone plan, !lJTlI.nging il into a
pauern 01 ligltl. mddle tone, and dark. lf Ihis
cannol be do"",,, your Jubject may be 100 hrokcn
up in ,"' ..... s, whieh is jusI as importAnl 10 color as
lo tone. Try reducin&: yoor whale CXlIor .Jcl,eme lo
thr<'lt or tour buJ" co"'" from whlch roo will mil'.
a.D 100 rest Take brighl and ni'" CXlIot 001 01
yOul shaooWll. Ce! your brighle51 0')00 nlO the
168
areas in the liglll. See tbal aU thr.,.,
not Dppear n thelr raw stale witllin IhenOle
lure. If they are lbere, lhat is most 01 yOllr trou
Tone twoollhem wit" the third oroe.
Somellmes int,oducinS 11 neutral grey, . bltd:
OT while, 01" iny or aU of thCJn iulO a uhje<:t otlii:t.
wise f tlll of CXllo. will snap il up. both f.om a
$t:mdpoinl alld by ptoviding sllitab1e
the brlllLaIlC)' e1sewhcre.. nus mc-a'IS Ih:tt roo
havtt lo ACfi60e color in ODI'! place rO. the
more hrmiancy ekewhere.
If IlIt: $uhject persi<lenlly refuses !Q
aroun.!. il means Ilwl the values nr"ll sornew
01" Ihat .somethillg could nOI be in
val ue rellllionship under lbe exi'ling condi '
1I means thal the ()\"",U rebllonship oi li
sbadow Is b6d somewhere. HcnIemM
ClInllOl be rghl "",illhe ""Iue ;. ';ght. AbO
member, coi cannot be J'urer "nd
1M J,tulow th<.n Ihe"",1IIe cOOw (jppetm 10
,lte ligltt. Pich,res can""l !lO!d up if he Ilghl1
roo! nnd IheshadOW3 warm on CI ne Ihing. wil
re>'cr'" of warm lighlli and cool , hadow$
olh ... ",hin the l ame uhjed. unless by
reason or rellected Ig],t aoo color. Yoo (:I.n1
a hot sbadow on a lhal sOOuld be Ughle6
!he hlue ti the sl<y, llOr cooI under planes
sOOuld be lighle<! by !he wa'ffi 'reflcetion 01
lit gTOUnd. Think alwa)'$ of the po$$ib!I!ly ol
co1cw 01 On() sbtning into a"d InA"e
another.
of modeling Ol o VlIlues
are inlhe ligbt wi l! ruttura!ly also Iowerthe
of your oolor and ffiake il .ppeM muddy. See
!he liShb: are 1<ept simple in relalionship to .
,00 of ooru;istent intenli ly thrw
See that lighU in Ihe .re
overstaled or too liShl in deslroylng
mnn cffcct of the shadow a.' oppO$<!d 10'
lighl.
TMM .re. fe'" inst:o.noes wbere 11M pi
al f.ult because all thecolor is too grey. n.o
remedy there i$ !Q ntellsly color.1 Ihe el!
wherever el ... possib1e. BUI a more comQ1Oll
Is 100 mudt color.
alllh rest Take very bright and raw rolar out of
yoor .bado",s. Ce1 your brighte51 colon ioto Ihe
168
whercvcr elsc poss,ble.lIut a mOre common 1
is 100 much color.
THE EM01l0NAL EFFECTS OF COLOR
are pbnnlng a suoject that musl be
with lor a long ti rnl', use Ihe $(1ft or tonal
"",re is quite Imall. A large an<!
brighl pieture, alter the r>ewness is gane,
,,,, ",' 'm Me', oe'vcs. Pielur.::. rOl repTO-
and Slory ilIuslration are
,nomcnt ary interest aOO theref01e
tO brlghter !reatmenl, ",hielo is
, Ye' even lIere a quiet, soll, aoo renful
may allract a!lelltion by deviatioo
",", brighl color in rompan)' with l.
picturfjl fo. the .... lis a .... usually
P""" ir hcld in a lighl biS], key and
lel1 WI !ha! dilFerenl col(1rl; do
.!Jeet us ('motionally, Sorne can plca!iC
irritate, We being almost .... gic
and ph)'$ical!y to sorne, Reds and rel-
lo excite. Creens, blucs, and grcys. or
aOO purpleJ:, are more soolhing a,KI
Perhaps fh .. qui",t Ind restful colors of
a 101 lo do wilh resting our frayed
""'('>Ilion to the country. Combining
lioo (See Part One ) ,
line, beeomes per-
an<! rolar. Natu ....
lonal greyed colon fOl" !he permanent
,,;,. ".,;, t. ' IS, greells. Hu brighl
It is re.servoo fOl" IIowcrs, .kid,
inseeu, the glory or aulumn, fruitl, and
... hich will DOt "'" wi,h us long.
,'" rruili
hot metal Ilnd tite bright yellow of 11 Iog fire, Cold
is blue and grey and violet )).;e the on
white SnOw. 'Ien !hinl< whc!hcr color ..... 11y af-
fecu you Of ' lOt
Subje<:t:s geMI1IUy be painted aUIO OM
slde of the spectrum. ' Ve need some ..... armlh
lo balance the oooJ, .",d vice Vet"$a. While eitht:r
migll! we IIml that one Is enJunwd
by theolher. The playof WlIrm agoinsl cool, then,
in color is lhe -.ree of g'0::3! charm. This does 1l0!
mean hol ogainstcold <)r Ihe extremes of comple-
mentarles, but somelbing varying Iho !iha,Je of a
color a$ it arto;! O<" ('()fnd lo allOlher
area. For exnmple. an other ..... ise /lat yellow mighl
have play of deliente pinh, greens, pale orang..,
int" and even blue! aud la\'enoden, introdlf()ed
into il 10 gi".., lt greal clmrm. 111is does no! mea11
that )'0<1 pul colored spot, all O\"er another color.
Too value of lhe original lone must be elosely
matched ami thecolo, haodled whh Too
much of the oomplemelltary color will tcnd l O
mute the undercolor. If o'enlon.;, lhe purity of
wlor witl go ond lum 10 brown or mnd. You can
play like COOO logethcr wilh wonderful efl"ects.
sueh as Wllml greeus with conl grccns, warm red!
... ilh roo! reds, aOO soo" . KeepYDur colon neigh-
borly, Of living c10se 10 one another in !he spooo
tmm, and Ihey witl no! vitiate o!le a'lOlher. That
is O!le reason ,he color wheel looh frmll aud
brighl, be<'lluse !he transition from QM color to
tmother is gradual.
Speolctng of lbere is ",hat ;1 Icnown
Illi lralUitional color. Tha, , obtained by pllcing
colon that rumnaUy fall between 1 ... 0 colon il\ Ihe
wh,eel al theedge$ betw<'len lhe:se two color areu.
gre."", pinh, (lnd Su>pose wc ha"e thcn an atea of red aOO one of
peaoe ,00 quiet , le! lhe color run to rtoo bright ydlow in sa1l1e piclure alld
Whisder'. pai"ted hl lOuehing elIeh other. 111"", thc cdge of the red
Qr yet!o ... 1 Stop and think ho'" <:olor wonld be 1''' ;'''00 an orange a$ ;1 !ouches lhe
Think of lhedarlc greens, bine blaeks, yellow. Thus !he transilion b made {rom ,me lO
"" , . c10udy a l mid-ooean. Think of !he her wilh greal bfauty of
greens af spring and the pinl of Cmil Color olfers !he grentest opporluni ty for thc
aflfO" a long oold wiDler. Think of the crealive part 01 y<lu and for Ihe expression of )"our
oolor of rlpe wheal. the fuI! glory al he Individual feerings. Thet-e" no la'" lo say. what
aftel" a rain. Thi nk of lhe red glow of you mUSI do. 1 am suggesting ..... ha! you eOn do.
l OO
". ,.". .. .... /",y ", .." ,,>1, 1 wha! yo", CUI! do.
16.
OUTDOQR A.t\JO ll'IDOOR COLOR
Ouldoot color varies from ndoor eolor fI'\IIin_
ly In Ihe basie approoch. In ouldoor sunlghl lhe
light ;. w.."", lowud lhe .. nd of Ihe-
da)'. 'fhe blue sJ,;y reAecting into the
c:u.l$es IMm lo be geneTally coo!er lban!he lights.
So fO/" ouldoon the effect fO<" !he mosl parl ;1
w:l.ml lighlS cooI shadows. Now, I!doors, by
Iludio sk)'lght, which ulually is lumed 10 l he
norlh al Ihe mOSI even and conSlllnl or unchang-
ing ligbl, jU$llhe Opposilol is true. The room being
lighled by Iht eool blue of the sky, Ihe lighls a ...
OJO! aOO by amlrasl !he shadows . ppear w::trm.
There ahould be 1>0 hard alld fa$!: rules. hu_t,
in either (:B$e, since in :r!ain i!\llanees while and
dudng sunlighl may appear quite cool agai nsl
shadow$ eon$iderable warm lighl from
lbe ground. i"D.doou, we may actually gel Ihe sun
O<" rellection IlOm olher warm $OUI"CeS. So \he only
!hlng 10 do is 10 follow ....... rm aOO rool color lIS
yOIl $I!C il and feel il 10 be.
\Ve cm follo ... Ihe general idea thal warm
ligh" . nd cool shadows glve I n "ouldoor erreet."
while Ihe opsile gives OMOr indoo ... The main
Ibing is 1001 10 painl a girl on Ihe beach In ... hieh
palnling !he rolar appears lo be indoors. Nor
would we p:u.nl ber silting intloor1: wilh cok! blue
shadows lor 00 good rellJ>:)n. If you have an oul-
deo. liubject iI will help a grt'al deal to IlIQke a
qllick oUldoor slud
y
for color. There is no beller
w:l.y 10 ""ose Ihe dilJerenoc belween lhe 1,,"0.
To be a good iIluslralor, )"Ou gel lhis dif-
fetemt: 01 !he qualilies of your eolor inlO your
work when nceded. If }"Ou know thallhe Jul.ojt
o. incidenl is Quldoors, yQ" can colltribule a greal
den! mo ... conviction and feellng to il iI)'Ull place
iI oulide by !he color you use.
5uh;e.:to indicali '" ,,1 nlgll ! by alI mea!\l shoukl
be plac-ed uOOer artiliciallighl 10 draw or pII int
or even photograph. The eHect of a dOJe-up arli-
ficioJ ligh! is very dilJc.ent Irom daylighl OT 111"' _
ligh!. Nigl'l ligh! gives a Slrong conlJut of ghl
to thadow, aOO Ihis mUSI be l'aTTied out in color,
in !he proper set-up 01 values. A night tubject
light, and transwenl shadowl is motI
uncoovincing and falseo Nighl subjects indoo ..
lean. 10 the warm ke)'l with an-t an
effect 01 wannlh. Nighl 5ubjedJ ouldoors
warm lighlo wilh deep Mue< ,,00 purpl ... in
shadows excepl wheTe such ,hadows
ing wa' m reRecled lighl. Lamplighl and
are unqueslion:lbly warm.
There aJl: 100 many inslanees of
p"ying 110 attenlion whatever 10 this
rolor, whcreby much is IOSI, bolll lo
Isl! Bod 10 Ihe rndcr in bis rcslOnJe. It
remembered Iha! color hu a psyellOlogicaJ
upon the reader whetber he iJ 01 i
no!. II c has sc!lied for
difterence bel ... een ouldoor
perhaps wilhoul ever
h,", " p"'" :' 'm'
he can go on Ihe Tes! oC his
mistakell and t}C)I knowing it.
Sunlighl has 11. criSpDeU. nQl only of
shadow, bul 01 color abo, in lbe 1
cooI. The Iludio ligbl .
of lighl and hadow, and I
and 6nd ou! lTlOTe aooul il.
supplied in the local color of thlngs.
!:Ven Ihe gre)' !hings liJee an old
barn ge' f .. U of color rom lhe sun. lhe
rt'lkcted warmlh, plus lhe colot they
Iher own. nod<s lldoors "'Ollse loeveI"
\he $ame rocles in rolO!" unless it
on a cloud
y
dar.
Color can be laked, bul 11 mmt be ""d<m
aOO worked Mlh inlel1igenlly CT It can
be<:ome a me$5. So many arll$lS seem 10
a rolar formula. this lar Bes.h ud this for
shadow, and so on. Nothing ",,, Id be
170
track. Every i"bJect has ils OWTI
aspecto and Ihe aehieve Ihe
ro ':0':";' f,= the I J[ we
never do ji well until we i.,,.
Iife and Nalllre's color.

_ . , . __ .. " .. _.u, "v . ... " .
unoonvinc[", and fals(! . Night "dOOR life and Natur .. '. 001"...
170
HOW TO EXPER1MEf\ff' W!TH COLOR
" ''''''''0' the final work in color on any
the habit of selling down the genero!
I t of il in 3 '<ery small rough.
be more Ihan Of four
tones .re bettcr ro.- this than an in
stalement Try onl lome sehemes whieh
""Ould be relate<! to the sol>ject matter.
out threeor four al 1" oUoe
scl.eme. or al1 Ihe C(I)OIl C(lntai,,
Jiule of one single color. Try ou e or Iwo of
. as an cxpo;Tmcnt. Try rednd"g
",ilh a HUle grey or saving
10 go in pure. Yo" can try Orle of
In!e"sity (5 Part Two) , or 00 .. mOfe
aecording 10 l he suLcct. Too mueh
'",d detail here islost 'notion. You are .im-
o! color and gene,al value5. and it is
10 into a 101 or extra work in the
, Iep baek 5oevel'll.I reet.
i ' secrm 10 fil yo", problem bc$I.
betwcen 1"'0, lake Ihe one
earries bes! al a diSlancc. Wh .. n d' e cfIcel
dislance. yOlJ can
!he most important clo-
worl:ed I/Ut. Thll brge. one carry
to yon' and sim'
ti ji mueh as possihlc.
when reprodtlce<!, i5 10 1,.,
whi le page, or sUlTOUnded by while mar-
i hould also be irn::ludW i" )'our rougll .
ror a . 1(1)' paldlCl or
! be ! in al'proxi matc Ioca-
or bloch or !exl or script
With fOl" a magazine ad. !be
li nameplale,aod
elements shoukl be sugge,ted. Th". you
whole e/fecl in miniau"e and Jimpli-
may a!levialc mueh (Ij.ap-
bo lhe fi"ished thing appcars.
subjects, or those running to Ihe ooge of
wilh no margins, should be apl"cni-
dark Iones, ,i"ce tlle spaCl'! l"'yond
lb.: o{len "ppears
dispbys aIro aTe su!'
icd 10 this kind of approach. $ince tlle)' are more
oflen displaytd againsl ,niddk tone or dark than
[ight. The {lntdonr billboArd always h."IS a ",hite
mus,n or
Stating lhis general effect should not mean
uwrc than a fcw minuta or work per rongh. t;ven
if yon spcnd a fe'" hOl.'rs in p1annlng color, il p3ys
g'lOd c!ivic!on(! . Ir evel)' artiSI ",il! lo
tne poin! or real enthusi"sm toward hi.s suhjed
by pl3nning. il ",ill il.! imprinl
iro h$ " 'Ork. Starting 1III)'lhi"& in Ihe nature or
Anal work wilh doulll 01" m$givings, wi!h cllr;-
to how 3110ther apl'ro:rch ,nigll ! have
,,"Orked out. or "ven wI11I Ihe Ihollght Ih,,! if
you don't lik6 an cffect i! can he
d,anged. all leOOs lo produce worked-over and
' IIII1IIS. Too .nany of Ihese are ' <ery
bac! ror you. and you are re"lIy ,,"orking ag;.iml
as well as )'our dient.
! gi"e you a page of preliminary r:olor roug!.s ,
eurioo a $Iep furlher Ihan IbeorlginRl rough 011
he page which follows. Thi, would be" seeond
opcralion, or a f"'l her developme"l of a "ery fiut
cOnception. My tbought wu lo wo,k out .sorrw:
Iinle figutes 1tnder$f;a, and 1 <.'Quld ha"e enjoycd
<Ioing any one or bcm foc Ihe Rnal. rou will nOle
Ihat 1 did 1101 ro"finc ruy5eH litenlly 10 !he sketch.
In fae!. I wondcr if Ihe little sketch is not al most
het!cr tI.., r oo will fin<! Ihe enarcoal
sludy of the figure in Part Two_
The. c i" nolhmg 50 disco\lraging ns 10 hn,"e 11
,,,bjeel relurned lo yon 10 be "pepped in
C(llor. aft er yoo havc put eve'}" bit of brighlne5s
you kilO\\' h()w into il. Most of lhe time .1,,11 color
r:omes from n()t having planned il. This is the real
;d,'aJ1l:1ge of rough,. Yon 1:o0w what is g<l ing 10
171
work OIJI 2nd ... hal b noto r ou can ehange yon'
rOUgM to )'0 ... heart's content, but be decidcd
whe" yOlJ approoch yoor 6nal. No one can "ver
be SlIre o aH e/red o rolor unl il he hu se! it do ........
and looked al il . I,ave a
way or sounding wonderru!. b,, 1 looking awf,, 1
whe" firsl lried out . 1/ lhe plan is tlol ;oing
to ,,"Ork out , fj"d OUI early aOO do
abo"t it.
l7I
EXPERIMENTAL COLOR ROUCHS WORKED OUT
WORKED OUT IN COLOR FROM BLACK-AND-WHITE COPY
WHAT IS COLOR CHARM, AND HOW CAN WE KNOW IT?
Cbann in 0010, springs {rolll JeveraJ OOUJCeS.
Even ahead of personal laste I should pul Ihe
working knowledge al rokIT. Fin! aOO foremos!
rome, colorrellIionship, 1 ha. been
*airly well wo,kl out bere. Now
comes Aloll g. Tasle in 0010. 10
fmm rawness to the nlOTe Jubile gradua-
tion oi rolor. \Ve start out as ehildren Io\ing
brlght red, yt-llow, ,,00 blue, tlle priman ... , as ;1
iJ logia l to do, beca""" Ihese colon: gel lIttentioll
among lhe greys of everything ebe. Then we be
gin toJo"e the pure tints. or ,he prl mar;e, diluted
with white. So a lillle girl begl ns to paJe
pinks, ycl lows, bloes, for her ,md hair
,ibbonl, w!Jile th" boy conl inues wlth hi. fun-
strenglh colon:. Jl e likes brlght red In hi!l """""t-
en; and blu.:., grecn.and blacb. But he abo lik.,.
the liule bloOO girl in he, poutd shadcs. The see-
ond . Iep in tbe development o color taste begins
to "elude 'as.wciatioo, or tbe fitt ing color for in
purpo.<e. The hoy will wear a red but not
a red suil; he now wants tweeds, t.lns or browns
ordarl: blue. The gi,l begins lo like plalds, stripe',
and 6gured material, or somcthing h .... ing mo",
than one color.
Certain colo.- charact"";!li($ sllI)' on through
lfe in line with individual chareterislics. A
penon wiU II:" gay colon, a sedate and somber
individuIII will exptll" himself in greyed Or neu
tral colo. select ion. But a.sslIming Ihat we are
nethe, al1 gay, completely sedate, m",t of
us lind A 10glesl place for each.
So oolor lies in !he .pproprillte, in reJa
tion lo its pu,fX'5" ;md its environment. I believe
thal much of what leeros inheren! bad bsle in
oolor is real1y hck /JI WOI"hb1e Ir: nowledge 01 he
appliO&t!on aod assodalion of colOT.
Color thal i$ had i.< u<ually only 'out of place."
In simple !enos. that mean. jt il di!$odated
from and unrdated to its 'U1TOUnrungs. The .. me
0010. ct n be made beautifu1 through relarioruhip
eilher by dunging the surroundi,:.gs o. by
ng I ,ligllt adjushnent in the oolor tseU. A
174
colo.- must el!her bea complemenl (ordosetoit)
lo IS bac*groond OJ ronlain !he ;ng,edients lboI I
are somelO"hat in il$ $IllToundings. Any- J
thing becomes obllOXiollS ",ben too oompletdy
di,sociated from it, Tru,t i, 'imply
,he very fouod.ation 01 good taste.
Suppos.ea penon say'. Hlli\.:e brighl red." rhal
by no means indiC2les bad. taste. Bot IUppose he
sa)'S, purc red with pu.e yellow with PI"
n at would indiOl le. com)letely ",odewJ.
oped colOf sense. Any onc 01 Ihe Ihree "'In be
lo 11 roSe garden, bolnnCM by tht rol
01 U$ en"/tonment. SI:mding alone, they aTe la ...
and complelely dissociated. Ji the brightness Q
a color js pleBSing 10 \JS it indieales l! Is being SOOI
itl approprialen= and wilhin a proper color set
t ing. lf U scern. unpleasant, the lroohl .. J"" ",!he
seUin" nol tl ... color. ThCl"f; i!l notbitlg wrong wilb
bright color, we an Ime Lt. But " "" do 001 paiDI
ou. houses wi th the same <:oJor we like in Awm,
nor would we picK a lUil of lhe sn,ne ""
Ji].;e in a \Ve like a red motor car, b"twe
abhor the same red as blorxl . \Ve love a red caro
nation, nnd hate red Aannel ullderWftar.
Lea,n 10 h "U.'lt you, feelil1gs aboIIt
color. \\Illen)'<' u do not Iil<e A <:olor,
wi.h il unlil you do. Crey il. lone il. change it,
mal:c a tint of it, change the ... alue. Jf il is Jl':mI
"M does nOl secm. bgbl yOIl can! mw
it "ny 1mghter. So grey the oolor$ aJ"ound il untl.
it t,,\:es on relativo brighh'uu.
Chlrm 1.1 n<>t .. Iway. hrillianey. OIarm may le
in ql1iet unobtrlls"""c5s. lt may lie in variaoo..
in " .. blle repelilioll, 1100 in , eserve. Cllarm incolor
i, lil:e charm in a persono A Ioud b!alllot pe ...
i , hardly charming, )'El a channlng JeT$(m rmtf
fore.!! and oonviction in Ihe right placo. 1
havc Ihat persons p",s.essed (Jf !Umingly
had t"5te in olhe, direction. invarlably have bid
in color. One who dis>el.! . n dignity aM
convention, woo in oonverution, wIoo
ieIIds a generally disOl"gani:zed Ife, wou1d po.
in th:t kind o color.
174
1
SHOULD WE EUMINATE BLACK FROM OUR PAlE I l E?
Iha! Ihe use 01 blad: Oll Ihe pa1ctte
d". lhe craftsma,,' 5 a bilily. Tbere c,mnot
lel up eilher lor aT agaiosl. Whcn your
1;1 is roo may be sure Ihal
)1 t parl in Ihe fi nal result.
a 10oioS agenl can be
mi.ro$e 01 it can terbioly
a dull, llfeless elfect.
115 u"derstand (hal bbek
,,,,,, Io,q: of bri1!ial"lCJ'. It there-
more lo shadow lhan lo light. Sul
<:an be in light, and llSed
i. he sikneing 01 o\"erinsi.lenl
1" iI;n reserve and it 10
Man), fi ne painters ha .. c U$ed
,his W8)' wlh great t ueceH. Thcre are
u)' bbck does no)t in life and
Thal i. tr"'" ",hen 5peaking of black as a
lack 01 color, greyness. ltnd darkne5S
In Nature. To say blaek <loes nOI nist
lhal shadow and darkness does Jl(I( erist.
.. whleh comes oul o OUT
would be ORe thing. But I lube Q:)lor ;.
right in color, value, or tone. Painting l.
subordlnalion as "'el! as bril1ia1lC)'.
,,""" danger 01 bIsel: In the hands of
Is lhal he makes lhe wlo.w: wilh black
: liltle color. This prooloces au effed
coJor washed over a blaek
Tbe result is thal all his
.., ami the same blnck for e ... ,ry-
U$e 01 bbck never lets the black
I
its identi ty. There Inust be SOrntl color In
il gels ver)' low in touc.
11" de.ep in shadow il dil!lcull
.ince Ibe mixture 01 bJack may pro-
"" case, a bumt sien-
be added 10 Ihe black. However, you
in OUT color wheel that lhe Iowesl dark
tal! into plaee withauI ob"ious ebange
175
It $ 001 m)' ;"leolion lIere to tnl.:e issllC wilh the
pUTe color theorisl$. 1 bel,evc lhal in Irl w., hallld
be free to foHow Ihe ietates 01 our vislorl and
{eel;ng. and ir black Ihe oh beuer in our
eslimalion tllCre l.! no fM 001 using il. Ir
Ihe U$e al it. alter rea!OfIable experiment , seem.
lo WQl"kag.lrul one. b)'all meaM disposeof it,aoo
5ub.tilule anylh;ng elsc thal will work out .
8lack oonsidcred as darkness, aoo no! color, is
reall), Ihe opposlle of conslderi ng OUT while as
lighl. The color It.eo.isu cannol dispen.se ",ith
while ond reaeh the necded .. ah,es. Ir the)' COln
produce Ihe blacb ..... ;Ih color, 61Wl bul neverlhe
less Ihe)' are slm black, ",hethcr Ihe,. mix il
b), ueulraling .tmng coIors with o ... e
allolhcr, or USe it readymixed. The one advantage
of prodllcing the e2lnme darks wilh COIM ;s Ihat
If "'e can read, !he lo .... value It need 1101 be black.
Color ir dark enough will aprear bll ck anyw8)'.
1 do Ih,s whenever pouibLe. but 1 stiH ma,. U$e
lhe lube black as a loning 'gent 10 k>wcr the
.. al"", ni a color, for you may Ih ... bang 0010 lhe
ldenlity al a color Ionger liuln )'ou can by mixing
;1 wlh other oolor.
The imporlan! thing is nol haw you do 11, bul
whether you can do ;1. If )'OU can .educe lO rolor
without making i\ anolher wlor, throwi"g a
kn.own. rolor inlo shadow ,"d making ;1 looIc Iike
Ihal Jame color In shadow, Iheu Dn)' "'a)' under
the sun you ca ... do il is rigbt.
One IhinS yOl! cannol do il ose he pure !ltrong
(Olor as shadow, ijmply diJuling the (Olor with
white for the area in light. Thts wm alWll)'s keep
)'0\1' (Olor f.lse aoo cheap-kooking. Toniug rolor
througll eight vlllucs ts certainly an Impor-
tant part of your eq"ip,,'enllnd has mnd> lo do
",illo )'our SIIC"OO$3 as a colorist.
NalUTe's color is masl beautif,,1 if we can but
see undcrstand it. You go 10 her source 10
c rprcss the trulh a. you lee il. So )'ou are a parl
of color liso. Now let liS take up olloe,. importnnt
qualitlc! al good pictures.
175
PART FOUR
THERE ARE F1VE ESSENTIALS
1. Visualizanon
2. Dramatization
3. Characterization
4. Arrangement
5. Embellishment
WHAT IS ILLUSTRATION?
i. no beller way lO appmadl any task than
lo hRve a citar llnderstanding of what;1 expeCled
af you. Just what is lhe nced and 01 an
ilIustrator? Lel liS understand ha! Ihe prilnary
functiOfl of ilhutration is lo malee a graphic nter-
p relalion 01 an idea. Tbe idea 10 be inlerpnlled
musl be thoroughly visualized. A completely
absttact idea can tbus be given Ihe semblance of
realllr. 11>erefore a picture without an idea Of
dellned purpose can hardly be thougl. of as an
iltustTlltion.
Tbe beginning. Ihen, of ,wery lIlustration is
really a mentnl proeedure 011 Ihe part oC $OIDe'-
body-an author, a copywritl'T, or the Iist bim-
sclf. Sorne.sor! 01 a mental illUlge is prt':$ellt and
Iransmitted 10 Ihe artisl, or dse one is conjured
up in his own Imagination. \Vilh his knowledge
o form, Ilght, color. and perspective, he is Ihe
ollly OBe in Ih" grollp who ls ftble 10 malee hal
grapbic: interpretation, though lt mar be quite
clear in the mincb of lbe othcl1. Ihe
i.lJustralorS true function is 10 be able 10 grasp
thal image, or acateone, aOO bring 11 lo life, ca.
rying Ihrough Ihe inlenl and purpose of the idea.
The il1uslrntoT subordina!es himself lo IiUch puro
pose, yet lends his crealive kili to carrying fo.
ward thal purpose. It i$ importan! that every
young pcI"Wn cnlcrAg Ihe Aekl of
have the understanding Ihat his oh ls truly one
of co-operation. Masl sUC(e$$ful iIlustralors make
e'-eT)' possible elJort lo co-DIICrate, anO. 10 makc
lhose with woom Ihey are dealing feel thal co-
opt'ntion. Thil is of greal imporlance lo you. suc-
ccss as ]]ustrator. .
Tln: nlRtE CI\OtIPS OF LLLU$TI\ATION
II1ustration may be dvided inlO three brood
goup'. YOtl may be called upon IOdo }'OUl par! in
any aneof the groups, anO. you mus! be rcady.
11Ie /in! kind 01 illus\r.1.ILon is Ihat which telIs
the complete Slory wilbout a tide, texl, or
wrillen message 10 . This ty!'e
covers,
els, displays, or The dien!,
depending entirely upon yDO.l to put ove.
(Ir arouse a desired response. YOUT work
lhe whole jobo
Too sccond I:ind is that whicll iIlustr3tes I
or whicll anO. canies
lineo a slogan, o. $OTIle writlen nlcssage
conjunctioll wlh the picttlrc. lIS function .
lend force to lhe roessage. In this group
01 ten lubjtcU whe/ carry brid copy for
readiog time, sueh as posten. ca.r cards,
and nw.ga:dne ad\'crtising. TOO slory and
function togtlher as a complete un!.
Tho Ihird kind 1$ tha! in IVbich the
by Ihe pietu.e is incomplete, i
belng lo arouse curiosity, in short, to in
reader lo find tbe answer in the tel\"t.
typc 01 lIustration might be CIllled
Mguess whal
ff
pictures. Many
178
buil t on Ibis plan, lo mure lhe
copy. If lhe story were completcly
fai! in ia purpose, and the ser'pt or t."
easily be (lassed up. Unfortunalely,
pt:n, 100 oflen, and when il d()Cs, the
quarlers a story lo gel Ihe heroine
lIe.o'$ arms, bul f the readcr "
rerult immediately Ihroo.'gh lhe
tion, lhe w!.ole alteropt of lhe aucho. to
suspense is spoile<!. Your pielurc
ful1y done, bul nuerly ","ortbless
story a",ay. AIl arlist ,t" ,oto
recognize Ihe I"ICcd of co-operation.
which is just a5 undesirable as a
",ha does.
In all art, a!l "'QTI: logether, and so
euentials of telling the story plctorially
178
THE ESSENTIALS OF TELLlNC THE STORY

hanl !o)
rompletcJr.so wc shnl! CQ\ '", then>
t 5'st go l"to more \1."laill "._
V!SUA J,l'l ,\ T!O>l
Visuahwhon 15 Im.lding up a ro!""e!e
an "bstr;.c:t 01le. Flrst WC !nust 10
.11 Ihe facls, and tI",,, emhdlish tho." f"eh
O"" o\, r
, ,\ 1
11 ... tlOinl a"J pttrpos<.l o/ ",hM "'e
10 do, u:t "5 dis('('r Ihe twod :u,d
o/ d'e ,h; > lo 1>.:. h . Illppy? 15 ,1
I " " '1\'J1? Or is i l l o he SO\l,h.
.elJxing, or :soml>er in it
Oor , ,,I"""l,,e"l d"d.ion$ !o i"I Cf'
", ill d"peml ''''1<'10 O" ",hal we
,. "bg idl'3" lo he, I\ead or Ihe
, be(o"" )'0\' Fi".!
(he charRctc" :ore lik", Ihe selling. &"n.
:u:tt$sorie<!, and th( ""sluu..., . ]" f:le! , ro"
$etling ,t3g(; fo. amI Jooking

IS, ean tI", ,Iory


hy I hc
it somethi " g thal .hould dO: I'""d OOl
n .. d e'I',,,,,.io... ,,,-,,\:si\'Jting
charade,.s with p,obabl]' "nly
b:od:groono ? In moc.km m" , .rat ion Ihe

""d t he seHiug nex!. Y OU


'"sy \\';t l, S<Il'lt' lu' Y Iule roo.'Shs.
,t ", Ihe}' ."ggC$t Ihcm<ck ... , YO\!
not hi'ing frl()t!cI, )'ct. yo .. \\'aH! to nd oul
do "" tb Ih .. " , .... ben do get tI .... m.
"IU.\ l .n 'l2A T IOS
"'. 'l. us l! aUr a w:ly lo lell a .tMy
il l l!link it out. Thc thi ng wc Ihink
to he jusI aho .. t ",hdl t\'erybod-r elsc
of, ']'0 leH it difIerenl l]'. dQ,,'t aC'(.'(!pt
.. If thc Sl ory belf
pcrhap. ;t ",tU he so by
179
I)OOC'! or S<:.lures. ecq>."".ioolsand '''ggestion. Yon
",i;hl g<:1 np in (,.on( or 11 ",irro, :11\d atl !he thing
out. i". l th .. ehara<i<'Tl lIlight do Scldom ",in
" 1"'-""'" interpretat ion of char.' d er \Vilh "O
on yo", p.1Jt ... -el "" more than:. 1),'\S5"e
Jo;,=>' chamel .. r sho\!ld he as u>rcr<"St-
ns a. pt'l<, iL>/e, nnd his Jction platlHed. ,,-!ake
so,,'e hule p .. ses for &;:$Itlre ;md Ir}' lO
!l.'3SO" 00t! !he ac. ioo of One duqcler wi lh a!l-
ot ile. > a,,' >Ositiou 011 ,he Oom or a seu ;ng
JI ... ouldl", in good ]lb )' or J!IOVie. Tl o<: an .. 1
,"uS[ 1><) actor hea,.! ir 1", wo"ld tl>akc
.. in h" I'ie! ,, ...
Tlle <)(; leve! chose" "'in dete.mine much of
Ihe dmm.\lic .. cd. Shall "'e Iool "1) al the,",
.10"''' o .. thcm. or ,t'mght al Ihem? )"00' e .... o jUl:'
; Ic Ihes" ch:oractcL'S aoout ror i" rou,
tnre mak .. Ih .. m fll a gooJ d".ign. Rcmem.
lwr lhal tad, dlOlmde ho\do.! ):\ e lIn individu;t l
,,,,d "lTe'e,,t of son>e kioo Do,,, 1:"''' "" 0
(har.te!cD al'pwx,matdy the Sa"' e amou"t of
arca j" coll'p,,-,i tion ir yoo I,dp lt. Doo!
lml )'0'" .. i,,1O the C(lmpositio .. i " un-
(:'O'lllort aL>ly crowdrd or al d." ,ides
"" h " hok in Iho: miJ dle of lhe plCtor". "fhe ce,,
ter ",,,a 01 yo .. ,- pictu,-e is ,he P'l'<l of hOnor. pie-
and . ho\\ ld be ven lo lhe mOSI mpor.
llInl chamctn- wloen pos .. i1J!c.
Drama i., ,0rndhi,,1S )"0\' lcel, ,t nd I ca, mo! le ll
yoo how ." pose n model, wo"ld )'on ... :ml
me 10. Or:,mati7,1tio" i. mOSI on yo",
ami is a eI ,a .. re lo expresll )"oor ongin .. lil)' .
Let " c:! hze Iha! Irol,. lool>ser .. " alprccialo
ti", drama of '" il "'u$t 00' \-
.ci""sly sel oUJ,..ru'S ap::ort as ObSO".,...CT$. We <::In
!:oc 10 on lld, a pa,t of il as to mi lS il '"he
b fmer no m hi, TOu tint. but the pby.
"'Tight ,I')(l!; 1\'dHe ,he shop girl doc. no! k"ow
shc i, a cbamder fuI! o( &ubtlc drama. hu! lhe
dO('s. Drama . e'ery ..... "erc. it les in
naluralncss 3nd l n, th more th")) in fancj"
STACINC YOUR SUBJECT
You are in the position or Ihe IDOlion picturc
director. SuPf ",c )'0'" lay 0\11 " lilile UO"nd plan
ol lhe settng where lhe action is taking place.
Supf>O$O JI is h a rOOm. Place the fumilure. the
doorways, windows. and so forlh. If you have se-
Icejed an !nlenor to follow. draw Ihe ground plan
ol lhal. Thl'l1, lo gel lhe of Ihe acoon,
place roor rog\ll'eS n likely spob.
Yo.. can lurft lhe ground plan aboul fOl'. view-
poin!. Perhaps)"Ou wanl a bit of Ihe fireplace, 01'
)"OU want lo He a face (roro a ce-rlain angle. On
Ihe nut (1"1>" I have laid uvl .ud, u Tl1<:"
yo" can drop or project Ihe Roor pbn ;, ,10 a li Ule
perspective of f"mit ore, interior, and
figurC$. It is lurdly neeeuary 10 go into rompli_
oted peupe<:live for sucb IItlc I'OIJglI$. 8y squar.
ing off the!locr roo <:;In Iocale Ihe unib Or male-
ri.1.
As lhe movie director would do. )"OU must de-
cide on whal lIc would can lhe "camera
You ca" Iry Ihe angles aU around and see whal
you ge!. Shfl nround at will "nlil an
arrangcrnenl yo" like come< 10 li ghl.1115 a good
plan waen YOI go 10 lhe next I1IOV;" lo walch Ihe
palter" compositions COMlantly changing bcfore
you, and the placement el figures. lhe adkln.OO
gestures. Moron pictures are in 3 VCfy high H:nH:
the $:.Ime JOTt of dramatiu!ion )"OU aTe gOi"g
after. Ir you are {ust sitting Ihere fol1owing Ihe
s!ory nnd collllant ly !ooking al the facc, yoo may
m1$s the whoJe good il cando yo .. as an illuslralor.
y"" may be lIue Ihe direclor woold nol lel h1$
chartl t lers stand 5ti/lly about :u if ...... iting for a
roe lo recite their lines. The easc aOO nalural-
ness lhal Ihe actors dispby in Ihe!r roles is h.lf
the baltlc in rr.akinggood motion pictur",. W.lcb
whnl Ihc olhu are dOing as the ma.in
characlcr goes along in hi! part o Charnelel"$ enn
be groupcd inlo or pallern for yo ... COm-
position. Sorne $01'1 of emphasis may be plaoed on
cerla" charaders by conlrasl of valoo. by lines
It:l.ding through other by color. or by
lhe attenlion of faoes lumed loward Ihem. Lel
hap' , he regislen; interes! in !he r-ain
Aman hokk a .,;g:tr .. U .. ligh . ..... 1m In.. lady.
gers the cockla1 glan-anylhlng
poses. TIle 3uthor (ll'
anything 10 go by for
conveuatlon, and in 1,
real run fOl' you, ir yo .. will gel in
in it. Alld JI a1I ,nakcs ami interesl in
pictures.
cr, ....... CT'KI\IXATlOI<
c.stiug !he play is an imporlgnl part of
job, .. n.d il mu.' be or
try 10 vbualizc the charaelen as .
ble. Somelimcs yOll will change Ihe oh,"";,
yourmodd tos"il lhe character inyou. slory.
10 hunt "p s"iuble modek It is too euy lo
Ihe lame " Jodel lwo or rhree times in
$Ubfed by jusi changing from hlollde
Or lIsing a di lf..,.-ent costume. Tlois s the Iazy
aoo il l! coslly in rhe long TUn.
show good characterizalion
your woTk. In thccnd il will
your oompelitor .
Irying 10 make a matror, Otol
old gitl by p;<illting stTeau el "ey n her
Cha",ctcrizalion for rhe i
aMe !ads. What does an old bdy'$ bony
rcally Iook like? How does slJe do hcr
arto Ihe planes in Ihe jowls of nn old
You cannol fake
lell so much whcn Ihey are Tig"t.
chu:oclcr in an old shoe, Ihings tpread
table-In fael, all lhe aroessorie:s may leH
of !he Iife Ihat goi"g on in you; Jubcct. I
charlctcr Is tired and
g{'St il. Don't be ufraid r,
unything bul a fashion plate. Mak Ihem faJl
urnUy into place, stressing the fonn JIlore
garme"l. \Vateh for "losI a",1 lound"
lo nterla"" tlle r.gure i
""er llOSSiblc SO Ihal the
delinoo al! aTound. ( See
Edges..) ,_,O,
IhcJIl do natural Ihings. A girl might be taking off composition. Do nol mah .11 figures
her gloves or daubing on iIOme lipstick, or per_ imporlan!.
180
hcr glOves o. (l(l\ll)mg on rome IIpsltclr:, or per- l n p o . l ~ n l .
ISO
" THUMBNAIL" SErrlNGS
TII II IJ '" JIi'1 PL E "'N) PltACT ClI.l.. W4Y 'T1:) V I J O lI. LI Z. E. A ! IT O HJ <i'E:T '1'00
iT6R:rED WITt! A leN!E OF ItI!AL1TY. voU CAN u.,y OUT 6. .IEn-'NG W ' TH J.,Oq'C6.,
PU,Ce.MENTJ AHD F-IG'u.-:e .... ",Oi'l, AHe> IT"ROM AHY "''''GLe. .
181
181
HOW TO CET SUCC5TIONS FROM CUPPlNCS
is typical photographlc interior as iI
might be clipped {mm . ny (JfW! o number of
magazines on lile market . You ",iI) need. pad of
In""parenl IQ"" paper. 'The here is 10
help you visuliu a situatio" on Ihe trating paper
roo can mo..e tlle !r.l.cfng paper .bout a,ld, allow-
ing far perspective, thos move Ihe furnit"re about
i( yo" wah. I do nOl s"ucst, o cou'&(:, thnt you
make a complete oopy o any copyrighled mate
mI, bul Ihl(e lhe magaziBe !s published lo gi"e
OBe ;nforma:lou and idea! as lo interior deo:ora.
tion, tMe $1IouId be !XI objection lo os;ng it as
source al inlonnation aOO suggestion. Tbe poim
is thal lile clipp'''g .hould not be a l)n,,,,.
182
ing interion wi lh figures is an exoelleni
practioe In dramatization .00 i" the I '
figures ,,,lO 1" env;ronment w:th respect 10
lhe Rgurts by I
Ji . You c-.an in lum
Iighling on )"lUf model, and rel the
"ye Ic\'cI lo be consisten! willt Ihe eye
apparent there.
H you have dilliculty in pladng
imaginali", it is ""ggeste<! Ibt )"O" study
eulier book Figure Drawing lar AllU',
,n which I ha\'c tried lo g''''' jusI Ihis
informal;"n.
SOurce 01 ItllonMtlon UnO $uggCSllOll. 1 t\e polnt
i.s Ihallhe cllpp,ng should nOI be" - Draw.
182
In Wntell I lUlV" \tI<.-...,
lllformahon.
IU JU .. \,,1>
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FIGURES SUGGESTED ON TRAC1NG PAPER
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PLANN!NC DRAMAT!C ACT!ON ANO POSES
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184
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ESTABLlSH THE ACT10N BEFORE HlR1NG A MODEL
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THE ESSENTIAL ARRANGEMENT
Thematmcr inwhich 3 picl ure is oonceived wil!
val')' \Vilh every artist. I n advcrtising oolnlnissions
Ihe subject often comes lo you in layout formo
already visualized by 8n artist in connectlon \Vilh
Ihe agency. Those meo for lhe mos! par! are
exceplionally skillcd in the general prcsenlatioll
nf ao idea. N; a general rule, hawe,-cr, tltey Me
nlerestcd more in placement and mass, aod the
d .. -tail or final "terprotalion nf the idea is lef! lo
yoo. The purpose of the layout orsketch has been
10 virualire the idea generaU)' fo, tbe;r 0"'0 clicnt
lo obtain a "go altead" frum him before going luto
expensive 3rt costs. Also Ihe layout oo,...".s tbe
enliread. ;odicating main ropy and placcment of
aH uoH! to arpen . Considerable latilude mar be
allowed as 10 poses, c10Ihing, aocessories, types,
and dramatization. So the work 1 am laying out
here frolll Ule 6rst rough idea, whelher
your own or whclhcr tumed Over 10 you 10 be
carried forward.
Arrangemcnl as dscru;sed here cal! take plact:
ouly alter Ihe idea becomes definte, supporled
by sueh faelS ru; wi ll lc"d lhemselves pictorially.
You will oogin to sec huw all the es:entials are
inte..depondenl with Qne anothcr Rnd are a11
dirccted towaru a single purpuse.ll is important
lo have the poses fai rly well ronceived in rough
formo The selliog, ir auy, should also be decide<!
upon. At this .... rly stage we begin lo think aboul
pattenund tonal arrangcment. Sorne artists slar!
with the figures and act ion. and develop n setljng
with thcm; while some even start w,lb abstract
pallcms, adjusting the figure 10 the pattern. lt
matters little how you arrive al good designo You
may go at it dUferently cach time; he Important
Ihjng is Ihe ronccptiun of your pielure. The ar-
rangcmenl and de5ignshould beconsideredcare.
fully. VIere is nO law govcnling arrangemen!; you
muSI Simply do whal you tbink loob best alter
Irying severa! arrangements and selccting Ihe une
you feel is mast suitable. Pe,sonally, I like to star!
wjlb a dasigo Iml aud adhere 10 I! as mueh as
passible.
The one advantage in making an
['altem arrangem..,nl rsl is tJlat it m,'y",
SO mueh of Ihe resl o tbe picture. YOn gel'
from these abstraeliofls as you try them oul.
example, you have a Ja,k pattcm he,e. lt
suggesl tha! yon use a IIgure in a '::y::
Ihe pallern is 01 a certain shapo, il
SOrne acccssory, or some
The pattern
armngement
hill, Of what nOI, SO long as il i, an "" ,,,.
designo Any subjcct nOI Hmited in the
to cerla(n material or ropy should
ment. May 1 ssy thal the reason for
this cssential arrangement in nur " ''Y<
borause il is not sufficiently consldered
mist. He has a ihingand copies itand
Ihing around it and calls it a jobo
subjccts are not givcn latitude in !lis
can do at leasl Ihe besl you can, ir
placement of your material.
The most importanl "lement in .
the thjog tha! mOVe5 you ahead fastest, .
cepUon 01 }'Qur subje<:ts. and il .
while fa gi"e il Ihe li me it de...,,,,es.
exercise }'Qur inventive faculty if you
troly exce!. The more'
longer Ihe joomey.
Thumb through a magazine. Pul "h,
ilIustrations tha! ,eem 10 appeal to Y""
illcluding pholos 01" allything else. Now go
and with a piecc of tracing paper rough
mas: arrangcmcnt evidcnt in the ones ,m,
You are really partial
$ign and arrangemenl, and so is
Design is he one way 10 gel away
nary. \Ve all tbink we can', design,
we do. Often design comes by seizing
accidental. We seem to get
are days wben better. All
lo adapt thc n
pleasingly as possible.
186

186
ARRANCEMENTS BASED ON ONE OF THE PREV1QUS RQUCHS

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IHe. ""CURES <:'LO/ e UP.
Ir NO OOVBT THAT 1 .. e. <:'OI'Kf<PlIO,,"
II OA.IIi. ... TEIO; I M I"OlO;rANCE:
fue. n P6YS 1'0 SPE.NO COft-
T! pi\L ROvO"f V"'TIL '<'ou
'fO'"' H6VE .0, 0000 "'\1.AANe;tMEMT
AN E.I' " .:. T I '" DIUM AT I :r A TI QN 0' 0' rilE.
.1' YOU C6N SIIOW T"E""' C:. IT'S
,O DO J O' , Tn.y l e ""i: 6 Ve THI! Lle; ...... ,
187
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ANO " AII.K ARe.:.s 70C til"C!0\ IO' TIIA7
THI! 1' 1<:' '11.11'1.. 1.1 6AL/:I N<:'I!" ANO 11'0'1'1 100
l ,nr.lle.lT''''Cl'f. T ME/e IU:)UCI<S' ... r:tE. FItOM
THf! LAYOUT PAO .4NO .IJo1OW .. O'"" OJolE CAN
P!!RIME.NT WI1H PO/U. Ir WOUL " HO",", l'E
MUCH E AfUU' 1'0 PII.O<:'f!EI) WITIoI THE MO'''tU
.(AV'''' C A <:' LUR 6"I' AO'A<:'1oI I N M IN e:>. TJ.le.
FIA.rT ROUC H I I fE.LOOM JUJT
EMBELUSHMENT
Embe!!ishment ", here is the carryng
fonvard lo compleliollol theprclirnnary material
you have worlu,d out. You now s<-'Ck lo give your
collception actuality. For you," figures. yon wiU
go to life lor charactcr, good drnwing, "nd lhe
Ihings which IClld realily. For the tonal ,"aliU"1
of fonn, go 10 real formo For !he efrecls 01 light
ami shadow yOll shouId look f,r.1 al existing lighl
and Set up your image in r"allife as rar
as possihle. The mental image you have \leen
playing wilh mUSI be maJe cansislelll with t",tlt
if the thing yon do is lo have tbal 01
exislence" without which yOllr W<)rk i, hound to
sufrer. lt is nO casier lO fake Ihe Irnlh in art Ihan
else.
Evcry !ubjee! is, of roUTse, an individual proh-
lem, "ud should be approacbcd for it! own poni-
hililies. Some suhjects scem lo call for spccillc
medium, Or "ven 3 speciflo Some
should be trealed delicatcly and others wilh great
vilality. Herein lies the charm of cmhcllishment.
Thal artist is so mueh greater who can change
pace, give a mood 10 his work. treal one thing
tenderly and anolher witb power and impae!.
That is my man reason for devoling so much of
tbis hook to a varicty of approaeh. You can keep
your work out of a rul, and e...,r now and in\"iting.
O:>upled with the variety of medinms and Ice\-
nique at yo'" disposal, you have differenl keys
o valucs, Jifferent kinds of ight, such as soll, dif-
fmed, or brilliaut and shmp. You have the strong
intensities of lighl 10 ,hadow, with liltle tcfleeted
light, or Ihe airy luminosi Iy of Ihe higher relati on-
ship", with mueh lighling of the shadows. You
have pure and intense rolor sehemes, lona! oolor
and 50ft related schemes. You have
possibilities of line treatmenl, lone lreatmen!, Or
a romhinatlon of the 1""0. l1lCre is rcally so mueh
to work with in the wa)" of approach if we will
but think. lf yon find yourself wo,king in one
medi um only, dOing the same Ihings wilh il overy
day, yo" badly need 10 explore the w,,,I<
thing' al )'Unr disposal. There is enollgh
a lifet ime of expcriment. Do nol hc1icvc
approaeh;'1 somcthingnarrowl)" limi!ed.
limited by keeping il so.
Whcn yo" are fairly wcH deeided
yo" wo,,1d likc todowith a
spent some good Ihought over Y'
gel oul yollr camera and work in
il. Yo" can make il work lor you in
your thoughts. ralh"r than
of yo", simply a<:pting wltat it tclls yon.
I
ing Ih 1 thc roughs and
the story, they will do heller work. Let
out Ihe idea before yo" click lile shuller.
188
enthusasli e support from them
nf thi.< dfort.
1 pcrsonally prefer tite minialure Iype
ero, using the regular 35 mm. fihn. 1 [ikc h
chromat;c Or rolor-rorwdcd typcs of I
!ieve it is besl ..
pielures ralher than lo depend 011 t
varel)', because the righ! lighting is 00
lanl. 1 do nOI like lo Mgne with '""', wl<,
his bu.5iness in his own fie1d hui c:mnol
sland tha! ti
el!c. 1 prder very
formo and i hard for "",,,1,
to insert half a dozcn lighl1; . It's cven
explain Ihat such COI'Y is not worth a damn
artisl who is fonn-ronseious, aod
nI' the very heauly thal a good
pa.inting dc>en upon.
Make cvery drorl that il humanly
gel an the lorrn yo" are going
in the pieture yoll take. Fonn is
when one lighl shines Ilxm Ihe .<ame arca
face. Two lighls 011 Ihc same area are
deslroy Ihe solidity of Ihe planes.
l SS
USINC THE CAMERA TQ OBT AIN WORKING MATERIAL
Anyo<,e "",kJng \\'i11l a camera cxpcl'icnC<lS
".,.d;'oppointmenl al l inl'!5 when
Jool"d SO 1. .... 101 lilul while)'OlI ""'fe lakhlg il
quite difieren! in Ihe blacl: anJwhite
. "' ud, 01 Ihe los, i, color and he
Mud" i, losl cam('rJ
lo, , , and pcrsp ......
t\", loo"':'" eyes. TIwo hrceJ ilnen-
elk..,1 , gone ,",cepl i " lb .. case 01 a .,tere
ca",cr". ObedS dimi ,,;sh in , i7,c hy
01 mueh ",or .. aeutdy i" lhc k .. ,;
Tlli$ will gi\; 11 lceling of d" lm',
1I <"hjL'<:1 has lxe cn tokcn at
by th"
Fa, the 10re,'Oi ng rea,o,,' ,. i. mud,
makill';: .. ('py, In eh"",.
fo. a va,icty ,,[ v"I" .. r:1lh". th"" ' ... 10'.
" ",hy your -",,,,11 pottem
be "'el! ",orked out I>d oo,d , ..... 1. Cel the
"1,, i" back of ... "a nwu"d,' n
dlllpc, Ollto el tone. a middlc 10"". a
. n a Pi" " p drapl"! lJ{'h" KI
mooel so Ih'\I Ihc ri[1:ht \'01"., come lo 1),,,
on 111 0<1.,1 lo },.,,, r l"(lm
lhe h('ad i5 lo he d.-.. k, 1'''1 it
)'ou' CCP),. Tloe \',\h,ICS in lO. h .. ad
diffcrent nCl'ording lo Ihe "ah"" tho)' are
. goins!. Thc nle m,,)' appe.'
liglll agai" '1 I"rk.
10 ><",,('tI,"g a light
lonkillS: i"to the Ji aho"t the only
can goo<l copy ::::;::::
l!.en 11, being
1 to k.,.,p Ih.\llight ro gu,,,. A "f.1I ,,, "
lowc, intensity can IhHn be tillO"''' en Ihe
jt Jow cnough 10 huId ti,,, ",w al
189
Ihr rlar ke. "alue' uf th" ligur,' ngaimt the l!ght.
SI 'en; pbCCld too d ose lo Ihe moJel "l.o"","
.. .-gali,"" 10 .1.:-:1.1 ",hile i" tl.e prinl
Ihcln hm, sj"C(' yo" S(:c" r" ",eh bril ..
anr)"'\\' , bel'ausc nt:>tl,,'''g can ho li::hter
th,\!> Ih" (Ir y,,, ,, p,i l1 li"1; l"' ver.
U"le>; rou "'Ult I'Cry intcnse <Ir I' ght
.nd shad",,', aS for . "ol. n,--.: " "n,' copy lor :\ bb
aml .. ",h'tc line rlr.,,,,j,,!:, it ne(;l'Ssnry in
j"donr phologr..phy lo ligh te" )'0'" . hndows ",llh
a "611 in"light. rl aylighl. o, son ... m.nna of ' e-
A..c\e<1 ligl.L TI", II'Klrescc"l lighls a'" ,..-xJd for
tlli l, Sinc" thcy <lo no mak, ,hM]> "".1 .,hadow
wi!hi" I he ,had""" whid, do'es <lO! haprlCll in , ,a_
lurr, H ynn . ,,,hife! i. ' ''1 ,tllO bt ouldo" .... .
hyall mcan>: go ould,"' .... 10 it. Nal ",.., .... 15
"1) l<.'rf.-.:-I \ 'a lcK'lI ""d .ela ti o n.' h i p!' ,
Cllppi"gs sddon> ",o,k Out rmm a "",1
rrlaho", hip ",hen f"" 9ft I,)'ing lo a$!iO-
dato' Ihc " ,al<"bl fmm 01' .. clippi",;: into 3norh"r.
Lightiui!' m"st Le consiste"! ' hrntlgho" l
piN, m" "",1 d,,,n,,,,, ar<' ., Iim that !"''" (,]ips
",,11 3nyll, ing li h, the Lighhn:, l'his "
tI .. mal" .. ,a"'" ror s.: ... , ,,i,,!; )'Q" r o \<,,,
... ho:l ne"cr 1''''''ihle. Slarting wi th" dip whieh ha.,
a r!isli"et light ,,,,,, a l",,,),' "dj"st t h<, ligh-
in;: !!l ) "'" pholO lo ror"'l>oml ",hen yo" pre-
r"rthe. "",Idial Iha l mu.<1 along ",i ,1>
the materia! m Ihe dip.
Gel I)le rigill ('tume ir pos, ihlc, Mat eri,,]
vcr), loar" ' o "'rall )' lold., . >l.' y"" pruJ, ..
al>1)' alro>:td)' kilO"', n il is " Oll"""i hl", ros-
t" n .... ,,..ar lo }'Ou nc.."llls YOl' l':l". leasl
so Ihal yo" wo,, '! h,\\'c 10 fa kv ma"",,,l, fmm,
Uf , Iml"" tI"m 01 the ('O'; II1",e en" be
eh:",!; ..! more C1l5i1y tha .. the fonns.
11 wo"Jcrf,,1 praCl i('(' to Ink .. wmc ,,,tero ... .
<iraw tll<'''' ,,, I'enci l. and tl ,e" ,nlrodu<' c fi)!",,,,
<J f yuur ()wn i"IO dw ,,,hjoX'l. SI",lr Ihe inter ior
1M il.. lighli ug Ir)' 1.0 $uggesl a
lightug On lhe fi g"'e:<. " tl,,< ",ay )/0" 11, ..
"k,," uf ..,I,at ""PI"' o" to fig'''c$ >l'! nto ,\ dpl
.. ile en""o"mcm ,,,,der pre.:til",d of
I'glo.,,';; n"d space.
[

oo
189
THE lLLUSTRA TOR'S SCAUNC SCREEN
He,e b simple prop ro.. the iUustnIlor who
from photos. It is ealy 10 build .00 of
I.emendous help in dr:twing in good proportion.
Buld che creen in Ih.ee WI1gs or four, at a heighl
abovc Ihe avenge emm"a shot. It can be made of
ka'c' oo.1.d or an)' lighl waHboa.d Ihal can be
painlcd ",hUe. Use !hin blacl: Hnes 10 marl: off !he
'quare feel as .hown in tbe il1u.stralion. Such a
.creen wiU aoo provide a good . urfac:e over which
dr.opes <;In be Ihrown or onlO ",hich Chey can be
thumbtac"oo. Then che dr:.pes may be tal:en
down and an aulomatic\ly scd .. d phologr<l ph
lakcn of Ihe . ubjed. Thi.< givc$ you al once rom-
plCle infonnation for selling a Agure Inlo a rom-
posilion. As. we I:oow, cvery figure ,hould be .e-
latOO to In ere leve!. You can alWllYS dctennine
!he eye level in your photo by lumi ng one of tbe
end wlngs toward Ihe camera. The eye level "ill
beon a lioe whe. e Ihe lines of Ihe slde wing ron-
verge lo a polllt. (See Onwing. ) 1I !s simple.
lo llncl Ihu li,'e on Ihe side screen Dppt'ars
lo be IDOS I Hea.ly horizontal.
If your .ough lIT ropy delermines In eye level,
lhen sel your camera up 10 a .imllar helght. (See
Perspect;vlll, Pa.I !.) It musl be cle;.r Ihal lh" ma-
1em.1 from two pbolographs having difieren t eye
levels canOOl be sel inlo lhe same Ilicture wilh.
olll adjUSlmtnl Dncl appear oorrect . Many art-
ists ronlinue 10 disregard th" simple rul" Ihal!he
horiZOll muSI Cul aeJOss al! similar figures stand
ing on Ihe $ame ground plane in Ihe Jame place,
lIT al Ihe Slme dislancc up on !he Rgure frOrll tbe
gtoulld le.'el. So ir you lmow !he honwn of your
ropy woukl cul a<:l"OSli !he fi gure at the shoulders,
Ihe" set !he camera al !be ioe al lhe level of he.
shouldcrJ, an-d. mal:e sure il cutJ: aH Sgures of >"(lur
romposilion rdalively. Should a Agu. e be sitnng
al a cerlain dlstanct! benentl,!bc honzon, tIten all
silling Agures would bear the same r .. !altan lo il.
The squared-off creen DOW gives you Ihe rela-
ti .. e s;ze al your subject Ihroughoul, mal:ing jI
cuy 10 detenniue !he proportion of ooe parl to
another. 1lIe squn. es may be m il furlher sub-
dividec! on !he photo. and you can lay ou, a sel
01 on you. drawiog by whieh you can
dr.ow!he ligure proporlionately. Slnc:e lbese
laid ou' in feel, )"0\1 ean abo
m31e1y lhe dimensions of mate.ial in your
pings 10 m:1:e lhe figure Ihe i
be wit],in sueh Rn environment.
FcryouTiol."m.<ioo,
eighlcen incl,es off lhe Honr, lIT onc and
of OUT bloch Tshle heigh! is aboul
In Ihirly iuches, or ,,\)oul Iwo aoo a
hlgh. A slanding girl is aboul five aOO eme
bloch and a man six. This wil1 ... , o,,,,
001)' ir )'Ou UlldCI"Jland p<:T$pcclive: as I
airead)' warned you, withoulthot
are olll )' handienpping your
AII drawing is proporlion aud
R' SI, and a . hllemen! of spaces and
scaling JCfccn will help you in WI,
is IIOlhrng SO good as training your eyes I
lances and rclati"" sius. Wilh sorne
comes casil)', olhe .. tal:e 000"
t, and unrorlunate1)' llCVCl" ore I
it. Hcnce an lhe arlificial meanS of
=een, you . tillare duing the drawing
ing)"(lunelf al lhe $lime lime.
OUI undennining you. natural
css, sud lhercl'ore il has a place here.
MO$t aTl isls are rairly good earpeulcrs.
you GIlunol build
be wlse lO have one made,
quile rCa.5011ably. The 5creen serves other
purposa abant a Iludio . ueh as Ihutting
norm.1 background whell you are
dire<:tl)' fram a model. The dr.owlngs on ;'"
]lRge .hould dan!y !he use of Ihis ser_.
!be scaling $CI"e.en amounts
Ihing as s<j uaring off a stud)'
al! have been doing since arl
have suJ.sli tutoo Ihe pholo. 10 a
lhe prel iminar)' studics of Ihe
perhaps mighl have used such 5hort
!hey been available. Tite main !hlng is
Jet Ihe camera habiluale us 10 lhe 1ea.s1
effort. We musl erercise our drawing
evcnlually lose ;1.
anolh",r. The squares may be 51iH further sub- Jet the camera habtuate ~ to the
divide<! on \he pbo!o. and you can layout a se! ellort. \Ve musl exercise our drawlng
of ilquaJe5 on you. drawing by which you ean eventuaUy lose t.
190
CAMERA DISTORllON
",UL .... " .. .,.,., J-". MO'" nU "" ""o.

.... ".0 WAV .... ,,"' . "0"'8'""
_ ... ,,, -,.M,, .
A&O\lE 11 0&\1'01.11. HOWI!.\l1!.1t MOJT Of' 01,1'011. ... 11 I AI(! ""' or.rAI AHO ......... "' PIoI t.Jf,
1'CQ ClOJI!. 1 H"NI'. 'T " &L".TTEA; .0 JACA; lO' 1 CL Ol!. r./lol L I'OI:!. CORR.r.CT ""'1 OF PIIOPOI:!.TI O " .
OISTOmlO" ' " "Ael'. "YO un ,W"OC" WOULO 1'10 1' 1M!. O .. \l IOUJ W!'rnour 0'1''' act "'+010.
J I< AA; PIil R , LI'. I<./lo 1 R,AN o MOCI'.LI N Of' Fe RM ''''''1I4FtI ... LAT A;.

T ... .!! CLOfl!. UP <:./lo M I!RA t>IITORT.f.
u .... " __
.., .. , .. ,.".:
/ .... _ ..
.... ,.,'. ,,"'" " ......... -
< ..... _ ...... L_"'_ .. ..-
,...., JOIUl." 'TO Up"eT '''. Tl<eOA;V TI<AT ... .. V p .. oro
193
.. , " 1.<>'1'. UNC. ....... ., .... 0'1 JU """
u ... ............ ..... L N'" '''00- " .... oU ..... .,
........ ... ....,. .... , .. , "",-",,m.
" v .r, "L"- ..... ,,,, ="L Y .
.... & O< , .. uo.".1 "" '''STO ..... ON L'
"lO' JO MVC" , .. 'rn& CAMII .... "" , ...
11 TlIUL ANO \UAC.T . ... CAU/!!Ti AP"IO'TO.
. _ ,

. ...... w "" .. ' "VNJ .
... y .. 'J TIIU!!. ... NI> U.t,CT IItc; .. we !Ti
193
DRA WlNG TO AVOID PHOTOGRAPHIC DISTORTION
Perhap! the example! of photographic distor-
tion 1 have glven you may seem a bi t exaggerated
ob, .ous. But 1 a$Sure )'OU that comparcd lo
lhe way .... e scc things in Hfe, fuere is much yel 10
be done in camera 1ens.n. Sjnce lhe mioialure
camera hM l uch a proportionatc1y large lens in
relaton 10 tlle pictorial61m a.ea, il eulS dO"ll dis
lortion greatly. But Ihe examples here .... ere bkcn
with the 001 of cameraS aud lemes of Ihal IJI""
provi ng dislorlion js 51i11 possiblc when ....
loo c1ose. Tbcre i, dislorlon in Ihe a'erage photo
whid> i5 00: ob,'ious, bul whieh, if rotlowed 100
dosely, giYeS Ihat photographic Iook 10 )'(lllr
work When the squar"s in JOur 'iCali ng wecn do
!lol .egister as 'qua re! in )'OU' pilOtO, il provos
that distortion erisb a!ld Ihat this distortion is
alfecting 1m subject aS mueh "" the lines on Ibe
scafing screen.
Drawing dlreetly from life wiU alw,,)'! be the
soundest approach artistically. fOl" il takes on a
quality al pt'I>Ofton JOn TlCver ean gel witb tht
.inele lens of a camera. J do nOI know e!lough
aboul optie! 10 explain. wlly thing. al a sllO.1 dis.
lanee from lile line dimini, h fa.ler Or gel malle.
Irn.n lhey o in lhe same distanee from Ihe eye
Thew are sueh things as tele.copie lenses, wide-
" ngle lensc.'S, and so forlh, Ihat are mo.e nearl)"
Irue in IhiS rcspecl. bul .... hen we ha'e such per
fcct nstruraenlS as OUr own eyes, why should .... e
not troin Ih: m lo do Ihe work in every CII!e whe.t
it ii p<)Ss ibb? , grant that at times we must ca1ch
fu! .. or po$d too dim.
cuh lo hold long eooogh to tlraw. Then le! w
use Ihe camera.
, \Vish 10 make elear Ibal hceause a pIlOto w:u
I",kcn from lif", it mUSI nol be assumcd trn..1 iI $
a perfect b terpretaton of life. Jt is oot perred
from Ih" Jlandpoinl al rontour, perspccti,.." Ot
lonal value. If R perfeet duplicalion of whal the
eyesee< wtre possible, il st ill ..-oold 001 be a.l. So
perfcct duplication or a photo on the parl of th!
C3noot be Il1"t . ndividu.l ..........
tivenes. mUSI play some parl; organization anJ
dosign, acoenluation and subordination, Ihe qual_
ll ies of lone and individual Icdmique, and !he
emolional qunlitjc., must be pruent to m"I.
arto Otherwl le we cou Id he ronlent JUSI lo go 0)1
elic!<;ng shulle ... Agaio l wanl 10 Iml"csl UpcII
lhe )"oung art isl trn..t arl is oot ne:'lsarily a framed
piclure hanging in a museum or
tion. Arl i, al! around us,
inone ..... y or anothcr,
.mallesl and che-apcsl rorrunercial
he arl if il has those quatjties. Art
nor dupt iculion, and thal i, why the
camera can IIt. 'VCf become a mean! or
arl. Art musl
il slart, behind iI, oot out in froo!.
I havo pointed oul thc!e faults of
he.e and clsew!>ere so Ihu yoo.:. may Wteh
Ihom ami rerogrtiu thcm. 1 do 001 quarrel
lIS limtal lon, . for tllCfC is 00 qllCSlon th;o.t i
;. ins,umcul. Bul I do ins$1
thcse limil alionl exi!!, Ihey should be
knowo lo Ihe 0100""1.
194
t'Onsidcred an casy way OUI
.,hip. nar h, arly se1l.SC a 11I hslilulion fo. i .
camera should be a of your
llrojector is aoother ' "''
dorse il in lhe $lltIle dcgree, although I
dispute lts value when aOO m",,",, d"l
lioo of copy bcromes nc.:essary. Bul when i
merel)' a Ctulch. wilh $O much po!enlial
al stake, l ,,'(luId prefer lo
hrown out the wi!ldow. )
Yo" may be every
wme..-hal shorter a!ld thic!<er I
han il .eally ji. The
sho"lde .. al ,", ,.,
Icel at Ihe Olhcr \Vill 001 photograph
case 01 n figure unles< al
more dislanee lhan "'e Ullually set Ihe
Always remember Ihat Ihe car-cra is
partal to Ihe good and bad in ;o,.;,,,
sclcclon or discrimination. The
onlya recort.l of an inslant For Ihis
Withonl a wcll-de,-elopcd a],Iily 10
can col'Y dislortion wHho .. 1 realizing
un<."QuscioU$ly add a photographio look
breaJa do"'n other good qualilies.
194
CAMERA DRAMATICS
1)' Ibe time you are T<!ady for the aid Or Ihe
_n ,'o 1'.''';'';0 roo have given
otber CO<lSlderaliotl 10 your .rubfeCt. Yoo
clear idca of what you wanl . Yon
O,," in minll, or a particular
lel W lalk about Ihe actual
A model is uluany one of two extremes. Eilher
1 1, is inclincd to
t, getting R Jiul., grole$quc with her dnl-
We may bo, ...... lhe lirol principIe of
leting lroro Ihe dramalic schook Thal i!

la w 01 naturalocS5. Only )j,tural-


and il maTh Ihe besl
principie is Ime on !he slag" OT
is abo \rue in iIIUSIra.tion. 1e lI(:tion or
I Ibc
not e:.prcssed jwl hy
as tbey call il in
I . thc nctor
at lIle :l.udicnce a!) long as there
action gojng on, cspeciaUy when
the Itag<:. Thc lwisiblc "fourth
players from a udiellcc le"dl rulily
; you becomc losl in t 11
at you,
, somethjllg
bOlng caughl looking intO) a ",indo'" of a
whe. e you do not IlOrmal1y belong. Your
is Ihat the actor ;s acting <lt you
parl 01 a Slory wholly separale f,om
rule. Ti h. , e<Jt!er is 1101 parl
" , '"racle, ltwk
,
demanded. A p.etty gi.1 mAy be hand ing yoo
glauof bee. !rOln a poster, 1. cha.ltyappeal mlgbt
ha'"e I hed 1ooI<ing al yoll, saying, "w;n you 00
roo' parl?" This is callad arpea1.
is worsc iliall nOI enough. Agoniz-
ing ove' a trivial matter, .,. exploding with joy
o"cr I loothpoule, iI jusi not natural or in good
laste, aod Ihe response cou Id be negative. To get
at the m!>.S1 lell ing dramalie effoxt, one has sim-
ply 10 thiru: of ",hat he "'ould do himself or ",hat
ROy normal inteHig""t and well-bred person
would "o. Thcre tI "ot ORe n . 1 of ma"nen fo. life
and anothe. for the slage, sercen, o. illus t.ation;
tlw!y a11 are based upon a convincing interpreta-
tion of life. If b.od rT\annen are the oois of the
Itory, then thal js something elsc.
Underacting may be annlyzcd as 'stilfncJS."
This Bctually nl<;an igidil y 01 body, rare, and
actio., . So the !ICJt law of good dramat ics il lltter
.dualion. Thc only lenlion present musl arise
f.om the emotional situation in Ihe slo'y. Poople
are $l iIT only ",hen .Jead o. frlghte ncd. Hence the
u pression of eing scared stiR," or the slang ref-
erCl!ce 10 a <:OTp$C'u a Never le! a model
pose "sl.aight all o"er" -that is, ",ilh hcad in a
str, ight line On shonlders Ihal make a T with her
line al vision, 00 bending 01 spiroe, o.. luming al
hips,"OO wi th!he "'.:Ight .esling equ.ally on bolh
lret. Il yon have oot lold her Ihe drama yon want ,
tha! is invari ably what , h e ",ill oo. O, op a
shoulder. 1wi$1 her, 111m 11 h ip, bend 3 knee, ge!
hcr as rew ed as possible. Si tt ing poses s!raighl
in a chair with loot and knCC$ logelher and nrms
dOing the Same Ihi ng on cach side ca'! be iusuRer-
ably stff. It"s up lo yOll lo g.,t lhat qual;ty out
take Ihe o!he. extreme. S" PJ>OSC "'e of the model, 3nd thal is the rcason!o.. planning
r""" make I di,ecl appea! 10 lhe ol.ervcr. In poses in ad, ance.
cau Ih., r(,'\'crs., is lrue. Thc ehaTactcr look$ Act il out as you ...ould on thc stage o. as il
",ilh !he inlentiOn of mak.iug rOl! you ..-ere a director, for thal is ",ha! rou rcally
"the appeal in mind. Everybody are. Otherwisc roo will tnuumil s .. cn slillness lo
James Montgorne'y Flagg's poste. roo' work, and 00 matter how "'en yon draw and
Wantl You," Ihe /lnge. as ",en as the painl. nobody wi n forgi"e you for il. Believe me,
5might at you. JI WllS tremendou.sly I koow. Payespecial attenlion 10 the hands : make
. Therefore IhiI pr incipie ;, uscd in ad them cxpress!he emotion 01 the b ce, mah them
when character- to-reader all""tion is , belong in SOrne way lo thc slory.
'"'
- ve. Therclore this principie is usod in ad- them cxpre-S'i the "motioo o the fare, make them
. iog when character-t o-reader I Uention;S. belong in sorne way lo the story.
, O<
PART FIVE
A LOCICAL METHOD
1. Evolve interesti ng questions
2. Answer them effectively
3. Base on desires and appeals
use YOUR CAMERA TO CATCH EMQTlON ANO EXPRESSION
197
197
STUDYINC THE CHARACTER
/
I
198
lHERE 15 NO ENO TO FACIAL EXPRES510N ANO CHARAC 1 ER
... ... ar" ... ""OOWI. ... noC ... "."' ....
____ ...... "' .... uc ........ no" J_61.outr. ..... _
__ ,_ "" ....... No''''ctt '" .. "u ... "'"' ..........
"' ..... '" .. .... v, ..... y ............ ............ "
.. .... uu .r __ N. no. IV"'''' "". cc><tHUJ, ,,,y
( At.uu, """""', . .... , .............. _,
HU.Il' ..... ",,,.-- , y .. u y_ ... -.. "" ....... , .n<4Nf<>f. ..... .,""' _ .. W"L
, ....... ' ......... 'au. ,.no _y, ............ 0'"""" ........... ................. "''''' .... ..
....... ".". " __ ..... " .. , ... " ... \lO' , .. _u .. ow, ...
... "o . ..,.... ,r .. , .... o&Y, .. .n , . .. , ......... , .... ..
"' ..... ""' ............... LUNa .................... IIOJ"'_.
............. , __ LIC.'''',
.... _al_ .. N ... .... ''''''L''' ''',
..... 11) "'."""". 'M" ..... ..., ..... ". _ .... ""
..... _, .... ....., ...... . ....... 0 '0"'''. u .... _. w, y
. __ ..... - ... _ITI _ .... TIW .......... ...., .., &1'1,..., CIIoO""" ..... ' .. __
...... ""'.1 """,."",ro .. o..o ... ,,. ............ .... . u ' ... "''''', . ..... ..... . _ ............. " _ .....
MANUFACTURINC CONVINCING EMOTION
Emolional ge. lurc il a """y subt le and individ-
ual Ill ing. [1 1" rC',.sOn Ihal ron are ,,,,1
going lo he oll h:md lo calch lhe gen"ine " nCOl"
scio"s "nalf,..,I"d c"",lion ''el)' "rlen. It
sometl,ing Ihal for Ih" rnost pa,l is going 10 be
to <lo in Ih;>1 .. S(' is lo \\'3.lk R",ay
t:r..I, nol tcWng 1 ... .,. 1"-, , smil" !<
1eS$, Cl'1 " ";ga''''''', off...- 10...- one, Id l
"m
suit Ihe occa:ion. 'Oou ",ill lind tloc modcl is lile mediu"', jusi
that a grcat de;>1 nf il ",usl come f,oll1 yourself, y"'" [",inls am] matcrial!, Ihrougl,
",orkillg I"mugh ti ... modd amllhc camNa, This d, .. ma am] charach'ri'.atj.oll , . ,
is" I<'d",i<I"'" "5(,d lty ma"y motioll picturc di'ce- al her ",ih a "dC,1d pan" rae<' and d i h
tors, [ find out Iha I il you are nOI self -COrl SCilllIS iu I! llIakt:s lite difkrellw ocl "'Ct ll all
actlng Ihiugs uut f"r Ihe model, . Iw in I",u w;ll "ud "ne with Ihal indcfjllahle
""11,,, "-. so1f-.,onsciollJ i,\ acting fo. roo, Abo,'" :1n exp"'s,iOl1 i. nothing more Iha"
;>11. ,lo "o1 in un)' way ,idienlc or beli ttle ro", lighl . an<l sha,k",' O"
mooel!i' efforu. lf Ihey do n04 ac rsl succcr.-d ill ",h" ",;It al Joor pidor{'
lr.lIlsmitting Ihe 11100.1 and ''presskm. Idllh"m a"d .
.. nroo.,r,gnSly ,hal Ih"y W allt1OS1 h:,xe il. " 11"1'<"'1 is I
Ihe pe.formanC(, ahotl l lhe and Ihe '<I,i, il bchi".1 pict".e is , i.
ha,'" al"",1 lhe oalion. n" ..... r abo,,1 01 Ihe p,eture. \'00 can he
Ihey are ,Ioi n!: with tI,e;, Tf )'on wall l tirr'l . wald, ""hat pcople do. walch Ihef
he oJcbrowl I(..,d du wilh yo,,, .ayi"". thei' "yes and thei. ""<'UtIKious
"""" a", ",,,re I" "io" . ",ore abrllled-yo" 1m' 1I 3m3l.ing. the change. Ihal <'<In come 1
1\1 rs. I'oll"r "f ti", sto,y. wom]erillg "nd fea'ing .< ingl, fa",:, "nd how .. io", hCCflme
whal haJ hal'p<;ncd lo h ... , daughkr." JI is n,:,'cr ria",J with IhoughlS, [1 is 1101 a
8 simple yo", <;yl'brows. a lo, 0 1 cxp,,,.sions j" :lo ,nim)<,
1/ yo" hn'e a , adio or phonog,aph alxmt. try the", with )'our can",,'a, Fiml "','
1" ha"e """'e "'U5i .. going akio lo Ihe mood JOu ",ah., on .. "'Vrcssion dou', arlolhcr dakd,
want. 1'011 31!iO ,.. , ,he emotionlll Ic.upo hy !tOOWIL-d. an<l nnother Al! is 3
........ di"g IIIt' l:O!'y or 510ry 3100.1, II possihle. Ict ",0,<,,,,..,,1,,r d,e faeial lorms alldli,>eI.
IK" .ead 11 10 She tI",n h"romc$ lO ,1"", " fae<' lhal does 1101 SC<;' m lO bo: 1' .....
a [lar!"r il . $lItlW'lhing,
" giggly ,,,,"'0"5 temperamcnl is ehar"elc,is- E'I",'S.ion is "ery ha,,1 to ::':;'
lie of >O , na"y yo""g gi,I . 3ud Ihis s Ihe harck.1 ug frou, life, hui if yo" cau lhe 1I
moo<l lO ('Omb"t lo e:ltd, dramali ... .. iou. spiTl''! ,,,,,1 iulc,cslcd yon C"tI gel jt, I ha"f
Once yo" lel II\<: glggliug s!arl, ;1 gel s \\'0,"", '1'1 ,,- torg" mino. on easters Ihlll e,,,, he toe! "p
oc .. , ",ay ' u n,"k,' Ihe'" .""p oul of il is 10 ay: nI<' so ",loen 1 (t ,,, workinJ; , I ""'''
"Now look, M bs Sni,.ul-so. I his is no I unn)' bus;- m<J<ld . lre ""n walch Ihe 1
neu. 11'5 3 mlllle' of h.ead 3tHI bUl le, . a oh ro. Thls c1; ,ni""lcs Ihe tc<lioUS'K'5S nf II\<)
)'00 O' K, for lile. J l);"kcd ron from " long Iisl of .itl i,,); ,til1. Thii Sl't'Il" ' '''p,,,;ally to
"r ' llodels I lhi"k ron ha'e ",h;>1 il lake,. ,ne". <,kk'rly pcople who like to sil
3",1 Ihe", ;sn'l tim" 10 SIi .. 1 al1 o"e' wilh SOIne but al IIr., s:.une ti",e lik" lO ha"c "
bod,. c11'C. gel llois thing ' ighl. Fo'gd Ih" O1Jpy
gigglcs," Ihis .ooy hel" lo "COl )'OU tW
The I,.p, .. who cannol sm le getl"illd)' y"" are i.,,['mlaut lo )'ou. picture. \ '0\1
",he" ;1 is <leeded, is a'lOthc, proM""" NOlhug reblion lo ""ery parl tlf y(Hlr 1I iJ Ihe lIIt
fal1s 50 na' 1" "11 smilc, n,., [, ... ' 1 Ihill g ""\l lt of In"uy IhillgS. ",osi "f thcln are)'a..
200
" " '> '> .... . u, .... , .., " . ': [' _. _. , _
SI) Aal as 3 arl ir. eial Tlle "'SI thll1 g (lf m3uy Ihillgs, ami "'WI of the," are )"Ca'
200
EXPRESSIONS TELL THE STORY
201
.tI N CI! tm,4 ..... 1 Na E)( PIIJ!.t.-
ION II Rl;.lI,U.'f C ~ F U L L Y
I:!EN OI!R I NO TIII!' FORM,_T
ATTI!MPT ro FAKE IT. CA,.,1i
IT FIR.fT W1TH A CAMeRA.
LOSS AND GAIN IN BACKCROUNDS
Often the questiou come. up as lo whether or
not a background i.' auvi.,able. Sin"., Ih;,; ronce",.
both the ealllera aud the paiuted subjeet, a few
'''gge,tio"" here IIlight help,
Ther" Me gocd argm"ent, on holh .ide. of th"
tI", diffiel1lly bcing IIlosllr ill ded-
si,,,, aS to ",I,.,n a bucl:grollud is bener "ud ",hen
il i, noL For ih" hesl "n''''er must look 10 thc
'UbjCl't it,d.
A ",hjee! cut out or vigndted against a Hat
white haekground, pfO,'idcd that background i5
kq}t simple amI "uduttercd by other u"H., ha5
a tremendous advantage, WhHc spaee is ofkn
IIlore telliug on a page than tone, It make, a de-
.i:u 01 white arca to "'prort other de.igll in the
pictorial uni!. lt isolate, tlw important "'aterial
50 that it l'arl he .{',n \Vhite i. often
to aS "'r"athing 'pace:' It is nol often
Ihai O" a magazine page. cillter for ,tory iHu,tra_
tio" or lor Ihe arti,,1 ma)' he liheral
",ith whit, 'pU(...,. In th, r,rst placo" <pae. i< ",'p""-
,ive On any page and it i< something lik .. :l<ki"g
a m"rchan! to pu! hui a single product h., hi<
\\'indo\\'. wl>en h .. ha< w sdl. D"t a .,ingle
pro<1uet display,d in a window \\'ould prob-
ably ca" ... mOr .. rommenl "ud gel mOre atlcn-
ton tban the 6fty al! di'played together,
An argumenl "s,tin,1 entling "",ay tb .. ba,k-
grouml is thnt mueh 01 the .. _dimensi,,,,ul
qualily lnay be 10'(. Th, ,,,hjcet gels a "past,,'
on"look alld stick. to the pieture plane withoul
any 1""ling 01 re"",.ion. Tbere is no doubt that a
lec\ing 01 depth draws the eye i"Io a subjcet, jw;t
as tbe eye is instinetivcly drawn to a mirrar, a
",indo\\', an opcn docr, or even a hale in lhe
ground or ",all. subjcct, il cut out with a
.harp haTd routOUl' all around, may make the eye
rousdo", 01 tlw edge at Ihe "'p"''''' 01 Ihe lorm:
a rurta.iIl dwapnes< may rC,'\l1t \\'h"n th"
is tak"n u"'ay Irom il' "om'al rdalio,,-,hip with
it, <ctting, Sueh m"y Seem onl of
rm' irrih<ting. A '''cis,o,,'' typc 01 cdgc h:c, uo
place in ar!.
" follow., then, that il you keep the two ex-
i" mind. mueh can be done in eHher case
to .cize upon the advantage"S

Thc first thing we ,hould look inlo is
within Ihe subjcet ",hieh i, to be ,,,.
A distinet pin or lo", 01 vitalHy be
expceted result il no thought i, given ' .. "
II \\'hat \\'e are euttill: OHt i<
",illt onlr delieate aud da,h to
",hite". the resnl! ",ill 1", negativc ""
bad:::round. Going baek to om
plan.<. ",e rccal! that the
inth" Ihe,
nt rh" top di.,tinctly lo<e< i
I,,i"g plaeed agai"'l a
liglot in itsdl, Ihe
tlle Illu<,h-uceded ,'aluc <cale, i
blaeh lor rontra.!. 1 .1\Quld say
hea,] has ah""t lonl' times the
pla<1ld agai",t the dark
creases the attention valuc
subjcct.
Thc hcad at the hotto", 01 the
Ihe r"verse. It is soft and grey in ""
or grey background: di.,tinet gaiu
202
cvidPnt hy plad"g ,
\Vlml we h""e <lnr", he'" is Ihe
did i" Ihat 01
\'alne tunge lo h,ke in Ihe ",hole ,,,,1,
to ",hil,-, This midt!le
"gainsl white. ",herea, th" ro .. 1 '"",,,mi
to",' a"d lighl agai""t dark. Both. then,
pl;,h lhe ",me pnr",",.
A, lar 'os the {"t -out. pa<t,'d_nll effed'
cerned, n"",h can he hy Ihe "rt;;, ''',
<mue , olt edge,. or to carry the ",hite
gro\lud into the suhCet in some way. ThUl
,,,bject can hl"rome ",ith
\ln
So the wha!
'one, aud knowledge 01 these lact, can
ample ha,;, 10r a gocd ded.ion,
lem wil! up to :red.' "
you kllow bow lo solve it, you
ablcd to make a striking Ihiug out 01
Ihat othcrw;"., ",ould he quite ordinary,
. .
tremes in mind, mue], can l>c done in eith"r case !ha! othcrwise ",o"id he quite ordinary.
202
EXAMPLES OF BACKGROUND LOSS ANO GAIN
WHAT 15 FAKING, ANO WHAT 15 IMAGINATION
" Iany .tudent. f,erome totall), conf"scd h)'
"eing told one time n,','e, to Fakc and al anothcr
to usc th.,;, imaginatio" . Thc subjcet i, wo,th
di,,,,, .. iol\ h""" Pidu'"., lo be .,,,ati,c, ",,11 lo.
i",agination: ,l'et the things that tnakc p,du'cs
g,e .. 1 are Ihd, adhermcc lo the la,," of
,,,d truth.) think thc ronF".ioo can be dcarcd nI'
"nd a worlrablr basis of approaeh scemed.
Pie!",cs may he .. 1 f rom nlany rourco;>s.
Somctimcs the is 50melh ing hat ba. becn
laid out I){'Fore us in liF" Ihal we as bcing
a ,,,hicct amI oue which we "'o"ld like to do. At
anotl"" tim" a piet",e m"y be conceiwd to fill a
nced, wilh uolhiug h,,1 the imagination to .t",1
",ith, Sometimc. 3 piet",c i. au oce"rrenCC that
can he dramalizc<1 andsd Forlh. Or a pklnrc ,nay
1,.," rccord of somet ),ing thal to us is !>cautir,,1
""d "'orth I'r,'5crving lo, all 10 see. a
piet",e is a l reae," other. ",Io('re ,,"ords
fai!. Sometimc. il noignt he jnsl a dcsign Ihat has
i\< 0"11 intri",ie he""ly. "5 ""o,,ld a f.nl' piece of
je",dry or 01 her of ,.,-aftsmaushil" There
is such greal Inlit",le in art.
1 ,,"ould Ihal we "'fakc" things only ,,hcn
we are starling. 11 is the l>eginning of Ih" .cttiug
do,,'" of Ihe thing> in Oar imaginario". \\'e "re Iry_
iUI> to I'"n <omelh,ng o"t oF " stale of uonexist
iulO aetualil)". So when we a figure .
iI is to a l'urJOse. \Ve are taking Ihe fa'tesl means
or capturiug the thing in mind. Ouce Ihe idea l<
" 'l' d",,,1d go to ,(>,1 ioN. brin"
th., original conccplio, 10 life by working fro'" a
li"" modd or olher renlit )'.
Whethe, il is fuking or nol depends "IJOn "'hal
the artist is going He should uOI allcmpt
lo fake the clrcct of lighl 011 foon. Uut ) would
say Ihal iF he is tr)"ius to work oul a paltern und
arrange",cnt. he ,l>o"ld 1101 nlways .lCCl'pt II,ugs
I),C)' me. Ile musl decide whal he is
doing calls fo' a litera! slatement "f Faet or not,
l'le must look for facts 3Hd use Ihe", al his di,.
creliou. not just !>ceau,e Ihey are facts , Thc 3rh,t
has Ih" privilcgc or sirting "nd sorting Ihe "'ealth
he has lo work wit1o. Ile cannot use it alJ. nor docs
he w"nl iI all. lf wc honestly Ihink we can gel
204
Ihe erFect we ",aut will,0\11 use of moddor
Ihen b), a 11 nleans I say to do il. 1 hc!ie--e In .'
ing most of the prelimina')" work- ro
.hlel,,," nnd .0 fOdh _,,'ithouI malerial
!>cHe,"e Ihe finish",1 Ihmg i, more likdylObe' .
.. Ihc. Thcn w can go get Ihe Faels we
apply w" fL'CI !he nL'Cd \\'e also bavt
mcans of gatherug all Ihe Faels I
fro", lifc. pholos. ould(JOr color
.Ikctche,. elC. From thesc "'c may do tIle
thin;!: wilhoul f",thcr r"ferenco;> to th"""
ing in our ",inds ",hat "'c h.,c lean\cd and
il fro", the iougi"ation. YOH ""DIIlCI
he Iaki'\g n f.gure afler Ihe same thing had
,,"orkcd oot from fact. "veu if yO\\ huricd
studies. Eithcr way is :>erfeelly so"nd.
The JJOint b, il you kno,," a thing ",ell
YOII are lIot "' faking." A mnn ",ho kno,,"s.irp
can One in Ihe ,kie. u"d nol 1><) F31cl"f
!na" ",ho kno" .. hurses can l);Iinl tholl1 in a .
:\nd if ""O kno,," the figure. "'c are not really
ing. "'e are sctting uo,,"n the cul",ination 01
gre"t deal of """Iy, Faking is Irulr had ...
we do uOI know ",hat Wo: are doing. If lO'(! dn
know ",hat the for", i,. we canllot loop" to
iI correctly.
CoJor may COme purely fTUnl the imagifll '
a",l, .0 long as Ihe \'al"e and relationsltip
good. may be e"en mOre !>caulif,,1 Ihan in lile.
do nol con.ider faki"g. 1'h3t i, ul\dersta '
colo,
Not Jo"g ago" sI "dent hrought his dr:lwinp
Ule aud cxhibited a grcal deal of l'ridc O\'e!
het Ihal he had "dra'''' e"erything out 01
head." Co""idcring i:is work Fru'" that
point, it ""Ould eal1 fo, considcrable praise,
nolwithslauding his heraie atte"'pt tn he Wh31
tho\lght waS rutely original. the dra";u!;"
"01 done well ellO"gh lo stand "p against a pi!ra:
of rcally good draFl5noanship. Il e rould IIOt
lo compete wilh Ihose who are laking e"CI)'
'"3utagc of mooel and c'OI'Y, for he co"ld not
his drawings as bcing done withoul hc1p or stu
He mighl e"en havc superior kuowlcdge O"el
"'a!) who used a modelo but it ",ould l>c h\e,'i!a
he want ir all.
NEVER CUESS WHEN YOU CAN FINO OUT
,,"ould oul agaiosl him. Perhaps a
man .ho"ld be gi'cn " g'eat ,leal mlO,e
a uoi'crsity Ilul how we
,mporlarocc lI.an lloe u!timalc
" \Oc do. In lhe 6",,1 analysis Ihc
only in Ihc achic'cmen!.
bes! .. ti;!! dOM !Iool rakc ir Ihr.e ii any
_y 10 l\"Oid il, bccause I.e MS Icarroed
1M trurb IlJelF is beUe. tha .. th"
besl 1" u". abilily 10
1M e."tI,. why ou. w')I"k
b"'.gling? l">rn"ing froon M.
o \\"o.k "n1 Ies$ origin,,! H
conceived a pose o' ""en phologmrl,cd
. " . ,. l' is ,,cl! f"nnded
!loe resoli is rooo.e doe ko:<s 0'" "" ....
101<II h. parl ie"I:o, d.at
a I'ooa. ehcalln". I fcd Ih.11 it
than fo,,, C:1'1'(']lII" 10 work
blueprint. h m"I..1 only lJe if tlu.
"Im"C l'e,.:ially 11", of ... "WOu ...
Ihen ",ould he ,nore aplly ca1led
\Vere he hl t.acc o. directly projeet Ihe
01110 hu dr.'''ing I COl" $On",
!he cha'b't:. hui "si!log 3 pllOlo aS a son.""
is 1,,,roll,lln " h",y"'' 1""ldi"S
froll ' hls bw hooks.
'"1' dea,!y in Ihe l impIe
10 g" ... n ,,hen roo ..... " 600 oul. 1'00
ap.i "sl thc lUan who hs the faet<
uo!.H thc subject 1I lo hc n rcp'c
+'"' al trutlo, ;1 mnno( ' ucc:eed cxccpt by
,,,,,,,,,,1;,,,00 that aH)" pict",c 8n
103 ce.tai" cdcul, bul U Is an iHuliOIl of
imparll-d seuse of .... ali ly.
a no! mn"""1e<1
, . pu."'!y uf the imagiulIlon.
"lO,",,; in have to be (ir we
".0...1). but 1 prcfcT lo thnk ol
3pp.oacb as soo",lhing else. To sel
, n SC":lr""ry lJe cOllslme<! as
I"ld paint OUT ronceplio" of
On thc pl:mct -"Ian. \Ve C:tll
forms ,,,10001 n....-d of ccnson:hip. \Ve "",n
205
""C"I /10m aOO n, anylhin!: che,
wth"nt bcing u<'ltion .. d R< 10 OU .. imaginat!"c
,i101. The only tI,in" we !lCC<1 be .. 1
atc lhe mlsslalemCIIIs. Ih!ngs ""'3nl 10 bc
righ, Ihllhrough Out i:nor.lII<."e no!. We COln
glorify. c'cn dislor!, In arto romplctdy
witltiu On .. rigltls as trCOlli,c peo)!c if Out "i,n u
i"d"'d",.1 ''''I'r<'Sson. Whelhcr .. teh berly ;,;
a"""pt/)(I olh .. "fS has 'lO hea.ing on tI,, rl!:"1
o. wroug of it. fu. cael, hi, .ight lo hu OW1)
ta, IC much as to lo" .di);;"". Ewry dumgc
fron, IIIC' orll,O<.Io. , n;t}. b. ing aho"t tli. I",I .... an..1
IciS'-'fl !loe ch,,,,,,,, of ac:c<'JlIII'><:<', Bul :rettng
. sl,le mllllnc.c;.1! ronsidcratinlls. ch. "di,id",,!",
n:ht to CTca\i"cn .. "ss ("<I"nol be .
l1'e a'lisl may wdl Ihi"k of ..... "l'li"l: Iois imag_
inatioll wHh fael, , .. ing Oll(' or Ihe other to 1",.1
od"""'''l:e, It is C!, ,.I,';n Ihal mi ill the imag'
i""",, as "",ch a.< o, "'ore Ih"" il dOt"S In fact.
To tI,,,, 1 o"lr ,,itl. rae! """,,1<1 1", lo base our
:hi"kul> al Ihe C:tmcra Ic ... I.
If ""n be cloaKt:d wuh realil)", it
'",uid k'Cnl the Iogical lUamW. of ilPl"oachi"s
Ihc .ealislie-mi",lcd. SO that Iltro"gh lit,. rcal ily
....., ..... rry then. "Io .... r imagi.",lion, If. Oll
dI(. nlhe< hnnd .... ..., ghc som" I!,"s IO!ftll)' "'IIU>
,ihle to their o",, imagination. we m" ex-
pcct Qcccl'tancc. \Ve then have lhe of
... o.killg "olr lo ouncka. o' of
lOme ,"'w ",,,all$ of Ilndersta'Kli"s o" thei. P.1.!.
Therc "otlting 10 us. for cxan,pl .... f,om
sud, Cangui" l'ai"INI on bis lrop-
ie:lt hland. if \\"4.' n' e willing to 1t:grcgal" o\lrsckes
f",m .odct)".
I'crhaps Nl"wtoo's I:ows ,,"ere n dCP.Ulurc. ],I,t
a il) truth. A steam engillC
"'ns u"heard of, b"ll""",d on fn"..1amenlhl r""t.
l iS nle.il bcmm ... a ehinS or l'u'1)()SC and \"alue.
That ;5 the way 1 Ilke to Ihink of Ihe riS),! killd
el 1" ar!. " fakng' is nol tl", wo.tI
foo ,1. Perha"" Ihe besl guidc i5 lo :>5k y""rsdf
wl,cthe. lhe lrulh tbt yon red i"wanll)" is "H ... e
Iha" yOll see "Iswllly, when you a'e
chal imaginaton u thall bet all
lile 11.
, '" "I!UU"' IIL"'U U! CCllJor$",I'. \Ve can me jt.
2"'
AN IMACINAllVE SUBjECT NEED NOT BE " FAKED"
206
---- -
206
TI-lE ORIGINALlTY 1$ WITI-lIN Tl-IE CONCEPTION
2<r1
207
y N ~ >


A SINGLE LlGHTING WORKS OlIT BEST
196
11
196
ll-IE PLAN OF WORKINC UP A QUESnONNAIRE
There is noll'ing tha! . 'l"ilr 50 for
lit(' arti.1 10 ,i l IHforc a Lb,,!. , ht"lt of
I"'IX" or C:I,was ami produce an idea. Ideas han'
a ""y of SC<!n,rr.:lr tomirlg Irol'l1 '1O"'heTt', Of as
th, h;s"h of an ..xpcri,,"cc, or 0110", ' '' gge.tion.
I)ut there i. at a pro",,,,1 "'ay ",lrid, ,"", I"ad
0111; lo id,":!s. !ly dirccti"); ti .. ,n;'KI i"Io arpro.
prlajr eha"n...ls nI thought ,,,,,1 hy R"I <'OII,'Ci"ing
a pu'posc, Ih"II ;ln""'l'li,,); to ",ed that I'nrp'''''.
A" tIea witlro"t " putpose would !ire,n mo,e or
iuane ,,,od JI ",,,ce;\<!<1 al Ot'sl. ..... 1('1 lIS
thv 1""["""' , ,,, ,,1 ti", itlea willlol low in jto ",,,k ...
r'""",in.: th"t iUlctli);,,"t '1".'slion. will ""oke
illtrtli.:enl 3mwcrs, wc ",11> wi1h " 'I""s-
Takt' a ""--el 01 I'ap'''' dO\\'1I I he left
marsin ,,'t;to- ",oro thal ,""I! th;"k 01
Ihal rnighl he I 1 ... lx-gilltliug nf :L f! IIvstioll. or f",'1l
a gm"pof ",o"ls Ih"t "",,uld the star of a '1"CS-
lion. Let m assun,, ".., ar;o Stard, in.: lo. aud
"""",,. to "d"'.t i.o:" protlucl. " itl in e"er)" <:0"-
wi,,,,I,, qllr<t ,,,,, ro"ld :rsk tl\<, I'"xl.
''''1, \rhe" Y"'I ".111 thi"k uf "" more. 11",,, pro-
. J 1" }'OU' O"'n '1'l('Slions, ()r al I"ast
try lo gel Ihe i"lorn'at;ou Ihal "u"kl answer
tl"'II1. You "hi.'el. ti,, tl ... ",e a",1 il, pictorial
pre'elltalio". i. in"arb!>ly hlrM"" in tire an!wcrs ,
T!rls i. a ",<,,,us " f ,k,,,,,IoI)i ,,.: faet", ami" h"u )'OU
Ihe tl,,-,y tangihl., Ihin:< to work
\\"i lh. 11I".tl';)l'''" 01 lan:bl" (.els I",ron)<-'S COI11'
1l.1mti\'dy ta,)" U is a IlIl'a"J 01 laking "h!lrad
.'ncrgy ,lO "U, thclI,e. \Vhat are it$
Ncw 'l.'I(',tion. WIII!' In ","d. Wlro
;< "rost in ,I('('d of
come tIo",n 10 hJrtl fatlS,
""I)()rlo"t . the w,1[arc of I
dClwuds "1"'" !rim. ;'':0'''. Dad
11(''''e in " wom'III's ",a:",,;,t('?
wir" , ;".tin"tin::ly interesle.! in
h"'!X1l1d ",ell 3IUI !1<'althy, In fael. hne
ralhl"< ro",," and aPI'",ach. ! .
lra,t IQ ti", material IIsul!lV associ.,t.d
m"g32il1''5, 011 . ...... (>S alh"rt
attention 'lI,d intcrest.
No'" hon' ,,"n wc sho", "",,".
S"I'pose WI! sho\\" a link i"s.:rl
In IH., a ... l" I>rg pict",,,ol 1'0"" 1
'igl'icl",r he I"n of acliou .-..,'"
li ",1 I,c ha< '""1Ie(sy to sI"'"'''' Fi"el Now
of sho"'in,.; """rgy lo sl", re. ] ron'
10,,11 witl, the ki,!s. ",hen 1 ... "S('<I I
mock? I>by'" h" ;, springi " g pa,t
or o"t.hikillg ti ... l'ushing
1,"1:&.". :0<0'" We haw lO,,,.'II'"g lo
a"d id,,:,, IK'Sil1 to Copy laII:r:
li",-. "ilh h ... ,1 ... ,,,)(' a'KI WC ar .. al1 S<I [
gt'l
11", facl thal
,
Ihouglrt into <:O'lcrt'te Ih01' ght. the",e, bul Slren tlt(' I"orluct ",m
Facts bri"g "p images. If 1 "ay ti", plc. \\". e,,,, silo,, SO"", ddiciou . look'n,
pm,I"", mak.,-s O,," hcaltl,y, ron ro"I"'" IIp in ,,,,d subordi"ate ti", Rsure! u,i"S tll('",
r,)"r ,nilld " pkt, ore of h",oIth, If 1 say the prOOUCI r"te th. page. """"JI, "'''''''0'''''' ",,,, d"".
nlll k.'S o"" k", roo tl,i"k ,11 acti,'ity in OI,e lo.", Dad 1'".10 the la",,, ",,,,,"er . ,
or a'lOtl,er. Su i, Ihe ",,). Ihe 'lut'Stim'lI3ire "m elcan(.". \V,,);d OI' a "-ei,,",
"'orh. Now ro"r I),-,"ei l so",clhing to gct busy what !"SIt'S good if "'a,le ",i lh cr('am
O,",'r. Little '''ggc,lioll! I ... gin lo e,"o,,"e o"t of the as"i" arv ;. 11 set.
all' ''''''5. Tire foorl pages \\,01,1<1 h" hes! if done i"
In ti ... focl itiou. a",1 -""nI'''' q" I $'''ce bln ... 3"t1-..,hile lOO<! Jiule
shall Sw yan h",,", [ I,a"e purpos<-'Iy a "pl""al. Out of the $;ln,e nll.weTS
prorluc\ wh;d, "Uhall' ",ould !l."'''' aU)' lhing L"t t"ken OIJwr !'Ppro;<ches-IIr., [ill., ""ule. tlt
in'pirins or .oma"lie. a hnnk "f plai" eh .. ..,.., . lar)" pr<.luclkUl. the Aa"ur uf Ih"
In ni)" an.w ..... I foul1t1 lt1)"sclf , .... 'li"""II) 1"'1 "n "it''''';''5 "ntl ot lre, I ... althf u[
Ctm.'le;ausly 11"'5l i"g ' "N);.}'. So '''PlOS<: n'<: take 'a.icly of ".<"1.
'"
" In)' au> .... I found ,nysclf huI un-
SI rcs. ng el ... rgy, So "PilO"" takc
210
, ,
,."an)', ,t,,,nit,s "nd otile. l ... "hhf"l ,!ualilic:l
"ariNy 01
SEARCHING BASIC APPEALS FOR IDEAS
lIere is tI,e p, Ottd"rc adopted
'::::,;,'::': .... :" I i n' "d, 'crl ;sin g <kparl.
>"1 arc prima,;ly "IXl!>
11,,,na01 has 1)('('01 pul
, intensi,c I" j l> lhat il IOCl-ome, U",
t' tl><: Ihl'Or)' of l;sic al'lX'als.
h( .. a <lo" bllh,,1 tll(',, are
11 wsie ""d an,1
wc are throu:h "1'1>eal, tu
"'C ..... ,l"i" dd'"Ir.' at>d P'c,
. :-"'0 I,mof i, ,oc"I,.,J thal a ,")l".
""'atoj, lo hc .1, al "'>Sihl ....
... ""tl Ihal
morc Ir" .. ' Io",. :\ I"!lg ",lo tI ...
f'COI,lc nud wa"t. wc k"ow tire thi"SS
;' .. 11 ' . 1",,,,,0' f'<JI" ",hid,
t\l <""S"" IJe. Sucl, thin!;' ('3" also 1,,
"po .. hy ,11<' ""c'''''' of
ex,"",p"'- e .... " a parli,,1 "s"' l>e [mm
, 1 . f(lO' Ihc "H'TagC houSl'wi fc.
l"cl,,, ... ,<1 50"OC " XlIlll
p
les ()f
dcwlol)t'd [mm h,"k apl>eals.
.; 1 is first, ;llId Ihen yo"
Ih,,1 miglol ,,",ptes! il. This
I d.rcct a",1 p<, l i\'c "'ay lo gel readcr
pr(>vid,,,;\ 1"'0,,,1 "pproad, lo oriS-
1 ... ""1,, ",hole 001"",,, . 111.'1
a jUlllpitlg-oIl I,la<x
ti, S. The d ... ,re lo ....
01 ",If 9. ..(ne 01 p"'.se
10. 11le d..sirc lo c,,,,,1
In.<linct
,,'
pro
"
I',idc 01 ownc"hil'
12. TI", for
lo 8,.., tion
;'"ti",t uf fea. 1 'l. 'n... tI",", .0 doml.
d .... ,'e t<> be Ir"" ,,"le
p;oin
,.,
The dcs,c lo
de!irr lo 1""' ..... '" l'roSI
amI Ihrrr he a mother who
f(lO' reaso" dO<'s no! lo,'" her ehildrcn. 11,,1
. if\C(' IIIt' ,.,,,1 do. w(' .. :lOmO( $:0 "rong
",ilh >T' ",hid, 1""cI,,'5 "1"''' Ihal lm'C f(lO'
111('''' .. \n., ",,,.,. Ihal s" .. h n ,CSI'()II"C mil he
5CC1IT\',1 is almosl "sure fir!' .. is Iml.' of S(I
hasi .. Ib,,1 mon IIt ..... [
""cr d",rc i< '''' or :' l'proad. i "g
Th" "i, ;1 r,,1I or ..-hcn l ulo;"",I, are
t,) I'bin '""s of I .. "n"n beh.,..i",.
TI ... ,ariely i" huma", il !:'rgcly a ""ri!'ly uf
C'I " .. , if"'tt' "", Il'ur"''''. Tlrat \o"c difler in ' ''IJer.
6..;,,1 " . k'"I' is uf "0 ""p""'ld"tt. O"' \0";1""
1" s'''g. lo da, ... a"d a.",lh('f lo mal.:c 11,,,
,,,,,si,,. bUI al! "'anl attcnUon .1",1 praisc. 'l"h,,1 a
""'" d",'s ,,01 01,1 '110.:,,-, desi"., ,loes not
"'(':0" dtal "'p"I .. , is 1>01 110 .... ,., for 0I1t.
malO m.,y only <ln'a", of dni"g wh;I, nthcr
dOd il . h"n' ""Iy lo 10.,1.: nt our
"""" ,I lo ro"'" fairl) clll>'C lo tI ", oIhcr 1'''''
'<:'" \\' . ""sh lo lo ... ,. ",.J so ti,,, ... 1,, -
l'erlml'S ., a diflN".,1 "''''''''''. 1",1 mi ". ,,,,,ch.
\\'0' do nol Iikc r((Hcttle nor chMt i:\(: "ICI,I. ami
.. "id,,r <.10M: ,.,. \\,,, loo ",,,d, 3 .. lhorily.
h" nlso, Wc ! .... Ih ha"e I' ri dc. lle li ...... 1I",d,
sa,,,c. cating Ih., sn",e things, "njoying Ihc Same
11,ng', e,en, in a g''Toeral "'ay, thinking Ihe 5: .... "
things. so Ihat all)' I .... " f approa.cI, tl'al ",ould
" n'sl"'''<: in nursd\'Ci ,,"ould \'er)' likdy
do Ihe .... "'" \\"illo hi",.
Jf ..-.' ,,"ill but stud)" c:ud"Uy "n. :.c.:"ainl
atlt."cs, " ... "'illlm'" a fai,ly g"od rmss sect io" 01
]K .... 1'I,;, 3Ilargc.l\ gatheriug i" yo", hO"'e ",ill !\<JI
di fFN greally m,,, oroe in ",in.', in nam .. "
:lud M a gro,,!, Ihe,. ",iH ad p,,,IIy
",,,eh h" samc. If "" idea .. 10 m,t of ... '".
il ,cr) lil.:dy ",ill "l'p.",llosixly 0,,1 of a 1o"".drcll.
or , ...... ('3" carry;1 uI,IO Iho"53"d. ",I, al'p,o>i ,
",ald)' Ihe sant" percenl"gc, I'""",,,in& Ihal all
M, I)'piral of "o"nal or a\'e"' ge pt.'Ople.
In gene.al.l .. "nan "",oliO" ;< fairly co""io"'"I,
AII of U$ rCS"le' . do< .. :1 Ihcnoomclc" the Ioiglos
lI"dlo"'s bel"'('Cu Ihe of emolio". '11,c
loug 31 ,,'e .Iick to k'lO"'n q""lilie! of the imporla,.t Ihing i" 10 dra\\' .:.,,1 Ihe desiR .. 1
"'e ca,,'1 miS! h)' a "ery greal margino lio" by me;lns ol b:a.ie "ppcabr.
211

r
ego, wc ca,,'t miss uy a "cry grcat margino tion by llwalll of ba.,lc ~ p p c u l s
211
A SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE
CJ)ISTlO!lltl.lRl! fIlR DJ.II'IDOI.D
( J. tlCUUOIl. proc!uct)
""
...
"'''
"' ..
,,.
D ..... 7
.. ... , .... .. .
... "',M ... .
.... ... . ... r ....... .
dA ... ... 1l! .. ....
;.... (J:...a.. Ah.... '?
............. .. "!-S" _
.!. ,< '. ... _ . JEt..,., 7
n.re ....... ... 'tr' ... " .
Wh1 18 4-... .. ......... .
. UJi kct 7
I,t.".t u.. . ... :':'r ........... ' ... .
1I0lotten .. ;.;tJ
110" . :1:I? r:;
. t... ... f .
......... u .. ,.0:: .... ....
CaD 4:' .. ?..
1m ..
no., H .... .... .
212
8000"'" 1 t le p.oN ud
Suppll ........ tiAl rlt.uJal.
la dallCloul " J"
B.cau ot ita r l cbn
lb,,, Ur..t, i t brl"",. "'!'XI to
At ,.al. 01" bet. " ,..1
l , and cId.
Jot Uo .ueh naYor ud rl cl1u ...
.f.ll u., li:ood t-h .... 11tt [".
J Ul t.U for lt st )'0111" !'OC'-".
S.,.. ul IIh 11 ........ . UI H:ocI lt.
lo IIlthl\" In prieto
l t. u rUcbt ' .... proof "f'&W1ng
te .... 1t fr.M unUl cone.
21'
ROUCH IDEAS DEVELOPED FROM lHE QUESTIONNAIRE
)


hoppcllcc' 10 Oaci?
DAIRYCOLO
CI'l.tl. ......... GtI .... J c..

ro ",CQf-lTLNYIT'( 11 WOR.KI!:O OUT C"l!cNTE"'EO AROYNI> 1>41>:r "4I!W V IT41.IT"I'.
No
DAII>:YGO LD
(.1\Ii!:Af"I c ... , ..
Ir ' ICTI TlOUJ BU'T THe. APPROAC14 TQ THE IOEA/ lI ICOHO. DAOS Vn61.ITY 1 ....
T() n.e MOMa. WKAT i'OJFEwrr<e WOULO NOT BE I .... on. wl'l/lT 14 U/eANDl
213
_. , - . ,
. ' . .. .... ,
213
l'
A DrFFERENT APPROACH FRQM ll-IE SAME QUESTIONNA1RE
b "11 {" ," w'.I.!''''''r
/')11:... ,. _.-
y;. . ', '
. ~ .... ""
214
('
' .
- ( .
"
,
___ O' , ,,,, '",' ", .. "" , ", .. "" ", . , '''": '''- ' , - .J'l!'- --------:...' -'iJ
CREATINC IDEAS FROM BASrC APPEALS
u
:Jo<
4 "" "","
KNOWf
l
'"'
, .

ROAMER
................... -_ ....
F IU! I! 00'" H<OM _'N POI/UI
215
SCR1BBLE WHILE YOU TI-l INK: THINK WHILE YOU SCRIBBLE
' /
; I
)
\ . \
-
216
- r \'
2' 6
SCRIBBLES ARE MORE ORIGINAL THAN YUR CAMERA
CET USED TO SKETCHINC FROM LlFE



218
I
218
YU CET SOMETHINC ll-fE CAMERA CAN'T CIVE YOU
219
- \
~
.'
,
,
219
SENTIMENT THE KEYNOTE OF ILLUSTRA nON
Ibrdly is a Ola" or w"man withoul senti-
nI'ml, <:,-e" lhollgh it 1)(' hdden ami ,"a,kcd over
" dekllse, Le! "s tha! "O one\ lifc secrns
jml a 'cd of rme, . SenllIlcnt i, lhe bul\\'ark tl,nl
\\'e I"atl "pon, lhal makcs m ahl, t" Ih" "ev-
itahle 1Il0notony and comlllollplaec of hfe in it,
,tridc, Thcre is ma"dli" selltiment, of COUf"', "",1
,cntiment dragged ill by lhe hcck Scntllnent eall
be mcd ,,,h!ly and ",ilh lact ami hc """1,, U tr,_
,0"",10'" a"cI; or ,1 mll IK' lila, wn\'ing thc fla;
aftcr " had "ilud"\'iI1,, ad tn gct "l'platlSe tlmt
not uwrit"tl hy tlU'
IIO",t ,ing tmc to be eff .. tti\'e. A <<,,,rch f", real
,cnlimc,,1 ",il1 bri"g "p t,ca,mes,
[t f"l1ow.' that rertain ,uhjce'!> will al igll tlw' ''-
, .. k"s wilh ce,tai" I"rcholog,cal anot Iwr
w()rd fo, se"time"I. Pur exa<"I'I.. n loild '0,'1'
amlCiates il",lf ",itb glamour. fre,IIlIC" - th"
pr .. scn"tioll ()r. '" conlrihlltio" toward, hea"ty.
Yo"th, romanre. lowlinc", th,,", i, Ihe <coli -
"l'l'foach. Swikhi"g In " L",,,dI'Y soap,
we 1"",<," th .. s .. "t "",,,t of hc home , lhc maternal
jo,'c eXI>r .. ,sed in .,lea". frc,h and '","c'et-"""l1ing
dl'''''''' for the ule gi 'l. \Ve have d lk'il'''''Y
of Ihe 1000lle. he ce",nol11)' of hlx", a lhonsalld
nnd olle instances whN. Ih" "-'e 01 olain "'''1'
e'I"""'" senti"'cnt of ,0111e kind, Scnt im"nt is
attad\t'd to the cigal'ettc throngh Ihc pretly girl
,,,,,1 r",,,:mee, AnotllC'r al'l'""wh i, ti ... i,,,tiu('\ 01
,dl-I'rcscrvatioll, dai",i"g le" irritation to your
throat ; the aplwal or 'l',ality, dai",ing 11", h",t
lohacro, nnd so on. Sdlin< 110m \\,0,,1.1 ""t",aHy
h., alig"ed with appctite uppeal, tcmpting /0011,
nOllri.,hing guaht i .. s, ami re'ultallt gooJ I",ahl ..
Aftcr a Jittle e'pcriclI (;(> we rond thal psychol-
ogy is definitcly the ha.';" 01 "reati,c ide"s, lIerog-
lIizi"g tl.e p'yehological ,ca h" to w},id, n prodllct
bdongs I"-'comc', "I",o,t n"tomatic. Qur real
I'wblem lies ;11 the prcsclltatioll, Here are a le'"
"xample, 01 appeals and al'l'roadws:
f'erf''''''J
,\fj[k
ROlllallce, ,edudi,",,-
ucss, the '''''$UO''S. <ex
11<-"lth, matcrn,d appent ap-
petite, home
loo<! hcahh, rlficierq
l-\'ork, nppditc
I'acuum dwncrs Effidcnc)', lahor "".,,
for other thillg.
Mcuic!'!es Frt'"dom fro"" pain,
inslillet of ,,,rviva!
Bm,k,. S,emit)' . Ireedo", from
,\f,,ors
Fumilure
hOlllC, prcpare,lness,
t"<'tio,,
H,.]a",lion. "ffidency.
tr:l\'cl. pO,,,',,;OI1, .. Itty
Jkallt)', (bi!!ll, dlicicncy,
hom,', l'ride
Thc li,t can <o o" indcfinildv. "['P'"
yom ",hj .. ct in this "'ay is .'i"'ply
220
"li d ""'n,,, to i"!t'rpr,.ttl,,, "
it h..,colllcs a mattN of l'U-o,dinating th .
flL1IdalllC'lItal, to fit th .. "' ;"
lh .. n!,ove Iist, mil")' tl"'''ght, a"t! picto,ial
jeds ",il! takc ,hape. [t would ,,,,t he" I'Jd '
to lII"k .. w"", Hule rOllghs 01 what L'OIIlC' t,",,,
RE"AMP'"'' OLO mE,'"
lIcrc i, a gold mm .. il "pP,,,,\t'hcd
ami ethil',dly. Ther" i, all "Id "a)';,'g that
is "nthing "e", lI"der the <UII, There will
hc ,imila, .,ituatio"s. similar products",
app,oachc5. No o"" "ce,1 rc'sorl to pbin' ,
SIIPP"S .. i" all old ,"agaziIlP "". Il"d ,1,
lieve is ha'ically n good idea \Vit}, a !lC,,"
H"e, a neW collll'0sition or
' c"alllpillg is dOllc day, Good
,hip will stop liS f,o", mi 1. i
.,inre Jife colltinucs in m"eh the S"ll\e wa)',
is bo,,"' to ll<) dllplicali"l\ Secing a
mothcr halhing hcr bahy mighl <ive '" a
idca ro. nn ill",t,,,t io,, . a
hardly be ('O",idered 31lj'onc', p,i"ate
lI"t for ,,"r own pride wc ,,'Ould pre,ent ,h, "'1
icet as originally as pO"ible. \'ie"'cd in thi,
old mag:lzinc5 me ' """,ef id"",
siure the subjccts ha"'> proved th",,'s.lve, ",ortky
u the pa,t. Ihe)' probably ",il! be g.oo<l again.
petile, home " lIJe paSI. Ihey prohahly ", il! be goo<l again.
220
PSYCHOLOGY APPLlED TO CQVERS AND CALENDARS
Idtu. ullkM Ihe subject il a gen
_;110 pouil>ililies for wide vn.I3I00n.
le! .10."" afln having 00Cf! apl'"ared.
Gnmd'I13 hl"wiug
. lootball, !hal iJ; a sp"'(:jfi" incidenl.
One particular arlist. MIIII an)' etIL-
Irlllsl regard it al his p."pe.t)'.
be lIowever. a subeet su"h as a
". $ 10 gtneral t .... , lhe ide:. ilself ma)'
ti_ aud again .
... ' "no lo he mus' he original
be tilllely, and ha\'(' gener ... l . p-
5honld reHect popular I"eh
i '. ami olher current .. ilie
i,wariably display goOO hlllllor
."., .. shoold be lree (rolll prcJII,lice.
religion. ,acial inloleran"",
... liad e:<lImpll' of !lny sor!. If Ihe hasis
1&, i!: a I'r:ank, il should he ",hoICSOlIIl'.
IIl:aJj('f: ()f ahuse.
".1)"ld likc lo be. loo"" t ,
10 do.
li\'e alld
. '
"'pre.
01 Ihe magazin" or ",'ell 01
By lamiliarizing )'o",seU
1;
lo diBerent suhjecU. While
a prl'lt)' girl head, anolher
Ame.ican .c-el\e. And, Ir)' the ""a)'.
been done $() 1Il311)' limes
will ha"" a better ehance jl )'011 i"lro-
Or idea into yOllr, .
rall Into 1"'0 broad groul": general
Ihe basi" 'PI"""k
1 ,,,,,,,,,\$<l. A C()\'er
ps)'eh<Jlogical appeal has "'uen
Ih.n o"", whieh
11 i i A lovdy ,nother
il . for eumple. is a .uhjee' ,,1 b. oad
, 11 lillle girl playing wilh a
incident. 'Illere , no Iwil 01 ohjel)-
lo tht ",hile Ihere might be 10 dle
use 01 hui<: and lhe queston"ai.e pb".
Far e:.amplc. we ""ant an idea for D ",er of a
ooys magazilll'. The q"estioos mighl s!ut : \Vhal
does a 00)' li!;e to do must? Answcr : nllild Ihings.
Que.lian: Wllat dOO!! he build? A,uwcr, Air_
planes. in h.ooks. huts in rafts. etc.
we lhe hu' ill lhe Irce. Hcre i. cxcel-
kn! materi.1 fm experimental "wk. Or ""e (:(luId
shuw Ihe hoY' 01' a .,.11 pbying pifale. Saon we
""I\'e a JOlln" Idea.
vm.'''' sho"ld 1I."al1,. be submilkd iu . ketch
form, s"c-e Ihe (tseU may IInt he
able. Ca, ... , Rre lIot easy!o sell. n"d !hat i. why
all idea .!IO,,]J he submi"ed in rough lorm hefore
any anll)lllll of lime and dfort I"",n put
illto it. Ir inwrHled. !he magaline ",in
)'001: il 001. }'('" will soon 1"'0"". If )'ou _ Ihal
1"" same arliSI is do ng """<>ml COVf'fS ror ",aga .
"tiu". YO" ,om)' he bi. l)' cerlain "" is ",Kler $pe<'al
arrallgemenl or contrae( and thal, Ihc.('fO<'p.. Ihere
is!lO opcnillg far yon.
Color photogrnl'hy for coveTJ ,,,, al1 huI
crowdcd o"t arlisl. lIowe'er. I belie"e Ihe
chief .cason is dearth of good pictor!a1 offer-
illgs. A. arl r-rally d,,..,1op. in I],i, coullhy, I he.
lie\-e " 'e wil! _ more ,,00 mor" of Ihe !lrl ist"s
011 maga1.inc ro,..:rs.
Si""" I i"!Clld lO tak" up calenda,., as a fidd for
di'CUllion later on, I believe it ",ji! here to
mention the important part p"ych<JkJgicnl np(l<'al
plays in CilI",odar art. Cale.odnr are liSn-
ally of h.ood appeal and 001)" "clclo,n use $p""i6c
inciden!. Tire nlain . eaSOn i. a S{>l:cirr" illci
dent. a prllnk. a bit of ronrenlraloo action O<
Itory. is ''e1'y gel tiresome after having bcen
looked al for ron"" mnnlhs. Su.pended action. in
"'y 0piniOIl. ilnot too good for a calcndllr. I gel
a Hule tired of the dog retrb'i"g the qunn. of
waiting ro< lhe 1 ...... lo be lalldo,o. lhe hKlian lo fan
oH lhe and ro oo. The, e is g.t,!at ,oom lar
iml"0"e"\I:nl in CQlenda, inustratioo. I upo ..
OOwever, )'00 wish to do a Mspcdfie 1"""; it a. 011" of lhe greal opportunitics 11M' Ih.e artist
rovt:r. )'00 can also de"elop thit Ihroogh o I<.HTIOITOW.
221
,oowever. you wish to ~ l a "specific Inci,
<XIver, ) 'QU can 11150 de\"lqJ this through
221

!t a'l One of the great opportunitics f('f the artist
of 10lllOrrow .
THERE IS EVEN P$YCHOLOGY IN COMIC IDEAS
mar applu.,d in oomics io 10' _
ward ,tea. Ctr Ihe \Ve cao appeal lo syrn-
pathr aoJ hllD11\n Uode' llnnding, (ji we can mnh,
Iight of it , .::ven 10 Ihe pajn! of ,dcul". No ane can
p'<l'icri!>c >u, exact lorrouln r Ol" CI)m!CS, "ince Ihe
hum..,. ,,,,,h; in Ihe interpletatlOn of an
Idea. hut fOl'mu!a i , IL'leJ, oorucioudy 01 subcon
SeiOusly, by the bes! huOOt"il<N, and it $ nll bMOO
On h WlUl.R prychvlogy.
Sorne Iried nnd t nlC formulas IMy be listed:
l. Outraged dlgnlty 8. Unupect",, oppo<-
2. Crcating une;:- tunit)" ro gel even
pect&d $.
3. "'1aking Ihe ""riOUli 10. fteversing Iogical
ridiculo", Ol.ICOfllll
4. l>.hklng Ihll tldlcu- 11. Slapsllck
1",," .erjous 12. Getti og 0\01 of a
5. Th" w".k ()Utmur._ dle. m",,'
int; .be slrong 13 '!'he pun 00
6. "J1, e "..,nI.)
coming lo grici 14. nte (al: (funny in-
1. Turning Ibe cid""t )
The psyehology hehirod gctting a laugh , a
quick twilt 01 the cmotions, a wrprls e maneuver,
a sudde" revers;ol of tbO\Oght. It ha5 been said hy
humm;s!s that there are 1Jnly abo .. ! a dozen hasic
jGkts, the jll!:e. w"lb w!th new var ian!!; of
thes",_ are lOJ homiliar thal !hey
a1l be sorled InlO yct they go 011
making for tunes lo! the cap-
!tal is made 01 Ihe lae! tbat chere is >omething
f UHny in the Gther fellow
aullet vr a rathe! s;dislie streak in huma'lli_
Ta sct! a dl.11r break unde, a persono even if be
gels a splinter in his'poste,ior, can be "proo'_
ou>1y funny 10 everybody but the Qwoor of Ihe
Tn slip and fal! dewhfll a mud puddlt
is nolhing mort ,,1 lit sicle show far the onlooker$,
e:;pecially il the unluCk:/ viClim faUs fa- down.
Te bend ove' and han a searo llUrsl i$ terrific,
e'-ell though JI happens 10 a good sut. 1 saw
aman snil'f'ng off Ch,i!.tmas necktles al Ihe knot,
with ev",rybody loving il huI tbe gentlemen
sn!pped. AH such tbings are oomic ideas. A laugb
COllle.o froro a comie idea, Or a prcd!cament, eT
from a twist 01 the seriou! to lhe ridiculous.
222
My pen:onal in comK:
most llmUoo, bul 1 numl,er se,'eral
comic arlists Qmollg ro)'
enough, 1 fi nd that t he prooucer of comics
rather by unlil
a story, wh"" the rare Hbility ()<)n1es <)\11. I
,ay that!he comie licld, abo.-c all othen;, can! I
individualityalld ()TIgfnllity. Plnfn
of ru:llwillg no! eoougll rOl comedy
keenobservalionofhumlllln!IS Qnd
up in good comics.
jmpo.tance than !he dnwiog. In
" Ul be!! wmic artitts not good ,,,.,,_.
ano ami are lunnia 1","',LI " lile)' a.e nol
thcrc ;s no doubt cbamcteril:Mfon can
"part Jo pierorial humo:. "ud 1 do not )i
kllowledge (ll "ven oo.m,,;'"
can hmt a good hwnorlt.
Camics may he sold direct, or, "i,.h. " .. ,
newspa[><'f ' hmugh a syndicate,
order to sen a eh,]y .trip, !everal
strips must be preparoo in advance.
loonim I:.ept on by th"
themselves. Others '
where the>' wjsh.
location ;;;;'
writing to n,
Man)' artl5ts treal oomics as "" . .. " , ,, ....
hecal.w of the highly Ip\'culativo nal"'e (Ir
cid. A oomic a11i:;t musl be unusualJy, good
gel Jnto a synd1eale, but If he It can
highly remuneralive- even OIle of che .
pn)'lng bmnches of Ihe emft.
Comie dmwings should be kept simple,
out a great Jeal
of form. Th"Y J
Elaharation t"uds to reJ.uce the comje
rMher OJan enhance 11. rhe draw!ngs should
ktpt alld capable
tian. neJe can be dcgrCl.' of
lion, thol1gh 1 think il will be conceded tnal
cornie <h-awing sh""kI .. in SOffiC
e>:.aggerati1JTl_ Otherwise, It remains a
drawi1\g whieh, i1\ Bpite of & bllmQroWl iOO"
likely lo he accepted wltbQUt a smile.

fmm a ",i.! of lhe Serio\l5 tI) the rWlc\l lous. likdy to be accept ed wlthQUt ,mile.
222
lDEAS IN GENERAL
beco"' .... ''''p''r",nccd in Vllrio .. , lidd.
. ' become. apYolrent thal arO
dlen clnscly 'clntcd. Ion idea lor a rnaga'Line ad
rnapery "'eH he i,,<:o.pornte<.1 ;,,10 a poste, Or di._
play. 11>" va,l"t ion i> in tlw: pre5cntlllion, Ti"",
it lhe fJeto, ",h ich ,I.:tcrmille, how ;In id""
k lo be , .. ,)dcred- nol how long you I':OIn al
i, but tbc time w'ld , the oI"",":er wll likely
have hi , diS]losal 10 lako in yo",. idea. Sitlinll i"
1I1..as)' d",I, wilh Tcading t il "" VlflUany ullli nl _
iled. he will ,esp"nd 10" mnga.ine wilh a grwl
..... 1 n lOf .. in 1I that WQuld be lIlI 1,,10 a posler
whicl, mus! hc comprohemlcd iu " fe\V sccolllls.
M'Vin" piel .. ' es permit more d ahoration al
tlwironment , baci<p;roulld, and extT:\ inlerL"it than
o\oe$ lhe Th.e . !reclear e:1.d ha litlle
.:nreading I;me Ihan Ihe P""lcr, so ft can carry
llonger lext Ulc.''iage tha'l a poste,. 1m! sl illao!
IOmuch as lbe magulnO':. The iIIustrntion for he
, medror card $ho\ll<1 be simple ""el lo the (loit .
n... clrugsloro display may be given atlylhing
(O a few minuk .. . Bu ! lhe",
,b COn hc put Ihrough the fol.
lO Anel On! if i! is practical for
. Can it he ""ell O\ l1d rcad within the nllotte<l
9. Has 1I 00e.1 noticc<! and <:ommenlW upoo
wilholl' y<l uc callin!; attcntic:m to it?
10. Can )"Otr hc:mestl}' it f YI, r "",,,'
Tlo.e foregoing may be ron. itbed WIIlC-
whal ..,,ore, hut yO\l ho\"C Ihe ru!islaction of
kuowi'lg lhal il yo<l r ioc ... C"an ;t . )"0\1 are oro
...,lId gmund. It is Illuch hctler In put yo" r ideal tu
thr. te5t you,sclf ",hile Ihere is . Iill time 10 rcmedy
ddeets. Ihan lo have the defecIJ come '"",k :iI
yon. Al! Idea, ml.,1 go throllgh the mili of ai li-
a",1 opiniOIl. whet llCf \\"e lik .. il <.Ir 1>01. Criti-
CiSUl i. hard 10 lake :tl beS! . 10 il . ",i se 10 aull e;-
pltc Ihc tl MoIiel led cril idsm ,,'hidl soonlS il\c';-
lable and Ix, your !)\Vn se\'erclt critie. You can
j"ge fa i. ly ,,"ell if cri tici$m from o theu is tll1-
oc prompl ed hy molive$. An-
,,hc. arli5! may 110 1 be quite :u good critc as a
laylnsu. lor it is diffi"" h for ,n arlisl nol In 5I)e
a . "bjed R' he ",ould do it llimsel!. $lfK"I; yO\l
cannot ",ork . 1>oul<l w";gh Ihe crit i,
cism ctt.rcfully. li d "'ay he gi,ing yO\! 1;00<1
l>(linter<. Jt is best lo """k <:ritiC'lm 11'0111 people
n.1Jresenlaive of Ihe gellcrnl public ;>. ntl its tasI".
M lId> alteulion whidl ord;na,ily OUIII-
t"d ('(lUId profimbJy be given idea, Ma,,)" of us
(:{luid '!lO'c mud, fa,tcr if we wo"ld do
more Ihi!lking in advlmce o! Ihe Ob, flI ther Ilmn
1$ l. stdl'x:<l to nta., ",,,m wailing "nti! il is half Gllil;hed. \Ve can be Gur
,i",pliat)'? OW(l" 1 told yOIl 50'S. aOO il doe5 001 IlUrl .. ea rly
Cnn anything more be akell awny withOl1l1 m lllllch fro", Ilwl No rnnttcr how good
hurting '" dfed iveneM.? Wc beroroc Ic-chni .... lly. Otlr coI"'''''Pl ion.
. Is Ihe idea COI,si'lcut with tho IlK,diulU in ami presentation "n Iha! wiU C"AI"ly u, !",._
whiell il wi ll appenr? ", ... 1.
F.xaml' J.,-F or a ","Omnn'. magazine, "ill II is only ",Iurnl Ihal \Ve .hn"ld be ronCCl"llcd
il e.pceially 10 women? wi th ""e<, uliOn. Un pb .. -
Exa.mple--."s a poster, is the uui niug IhilllP' oot c.lrefully is the OI, ly \Vay wt; can
vcnal? g vc that hal! a ,:hanec. You may
If J,c ide"- onust seH solnelhing. docs It' Ih,,!:. ",Iocn a b yo<, 1 ront 'al"k-d yo" , Iha! there
Ir it be al disto.n<'e, clQt.! ils is nO 'oomleft in it forper$(lIlal ide:15; 1"'1 yoo ",111
dtlail carry? ill\'llriahly Gncl !be.., is snroe ",ay 10 do jI " liltlc
Woold 5I)\'C" peop le QUI of ten Ihink 1I hetter lhan cxpcCled Ir yo" neve)" get " ch .. n<x
good? nI Cfcating ide.os, ereate somc 3nyway and show
D>es ti", pl("ture Itself exprC$S the Idea, or hem 10 lile IJOs.or the dl"nt. SOl""""e will eV"l>-
I",,,t it calTy a cxplanntion? luaU)' takt nOlice.
223
..
l . . d i ~ ... -r--:- -
~ ~
,
PART SIX
1. The Magazine Ad
2. The Outdoor Poster
3. Display Advertising
4. Calendar Advertising
5. Covers and Jackets
6 Story lIlustranon
THE MAGAZINE AD
T'II'.I\I: is al' of material
preseo! fo. the !udr of advert.i ns p-1Sol "rranSe-
meol ha! il seems lo me 1 salel)' approach
Ihe ",bjcct in a mOfe or general way. Tho.. e-
fore r shaU dJnfine myself , 1) ' )'>es of rnngazinc
ralh". a holt nf Ipecir. C and nd\lul
cumples. Th, ) b.1sic law, of good arrntlgemcnt
l .. rer Moreoftn tloe 1
IntC,.prcl tloe lex! Ilmn Jcpcnd " pon
e.'plain !he p!et"re. A gooo can
"J) 3 poor ad I "".;" " , ,, . ",,, "d '.", h
"p 3 pon' pidure. Ym.I m!ght
'" the show wiudow to tlle j),,,a11ing o( "" ,, ; .. d
il <loes Ilot nUmet. al! ebe faik
soo",Id " pplr- I bclie"c ir al' artist can!,lO- Lel lIS tben, wil" a cle:u
duce good sp.,,-e;ng, 01 mass, balance. yo". miss;"n ;5, how yO\1 can CO-(lpCflItc to
interes! rieloran)'. hu will be ahl(: :. 100 lo yo", adv,,'ti,cr' uuCC<l$il yo",. ... Cood
pnxluce good arrangerncnt fo. Ihe ",hole pagc. "" la",. There
Page really arnoomts lu the sclting
d gi\"ert u"it.. nlO a glv<:n ' >:lce as plcMiligly and In,. way is d,,,.,
Inlerestingly as possi"lc. low; "S of wilh lILe leM\ '::
FDt Ihe u, os l ]l ar!, armng'::ffiCnt i5 Ihe province efforl : Ihe attlt(,de of only "Thi h wh..lt h
of the adverH$;"g agency, ond he ill"slr;>lor hu fOl', $O Ihis is wha! he gct . Th, amo",,1s
Iiule voioe in l ueh plannlng . .BecaU$C other el.,... complete subordimbon of any e"t1l1lsi:o.sm.
menls may be pre",,,t in a byout, " eh aS COn- tlividualHy, or invcntivcues! whid, )"011 ""'y
formily t <:> a series. O" given unlts. sclec- sess-all oF parnmouut i",portante
!ion of Iype faces. etc., il is "fle ... besl that Ihese yonr l uCCC>S.
Ix: worketl. Out by !he layool men 01 Ihe agency. n,c righl way is lo \leard, <Iooply lor d.,.
Bu! ne\'crlhc1csl thc ilIuSlralor who;$ will chological appenl, the hnpelling
nOI vorce himscll frmll page layout. aes;roo respon$c. II yo ... these,
His iIluslrntio" mus! bl! into place i " Ihe ... hale will hclp yo.. If you ha .. c
design oE Ihe page, whieh desi!;n should be undco-- lo portl ay 3 mother and child. )"011 "" m
slandable !O him, !oward whicb he "'''.11 be WQ,ling loward Ibe decp and "i lal malen",,1
ami co-operatin He should take peal. E"e,y (I"ality wh!ch makes ,."h,
ad"antage of t he opportunily for good !cleal islie and be:mtiful 10 yOo.l d \Ol, ld be
nl(!l1 l which tl,e b.yout offer$ him, or,;1 ,leed he, pnnled.. It mighl 00 easi/;'!", e""' n
Q what he can lo give ootler l lTangemenl lo a ant, lo can in lhat pctite little
poor conct:Plion. blonde who regislered the other day nnd use
The of lhe il1wtnlion les great ly in rOl Ihe ",otl .... .,.. Bu! can she Iypily
doe liuccen of tJ,e appe:! raolCC of tbe whole ad. CO'1\"irociugly? The righl way is 10 I", ... t
If he read ... .,. is I ... triguoo by )'tIur llu.tr:o.tion inro lIl othcr, Mideal
v
as aod use h",
rcuding !he oopy, tbe illusl.aUon !ahs 0 ,\ addcd her Own chnd if you can. 'fhetc will he a
n\eaning, an<! yOIl beneGt thereby. lf the reader there !hal may n-.ake yOUT piclum. If you
looh at your l'icl ... re all<hkil" the resl, lhe whole do that, don' t haul an ol'Clliized doIl out of
slructure f"lb Il po"t a!1{l the ad falls. cllpboard "nd nmkc i! ""mee ror I \ t
So your fi rs! npproach 10 gooJ tllus- real baby. Such co-operation is nOI
!ratioo is: 'Jl o,,", nwch of tIre mean;'" 01 he l<1xt wisc foryou r ow ... you are
".Id p"TP<"'e of tJd c"n IlrtJn.<pOe lo my pie- lalion, build It $Olidly amI intelligently.
226

226
THE AP'PROACH TO GOOD ADVERTISING lLLUSTRA nON
imporlnnCfl 10 tito inlerpretRtion 01
is laking tite ponible pai .... to
lhe besl woridng malel. Tf
work has 'cen .greed upon, Ihe
Ii
ccnl of il in ,...ooel!, Pf"O!>" photo<,
material. In Ihe 10llg ron sueh an
pay largo divlde" d., much beller
Iype of invcSl rnent. If}'Qu need lo
, 11 , tathcr tha" fake il. Ce! othe.
.n possiblc, fOf il add. conslder-
the ultlmale ,'aluc 01 )lO'" work. I 1' ''''<0
provee! Over itnd o,er. Two arUrts may
'" 01 I1owever, one hk .. ,
Ihe other ro""cienlioudy ''' ppliros him..,lf
01 everything to work wilh. n.e lat_
wirl nUl, every lime. Evo. )" bit of working
is adding lo your gellCrnl knowledge,
bit 01 falr. ing keeps you al a standslill,
Yo" cannot lcam
Ihinl and \"ery imporlant apr.oado 10
worlr: hes in worlr.Ilg OUI )'OUr p<oblem in
deleh formo even when
J.,,,m''',,d .. Fin<! your Imubles befo<e
you. A pencil !tudy lrom yo\lt oopy, i[
.. = worklng (rom a pIloIO, will be ootter to
(mm in yOIl' final ! Iago thall the pilOto I-
will Rnd )vursdl working more free')"
Much 01 )vur penci l !tudy can
I ti) the 611a l medum wilh
possible. If working in water color, it
down to the papero Ir wor king in .,;1. tue yOor
turpcntlne aOO a rag, after scmping with .. pa1ette
kni fe, and wipe it dewn 10 Ihe CI!IVall. If Ihe mlder
1'11;111 js dr)". il cnn be gone over with frC$h po,in!,
bul il never 1001<., quite ... fresh.l1.! !he first painl_
;ngon l he.,.,1\VRS. Sargcnt pal ntoo ever)' in a
single .. !tcmpt, or wipcd Itout .. 1d tried jI again.
Prohably much of hi, carne f,om doing
!.he SIllne head ovcr and OVe. until t was JO Ihor-
oughly fUcd In his mioo tlml be cou!d do it in a
grual cconomy of slTokes. Light paint will llever
cover darlo I'll.int elIeclivcly ns da,k light.
In time tI,e <! .. wlll ",,><Idy th" liglol", p"lnt
_bove iI. e'en f {I has not done so in lhe
fin! atlemp( .
\V},,:n worki"g "nder (HeSSnr" il 's nlways a
10 ump righl h,lo the Ihing. But
m)" expcrience hu always becn lhal Iherc is no
time ","ved in Cetting something out
of Ihe mire may take mud, more time Ihnn w(,.,ld
have been re(]uired 10 "",loe sorne .kelchel md
, ludies. a pieture is !>mi
ne". There is e' oOI.gh worry al hesl. and il shollld
be planne<! out wdl en(MJ.gh -'O Ihnl o:nang6 of
posc, differenl CM" ehange of modcls will
ucver lutve lo be ;luernllled in lhe rniddle of lhe:
fin;ll work. 1I is beUcr lo admi l Ihat yOtI made a
hasty a1ld h.,d stRr!, and Ihe1l Slar! OW!r.
J lmow OM illusltator who made haLi! of
strelching ! \VI) fO' eQ.(:h joo. He did al1
Ihe fussing. and h,ming on the
/irSl canVILS. When he lhoughl he had il naile<!
clown, he proceedcd h:J do Ihe thing very direcll
y
work will appcar un6nl.<hed on lhe se<:ond canvas. tI look one-quar tcr loone-
unrortunatcly enrouraging you h;llf Ihe lime. 11 was he STCI of Ihe ever fresh
the /lnlsh and slickness 01 !he piloto- 900 spoolllneou.s (J"ality of hir work. 1" .ea!ity he
. ]f. yoor work js I,ang- no nlOre dlrcC! and ni tlle stnr! Ihan
you. yau are improving on whnl you he 'est of l" . In!tead of lowing him down. th;
ralher lhan whal the saw. 3pproao:n sccmed 10 $pt:od hlm up, and he: Ih ....
. That koops)"au caplt aliwd on Ihe crcdit 01 hejng a Ve!')' din:et
nol ", clng. Plan your color bt:fore alld &eCl.'ratc )ai"!er. li ad I not beCIl a c10se
Una! work. Changer aro fricnd T might uevcr have known, and sinoe 1 do
. If yoll ru.ve lo makeachange, nol disdose his I fcel hal he is maldng a
nu.ly elcan a worlcing 'urface as contribul ion ti) us hy his good eumple.
227
, ... _ .... ~ .. .. ", ."" u ~ . ' ' ".., ~ , , , e . J , ~ .. " """ 'lO' I.'i IHlIIilllg a
Clown ro a; nea,ly ckan a wurking surfaoo:os ro",.ih"tion ro 'u by .... good ex.o.mple.
m
USINC YOUR FREEDOM
Unforhlll;l.lely n>O$t ar,i,ls are . ( 311)' given
more rhan hey takc. Fe:u of being WI'Ong
can ' t i!l" ingelluity and spOi l initiativc. Try to
he inl",,! 3ncl purpo'" ni yom ,, 'truc_
Jf yon ",sh 10 de,'late from them consid
c,.,.bl,., a tdepllon .. caJl ma)' be all 15 ncces-
.. You mar he oerUiu tha! 6\-'e ir yolll work
, well kOOWD. no t director elH! pm;<i bly vK"aJ.
i7.6 JUSI ",hal r OIl are gol" g 10 do. He
chan<:e 011 yOll, 011 he baj is of )'onr P(\$! "1lrk. He
ht lo. N o. can )'00, when yon taJe" a jobo !iC:(l Ihc
Ilnished thillg in ronr mlnd en.ctl,. as ;1 " galng
10 be. Thc rtaSOn is tha! Ihe ... -holc tI, rn; is 3
proce:ss. LiUle is really going tu he said
in adv"-" ",, allou! P(lSC, CQ5 tume, ele" u"less yO\l
are handed actual photogl'aphic cap}' 10 work
f"!m. Advcrtising agencies . cldom s" I"l'ly !!le
n ll$\ wth anythinpnore than the idr.",-,u.l a Iay.
n" l. roor:trl director $ " ni t\'X>ected t05"pply yo..
\Vll h copy. JI be ck.e$, ,Id out Ih"" 3mllhere how
"ll.>ch Ice".,.}" yol.> have. Co['Y be in lile no
1(1, o{ suggestion on!y HmJ no! intendc 10 he
follo",-eo:r Iiterally. 1
"..ho h"da ha"i! of dif' f'inS maY7."<."j; "",d
ng the c11ps into laycmlS. li wOukl tel! , .,,,"
lo givo On" .
YO""J::
a rerfect .wipe.
aH goI.c, lhe n
direClo, .
Bllild up yonI files of e1ippcd
as man)' s"bJect. a. you Ihf nk y., w
00\ whu you nocd iu' [ now. It tue.
make a goocl fi le, anel yon mi:;ht as ",dI
" arl
y
. A$ yo .. go along o, )'001
hegn [O recognize rertain !Y[XS or 005.
wc may to 00 d,lfcrenl orl;roal, mos!
ral! into oo .. or morc
a. cumples twcnty.four fiClltious .d.
belic\'<l cover rnost of !he types. Th".:;;:
rourse woukl he in Ihc 13)10111 Jud a'
may serve as geno:r"dl i<lca. {ol
Ihough tl oe nds must nOI be ac!ually
tite .a,ne tilles, Or eatohline. ,-",ed,
T\XfEN"TY FOUR TYPES OF ADS
l. WI,h DomirnJting
In this type the pictnre ;, almmt e\'cryt h ng.
110e illustra!or 1, of priml "Y and l.
picked rOl" h .. ahility. half, thIe.;: qUl'lrlCrs,
M limes. " f" JI page s allottcd to hro. 1I is
tloer.,{ore his 'Nhole rcsp()O\s1.oilit}' 10 Id l the nor}'.
and response. Such an ael is ahoul
tho grcatcst 0ppuTlunily fOI an i!lustrator th3.1
t heTe l . Thal is why m(l eh of the maternl of
book Ibid w t as il 11, (or here real n:spollslbl1;ty
ilI golOl g 10 ret on your hl"Olld shooklers,
2. Irltertst on '" !"'rge JI cod
Hore iJ where charatltr, cxpression, and ,he
nbilily lo parlray personality come in. A 1a1'gc
head, "..hen \Ve!l done, mues a good ad.
3. TIoc Appcal
People wi.I alw:o)'S be hungr),. 11 ilI 001 Ob to
make thcm hUlIgry lOl' whar ,,"e have lo sell.
228
4. Intne$1 Ceutered 011 Ihe PrlJduct
Tht: purposc (lf Ihis Iype or ad i. 10 ". ;;:1:'
aclI,al prod" CI on the ",elOory of lhe
oJJee. ''fea! vari e!y.
5. Romon
Ilom:UlCC as elernal :., Ihe " pretlle.
be lhe problem of !he n:uslra!Ol.
6. /lome ,,,,d Fllmi1y
OveI an(1 (h'er thi. type 01 ad appean.
Ihcrc is alwlys ..om"' !leW angle
i. Hi8loricul- /JioVapl,;.;.aI
8. "'BefQre ",ud After" SubICCf$
A well worn but approam
9. Prediction al l}""
lf i l al n be madc convlnoin (and
make them hUllgry for "'o have lO sello Jf it <:an be mad" (and SOtl"lel1
228
GENERAL TYPES OF MAGAZINE ADS
i! will almos! gu:uaulec: attculk>n and
. Cartoon
The co.rtoon approach is good becl"luse o( its
prcvailing of its neigh-
. U acts 11. a change of p.1ee, l nd gct3 allen_
fo. otherwisc auU subjecu. Fits
r
The "C,o"p Pie/UTe" TYI'"
Sometimcs & gro"p of pichITcs has :In ad",n_
:.::,11 $ingle in SIe>'Y-teUIlg value.
. then,"" pmducl.
The l'iC1ure COnlinu/y
lImowed frooo ,he romic strip. Tellf a stooy in
li ere lhe arfis! must be able lo rcpcat
i . Thi$lype
\el he lQsing , sinl't: Ikre has ken
C>f il. Bul maybe i t '. Jt il! good. wlo
1M "Acl ion" Type
. a"'":IY5 all
is a powcr in sketches often missed in
work. It olTers real ad .. "rli. ing value.
more.
Bastd on Ihe imtillct of self-presef\'ation, and
fOl" eeflain typcs of IIdvertising.
be 100 oIlvious or
in opporlunity ro. origir.ality.
S .. bectr
j . Iway. slay.
"Characlcr" Subirct8
oppottunlty.
229
2J. SI .. r -One of Ihe Bnt
Who can fo.gel c:hiluhood? Whal p,a relll is not
interested? Therc i. practkaUy no limil l o ideas
alcng this lin<:o Children sho"ld 110;1 pomayed ""
re.lislically [nd nnlurally all l)OSsihlc, .. nd 'IQI
100 dressed up. Child appeal liC5 more In whole-
oo,neotss Ihan in being bcauliru1.
22. "Mtnher aM Chil Subfeet,
When ",dI done they will alwa)"$ lIppeal.
23 . . AppeaJ
Snch an appeal i$ best in times oE plen!)'. when
quality good tasle M.VC a Such ap-
pl"IIl mighl airo hc lisled as fo. pres!ige or
tli<tinct!nn. Dnd pride of ownership .
24. The "l'tiTotUy llrUlginalioe"
Thi$: il your O!le cbance to go a lilde emzy, and
mosl illustraton " 'd come il.
My rcneJ":i' Mlentlon i. called lo Ihe baoks
by Frank Young on "dwrtlilng layout. Mr.
Yon"g's aulhorily 01] Ihe ."hject i< beyolld ques-
to". My pcuonal a<:quain"' """ ",ilh Mr. Yo.mg
.nd his work ha: bcc" of gTC3t profi t 10 me in the
..,Id, though J conress I cannot hopoe 10 compete
wilh his knowlcdgc and inlhe ! ubjecl
of L>yuo,t . I bclicvc cvc'y illuslrat<l. should slutly
his worlts thorooghly, and Ilak" thl. opporlunily
10 Ihank him fOl" his fnspirftton nnd guidan"" in
Ihe pasto J have mRde no allempl lo leaeh layoul
in Ihis volume, sinoe it has beeu so txperlly done
elsewhere. For tIoi$: rcuou I speak 01 Ihe get1ernl
types of . ds ouly, realizing lhal as byouts they
may be oren 10 considerable critich", . F.anU)', 1
am oot a rn, lInd 1 only wlsh , werc Ix:ttCT
at il .
Mny [ 11$0 can }'OlU" attenlion lo a recenl baok
On modtrro layout cnlillccl M.-.ertising Layout,
The Proiect/o" of an Idea, by Rlcha.d S. Che-
mull. Thi$ book is upertly done IInder Ihe Clj>lI'
ble di.ection of a wcll.known and pnocticing art
director, wil1 clcarly demonstrale
al real imporll\!loc.
.J_", '
/
...
GnmUJeI/;
Jaup
230
ft
" I
.,
WHiTE COT'l'AGE
C O F F I ~
olfd-
TIPES OF MAGAZINE ADS
UNlTEI> RAlLROADS
...

231
NEUROLAX
..." t?" _.vn ' ",' FIWI
.IJ"'T .. .. ';o'"
n'PES OF .\.iAGAZINE ADS
COMMANDER
AUTO-PARTS
9 . 01'" T .... "UT U /U!.. 10. T'l E <:"' ...... 000.1 T Y P EI.
KEEPYOUR EYE ON
F LE ETCA
11 . ,.Hi EJ<TR.I!MI!! c. a. Ofe UP.
- .
Il . 0 ... 0 .... " ... c:.TU .............. I!.
232
""
TYPES OF MAGAZINE ADS
STAYING POWER
I
I

14. AcT'O" TVPIi

T ...... y Pop thn:l .. n"/"iy Ib e
OAL $ 1I0VEL!
Ml NUITWARM HEATER.
. _ ,".,," ... .... " "'" . R ... ...:ENI."r W""""' '''''--''
233
_________ -' l:.:: 'Y,, "[5 ="'-O::',, MACA Z:::-'"N:::E:.:: A:.:: D:.:: S-' ______ _
PUBue MUtllAL LlFE
- -...... ""'" , -
I N.';.
eo.
19, !lA8Y ' IUBJI! CT/ Wl lL AlW4Yf ITAY.
'8. , YH80L'CAL .rUSJI!"CT/
VACAT10N IN CAL! rORNJA!

20. CHARACfER
234
TYP[5 OF MAGAZINE ADS
MOnl

ITV'F _ o"r. OFn'II.,.TT J e:LLI!Rf.
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235
RELA TING YOUR !LLUSTRATION TO ll-IE WHOLE AD
Even though y<lu .re nol called upon to layout
the whole page arnmgcmO:II! of a maga:tine ad, il
Js, as 1 have indicaled, of C<lllSiderahle concern
lo y<Ju, :>01ueh dependo "pon you. ca"ying
througll Ihe general schcme of layout well aS
your cre<;ution of Ihe piclorial 1 will 011-
deaV()rl" give yO\l a fewpolnte,. whiclt may help
In he ultimalc r .. sult.
in planning your iHuslratiou, [f your In you! I.>. d<.
6"0\1"d iswhite, play someslronggreysaud da,h
again.1 it, and also carry <ome o Ihe cl
the background jnro Ihe ill\lslrat loll, lf I.>y "hance
layout i.'l lo carry an overall grey r blad<
background, wrk 10 Ihe olhe' plaM. The poin!
i5 lo pllt lights againt grays aud darks, or th..
reverse. Atlenl<)n to Ihis factor makes all 1""
If yom layout is alro:ady "bu,y" with oompli_ dilrercnce between an ordinary Ihing and a truly
cated and space-fi ll ing material elsewhere, try outslandi ng ad.
10 treal yo\l' illustration wilh as mudt opcn 'pace The material iu a pholograph must ordiuarily
f>05iible. keeping Ihe or not too be accepted and pul inlo a layout as is. although
br<:en up in lighl and .hadow, In planning the sometimes an enlerprising layoutman wil1 CI,tout
indicat" Ih" general o' patterru the figures or in a photo as you """,,Id
of val uc on lracing paper and lay il aver the paper doll . thcreby gelting away frorn the grey
layout. You wiU Snd that rnuch can beeliminaled. ness o. "f a .ubjcct. Bul il looh hard
In a complicatoo and b",y layaul lhe illustralion and "pasled on:' and has nol lhe val"e of a good
willlook belte' if almos! flal and pmtcry, wilh .,kclclt Or vignetle with planned lost and fo"OO
liltle tt no background, and utili7.ing lhe while OOgCll which W\luld j"lcTlaC\: the ."hjcct with its
space 10 give Ihe illustmlion "air," A background. Suro interlaci"g i5 lo gi'ffl
"spotty" pioture does not belong in a "spotty" the unity of eHect whieh is so importan!.
layout. No maller how weJl done, the "fJect js Jn dclivcri"gy<lur picto\Ie, il i.'l weU topointoul
\lnpleasanl and Ihe avcrtising "alue lost. Every lhal rou havo considercd Ihe effcct of the whole
illuslratiou should offe, contra,t to its sUITOun<l- a=ngement, taking along sorne o 1""
ings lo secure attention. prelimioary material by which rou arrivcd .1 )'Qur
The is true of the "grey"' layout, or "ne present.1Iion. N0I having the rml of rhe la)'l1ul
which contai", large ni .mal! lex! m type arouad it, youroriginal may p<.>$1libly appea' a bit
Unless a sornOOr or effecl is ovcrpowering Or even a bit weak, and if Ibis is
desired, !he iIlwlralion sho\lld LlOt al.o be too oornmented upon, you are rcady wilh 'ub,tan-
grey iu appearance. JI calls fo, the largest possible tial 11Ii, situation :;:eldom ww-
areas o iHappy blacks BIW whiles, againll which ever, forcommellts usuo.l1y hinge aboul lhe merits
Ihe grey of he lexl will appear heaulif"l. . of the picture ilself.
lf the layout has good open arcas of while lf!he product appears in the layout butoutslde
,pace, yo" are mosl fortunalc. Advertising IllCn y<l\l' ill",tralion, try by all meallS la carry the e),"
ha"" hecn houllding Ihd. c1ients for years to see through rQur picture toward il, or al least in i!s
Ihe advantage in altenlion value 01 whilc 'paoo. general direction, by providing a roule fM theere
Bul utorlunalely 'paoo is expensive, and Ihe len- lo follow through Ihe dcsign of ma::;scs, edges, or
dency by the man who is fOOling he bill i. 10 611 "es. This will be grenlly appreciated by the art
the space lo oVClBowing. In Ihe kmg nm he i. Sometimes 1M product may be mp""
paying twice as much, sinee sueh an ad is Qnly Or la placed thal il overlaps into tbe
half as eHeetive, f even hat, \\!hite 'pace can iIIustral ion. I n thal ca.c, supply suitable oonlrul
make or break an ad. In sucb a layaut you cnn go in thatarea tomake thcprodud scparalc in val ... ,
Ihe pictoriallimit, getting at leasl foue good oot\. so !hal il stand!; forward in rchef. If lhe product
tr .... ting values In your piel",e. appears wi thin tl oe illmlrll lion, make it Ihe polnt
YOIl can go back 10 lhe original four l(lnal plan. uf ;nlcres! by leading .. 1I possible liues lo it.
236
w
Yo" can go back 10 Ihe original four lonal plans of nlere"" by leading al! possible lines lo il.
236
DEVELOPING THE "CO-ORDINA TlON SENSE"
i,o admlttcdly dillicuh for Ihe arlist \\' ilh
at once to loi, d i o.!>
_ Inl: wilh the ad"erl isjng or "..,m
Ofle .. ti", Lcgill1'CJ" ,..i11 he:ar
pirrase, 001 Jool-ing 101 high art
w(: "'nt good ad\' .. 1I is
,hM scp ...... tion hetw .. "" art "",1
;,r e,ists in the muros of advcrtiscl"'l. f".
b .. I"'ill h' ..r "" t tb, all Ih ..
,,,"," ." illust , ,,TiOlI that ha, boon made in
p", 1 lwellly ha' l)(Oc ", in the directiotl o/
" A $I"dy (lf the Art 1)j'ector' S Anmwl, CtW
, t bclk:v(l, of more tllan Iwentyfi,e
11. Ad,'ert isi Bg < <)on.t;lnlly ap-
it is my upiniOll thal II has
\11' wirh aoo in u ny ca""" is ''''Pautng
lilE' Io-aolld a, t"' of tm, COlllltry. [ ..
ad"erl iseu I':l"" . inglcd ... ,,1 lhe bes t
11 I 1 lo sta"dpoinl. payi"g
t thdr worl: . No will e\'er
"
't: t , Thcre can be no Hile of dij
<1m Wll I .. 3dvcl' t'5i ng nrl "high
[itter is only good o. bad. Tire b.1Sic dif
'"'.' 1 .. ,lwc"" Ihe Iwo ha. not hlng lo do wil b
medillrn. or Too ad'c,tJ.'''g
",,' ,H, ""'y. ,",
or nppeal. aHention '-a llle. ancl re
art m.y be anythin; tha! has lIS
hL'lOllly ... crc:ttod for .10 0110",
enhance il. will> respect t o enlor
wllen lt insislS lhal roJor li"" ouly in primary 01
sprctr'l rm color. with 000 fighring 3J1(>tOOr. I n the
"m.!. me!> an ouly puhlishes, on fI gran;!
5c:I],', the 3d\'crliser s inhcrcnlly had t1Ste Ir the
adVO';I'!lscr (loes nOI hcl ie\'c colo<- l i'S in t (jne<
hC3\1tiful relntions hip', let him "uy Icd",l-
Clllur lJ1(>vie, JI is mm-... hrlIiant hi, pri m""les,
Aclwrt isi ng fa il., "''''climes IJecilmc Ihe l)eoJ)lc
whl,l "re giv .. u lo plnn "",1 ol"<.le. pi",
turC$ moy lod.: tk fu ndamental. of pl cto,ia!
knowledge. Arul hc,,,,,, mar gh'" o"t .!irectioL\s
that 1\Ie lotally inoonsislent wilh good adverlising
nrl. Oddly cnough. tI, .. !..s. " mnn 1:00"'$. lhe
mure orders he is apt to givc The ablest arl dircc-
t<>n, .cwgnizlng abilily, gi\"c il (,cedo,"
posslb1e. They gel ""'n,;'lc"t ly beUer
The !.Iesl way to gel the Mfeel" o advertis' ''1::
presenlal ion is lo h"mh Ihn;mgh a "'''Ip7.l"c.
Tah ad. 00 your >encilpad . tal't
the ulI;l' a],o"t In " cw a"'>IIg""rc,, !. Rliminatc
somc of the "dcadwood" for \\' hit" 'p.'CC. You
simply ",,,ke bloch , line" "'lid whito _paces i.r
mi rliMnre pal lern in u de-sigJl of whites, gteys.
.nu . Out "f o.dl.""y layoUb can come
gelll$ if tl,otlght is 10 (lcslgn.
Jldorc Jongsuch wiJl bogrn lo
iNc11 1" :lo biT for good spotling Rn.!
C .... k twcc" a. lis! II.I\(I aJ"cltiser
les in of i"Ient "IItI 1'''''
pose. lIe l'lllltribll tc:s he mcrchantlbillg thcory
I..i ,lg .,'1 1)Iay ""jf<,< by roml"'-';_ and Ihe 51""'" a' wd l a. n ""pll lal>1c I'l"OIlllct . YO\l
the pcnnilled. "Blur l>5" C<lntrillllte )'0111' ""dcrshUldill g uf ligll t, lo.m, de
0,,,,11,",,, ,. may 1><: honowe<! [mm tloe oomie sigll, lO",] d" '"l1 "tic inlerpret"tioll. It l'annol a1l
",1 h.to a " 1; ".wcuted p;l lll ting, oomc !'roo .. ci the!' side. a"d y""r con,ribution Is
,,,,,,,,. c"cn grcater Iha" hh, for you. particular know!-
l>;Id tA1!c. Whcn tasle , morc ,];fficII II lo
rOl allcntil,. ",hal goo)(] is the alt .. " lioll. 'file ........ ! con .. ncrchl artis! is lo,. 110 he
1.:1<1 Who dhpby lxIa m:m. But m, " "'illinJ; 10 hstcII
ud bcndil by rhe attentio" Qud oo-operatc in ever)" way short of mxl llcing
Advc'!;'i";; fal1. dIO!! of lb.:: ma, !: iII"stra!iOtls OT :ITI th:.1 he fcels ",-ould 3ctually do
by the erroneous idea Ihal tight nd I" s rcplll;tion more lUlrm gO<ld. Rathet' han
tkt ail mnkes Ihe besl pict ure. The delibe, ncly maloe a v"'Y had rhlng, let h" n hnve
thal d .. tal! will d."w a" .. nlion the oou,ab't! to .efllSO: the job. When tIre joh mc"n.
lhe idea >coduct more il will only ,he fee. lorget it.
237
r
"""Y '"VII' 'U" " .. ca ""U t''''U\lCI mure IMtlll W,lI cmy me lee, IOrget 11.
237
A TYPICAL MAGAZINE AD ASSIGNMENT
Let tll" auume that a caD llar come fmm the
u l dircct(lC' or 3d"ertising We Gnd lhal
he wlInt:l an i]hlStration in bhek a ... l ",bite ror
ge'leral in lhe On tb.: ne11 page 1
give )'(Ou 1.yout in Or" typic:ll
ageney layout, \Ve assume Ihe layoul lJ to be fol_
Iuwcd fOl" ' pace a]Jottcd 10 cad> unil , TILe aCCOLJII I
a compony thal manufact ures heal oontrol
uni!!:, "'e headl iroe (s f1) be Weather In-
side: We "b'TH lhal Ihe idel is rathcr no-.-el aud
internling. Tite pcydLoJogi<'>!.1 "]>peal is "' freedom
110m cold: Cooplc<1 with would be Io\"c o
borne " ud fami!)'. and dc.1i,,, 101 seeur ily and
romfor!. W(! note thal Ihe contrw;l. or "'befo.e
ami after:' is In be ,upplied by lhe small line
d"wing of a man In an ()VCTOD:LI subected lo a
OWI ol oold wind. (The an di,ect<r lells liS ha
t1,is lioo drawing wilJ be handJed tnsioo heiT own
arl depnrl n>erLt. ) Thinking further Bboul th(! psy-
cholog;;:l angles. "'" flnd Ih:u "frcedom f'om
care: "dcsire rOl relaxalion," and many ulh(!rs.
are iml'lIdl In thi.! subje<:!. Atl of Ihir points lo
whal we can do wilh lhe iIlLlslratlon.
Lel UlI show Ihe fathe.- free to give hls lime lo
his d:lughtcr, lhe moIher a/lcction:Llely oo\"-
eriog over Ihe", aud inlcrcsloo. It is IogiCllI 10
cntertain the child wi th a story book in Ih" C\'C-
ning, when man is most apIlO be home, and when
the OUltklors js ooldes!. The hUlyul di,edQ. rllay
nol go nI() Rny mOfe deta;! lhan lo $ay: "We Wltnt
a sweet littlc famil), ;tour, al! IInd warm.
We w"nt It wel! donc, :md Wl! """,,1 il in a hu"y."
( E\"crytbiul: lIaving 10 do 1>th'er i5ing is
1]",,,)'$ In 1 hurry.) He saya he wi ll not nee<! a
(l)mpreherui"1! sketch, 001 \\'Ould like lo 500 $On1(!
muglos fOl" general romposition.
Fonowing )'00 witI nd lhe rOI'ghs as they
mighl be ILl bmitted, Olr which a oonseicnt ious
arl is l \\'Quid "", ke anyway before hirlng mudels.
One or lbeso is sclcctcd as ooming dosesl lo he
pur>osc, and the models a.e <:al1ed;n IUld pILoto-
grIIphcd m the JXI'CS wanled. lighlings
are tried out, aotl =lIIy altempt:l are made 10 get
as cJos.;,lyas possible Ihe expressJons lhat wi1l tell
!he sIOl' Y'
238
Yoo w[JI note in I
.. ",
'"
choscn, slnce il wollld be
o\'e. onc's shouldcr, bnt
opporttUlity for reDcction and ,,,;;,,,,
he shadow. When Ihere is!lO oolur lo
subject, Itdepends cnlirdyOn
dFect. Every subjet'l shoold be stl" died
for a good balanoe of d:rrb , greys.
h1aclr:_and.while inlerpretatiOn. T1>c i
avoid in black "r><! wllilc ir a
ILlld darkllen. espccially in a eh.ecrr,,1
Val" e. nre so ,d.lloo 10 mood
whcn no! coll$idered in Iha! Iight, a plClu' c
mood whol]y
tion 10
I il
you gel in Ih" cmft. !hal he I
"nd peuonality uf tk a,lisl ;. mns! .
Pidur/)$ are so muelo more than
01 snmcthiug, and Ihe onl)'
sion 1, In the inlcrpmtalion
"'cans nal",e, liglll aOO form, phi.! your i
,,'
so 11I1e in, ... ,ntion (In Ihe part
and arl isl . It Is 001 snrprislng lha.t oflcn.
the ex!mnl(: t(!1\$ion ,.n,1 pre<.i:ure all have lo
"
3,ISWer is 'lO! in youe
Bul IIU fcw of U5 exhibi! aDy OO<Lrage in
for exprcssion. Aoo ret ir il ,
a chan"", it DI!\"(!1" ean rea][y une out
ligb!!
J..,t ,IS Sla,t k lieving !hal oor eyes, no!
ears, are as good as the atoo
lieve W(: h,,..,, a.! ",,,eh righ! 10
lf we do roo! knowwhallo PI,I dowo,
we h:L"" nat dug deep enough Inlo lhe ,mhjcd
iDtO ourseh"CS. Ir roothing in lhe ",Id
UlI, we would haw roo ;deu. Al
somelhilrg that doos, U'e have:r
sOll or O\D' fecling.'L aoo..t ;1.
, , ,
"
the $torr. sion of QUJ" fcclinp about it.
238
A TYPICAL AGENCY LAYOUT
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AKRON THBRMOSTATS
239
239
ROUGH COMI'OSITIONS FOR THE PICTURE
..
AFTE.R CAREFUl CON,{IPIORAT !O OF THE AClENCV Lt.'OUT WE. !)ElIE.VIO """
MAKE THE fUI3JE.CT 9fTTER ay CROPPI NC , G I'IING LARGcR HEt>.DS. ~ s
TO Uf THE FI CORoEf FA<:: E OUT OFTr1E AD. I T ,fEEMf ro ORW THE
AWAV P'ROM "rt-lE PRODUCTo T H ~ R THAN 'TQWAR.O LT. JO WE TR.Y
THE F IGURES' AROUNO. WE CHECK THrf WIl'f..t TI-IE /l.R.T OLRECT'OR BY
nlOlAl l NC THE ROllCHS. 'We. ARE NOW READY lO C6l.L I N MODE.U J:OR
OQ, fTUDI EJ' . HAVING THEfE ROUCHJ' W1Ll MAKE ,HE. CAME.RA WORK
OUT OOI<! W6Y IN,fT,eAD 01= QI.l( WORKII'ta FOR THE CAME RA. 'T'R.' ' T o'n
240
FINAL ARRANCENlENT BASEn ON PHOTOS TAKEN
241
lliE F1N1SHED AOVERT1S1NG lLLUSTRAT10N
242
WHAT rs THE FuruRE IN MAGAZINE ADVERTlSING?
magazine adverlising
': "verylhng pos,,Mc, that "'e ha,-"
wh.,..." d"plication is
HuI adverti.;i ng mus!
" .. ,- mt ;;t. cm ro"', ih,,,, ""'",e-
il ",onld ... Ihat it 's dcslirocd lo
, 111(: " ,me w,"y.
1 to good in
1. (01' Mtcntion, Typ'" gel
bolder, Color gels lo,",ler. SI"ICC gds
-, . more and ". il
10 go into il. E V!"y artifi ce ti'> fo,."",
i j lIatnraUy sei7.c<1 "pon. TI i.. moeh like
of pcopl" in ;\ rOOm. Oroc lalks louJer
anoth ... r. forc-ing Ih" ' .... d ",aH to mise 1, ;,.-
",h . 1' rllal>S >011><:0'", hoom. On the r:lio.
,,,..,.r)'O, .. ' '" . h"uting. 11,,, q"id oigni_
h, 1 _ lo". A m"ganc "ti
il <'OUI" be handlecl
.. .. 'n' ';"'''r be q "iet hut me, H
1m)' onc-", tI I'","rll la th" l'hilmo-
r ",,' "U e"er yl<O lly insists .. pon bd .. lo .. d ,
Cm [ do hut .I",,,,?'"
B, : tloe p .. inlcrl word c:umol soo" I
(, , t' , 01 what boldfae<:
, and <::In ,lo. 11""
"",,,,,,,r """'00" .,hr, h ",akes Ihcse Ihin!,,,,,
can Ihem inaod ible by b ck
ronlnl$1 whcll evcl) thi ng d sc 011 Ihc pag ..
' ,' Jnsl ' i
,,1, I 1 >' uil"", w " '" ,,,,0.1
10 dmrming pres.cHl atioH.
. I "JI Ih.., vcry aH ,<1 mus!
, Ch,hi"g ,k,lroy"
: I \"ery quid n"o;l conlrasl whkh
n:;',;: :r:
S PI 'we hJ" c floor . Irc,,"!! ""d cI"lkr",
ev..,.ytl' "g . "'cep lO.
aUcnhol1. 11 "'e h ... t1 a cr.ok
or:mg"s ",,>O,,!: die resl of lhe ccnf".;on. il
I nOI gahltd 11' one-knth 3S mucll
11,is is 11,,: most ,h!icull rael in t he ",orld la
243
gel O"e! 10 the adverliser. bul the eITecUvenes:s 01
il. o, ... .., Iried, iJ prm-"' O"er amI ""cr ag"in. I
"ink of a Co..-a-Cola lOSler wil h Ihe single word
011 ;1, as a single girl 6gtorc in it prolfen a
1",lIle "F Ih .. produd . I lhi nk or Camrbd l So..'p
od shO"'ing tlle head a"d .houldeu of a bay ",hu
hokls Ollt a 1,0",1, wi tr, the tille
,' u" d oping ti bil ar bright the lirst
' ;" ""l' lc, a 8Jt gre"" en"cl"pi"!: :\ lar!:" he:"r. t
think Ilf j"wdry firm 5howing a "ingle of
jowelry jn lhe of :t blad: [lage. , ,hi"k of
Ihe slmpk 01 the Ha r-
l'isher llody ads, whieh "J'" . tiU au""n iin:
hhtory. ] co"ld go O" mnny n<Ore inslanOl'l,
thal all he baltlf3 and [Iaring tyJl<'S
of n<:v,,, lhesc in sell ing the
Im" llll'l a,O(! lhe advcrtiser s name.
Sin"" "'c "aunOI pul nco" lighl' O" n ma!l;\\7.i,,,,
poge (enon llo;l I'as hecn fnr os he pk-
tO' ;(11 ('(", Id reacio! l , il "",,nld >''''''1 obvio,,!
Ihat , I<on ti"g am] ' ",e:" ,, ;"!: is nol he an.,wer,
tha! i, val"a],l" lIeccss<u'y
",hea possi " ]". "'ay il nol be , hat tloe hes! p"'-
. ,'i[ty for e<ml=1 , good agninst
h,ul? Ca " we not le",] dislinclion ,I"''''gh sim-
plie,ry . " p Ihe eI ,,!l<-r of bad ad"crlu.ing
",il' "'hite space?
Ir ad" erli,;ng i< lo progress, i. II>",e muo:h moro
Ihl ca" be dOllO: ",ilh 001>1 and Ar" dICTe
any supe r!:.l iv". leh? .;o so a!l0 ti",
""'S,,',,--", I",:,J, ",-.::-J :be blccd pdg". 1"h, al1,,",<;<1
"U i1l<'h or $O " ">rc of space un c;oeh .ide. Evo' y-
h."IY "cized U(NIl it ",ho co"ld nlf'}T( il , for
,1 no' mure "I'ac'- Iha. t"uld he filie.! VI)? Tt m:ul"
Oue a(I A littl" b rgcr than """Ir."r, 10,,1 to whal
r l1r)l<,s Tite beanty ,f lIJe white ma)' gin whi el>
.. wa. r, ,,,,lIy pushe.! oIT 11\(, paSe,
so lhe ad ",.,.-seu ",ilh lhe C"drptll S;7.e, ",heu
ha. so Itle lo do ",itl, cfF.:d"'t),\CSS. ]
call tr.., rl':'lderJ atl"ntion lo Ihe fact that no mal-
ter how blg or small a face be 011 ti", "1O"ic
, creen, \\"c arc " ..... er cons<1o", of Hi bcing aH}'-
Ihj"g more liI,m Ibe of hum>l ll he"'g. Si7-C
only pcrmits u. lo scc Ihe Ihing. in elow."l'
from a grc,, ' cr di!l3llce, \Vhen SOId,
onJy pc.",ils uS lo scc 11", . ame unng. lO' CJ'I"""l)
TI ,is is ti,,: "mfll;( (hffic,, 1t fae! in he world to from a greatcr \ Vhen sllclo
2,13
BE I I ER TASTE IN MAGAZINE ADVERTISING
" lO cOed is /In a.uct, il ''1I luahlc in ad"trtising.
S"tsiu is alway. obtainedat!he expet\Seol Tnaf-
g",d isobtion OT "hrca!hing When .izc
bp$ OVe. Ihe edges t cc:a.sC! lo functlon, un liS a
man C:lIl gel 100 fal for comfort 2nd
An lid spill over ilS 'pace a. r.a.lily a fal man
ovcr. eh .. ir. Little has been ;ainod by lhe b!.x.J
page, tri lhe >'<:'y sm3rl adverliser who
takes it (LI brealhing !ipace. the e.o; tra room being
wortl. he exlr; ros!. n .e I>leed puge is lile ;}Jl
unfrnmed pktuTc.
lf adverti sing c:mllQt get Io"dcr aOO bigge.,
whal15 left ? There is bul une nl1 !wor: la,te.
ll<,ttcr tuste in art, copy, and prelcnhl ion. Adver-
t iJing gro"''' out of its old dl)!hes. They ",in
001 do forevcr. lrutead 01 shulUlng good art, tI
mult Io nally orcek il. Thc Ihi ng ha""",,,de the
gTeatest al l will malte Iho gumtt'Sl ads- the
straighlf\IIW:mI prescnlafi()on of Unth, embel
li. hed wi lh Imagination Bnd tn. te, simplicity of
, ,,bordination of th., lrile and
vanr, a nd rhe !ncxhanslible ro:achi ng fOI tbe ideal.
Ther" aTe po .. ibililies for ,,,1 in "dvcrti. ing hd
ha,'e nOI )'t'! explored. Bu! ,uro deV\!lop-
mo:lll$ mus! co.ne from lhe realm oC ar! itself, not
f", m lhe ad mon's ded ... Tbe adverl iser cannot,
nOr e-.". rould. tt U lIS ha", to 00 il. Ile Irin lo te]]
11. wl,al he wants, bllt he has to take wl'l:l t we can
givc him. Jlo is more limitoo than w"'. "f lo nl ;" why
we IllUS! not limil OUT individunlity or ability to
Ihe lhngs requested of liS. We muS! gi ve him
more lban he a!ks foro
Tlle'n:! ii '00 other oourse oren than 10 prodnce
bcucr layout mono alld !Jetl" r copy.
wrilers, lor maga2.ine ad .. er l"ing c:ln nC\"cr be
"nylhing .... ow than!he co-opernt ion 01 lhe tbree.
If pmsihlc. w<: mmt sm"", 10 the
tion bClwccn art lor advc,t is"g ami fon e 3rt. It
does nOI .eem quite lo Ilarve In urder to
produce !l,1e ar l. at tbe same time I:eeping aloo!
fmm advertis ing. InSle.ld oi !he artist"5
hilll$Clr to advort isin;. why .hould he
nol ];f. il IIp lo Ihe highest peaible )e\' el? C lIlnol
Ihe obseTvu enjoy a good thing as mllch 1,00> a
prillted png" as f. oro an uhibi!ion w.JI?
244
ClIn olle doubt ,he I olle of oor
m:.g:VI>tI were lo relm>dlloo a $;lIgent "' .. ..
enlor . 01 On" of his amazing chRrc",,1 hcads?
WIo"t, alte, :lIJ, hold, adve"li ' i"ll On a lo,,"c. pi.,.
torlallcvcl, hut tl"" art we produce for it?
No, my de"r rcader, magn:ti ne
far from ha,,;ng done c\'crylhlng posslble. I I ... I
aHg" itu U with Ihe bc.t ahil ity W<i! C1t/l prod-.
Whe" wc gd good enough, !t \\'111 stop
what lo tlo, It has ils OW1l dcp"'lmcUI 01 good
lasle ro el.. .. " up. in b )"OU1 ,,,,el I'rcwnla lion. b.t
tha! fR. k"S.'l to aoomplfsh Ihan tlt" whirl
lies ,/3. We lnu,1 pul the fun damcntab lo
wor k ni hG ncVCT f",cn done hefore. \Vt mml no!
regard ayear 01 Iwo in arl .chao! as all the study
wc rleed. Sutil ' lo.I
y
is only the ap>renticeship lo
lhe Ind ividual sludy we will havc 10 , lo fa 0\0"'
selvcs.
There is no doubl Ihal new I01IIl' of ..dw:.tis-
Ing mny 'pr;ng \11' with nCW bwcntio,,". Publicity
jI publici ly. whctl.er we sing il, il, piclllfe iI.
oc il. Adverttsi ng is ony way In Ihe world !O
gel poopl" ta look or lisien.
Whcn we Ihillk of an ;ncrea<;e in as be
()only all' wer 10 lb.., of advert"'i"&> le!: 111
coJ\$idcr thc avcT.:oge mot ion picture of 1""efl1y
yeaf1 l1go:u compared OOl l. lhe presento Compa:e
the "etiug, the thc cleativfr.ess aIl
the w" y tr, roogh. y h., hero :l..' h<:roine of ye.sler,
dny could not possihly fi get by" loday, nor could
, he p,oduce .
Wc cau 1001:: al arch;toetu,e, induslri al dWga.
engince, ing-every one has p<ogrSSed along
ljne$ 01 grcalcr simplicily and gt>Od IlISIe. Am-er,
!isi" g cannot be tI"" ," q l>/) prolession which deos
OOI ' IL'Old 10 ehal1 ge ih COHTse.
"fo for Ihe adverlising of tomorrow, do
nQl look 100 tlllleh nt Io<by'. ads, bul look rather
at lifc, nal"''', form, colo" ROO designo en 10 lbe
ollly source t hal can give ym" work the fine qual-
i'ics th:r.t urc so ,,,,,,<kd. P1inl "cads as if you
p" i"ti .og Q fine pnrtra;I, rainl form ai ..
you would scul pl il. Look fo, he bc:a"ty of tOlfi
and color thal ","o uld go inlo all e, hibliOll paint-
;ng. There ...., way.
pumea pagc as !rOn> an CXllll"" On
mg. W"J'
244
1
THE OUTDOOR POSTER
TIIE ru:LATlON of reading t ime 10 advertising
ilit:Idy bcen pomled out. Nowhen, i . his con-
lIdtrallon more importan! han in planning tlle
II1;II(/00' postcr. H is agreed among a",lhon
IiestMl ten5co:mdsis the muimum reading l ime.
T,bt.efore, lhe poste. mwn be plannoo 011 th., t
bisi! . Now, len scconds is vcry li ttle, aTld even
tia! W01Jtd l>e quite too long 10 takc
JI !he Toad when drlving: a caro In arder 10 give
IlUml,lnl reading time and al Ihe s.ame time
NI clown dang..:r lo Ihe two plam for
poslo!. dbplay are followed when po.l\i ble. One
lo pl.lee !he board al 311 angle so tha! il c;n be
fo. some d;',lance nhead . Thi. for
tbe ugzag arrangcment afien seell in billhoar.u.
Ihe other 1$ wheT"f."'B possible to piare Ihe MI-
in f. on! Qf Ihe dri,'e. and il' such a position
!h:!t lile ]illf: of vision i . i n IIIle wilh Ihe lTafli c. The
lHIfllbe, af word. , cut la !he mnimum and he
r,:'Sw,'s arrangemenl is Iho .impleS! pos!ible, de-
lipIcd 10 carry 1M mulln!)m di.lance. Take h as
aauiool, tllen, lhal a poner musl be simpk, direct
appeal, alld 01 bcing '1uicldy reM.
A large hcad p<olmbly holds firstplaoo in poste.
planning- or il no! a head, Ihen n largc .ingk unit
ti lOule lindo A single fi gure, especially if il e>o. n
be " $erle<! Ienglhwise, iJ good. If half figures are
Iistd perpendicularly, more 6gures can be \l5oo.
lbc posteneldom aUcmpts he wlid picture runo
JIlg lo fou, rorners, unlCS$ the subject is eJtreme-
simple.
Eighl words on a whole posle, " aboul n1l t}llt
sboold be " ... -.1, including he name of he prod.
uct. and eV<:f)" woru !ha! ean be furt her elimi.
aaled "'i1l be.., mnch lo the g<.>od. A poste. with
lIut one word is Ihe drcom 01 e",,'Y post.". ma".
Ad<'t:l tising agencies aeemlomffi lo prep.1ri" g
qy lor ma,tazin<: advertising oflen mi ... bttdly
in planll iug posters.
Flat Of \'ery simple ba ckground,; are almost a
"'d<'ly. So"'e sort of a diagonal arrangement i$
fod, 5lnce il oonlra$b wilh Ihe horizonlal
245
and vertical alTangement 01 compeling poste ...
Dropping the top line oi Ihe polle, Ind:ground "
little and Ihen lett ing Ihe pidoria! unil rcach
il rs also:! good. This m;lkes .. dip in tll<! line
of other poslcrs ami is a device ror getting altlln-
lion. A line of lelte,ing i. often ... sed abov<: a post-
e. hael gro\.ml ror Ihis reason. !he fOllr hasic
10llal arrangcmcnts gi" cn earlier in tho:: hook are
almo.,1 iml i!pensable 10 " good JlOSICT. Po<tcrs
musl be ekancnt, aud in good oonlrast .
The layo.ll 01 posle. OH !he followmg
page .ho ... ld he carefuJly 5lndioo, 50 Ihat you wi ll
no! plan wilh he edges of tite sheets cut
ting lhrough cy"', 6ugors. 0' e"en Ihrugh a head.
il ha., cal) be 0 " a single ,h",,1. 1)0 nol 1ct
a sheet cut lellglhwis<: thro"sh a Hne of samUlet
tenllg. If Ihe bill p!>5!er is pastlngoll a ",inuy day
il i. almos! impossiblc lo match (Ir Ihe sheets
together "raet ly. E"cry hi t yo<. can hel!, lile
lithog.aphcr ;n "'I'rooudng yo"r desig" res"lu
in a "elter po ror bcIth af )'0 ....
Kote that the half sllCel$ may be plaeed eilller
al the lop or boUom, or IIhove or below tht 1"'0
Juger This perroi'" a good de .. l 01 lat itude
in yo" r de.ign, and yO\' be .. blc lo place
your materinl Q tllal eutting Ihro"gh
imporlan! elemcnt> ron he Dvoidcd.
Poste .. are wrnelimes syndicated, with
Idt fOf imprillt of Ihe dealer's name. 111 lhal Cll!C,
s ... ch mllSl be Into Ihc original poo:t
ero Poste"" even tbll n olhcr i\Just ral ion ma_
terial, need lo be pJannod ,-", refuJly. Y()U arC u,u_
ally asked 10 make a compre!tensi\"c sketcll be
fore making l he fi nal, and Ih; t is. good thiog, lar
a good poster is s.:ldom s."css work.
There are several more or leu arrange-
mento of which . ho"ld be [nmiliar t o you.
It rcaUy hUrU lo gel vcry Far uway f,om Ihcm
and slilJ pro<.luoe a good one. The h(lrizontnl
,llape of d ie poster is not easy 10 611 wilh good
design, and is differenl frorll Ihe U:l nal shapc of
any other Irp<: of iU",slrntioo. wilh il.
I ~ ' -
245
, , .
,
- ,
,
>


HOW A ros TER IS DIVIDED INTO SHEETS
.. . <ua'
,

,
, ......
, ,
,,""= ,,'
,
.
,
,
--'-r-
-
__ . _ .l _ _ . _ .. ,
I
,
,
,
,
I
2
,
4
,
"
I
,
,
,
k- - ----
,
,"", .., "<..
.:; ......
S
_ .. __ .,
.. _ ..
-
"
-
I ,
,
,
"
7
'l
,
5 <
I
"
",
.,
,
o
I
I
,
Fu <. L

,
,

,
--
1

I

.
---
!
..
' ",
,
,
'j
I
,
'j'
L,c..YO(.)T

I
I
01= OUTDOOR
"'''T PI.J.,N ,"O<.l<l.
I'Q,t
JW'PI." 1'<1",,,,"
.r- P"S.,fI IJI.E:
n<,I!.
,,1
o,n:1l.
! iIJ O\l. !

,
j J -r .. ..s
! ! tU-ti I
. __ . __ . ___ ... -'-_______ . _ _ . __ ... ____
Pl.c:.N '(OUI<- POSil:::.R
6. POSTE.R. CAN JUJT AS EA!I LY BE P1..ANNED RlaHT FOR THE LlTHOG-
ANO PArTER. ll.V010 HAVING .rHEET!" CUTTHROUGH EYEf,
MOUTHJ", FINOE,.fV" ETC.WHICH WOULD LOOK BAO IF JHEETfWERE
PAfTED fL}GHTLY OUT OF ALlGNMEHT. fUCH CUTf ARE. BAD FOR
THE LlTHOGRAPHER. IF "(OU CANJGET THE FEATURe.f WlTHIN
THE SHEET. WATCH THAT THE L6.TERAL CUT! DO NOT .rEPARATE.

OR CUT n-IROUCi HALl NE OF fMl!..LL LETTERING . .. H E BETTE.R. FOR.
IHt:. PL6.TEMI<E.R,THe. BETTER THE. PLATE.r.'" DO lT R.IGHT,
246
IHI:; 11::::1"- , ... c ....... ..... 'e.>. v ....... , .
246
, ......... ,. ,
TVPrCAL POSTER ARRANCEMENTS
-},RY
NlCJ<EL
B1IJY
217
TYPICAL paSTER ARRANGEMEt'ITS
hil1k ObDUl -
BOND'S
lo," p,'ices
UDWEISER' AGED!
FlVE MINUTES TO PREPARE!
" ,,"
,
C4 P Tl ON O VER T OP.
248
,
C",PT 'ON O" fi R TQP .
248

A TYP!CAL POSTER ASS!GNMENT
"," '"pro''' \Ve h",," hocn commis.o;iOllCd to
Vle ",iJl wk" a fictitioHS
I try to it th"'''gh tn ","n-
,,, I " ,,,cld ad"',] l"uL
roft <Iri"I:, a lime drinl .
Nlt il sitH:c 1 kno", "f 11"
by th"t I""ue. ;"'0"". i f it is " lime drink,
10"1,,,10,,", 1,',," <Irink
miglrt easil)' he lo pro_
""m,dl" m',, ,,,; thc poiot
"it is al ,,,",,,,t ". > .. ,,,, <-a l],: \0
,
, . ,
c",,,., s ..
SweN (!.\. o'" be
lo,! Me i, probably th" lK:<t. It call, (O
young girl. hut sin"" the dri nk i<
"Zip," $he shouk' l,avc a peppy breezy
abo"t Ilt'r too. nn:>t ,how the oottl"
a lt ,haw her ill adion.
glass w,-,,,Id have lO h" <eparate.
'";':::.';::" tI", ligure dir<:ctly t<> the pro<luet ,
U holding th" Ilottle nnd perhaps ,)
gbs<. Sin("() this is no! V("fy
will gOl tOl th" "thc, extreme, SI." i" d""",d in
' elothc" ha< been active by wgg,,"tion, alld
rclaxing exerdsc "" ""C S<>Tt of an
Iolmge.
,h"",lld say thal si", ,h')\1ld be look'ng out antl
ot )'0" (it \Vill ever be thu; ). TI", I""kr,
",dto heig"t, i. ideal,
,
) w"uld have lo
into a So \v" \Vil!
"ouc hcrc, though in a ",,,1 ",der iI wo"ld
be w,kcd ont. 1 have ne"er b.,cu "11
;
;',;::,':,';;' that part has alwa)'l'
" by a letkrillg ",,'" \"HIN my
or Ly somc"nc wllo io huyi"g: the poste;. So,
tho,,!!h some rnay filld m)' I"'tterin; al Lmlt,
do the !>est 1 "."111 , ask yo", i","lgco\C
afi!.
'jnsl drawn a fe,," pendl rOllghs for g"n-
arrangment , small. For lad, of
,ince all but \\vo we:-t: discarucd, 1 \ViII n()t
tllem. Howewr. from the two ,nost
249
prorais'ng I have \YOrk",] out Iw" " littl more
'''''''plctc in the size 01 f""r hy nine inches. These
00 r"duCd a liuk Ir> r.t Olll 1:>ook page sizc.
F' VHI Ih",c 1 J,a v<: workcd out two ""Ior rough.<.
SinC tl'e;t' are for general d fect aad color d,oi"",
J hu"" made as simpk ju lre"ton""t as 1)0<.
<' bl". "'ere 1 to s"bmil "dllal col",. sketch. I
\\'o"ld it farther aoo make ll.e ,k"eh ten
by tw""ty.rw" and a ind,,,, in
Clwosing on" 01 the ,ketche5, r n"w call ;n a
modc1 and Se! "1' J,,, p"''' \h" hes' 1 can. I \\"oultl
eit her ,,"ork from lile ur tah, photos, I ",nI an
animated ."nile. a",1 wont to nail it <lOW1I . :I nri
"",,e 1 havc worked out a fairly ('olor
5e" eme, 1 tale a piloto "n Ih" T(" 'gr. , .
Seler.:tillg lile I""t prinl, I ",ith the
final work. Th" pai"ting will be in th" prOIH>rtioll
01 tw"nty hy l<lfty f,, c inehe . 'fhe re>rod\LCl ion
will h" ",,,dc fmm thi$lwge >;)inti'-'g, I uow lay
o"t th(' ju 1'; )';1 I by "ul Ihe
she<;K 1 find that, by "';'g the hol[ sheet al Ihe
to!, 0" the Idt , ide nf the 1 C,U\ bring Ih"
girJ', fa"" within the weo"d sheet
down, 1\ls<> it bring. caplio" OlltO ti,,! Imlf
"I",,, ts at topo Ihat e\'trylhing is gojug to
w",k u,,1 for the I start tI",
pajnting. The hackgro"",j j, I'"inled in fiTSt, lh""
red lo"ng". TI", had<gron"d is a color made
"1' o/ in hlnu"" I""nge, and thc whitc
sh"rK Th" white shqrts h:>ve been related \\'ith a
I;ule of lh" ol l.e. <,,10' --'.
Thc pidurc ha, 1",,,,, N"'I'J",,d amI II.c P'llt
"lIo\\'" d to ry. J nO'" add the lett"ring: and sOIne
/",al tm,ch". tu Ihe whok thing to bring: it aH lo
at the .,me tiOle, A white margi " wa.
Idt aro" "d the painting lo s;,nulate he bJanking
of ",hit" whi"h is
()lIldoor p"ster.
There hnl be<::n a hile and cri' against ""trl'H>r
po,te," as !loe Ix"",ty of ",,, "itie, "ud
cotrnt'y>ide. In the <>pcn co,,"try Ihey may be
an cye)IC, j\ is tru,,: btrt inst a< uft,,,, they mar
dilapida\cd l",iMi n!}' Or "IHpty lot, ht::apcd
with ..,hhi,h. 'Vith bcttcr thny need "ot he
ugly.lt"s "p to you.
E ,II'W "" "Ut TWQ \\ e . ...: tIlSC", "'CO. I WII, 1101 mtl. ' ''''''''11. lV,tn DctWr tI",y ,,<JI Be
If roouce thCln. fmm the tv,'Q ,nost 249 "glr 1 t's "1' 10 yoo.
ll;E IDEA ROUCHED OUT
Jwcetof
lIRRAHGf.MENT , Howev ER THE GIRL'! LEG 11 APTTCl PULL tlTTENTION
t-I ,t, M e PLl. TE, OR OUT O F THE PO!TaR , IQ WI!. W I LL lR.Y
G"OO O, f3UT I-IOW TH E. LlRE. TOOfUeOI'!.O' NLlTEO, T .... E: ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,
TWO fl<:ETC: +i af, IN PRopp ..... a Tt-l.!" OF Ttl e: G"IRL
A FTER fEVERAL ft'1t1LLER ROUGH! THE!/: fEE't'1EO MOfT PROM IflNG
ORAWt-l U P MORE. CLl.Rf': FULL Y . RE. VEA LI N a ,t, Tf':eHN ICA L totFFI cul.TY.
WOULD HAVE BEEN BAto NOTTO!-jL\\lE [HfCOVERED fueH E.RROR EARL'I' I
THe W HOLE PROClO' o <.J RE., PROVING THE VALue OF CAREFUL PLANNI N G.
FROM ntlf I"O. Nr ON,THIi' ARTIJT WOUL.D SEG.N TO 1"ti.NK 01=
"" . T ti JOME nNY ROOC"Hf. Wl-j li'1'I HE GETf 1:; GODO O H E HE CAN
RIGH T OVElC. THE JEL ECTED PEN e I L ROUG"H ,OR MAI{"E J"EVERl
ROUCH.I OF DIFFERENT ICHEME: U,RGE ENOUG"H ro c:Afl.R.Y ..o.c.ROS.I n-lE. .,OO"
2.50
HALFTONES OF THE COLOR ROUCHS
COLOR. ROUGHf C.o.N aE DONE PROM MODEL OR P/10TO,OA. "TH EY
BI! DONE WITHOUT D41' A , IF NOT 1'0 &e JU6MITTSD. JUCt-l ROUG"HfAf
AR.E FOil: T H E AR'Tl frj QWN EXPER M e NT 11 N D .rATlfI="ACT ION. 11' I1MOUtoTJ
O<E AJfUR4HCe THI1T I1 L L tJ WELL (OR OTHERWIJE) . JA1:lfFlED, He MAY 0'0
WIT.j THE F I NAL WOAA . JUCH R;OUGIoI.f JlIOUL{) 6a 1..00KE.D U P O N 4J
LLY IMPORTANT A T H ~ F I NAL WOR:K <liNO A P4RT O FIT, FOR. I T W\LL
TI-IE. 51a THINGJ THAT U L TI MATe.LY M<lI K E J!>. GOOO POSTER..
251
THE F1NrSHED rOSTER
asean
Ueu, we have Ihe ni.hcd postcr, 'Uld il coold h.Wt) heen lUl)" 000 uf a half-d01.ell iocas <JI" KhcmQ"
252
DISPLAY ADVERTISING
time is
read-
nlO$t mus! be secn when
hurr)', pa$sing winooWl, shopping
( 10 (rom lNork. Therefore,
I ,,1 be plaune.! for brovil)' of led,
of and dircclncss
Fint Jet lU oollsidcr he various types of dis-
1e oonslstelll ly Ilscd tnle is lhe
panel. 'with Iettcr ing Of mes.ugc OH ,he
'n lis may be suppor tet!
in back, or l:e made 10 hallg On he
Someli,nes lOme sor' of a !Jase is osed lo
1, ".,,! .wmetill'MS Ihn actual prodncl UI"
ti ,( Thero
1, :. lUId poslcrs mmle lo he
ladrcd. or hung up. Sllch single-sheet
no! monntcd 011 sliff 'o\m! [IS are al!
. {In ",0>\ the lIJOl1nt!t'g 15 done Iter
al1 sorts of ingenu_
. and in expcrin>enling
iQter]ocldng dc\"ices for
ALn051 ""ylhing can 1)(l buil! o Cllnl.
111 Ihis ",,,,,neT, ofl en producing Iil
nnd giving great btitndc fo..
" present ill OIher rorms ()f adver.
figure or group be cut out ilnd
front o Displays can 00
illtriguing and tricky. Intricate die-cutling
howcvcr. and therefore Sllch dic
is held lo il minimum. Cutt;ng is usuaUy
lor he <lI'!CT cantour, without "sitie
'u a ,>ore belwcen lhe elbow and Ihe
. Suoh rcquire separale d'es. The dies
rurtremely sh.arp poin!. a"d "ngl"". 50
se.....aliOllS ilnd intritc oudine . ho.,ld be
11lc die is a . Iecl band ",hieh must be
bcnt around Ihe outlinc.
253
Another I)'p" 01 display is lile throo-wing vario
cly. set up rou wo"ld a :hrco::.wing screen, or
hn\ i'lg Ihe "" ngs locked ntu plaee by locking
It thereror., stand!: wi lhout b.1ck li upporl.
aud ad\'aOlnge is Ih.11 it may bc sel ni the hAck
of thc window Or against the wal! O" a shel f. with
prnl\1cts displayed in fronl of il. TI is tlSllall y
plnnned ""Ih the middle ,miel brllest a nd ('arry-
illg tbe maill pictorial '''Ieres\. Th" pnnels
may be USotd fOf' the or 101' Ihe nd\'cr
tising
TI'e Ntwo.plalleN type 01 display is usually d ie-
COI 011 Ihe fron l plane wil h ';(Ime sort 01 openi'lg
10 lite bacle plan .. , a pcnnancnt back-
ground rUf lhe l,idoria.1 nu.tt .. r, snoo JI single_
plan .. ('lI1,oul mighl appear against any back.
ground. ollen lr><ing thereby in efJcctiveness. The
1:>.1<:1: p lalle may he pasted onlo the fron! in a box
like IIrrnngemenl so that it will fold lb! ror sh;p-
11, ... elfecl i< thal of Il\"king ti\!: t'I.,t-oul
moterial .lcC'" to stand oul ;" ' lace, and ",i\h
'he added ro .mdedll''',,, "f n\!xlelmg l.Iy .'nluC!i, a
\ .... y al'l"'arnnce m8y he ad, it.v(,d . n".
musio" of realty add. so mueh in 311enllOll v;lue
thal il ncriu addilional in producing
slIeh nn .. fJeet. A display like this should he ntade
in , ,,ill inl llte aoo disC\15sed e::trefully wilh Ihe
d ient, who ",1, ... " he.'>CeS lhe .. nhanced eff .. c! ts
more apl lo Ihe ""pen,c Is juSlifled.
A ... ry popular Cype o d;'1,I'1Y;1 the lnrgc cul
oul figure ",hich standl around Ihe store in con
spicuo,", Arli$IS ha \'(lni<;kn",necl ches., he
"Oh. I',mkm me'" type, fo< 1>L-oplc ore always
l>11mping ;nlo Ihem amI t3king them r Of renl >Loo,
1'10:. In slIch a display Ihe les' ano f..el are Do probo
lcm. rOl' a wide ano quile 50Ii lXlSC
he pro\';dcd. Small reel wo.Jd brcnk 01J. ami Ihe
thmg would always be 0W1'. Long dtt:lld
al 001 ........ JI, th" "".sI ..... r. "ntl ",I.en ..
not ahle to u:;e olle. Ihe only thing left is lo put
$OmclhlIg in Ihe ",ay of n oockground behind loo
1cw:. or jusI sonle dark color.
D1SPLA YS ARE "P01NT OF SALE" MERCHANDISING
The b'l"('ate!t valoe in display advCflising is tha!
U is displaycd woo,e Ihe produCI b sold, and, !.eell
by the CUSIGlller. ooromea a direct sa\esman. It
does Mt necd s.o mueh "mcmory \'IIlue"; r.lther
It is NQTl.lhespot" se!1ing. "fherefore a good dis-
play should nOI be general seniog. bul 3 posi!ive
penoo-Io-I'erson trpe of sc1!ing. The word
is e>:ccl1ent in display:;. J....,i us.<ay Ihal lhe objoo-
li ve <"In be . "mmed up ;0 Ihcsc pIllases: "Here
il Is. In,y il", 'ley it now"; "Tah: il with
"t"s goooJ, buy il:
Often a good display TOay 00 built uround liS
ll.S6 OT Rppl iesti(ln. A huge toolhbnl.lh may be
brll!hlng huge Icclh, " largo:: li[>Slick might be
louching lun large lips. I.argc himds ma)' be
al'plying nail poli.h on largc . Or we
may shCIW Ihe inevi lable pretty gi rl usingOT spply.
ing the product. As in ouldoor pooters, the la'ge
head seenlS 10 he masl elTective. lo fact. anything
may be cnlarged lo gain allenlion.
appeals apply lo di:q>la)'s os much as 1<.1
nn)' adverlsi,,!:. SQ,nel imes ,J isplap aro a
fiv:.1 .. of other advcrtisin& inlo a
,Jirec! ronsumcr appea1.
Le! me SlI)' Ihal In displa)'5 Ihe advcrtising
sibiliti,;s and oppertuniUes for the arti, ! hardly
10\JchOO. \Ve llave hado 01 coursc. million. of di
I'lap. Unlortuna!el)' lhe 1011 value artlslical1y Is
soldom 'COlche<!. In ,ecenl yean lbe lilhographer's
eu:lomer has Leen cnoouragcd 10 buy so",,, cf the
bc1;t 3rl lalen! in Ihe oou .. lI"y. and for hu rea.son
displap 3(e bean;fnl. Tllcrc is Ilill muell
<.If 11>0 and !:aud)', Ihe cheap "nd lawdoy.
Bul Ihe is stcadil), "'pnwing, wiJ, better
rou<;:<.!l'lion and bettcr ,-",,,,,,,Iion. There is nO ,ca
$On why a display C<\nm,1 be as R ,,"or\: of art
as M.)' m"seum pa'nl'g. l am sure ,he cmoil)' lies
in , be oonooptlon ",!he, Ihan In !he de",and "r
i"teresl of Ihe publie. WI.y ",,,SI Ihe bellef pe' s;!1
Im,1 p""plc callno! al'prcci:lIC good art?
1 am sure !.hat misC()noopl ion has OOen a parl
of Ihe lithographic Reld too Ioog. The beUer
lilhographcn are proving every day lhal!.he bet-
ter 3rt papo and attracl., aud ""lis. We
nee<l Ihe gand)' tuf( 10 sell.
It c:-anOOI be denicd Ihal briUiancy
goOOina I 10
nOI )'el
i. rcally more brillialll
raphcrs h3ve shicd
a htlrnl shies from a snak",
5"pptlTt of $Uch color makes lbe
ing. dI) lll)! I:now 11.,,1 pu,e
pure red r<.llw bh,,,,,,
mas! el n.s a negati"e res:,mnsc
nn aCUlO parn in he slomnch. The
$Old when nauseale<I, and sorne da)'
.. Iaw againsl eoncoct i"g
lie consuHlplion uSI as ,here is againsl
pni\nGl.s food. Both can malce one .sick.
den 01 rcsponsl'illl)' faUs on yO\), young
lo begin Iho crma.!e 01 good oolor. t hink YO'" Wil
do ;1.1 I co"ld paste "]1 a huge lign
lithogrnph "11 !JO" use 0rlC
prin""y. lo' $l1ke torno tl,e MI,." ,,ro.'
'fhal is aIl ;1 necds. And <'al> tone Ihem wili
bit (tI Ihe lull strength Orle. II Is &S slmpk>t
Iha!.
Tho,o i.s!lO mueh oprort""il)' stilllcl"1 lor "'!t
inalit)' i" displays. l nslead Df tho hard.edgid.
]lil$tet!on t)'pe 01 IlIustralon, so mlleh can 'iI!:
dune with qualil), paintlng whercin val....,s,
t>esscs, and !.eantil ,,1 tone all piar a pafl
camlOl a displa), be do"" in Ihe mauner
lovely porlr\l;t ;oslcad of a pasted-up
wal'hie Ihing <.In ..... ,eh all modelng has
blcaehe<J Dul lor loo ah ,,1 sO'Cl lled
rolor"? Clcan <"Olor il a delusion-Ior ", ''''''''.
iden that 8esh can rontain nolh;", bllt red
)"<!11ow. Clcan rolor in the true value and
iuS else. Therc i5 lO ,eal rea50n fOl" Ji
lagging .x:hind lIt other flelds in 3rl
Wilh oottcr Ofl ""d"",."
well lead !be
cured.
254
254
WORKINC UP IDEAS FOR OISPLA YS
Let U.\ SUPI'OlC we are "rarehing for Un idea for
ldispby. poil\lcd ont, idens sf' ring (rom fael$:
about the product ",hielo can be relat ed to I'sycho-
3P['''III, To the we either

::::",;that wil! bring wc


we to allcviat c a sil ualh:m
,
tllat is u"pleas:m!. OUT hule '"Ienl i.s 10
InlerC1t. lloe in, nnd 10 sell. the Jlfilducl.
Fitting: !he I>;ui(: appeals k. Ihe produet. il JlCn
a n,auer uf evo;>lving material Ihat will
thmugh the comple-!e p"rpo$C a",[ inte .. 1.
Ihat OUT and approacb sound
tan list Ihe elernenlS Ihal be ill oor-
display, a",1 ",aire "n 31l.3.lysis
t ' I So.. -e if il com<!S reason"hl)'
these ' equiremen'. tt musl he rcali""' Iha! na
,Ithe ud ,,"o,lr. il Ihe (unetio ..
faiJ..., aH islosl, inelllding ou, eHorl
'" ;,,,,,,, tmcnl , Thcrcfwe il is weU
"'itl , Ihe foHowing requiremcnls when
i' l a di<pby,
. 11 m1l51 e.,I;.IoI;',h conl:' e! wil), the Illlrd,aser al
t/w l)(lint ..,f salc.
a. I! musl l"" SI..., n d carly lrom Ih .. sidewall.
(Ir al considerable diSlance in la'ge
l lore,
b. T(I he Stocn and lo earry well , i! mus! be
01 simple design and good color,
e, Jt mll , t call the "tlslomer'l att cntion 10
the p<oouct.
, ] '"u . I .ale, If p<wllblc, On the spol.
Tbcrdorll:
un Ihe .!ispby, or be dcslgncd lo clhihit
tbe actll al product.
b. If Ihe pad"'gc is small, ji ,hould be shown
enough 10 secore att entiOIl and

4. An)' al'gumen! shonld he ba.,ed " pon a
Wlmd appea!, lhe meril of he [,roouc!
$hould h" ",aae as evklent a$ (lOS$iblc.
a, JI r, Ul(I$t effc.etivo with person.to-perlOn
..... cuslomcr 1I p'-",ollal1)' ad_
drcucd.
b, If general appeal is use<!, m31m ,u. e Iha!
il directcd In the average person.
e. If the appeal is spcei6cally lo 011e s-er,
m;lre Iln'e the aplICal i$ a Iogieal {lile lar
thal $<:X.
S. JI mus! be b1'l" f and lo Ihe polnl. 1'1\<' ''.,(01" il
.Mul,l :
a. \ssnme lhat the c ... tom<. .. is in a hnrry,
b. Incite curiosily "ud lII<''':St.
e. Creale a des.,,, lor Ihe producto
FrOrll lhe alx we )'ou will nole Ihal display
adve.tsing foll ows in a general way Ihe typical
roolne..,r al! goo,l ad'c'ti5ing. 'J1,c main lIilfc,-
ence is lhal instcad of slri"ing ror ao impressioo
upon !he Illcmo.y, il c:olls In. imnwcl",lc response.
In tilO sdcetioll 01 malerial \\.'C )hould weigh
eardully. !.loe. It w nco:w Ihe 'l>ccillcally
OT gC1I .. "all y? !..et me ilIul lralc Il,e d i!ferell<::e ;1\
Ihe Iwo following "",teh lines: "How is )'Our
hrvalh thif fo. ;'nm.,.lia!e mn .....
lion M upposed lo away
brealh: which does no! Icad Ihe ell. tomer lo
a. 11 .hollkl conlai" a collvillcingsales argu- qnestion hi!i 0\\'1\ brealh or :t&SUlnc lhal he nceds
ment 01 ""me kind . Ihe prodllel .
h. r he pictwial conlenl 5100ltld ampliry such II is good lo mal" Ihe prdiminary ,ollghs fa,
argumenl . display!!..,,, a two- or thre<l- Illy bristol so Ihey can
e . '0( requircd v,bility, such pieloraliza- be cut " li t se! "1' in mniature. 1'011 may nol
tion should be composed of larg" units, ha"e I1lltch lo do witlo the idea an<! te>ct al flT'St.
slatcd si' nply and ""ith good contrasl 10 bul by provillg lO the dient hat yOl! lll'ocrstalld
background. J,,, wholescl.up you willl,.,couw mOfe and n>oT'e
It should id"nlily the name, pacbge o. wrap' valnabl" lo hln and will he grallted Ihe oppo"
ping. alld use, Tk,cforc: 11I11;ly lo CJe. <:se nlQCC of yotlr o"," laUe and
a, 11 should piclme Ihe paclmgesomewhcrc iuclgment with cach oommiSS>Oll.
255


,
,
,
, v
I
. ,
,
; ! \
,
. ,
, '.
, .. " ....
--:c:; . )
1 1 '

TYPES OF LlTHOGRAPHIC DISI'LAYS
\
,
,
,
--
256
I
TYPES Or LlTHOGRAPHIC DISPLAYS
,.. .. e ........ 0 Pl..At-IE
PI S p ~ t I o . . .
257
257
WORKINC WITH DI S'PLA y Lrn-lOGRAPf-l ERS
In "' imes:! it 111,,,1 he ppinled 001 th:,t for the
tJ", dispby Reld is hrgl,ly speculalive. U,,-
li"o the olhe. /lcld" the hlhob'laph salesm"" ,..;11
rarel)' come lo yOI\ at Ihe oulsel with Ihe order
fo. Ihe final pieln.e. He is o,di nari ly compet"g
",ilh se"eral othc.s, amI while he is lo
,pclld monty lo gel Ihe r,,,aJ order, he C3nnol
J:"""'"kt: you thal Ihcre ever will IN! "0 order
for lhe fillill ,,"OrI;, s,uee Ihe d isplay may go lO
soone olhcr lilhogr:tp,,",r. 11.11 compcling
are going lO IIlake Ihe besl prelimlllOry .howing
IlOSSiLlc, To OUldo o,,", 3nall'er iomc \\' 111 sub,ni!
l'allltings, whieh il ,Iime"lt for the
o,he, . lhe '''"Y h,,,,, "nI}' "",.
ehancc in p, tel!, he may hesitale 1<> orde' amI
pa)' f,, 1I pr<.'tl f""" fill ished "ainling. Each .... ,ould
he >t\le,)\ t., .uhmit mugl" if Sure Ihal "n lhe
olhers woold fQ110w snit, b"I ""Iil li lhographers
gd IQgcth.,. "!;Teol "JIO'l elhi...,,! Inc\ ...... with
One anolhe., thi.'; will C(lll tloue, TI",.
Ihe is .ather "1' jt, If the salrs-
man r :tn 1",,0.1 Olle ",ue. 0,,1 or fo"r, he inneed
a good 0010.
o.. Ihe h, ,,d, therc i. no ""'$0<1 wh)' lhe
arli$1 bear lhe burdCll of Ihh speculation
!.)' J'rodueinga pict ure Ihal h:u .oeh odd.
a!{lli",! it wit hont gnaranlee of a sel1i ng price_
Evcry lith<>,,'npl,y h"use aecum\,btC$ a
of "'1Iold and Ihe ron.
high. f ti ron or revamp nn
old pk1ure, dlh"r )'ou1"$ or hs, hi s on ... ",ay
of d<iwn sales 0011, If a I\CW picture
, ... ,<:,Iod, he nu)' come tu you with an)' kind of a
tu h<>ld Iti. CO'Its oown, l inee he does
001 wan! IQ Ilu. 1 his preslige by adding 10 tIle
mmgue.
I w"",,,oJ tl .... .tif,y-
r. fly. Thc ar li t t:amblo '"I f Ihe sale price
wah he Iit)wgraphcr. tf the Job sell s. he gels Ihe
othcr half aro:! oomcl irn"" a bonuJ. Jf " oJoos n,,1
Jand the order, 1", is entlk:d lo hal f he onginal
p<ia: for his time and labor. Under no cirCUI}}-
Sf:!.nccs shoukl he artist takc lhe wholc
and rcl)utabk: htM,,.,. ""ldolll a,k him lo do IQ.
If Ihe artiSl is .trivlng 10 mak,e a .epulatioJo,
.oeh gamhlc may be .... ,nd (mm a .... >Si .....
slandpoint. edting a good (l lsp)a.y reproduood
has " ,.,.,mpcn.al ing val ue in l'"blici!y fo. him,
HO\VC\'cr, if Ihe "rlisl's lime can be olherwise so
. f,l1ed he is not callc<1 \lJ>on l\l 'pc<:nt.te, thtn
it is fai, one dienl shol,ld !l,< m\leh fo.- bis
!lIIIC U anoth"..-, witI, "0 Sll('!citll l'rr"ilcges lo !he
lithogral'h ... .
JF loe ,,ks for an agrO!'ed prieto lo be paid in
full oo,ly if" finnl p.,i"ting j. mad.:, tllt: a.,1 =
speculate wlh a preliminary al a
abl" cos!. nnd lhi, c.ln 00 . ul,nn;tted wilh
Cl.Jp'el. In the ca,e of belt",
artist., e""",, theskldl aOlu Ih .. "blow-up accom-
.... ,ny,ng iI sla" d a ;ood cha,,,,,,, 'g",,,t "tlocr'"
isbW work. Then if sketch doc. "ot gct !he
OTller. il docs ,mi r<'!'rc..,ol hu")' IO!S 0Tl Ihe I':IIt
of eitJoer or lithographer.
You can h,,,,n)' hb",,, 11,,, ithog.a!'!.c,. ro.
wnntlng to nshcd wo,k if he ca' !;"t il , w;Ihou\
going tlle f ull imil of OOSI. Nor )'''u blame he
(o. ton( wln ,ting 1" Ihe wh,,1c g:oo-
ble by " oing '" painliug fOl' uothing if \he
orae' ;t>cs e6cwl ocrc. Yon make yo" , """lO
deal. bul remember thal if }""\I ; ""()fk is comido
cred good " .. o .. gh lo submil, tb:I\ il is loo good
lo do fm nOlhing, Do not Of
notbiug" pwposilion, ror it doc, nul "JI with
Ilw OOW of less one-Io foor chanoc 01 &t U
ing. If tbc nI "'ere he onl)' ]ing Ihal sells a
display, J oe (l(lci< l11iglol be lx:tlcr. But poore. ut
Ihno )'OOr$ mlghl s\i Jl gel ti", ordc. if il wm
<:ouJlk,d " 1) wilh a I>cue. idea, U1(] tllO idea may
nnt be Ihe artis
1 h""" ha" , .. lance.> w!'cre the lw
Vol ull laril)' ndded mone)' to my hill whcn the
order hnJ secure<l. or when romo li lho-
g1'31lhlC work jo Ihe turned oul te
b... a "bell-ringer :' 11 proves t hat, whilo; .truggling
hard 10 'naktl 3 p,..,tl:t, Ih"y "i ll share il wbe:l
they do.
258
258
CALENDAR ADVERTISING
THo;()l\Y al calendar lIustration is JUSI the
displu)'S. The appeal i.s general rather
A c.llcnd:lr ml l<! li t almos! 311y p.od-
I is scldom any direct connee-
Ihe picture (lod product, Qnd uoless
"",, the picturc w01) ld no! conla;!>
The proou(:t Qf course could be
. sO) ch as beer, bread, or something
un<k:r mal1y llames, 01 il rould be pbnned
, such aotomobi1cs, hardware,
Howt:\"cr, lhe I?urrose or tho
is dircctcd IQward good wiU (l nd con-
patronagc, strcssing st;rvice, qua]ty, :md
Thc ubJecl of he calendar is In pro-
fricndlinC$S anel good feeling.
tha! Ihe illustrator seMI: Ihe dif-
1 appeal in Ihe calendar as
otber types of advertsing. Calen-
with indirect selling, scll ing Ihe
or business rathcr Ihan a sx-.:ific producto
:';':S;'il lll ional advcrtising." Since
oo"g"! al a h""droo
Ihe cal ....... dar aSStlmes importancc in he
' ,""oh I Or, in Ihe case
;<!vcrtisiug a spcci llc product, il
! of he dC3kr to bny thal
'O< dcaler mpr,n! il; there-
Id! on nearly every <;alcndar, whcthcr he
spcciGc 0 < gencm1.
in approoch, calen-
iIIustration leaM 10 general human ;l1tcrest
. ideas tha! appeal to the emol ions, crea!-
. ",,,. Tlle calendar docs 'lot
10 action, Cllriosity, or Ihe urge 10 (uy.
, ji creal,,! satisfaetion,lends ImnquiJ1ity,
. do notmeanthatacalcndar
I'0rtnly neHa n. Sometimcs aclion is ,-ery
,as in c. ... leudars depicting sports, or in sub-
thal are acliOn within Bu' ji
be tha! a calendar mus! be
uf iIIustrations. SlIs:><:ndcd ac!ion can gel mighty
boring whc n Y"\1 wait '"odre<! and sixty-
fouT days for sorne tri vial thng lO happen. It s
something like Ihe e"e! of a mOllon pieltore get
ling stud in Ihe projee!or, with Ihe resultan! be<>-
ing nd e:ltcalb [rom Ihe nudiellee.
Much of Ihe 01'1'<:;,1 in ealendars s " y 3.$$Ocia
tion ",Ih l'r<:senl and las! life, .:amng
memories, or makillg a }Jicture strike home" to
om: ",ho has gone Ihrough m"eh the same
ex>eMenet. Calclldn.r pictl1res may be !hose which
providc nn escape from !he monotonous rOll line
of Ife iolO ranel fu l dreaming. Psychologists poio!
0111 Ihal W(l al! llave tWQ liule worlJs lO ive in,
Ihe WQTld as il is and he wortd we woutd like
il lO be. The ta lter is the 011(: of dreams, amb;
lians, and the escape from reatily. Tbe rolendar
illl1strator has much lo Icaro from psychology.
Rclicf (rom I"dium iS SuTc.fireappclll. Makc apie-
ture aman or WOl1mn can dream in, or esC.1pe nto,
Ilnd you can miss.
1 bel levc factor accounts rOl' Ihe tremcn
dOHS JOpularity of Ihe calcndars
of Ihe pasto He provi,k-d Ihe dream eastlcs, blue
w;th bilkJwy c1ouds, children Ilnd lovely
IadicsouI of anothcrworld. Bu! the re wasanother
thing- he gavo it al] a seTlS!; of rcality. So we ean
makc h ucy real. \Ve can pruvide trips to mOlln
lai n Ibal !ove but cannQI reaeh.
We can glory in Ihe Olltdoors, alld the activities
mast of liS \\.'Ould d(eam ahout. \Ve can sail hlue
waters wilh bi lJowy sails, provido adventurc, love,
romall cc, appeal lo glorify Ihe home
nd simple ]fe. \Ve can seek out the things !hilt
would giv(! pleasurc, reltef, and rebution. The
prctty girl of Ihe calendar may give a man all
imaginary romanoc, his gdream so 10 speak.
We can givc yOll th to!he cid, rom:'lnee 10 tbe 101'-
gOlten, vitality 10 Jlc wcak, broad wor lds ro tbe
narTOW, No wondcr calcndars go on year aher
h a long timll comparcd with otber types year as:i. permDncn! nstilut;<)n.
259
I
BAS1C APPEALS APPLlED TO CALENDARS
My feding. jusI as withdi5p1ays," !hat the cal-
endar opporlunily has hardly!en touched, Cal-
olJer lo an cven greater degrce .. d,annel
fo, really arl. Unfort unately, mueh of il has
OOCH chenp, tnwdry, nd wilh maudhn scntimenl.
Thc ehief wOITY of Ihe caJ.:nclar house wilJ always
be suIJJ.:<:ts. The next "''0<"1)' ii ;"ding .. Iists with
""ol.lgh a],];ty lodo lhem, When the .,Iist can do
more thinking, hcllcr caleOOars wm be wllh uso
11>1.' day of he inane pretty girl holding a JM!t is
aJ.J\O$l owt.
Lel U! look at the g'e.:n open to uso
Again, Ihe lJasie appeals hold goo<1. "fhe hom",
the soll . c1, lldren. animals. !er<'lllity, -w<;urily, pa_
tr;(Jtism, religion, are a few. In IIddilion tu
Ihat approaeh. Ihere is "w.' ylhing or general and
popular interest, as the Doy aOO Cid Scouts, com-
munlly (l(:livil ics, )'oulll movemC:UlI. military in-
leresl, school, sport .. eharil ... , rec:realion, ehurch,
VOC'ational enterprises, and many othen. Almost
any cxample or valor, geMro$ity, "indHness,
tholJ gh Ir lllncss, fa il h, confidenC<!, pa Irio! ism, cou'-
!esy, neghb"rlines.<, courage- in , horl, al1 Ihe
fi ner of humans-il good calendar a>-
peal. Simple, nomcly ideas take on Just as lI1 uch
grcalneu as more grandios.e OtwS.
I have note.! lhal many indvid\oal$ tea. (lff lhe
pad and use tha! d one. Inqulrng ",hy,
1 fe und the answers inleresling ,eveallng.
He.e are.OIne ef Ihe .<:asoru;. Onc mUn rClI1a.kcd
lha! tbe p ielurc wa. w sexy hal it rcRce!cd bl1ck
on his bll,: inC$S and personal llelng 11
, cspc<::tcd pctson rumself, he wanted oo!hing lo
injure rep ulation. $aid, so gaudy
)'O" enn '1 sec anylhing ,,\se n ti ... room, and I be-
leve lI1y olhcr thinp rcRee! good las te. Aoolher
Jhould 1 use my horne ru an 3d for
tome lf Ibe lette,ng were nOI so big. J'd
have kcpt !I ," Another said, "I'm sick of brd
dogl." SIi1l anolher, "'Thal ;sn't the tho out-
dool'$ looks 10 me, Ihere is lIOrnething wtO<lg with
!he Whalever !he rcason, if lbey keep!he
pad aOO Ihrow away!he pictore,!he altis!, calen-
dar nouse, and advcrtiser ha"e aH fai led. ll shows
260
Ihal thore is somc .... here a lack or ab]ity. a bd;
or good laote, and a !acle of " ndenlallding. n.e.e
, 00 rc:....m why wc shoulc1 oonsider lhe public
aS ladlng In appreciatlon and good trule. There
i. no Jlroof wflat..wer thnt here Js 001 appreda.
lion, but, un the conlrary, plenty or proor lhal
Ihere s. The. e ;$ p<oof that Ihe MJl>lic llS!" learu
low .. rd .entlmentality, m, t thal is notl, ing against
il. 6y voIe, during lhe Century of PI'O!, " ess Expo-
silion ChicaS'" Bretan', "Song or lhe Lar\;," a
pea$llnt girl with a sick1e 111 t\Vil ight, Whis!!,,'"
tht gOUld old bdy, slmn.r sub-
jecu led al l olhers in popularity, That means they
wo\,ld slil! ...,11 n. ""Ienean. lt 11lso meanS that
sentiment r.ee<loot be in hy the heels.
S"'nming thinp up, calendar Appcal should be
coIorf,,1 b" t w;th sorne di;:nity, ali"e bUI uot
I"mplng off Ihe walls. Tlw:re is room ror good
lalte in "hjcet, sculi n"-'fl t, design, color, and
exeCt, tion. That 1 nO! an easy unle., bul il is what
i5 rcnlly nc:ooed. You mny be certni " thllt tnrly
good calendar suhjects and will fin<! a mili
ket. Mueh of Ihe bad sluff yDU used bccaU5t
lhere re:l.lIy is 1lQI enoogh of the good lo lhe
demane, bouses " re oombing ewry
place. al! the lime, lo. good matcrilrl, anod onlyl
small por tio" uf what tbey lirrd Is really good. II
i'I a mislake lo Ihi,," lhal piclures tumed down fo
every " Iher purp<"I$C wil! seU as calerKkrs.
whlle !t Is true that picturcs whieh wo uld be good
mght also ma"e b'OOl.! c;;olendaTs, Ihe
is far from lrue. Ca!cndan o/fcr oppor
t unitlcs fQf fi"" wor" not always present n "dreo
fi elds. and rOl" tbe "cry finesl "irrd of reproducticm
Qnd pri1l ting. Cood calentla. I",inlings a.e Ly 110
mcan$ eb.:ap in prire. Sorne or the
",rti!t! are oommi.sio,1f!<! ytn.ly lit lop prioes lo
do Ihe best calendars. Keep )'<l llr eye on Ihe cal
endr mor"ct.
Calendar houses, f aman i . btOOd, ",ay offer
eJelush'c contracts or anangemenu . 11Ie arlist
"'usl decide whelhcr he w:r,II ts 10 wo,k lhal ..... Y.
I m)'S(: 1f ha,.., til.od aclllSil'e amange.fltHIS.
I prder 10 keep the door opcn.
, ,

260
A CALENDAR CAN BE ANYTH! NC THAT 1$ COOD
,
t .-
' .
PlOC. UNe HE."'f'
-m:t, 1) E N/WI E
I
"-.ElIzr a.,:n U-UN


"Wl= Hl$V<e
I;MBOfIED -MOUJ,.PI N C
1 Ju.fT WORay ACOUT l"HI! r:X)THI!RJ!JT.
,
261
ESSFN1lALS OF GOOD CALENDAR ILLUSTRA nON
l . It mmt eno\Il,'" 01. Iha!
will wanl ru 10010 at, hang ji , and keep i! for
Us Qwn sake, M wdl as lor Ihe cmlVenl<:n..,.,
or caleudar pad.
2. 1IJ subjt and mean!ng shookl be ..,lear 1(1
Inyone.
3. 8y preleretlce il shoold soothln;. relax-
Ing. restfu!, since JI mllJt 00 loo1<ed al fo. n
l<1ng time.
4. 1I il enn provide an "escape I",m
so muer. he better.
:S. 11 it contajll5 action, let It be or !he I'lely,
he,!tby oort intended lo penl.up
energy, fI(Ithing to Induce emotiomll unreSI.
e. Tlle <tI!ar ihould by a!1 meall5 be lunnonious
Ir il i. to k .... p 11. place On Ihe wa 11 lh", ,..,1 .......
e\'ClIttw.ll)' inHale.
1. The ",les o. merc:handi,lng approaer. . houkl
be indirecto
8. Sentimenl ,"""Id be genuln.., Knd OOIlvlncing
ROO r.ol o"erd,mc.
9. 1I . hould not be too sealonal il Ihl, can be
Rvoided.
10. 11 sh""ld ""'w ti .. , k u"' huma.o. char..clcr-
islics.
n. It should not show cruclry, racial prejudice,
m;l ice, or other negntive lralb.
12. Mode or sry\e should be generalized enongh
IQ he good for sorne lime.
13. It should have lull m.eaning with or wlthout
a tille.
14. It slJoold be entirely original, c(lI'Ilaining
110thJng tha! cOu!d be oonsideroo lllI copied
fmm olher worl: or <lOp)'1"ighted mater ial.
IS. !ts should glve il canyiDg poWCf Or
atlcrotion valu.e acrolS r.onnal-sized room
or 5tore. This means Simplicity.
subjecls may bo: sold lor "calendar
rights" only, retaining the origina!. Or the sale
may be outrighl, Ihe plCltlre becomitg Ihe tlndis-
pute<! propcrly of!he calendar OOus .... Some finru
re<Juire a relea5e 110m lhe mis! or any further
claim. If a calendar has been sokI oro:e. i t cannol
be IOkI "t,'lIin fo. tbc :une p.apose.
2il2
1I i$ .. setoss 1(1 ny tu ... l",..u., pi<:tur ....
y ou will ouly get Ibero bol.ck. Calendar ooU$o'$ are
tilO aware <.If g<>O<l aft and good crnft!manship,
Do nOl <::py any plctllre or a motiou plcturc slar
aoo expcd 10 seU i l as a calendar. Sud> a project
would n:qllre a special release Irom !he subjed.
In fad, youcarmot use an, printed copr" calen-
dar oopy. Subjcct aud material musl be al! your
own, so can relCa!i<: il ",ilh . lhal
therc can be nodaimsagaillSl IhecalcnJaroouse.
Any matcrial submitted should be: securt!y
wnppod aad postage paid bolh ways.
Any cob medium may be usetI rOl calendar
reprOOuCllon. lIere js a good nlarL: 1 ror WIeL
J believe oil i. l>rcferrcd rnlher rnan water color,
thougb 1 $(e nO reason why a water clllo. would
nol be "sed. ir g<>O<l enough.
The full composition, or v1ct"re curied out
10 100 fo ... mrners <>f al leas! with color "'el
ground, _UIS to fare bettcr ;'1 se!!i ng cakndar
pcoplc. lIul this is juSI In opi"ion, and 1 thlnk iI
reall)' <IcJ'IIlds on $Ubject and .. mtioo, no mat
ter whal tite s"hlcet (Ir medium. \Vi! and good
hu,,_ otron!; pa!"t in ""ll)n,h ... Ihough
Imow O( no calendar bouse thal actually buys
mm", drawings.
Tho calendar, Iikc Ihe poster (Ir display, eaa
very w..,1I adher<l to Ihe fOnr hask tonal plam. AH
mu.! 1 be IeCn, and must carry, lIS far as possibk;
and i 110 boctler ",a)' 10 gel this quality. Yoo
may nd calendal"$ with dellcate subjects. bul I
believe I ano safe In saying lhal rOOsc wilh gcXIIl
contnuting valoes and sbnd !he
OOst n.,!ated color wilJ apply be-
cause il Is good <:<lloro TI'e c.lc",lar ctI".
tainly want vitality, (Ir brilli:lnce, In thcir subjeW
aOO al l unes overslep Ihe Ilmi! 1010 t:iurre w
;:oudy color. One Ihing is "",lain: tbey are not
ioterested In drab and mudd, piclures. n-
will inevitnbl)' come bad unsold. Figure su
jects rnutl have sorne $Ior)' or meaning, and nol
be s;n'ply portnrts 01 poop1c. Even p.inu.!
head.s will be returood iI tooy ha"" no !ientimental
appeal to the public. Sorne c;l.1endar h.>u:,;es h:;,
'lino oommittea
R
whieh pass on all subjccts.
,
262
PAINnNC FOR CALENDAR REPRODUcnON
. ,h" uld he considered in
lor magaz;TIe
. 1 lerrific spced
dry vcry fast. 111c ink ClUllJOt contQin he
()f pigm"'''1 uI'Cd by Ihe calendar I'rilltcr:
be!. il mUSI be dillllPtl ln" brge Mlh
. IiI1ers lo makc l: lIow casi1)' ami doy Fast.
IlrJ"ling i5 la:gdy by lithography. In-
01 lk thrce rolO! plates amI !lIad. tlltl1C
be or mQre col"", used. 1I alYlOUnts 10 "
'",mld. ,k," ,h, "", rol,,,,, ine1udinga Hght
hrown, and others. Thm 3 richerclfcet
11 fine
!1It: m:OS:ilZin.., m\lS! oft"'" use the
11 I and clleapest papers,
Th" OO11o:<':r .... Ihe arti:s l ,.IId bis wo.k oonstll-
Much more of colo, aud val lle
il in ca1cndJr ilIuslraliol1. MOt e wbde
, softncS! 01 coges lila)' be \1><: <1.
of coIol, or oolor , ... r ied 10 he
alld <:001, are 11,,1 th", ['mblcm 10 lhe
p,int". lha! Ihey al e t(l Ihe l-alt:ndar printor
'"'ff. Ordinaril)' m01ch lllQTe lime Is 5pcnl over
color plal"", slnet iI i, 001 3 matle, ol
dosing dales.
III paiuting 'l a l ulll'"lette ma)' he
lWO )'dlows, two reds.. aud lwo hhlC$,
""d ro:>! or cad" In fad, Ihere
1 Imil iu hu wny of 00101' 10 Ihe
is free 10 do almo. ! 1\I1)'lhing he wishes. ,,"ilh
I'Jccp!ioo uF loo ",uch witJcly col1!r.aSl
olor: ""Bre,kcn color" m.-ans slY1;tll
v(Iying o' rontrasting of oolor
sidc by .ide '" " id he Freneh IlIlpuss!oll-
. That i1 cvcry plale-:nakcr's problem, and ti
.. The djfficulty ;5 jn Mriv-
a! Ihe j valucs.
arliSI l;trely plans !he complete calendar,
,l.,," mal., framelO cr 'or<!crs. Yonr
be Iml 10 " variety of purpose5, ;tud be
1),;' , .... ,,>011, caler ..
Ijkc plell!)' cf extr .. Cfopping spaee
a subjee!.
principie of glazir.g jn pain!;ng is nol loo
lo. liln.;,graphic r"'PfOduetkm. 'nl'" me:l'1$
263
Iran.\parent glu.<:s oI o"n ro"" ove. :moIILer .
Such ellecl j, almosl iropouible, ,ince!he rolor
I1'111s1 be oue Ihing or aoolhcr in 311y given qwt lo
;ood plateo, uf the OhI a."
vcry diffieult 10 beuu5e tbe many
cool$ of ..... mi,h give I"m " ve,y ydluw "\le,
whi<:h mu.1 he wunl"mcted b), lhe ellgra\'Cr.
ei"" yo", cngmver a clcan, Simple C<.llnr
S(hemc, st:u1;ng widl a l::w ool<>rs, a",,1 yQtJ will
get goodreprod"cfioll. Yourpaint ma)' beapplied
Ih!ckl)' Or Ihinl)' and they will get th.,1
Some lithog':l pllcT> go SO :l, "" aCIlIaH)' lo "rubos,
IIIt: paper 10 &ivc he elJed or thiel. point, making
it diffieuh 10 1<,11 Ihe reproduetion from an orig-
illal oil paillting.
The elle grcalesl o:>pportUllly T:Iee in C(llenda.
il!uslration 10 t:ake the m:lIly neg!t.-ctcd phas ....
of American lile ""d de't<lop Ihelll . There . ro
JIl\,ch Iha! is un!nllehed, Many cak'TIdars d",elop
;nlO a !OCrics whiro has year."flC1"Ycn. possibili-
I han, I"v such SI.. .. ie. which 1:>0011 going:
rigl1t along fur yeas and ",hieh gel morc
inlereting aU Ihe lime. E.h,cational , ubjects G"d
a market ",ilh $Chools. OOnk., and ,naoy other
rorts "r i".,titu!tons.
The .o.calk:d popular. o. pretty, sl1[jeru rould
ver)' easily giVl'! MW 1" things o greatcr cbaractC1"
31x! dC(lpe1" ,oc,'ning, Tloe:f: are man)' mOTe sub..
jcets 10 he had, bu! il is up lo lile lo bke
the Ircsh viewp<.>illt to lhe aol.."ndar !.oUiK:>, ",nI
",,,it lor tll/Jl1l 10 00' ..... lo you.
Check "ruong pcople all)"JII can lo Ihe kind.
of Ihings tha! Inte",,! In thi. way !le", idc3$
.,x! apllroaches will become possible. Wbat do
people Im;e 10 do ",ilh 'pare time? WIo,,1
are Ihe;r hoh!>ics? Wllat do Ihc)' da)' drcam
abOIl !? Deep down are Jl\iIny ps)'chological an-
SW\:lT5 lo he Ihlngs they really ... anl.
ideas ma)' be .ubmi t!ed in sketch
form ir lbe is famil iar with your
final work. If oot, KIme p.ools or of )'OOr
Hni.OOd \\"0(1.: be lulnnitted along witb
yOer . ketchcs. Somdimes an idea ma)' I>e al'Cept-
able as idea alone, in whieh caS<! it "", y be bought
for dc\'elopmem by another aroS!.
COVERS AND ]ACKETS
TI' K covcr Ihe Presel" time MI>-
pean t B me as mos! \Vide open fm j mpnll'emeot
of .. ny <J f Ihe (1ft lidds. For a good many
phol ogrnphy has proctically u5\1rpcd Ihis I\dd.
w, h ,he ... ;. ,, 11 wc OCC" smfclcd \Vilh
royo," \'o'Y ",dh,,, ry in mocepl ion ami "'011010-
Musl" Through Ihis ,herv hn"e
few $1 .. 1 ...... ,,,, magaziues IhM ha"e lituck
10 he Il<elief art is hett.,,- as a magazine ro"e.
thall phOlogropll)'. Sorne ha"" he
f" ltL't'. iOrl"II: have gone m,<;' oomplctcly tu Ihe
,1..11 photogrn()hy. :tn in all , does a hdler jobo
U" w" ",:" Ihi5 is nO( .u'p,i.i ng in ,icw of ti ", de.
ve10pmcllt vf color phologral'hy 3nd th" cnono-
o .. , !.:>elle( ,hat phnlogral'hic delail is superior 10
all ""ti ia appc"l. Tilo fiy in tite o!l lmenl
1"."" th;\( there is SO liUl e lo distingo,ish one color
ph",ogn'ph from aoother. so Jiule ill<lividunllty
nad per"Wnfllily. OH" C{Wer could be sw;l('hed 10
loy si,nply d ,a"g;ug Ihe H:'I ,,\e,
""lhoUl '101;ouah!c difF.,rcHC(!,
Thc l rulh h Iha' all i,leal i.m he.::n .<3crificc:d
10 faCI. of Ihe ideal girl, we have one \\'110
li);e al! illd "d"al lo somebody
""-' wi lh a d"li"ite aJdress, alld for n
definile IllOlkl She may he On this maga_
z;ne Ihi. ""ml ll . nnd "" "nolher ned ",,,,, th. Th()
fnces hcw"",: ,,"dI b lQwn as m,,,ie . ' nr'. She
cca,el l o 1..., roll " dr"n'" 0'- mine, ;\ nd
as unatlil inablc .' s ally famous movie Slar. The
famous Chwn gir! of Ihe paSo! waS a L"OnL'epliou.
no! a r"e(. SI ,,, hdong!: ' lo ,,11. Thc Chri''Y girl.
Ihc F1agg girl, lile Harri$\m girl, ',Verc nll
drc"", of Ihcir el':!., ,,,,d lhe public ,,"en! mad
O'-cr 110,,111. We c;l.IlnQI go m.ld over he wver girls
of loclay-I he,"" Me lOO mauy. "no II"'}' are loo
obviously pich"<l for thcir phoogc,, e qllal ity OUI
of OUf own not oul of lhe of
fin ;lrtist.
BOCl.ll$e uf Ihe ve')" deluge of photogenici ty.
co\"crs ar f p:1S$ ivc1y acceplcd. SOt1H!
264
llIag:zillC5 makc a h .. roic dfOJI 10 g(:t away from
tl' pretty girl Cllli.d y. Most. nol knowing wru.t
10 do. stic" lo lhe photog(:nic. rel)'illg on hal, and
",Ioal nots lo p\1t thcm Ovcr, 111e idea ol n cover
i, slilll'rescnl on (mly a ver)' few maga
By s .. l,jedo> r an apl",ali ng nnd slo.}'
tulln!! ido:. , \Ve all bo gr:ltd lll lo !\ofmJn
fol' holdiug Ihe line, and !:v''''y "dio-
tio" poinl s lo Ihe rael Ihal ",ltal he sl""d. ro.- in
ti,, w'"y of t"O,'crs is rnost k,,",:d lo)' tite p"blic. [
iJ grantcd thal 01. 11 are uot Intcrested in
Id ling sI"""" On their OOH'rs. b"I is airo l<\Ie
Ilml ."",lcTIl <Ir""" an,1 CQtJ ld he 'flOre ",::tu
lif uUy 1"""'-=01< .. 1 in fi nc arl ha" by photo,'raploy.
wll:ll wc llccd mc.><1 ;. Iloe "Ii. 1 ",loo 0:"\1 oc1i"tr.
I IhorolLghly believe Iha! witl, tI", advcnt or !oct
Ir,r arti.ts, tite magaziaes will he <luiel.: lo seize
"pon ",el, " hi lity, 1 also beHevc Ihat t he ,-ery
r.;oson $O mueh photogntph)' becn \l!ed js Ihe
dc., rlh or prod"dion in lhe w"y ol
arl . \\'hen a< a gro,,!, ,,"e oc,t.hihC Ihe ""
""",'1 I",,c 10 worry "hout hd"t: " " .. l. lIul f
w() ",,, ke I'hotography Our go.,1 mI.! li mil , we
go;"S lO lag hopekssly bdtind JI. [1 \\"\,,,Id be tite
1,.,,1 !hing Ihal rould hal)xn In and art
g<;l"l(:rally if ev",y camera were "way Icor a
fcw yea" "no "-e,,, fotC'ed IQ creMe witlt OOr
' Y("5. ha...J . and brai"s. We will 'loeV"r arrj." al
IhrOl' gh photograploy.
As (he stanus loday, (lllf 0PIlor h",ity is
limitcu. The ehanres of sell i "1; a 00"", ,. "re iudced
sli"" TI", rCll.SOllS as Ihe)' stand are:
1. Fe\\' can depe" d " 1>0" Ihe umo-
liciled of maleri.,J.
2. l"he "",,1 a. " ge,,,,,. ally ",urki og cbt
10 111" ID:l.ga:LiJlc, somc by CQll l mct.
3. Wllh Ihe ,oeL"eSsily of romplele SpcCllblion,
Ihe use ,,1 photography. and he oonlinucd 1&
of a few anistls, Ih", average f, disCO\lT

CQVERS ANO }ACKETS
.. Tbe desire to rouple the oover witb !he con-
teuls of the issuc.
S. Tbe relative di5inlerest al me magazines in
the production of good .... merican art.
.... boo.,t 111 you am do 10 seU a i, lo ,cnd.
in an id", in sketch formo or taJ.:e a chanee witb a
nished pa inting. You will p. obably get il back.
But 1 am Ihoroughly eQnvinood Ihat more aud
more IlJ' I wil! be pnrchased for eQvetS, a. fasl as
!he good aval lalJle. and that sorne da)'
pllolog.nphy will be fTQwned upon as the chcap-
esl of nrl. Al il would he a bit foolhnrdy
lo specialiO<e in CO\'CTlI alon.:. !f you are I good
",Iist in ot ller r. elds. diere i$ nothing to stop you.
'A.f.eu you get a good Idea, {.om working ' 1 out as
"de !ssue alld laking 11 chanoe on it. Bul if you
In new to Ihe field, dCJ"" .... ng opon ao ocom.e
(roro cov.:", migh! ,n very slim picl.i og1.
If you can gel a $Icady arrongement wi th Ihe
mall e. mngnim". il ll'Iighl be quile W<.>rth whil e.
ft OOK TAa:ET
Here i$ a fidd wide open. 11Ie book jacket h a
duillenge lo ingenulty an<! c1everness or tlle
artist and tlll.'fefore Is 10leresling and ucit ing 10
do. To koop iI ,in'ple 'lI1d effective i. nol $O ea.)'.
PubIlsbeu like r" lhe. lhort ti lles. They do oot
lIw.11ys get them. Tille and tille space on Iho
jacket iJ oIllrst imporlgnee, more imporbnt lhan
lbe spaoo ( ir any Is left ). BUI iIl ustn\
tioo has pbcc QIl Ihe jacket. can contribute
hrgel), 10 lhe attcnUon alld interest in Ihe Jacket
and Ihe ultlmnle $II lc of Ihe book. As a general
' ule. ja el$ mus l he pri nled farly clleaply so
Hal color in p&.itc.)' cfFectl $ d"sirahle. Tf Ihe
jl.cket can be dOnc in Iwo or hree prin that
i in ils favo . r(lJ' a rew 5aV<ld i n p" hlish.
Iog a single , mil may ruO miO lizable amolUlls in
!he Tun of t hOltsands of copie!!.
In rUllcUon tbe boo1: pcket is mueh like 111",
display. In fact. il dou display !he pnXI uet al Ihe
point 01 sale . .... $ us ual, limplicity is Ihe keynote.
"nch-oisp shl rp Inlltmeot, with few valllCf
lid coklrs-!s Lhe so.",deot approach. To sel 11
clcar idca of Ihe fllnction of the book jad:e l will
265
lIelp Immensely in Ihe COflCePtion al )'OUr jaeJ:et
design. It is questionabl .. wn..lher even lhe best
jacket can a poor book, or whclher a good
book mlght 001 seU n srlte of the jacket. llow_
ever. il Is romewhnt ]i1e pulting a good produet
in D Sood p..'\ooge. Thcre wl] be mloy hu tao<:el
where 1I altnlcts OIle to lhe produet and Iherefo,,,,
mllkes a nle. Le! lIS se! dClwn Ihe cs.scnt iab Dlld
fll nctiOIl$ of Ihe book jacket,
l. It muS! be qu ckly IInd lhe !l!lc read.
&. Tille Is more important lhall anything else.
3. F..xpens\'e color pL1te" sbould be a ...::nded f
ponible.
4. Flat po&tery lTeatrneut is)'ll()$t de"irab1e.
5. It mllst ClI'I)' for sorne distancc.
a. Sincc ycllow can ies farthcr thao any
olher color, it is good for jacke tJ.
b. Red is powerful . cspocial1y wilh blacl;
and while.
e. Almosl any jacket nuds al least 0110
primnry oolor .
6. The jacket should be as excil ing as possible.
a. 11 awaken curlosity.
b. JI should oteres t.
e. 1I shoold promise en tertainment or in
formation.
7. AH pmsi bleconltaslof wlo. should
be ulilized lo galn attenl lon.
8. 5or'nel imes ... prioling can besned by U$tng a
CIlIo.ed stock.
9. Here is Sood opportunity lor Ihe Rtlenl k",
devltes spoken of in Part l.
10. Small ligurClS are nol elIc.:tive on book jackets.
Half fi gures aod large heads a. e good.
11. Exprened aclion i . good. Anylhing f<:lr atten.
tion.
12. Make 11 rough of your idea. W.np 1I around a
0001: I lIel set ltu: bool; Imong olher$ with the
brightClSt pos.;hle a>mpctition. Thls Is the
be$! way lo judge.
13. Submil srunp!e jad:.-el! lo publishers. H nter-
ested, Ihey will rontact yoo. Cctting io with
severol publishers wi ll bring }'Oo (:QtUlder-
able ncome.
I
265
SOME JACKET ARRANGEMENTS
L\tlTHO/'j

V I RG I N I A "'-:-r:-'"--
fl LAI"'< f'lil3.LlrHErt

266
PUl3Ufl-lER S PACE.

,OR
///
PLJIjL t S- H E 11:.
SOME JACKET ARRANCEMENTS
'WIHlilT/E
MARCIA
HELENA ROBERTS
THE
QUESTI ON
BOX
BY
MAX FIELO
FUN FOR THE
WHOLE FAM Il Y
STORY ILLUSTRATION
JU.UST!'ATOttS whose wark appears In lhe leadillg
maga7. lncs are a rnther smaH group. It is ooly fair
( (1 (he reatkr 10 advisc hlm hat he must dcvclop
consKlcmblc :lbillty lo gel luto tha! groll ['. I do
no! ",ish 10 imply Iha! slary he lop
or he Iadder, though il m' l:I! be admitted il ;$
ne<lr ;1. Nor ji il the higlocst-paid or the
lields. Snce: "erc are bul a fe'" or
circ" l" toll, :l1ld slnco,> ead, c.' n US<: bu! a
few nr!isls, the group I' cprcsentcd
mus! be small . ( should la)' tha! yo"r
Ch.1' 1CelI j) f beecmi ng 3. $torr ilIus-
lrator aTe !lOOlll eq ual 10 )"0\1' chanees or
ing a aulhor or actur, Bu! tl"" d,ance
is alw:l)1 here, :l.lld il Al! tlu: time.
New nnmes are nlpeariug. ll"tI old
names IIrop out. Al mi}' rale tho; magazine. are
constantly searehing for ne", abilil)', alld if you
have what Ihey want you will gel In.
MO$ t illllslralors come up Ihe hnrd way. For
Ihe I1lO$I pa rl Ihey haYe provoo Ihei, abili!)" in
olher field. hdorc lhey gel thei' slory. :>lan)"
have OOl" e fmon the 6elds of ad,'Crtising JIuslra-
lioll . since Ihe IWO are so dO$e1y relatoo. Many
,,"orle in bolh 6eld . It l. mllre oft en ha! illus-
t mlou come "p fmm lesser impor tancc Ihan
cluwn from the 6c1ds 01 One arl 10 illll sl.ale. Yet
SOmC l11ustrntors are laking Ihdr pl3ce, in the
IIcld. of flne art, aoo are eapable 01 producillg
piel ur.:s worthy of Glle art exhihitions. So here
are r>O roles Ihat you. WOfk n' l.n be prac-
tical for wha! i5 nceded.
The ehallees are 1100.1 you wiIl nOI malre Ihe big
m3g(l7.ines n oue q uick . Ir ide. BUI even if you
ne,c. malee them, no! nco:<:ssarily disronnl
r oor ability. Evcry field demands lhe bes! Di
abilily. aud ir you. cbancc is I1<JI hcte, I can 'cry
,,"ell be Ihere. Few uf 11. know al Ihe slarl where
OUT parlicu lar tro leuls ma y Ii<:. The lllai .. !hing is lo
Iry lO be good, aoo never stop Irying.
You may qucsoon why Ihe magulnes do nol
268
par as much as advcrtiscr.l . Thc answer is Ihal 10
t be ill ustration is more in thc nature ol
proouct ion COS!, whil e t o the ad'ert iser il I
in"es hncnl. Fran'<. ly, Ihe magazine', Teal illCOO"lt
is rrom Ihe sale uf advedi$lng sp:u:e. The maga-
zinc in lhe largcsl Sen5e becotll" a medium for
ad''('rlisers. \Vhal is done i" Ihe magazine ibclf ,
i i 10 ereale tlo" largc'l possible circulat iOfl, t!>ere-
hy giving valne lo lhe spaoo sold. lf Ihe magaziue
lal, '1 magazine il ,.Iso I,.H, an adverli$ing
","ed"", .
The ndverliser, on lhe olher hand, ls promotng
sak .. of a producto and I. D hesl ar t """ le he can
buy u 10 Io is ad,.,.ntagc. The rcforc. sh.oo lbereare
more advertisCf"$ !han magatincs, he must corn-
pele wlth Olhers for he artist"t time, ",h('h naro
rally sends Ihe prires up. In Ihis sellllt the arrul! ,
cOmpete ",i th One 10 gel nlO the maga
7.ine seOlion, while Ihe 3dvertisc1"$ compete ",ith
onc anolher lo gel Ihe ar llsl . Ir Bnd when !he
!lI:tgn7.incs must compele for he tlrtisl also. Itren
his prlce ",ill mo"e " p. It is Ihe old la", of supply"
amlllcm:md.
:;';ow, you may question why lhe anst, if paid
lesll for maga";'", Hh"lration, someli mes
In ,,"orl.: ror the in preference lo
t i.,in;. Thc auswcr is Iwofold. First, he will be
smarl nol to have :'111 his e;.gs in Olle blsket. n.e
magazine illus lrntion adds prest igc in other Selds,
and 31so Ihcre is Ihal link ","Mler of ["ide of
aceomplishmelll elllcrins in. The good arlisl an
nOI meaSllre eilher his abilLty or "tt TeSI in lenm
of doUan. Al! obs will he his IIC$\ 31 I ny price.
Illu' tral ion il a chal1cngc Iha! Il .e artis t whu is
nOI a frald 01 ,,"orl.: lilees. So mueh more isleft 10
hlm, ond he accepts Ihe respomlbility wi lh a f.
Uln pride. Perhaps. sinc.l his nMlC is alJowed lo
3ppcar ( though piliably ' eels tllal !he
public may be lt whit more of his clJQf1s
10 plea$e Ihem. Perhapt he $ellSCS D bil of glory
in los efforls.
WHAT DO mE MACAZINES W ANT?
iUustration unquestionably lakes more of your
even al a lesscr fce. Unlike the adve.ti.!ing
m051 parl, da your
o ",'w"oo, About al!
get r'om Ik magazine is tllC manuscrlpt, or
; ralhe' fallilt<tic mugh, or a very
, shO\\ing liltle more Ihan Ihc spaoo
ea11llOt rounl "]>O" Ihe assi.t-
tha! )'<Ju gel fr<)m Ihe average ad,'crlising
;11 Ihe of ronooptiou. Many maga-
being ahle lo <'l"eal<:- (o.
t'ley request nol olle sitU31ion hui
1, 10 cllOOSC fr<)m. Sorne anow you lo pick
for i!lustrations, sorne ask yon lo ta!.:e a
, Bul Ihey muany wanl some idea
a< \o you intend 10 do. AH this
l lime and eHorl, and much oI il is des
fo< Ihc
Bu! since so :!lueh i, lefl lo )'<Ju, 1 slIppo5e thal
"<l hard ni il. The opporlullily Ior
ts tnAnllcly grealer. YOl' makc
I eharaeICl"S, !\nd
own teseareh for
il. If, when i\ is al1 done, it is good, you
!ake full credil.
To Ir)' 10 lell you what the maga"l:incs
wanl would he Jiltle shorl of mind reading. BUI
the'e are gene .. sped6calions ",''eh apply mosl
of lhe time . a"d !hese ean be lisled.
1. A beanlif ul heroinc, plus a manly hcro.
2. Good chnrnctcrization al! t1e wa)" thm"s:h.
3. 5trong dramatic illteres!.
4. Exciting and arraugemcut
(impact ).
5. Strong accen! On mode oc fashion, good
taste in a""" .... ics.
6. r"trre'!ing I""f>nirne hntth<>rn"ghly un_
dt'Tstal1dahle.
7. Variely in medi"," and indi\'kI"aJity of
st)'le.
8. Illu.,trations tha! 5elllhe .tory.
9. Inventiveness of conception.
10. Striki"g color bul in good taste.
Let liS approoch eaeh of thes<; separately and
disenss thom.
Make no tl1istake aoout it, sne is of nI impor-
lanoo. 1"his mcans a caref,,1 .udy of hesd con
stnleioo.lt means learuing he and values
in he h""d unoer dilfL'Tenl lighling. JI means lo
plaee lhe fcatures in Ihe head corrootly, aS well as
10 koow Iha many art drawing Ihem altractivcly. Tho \rcalment of Ihe
''''''''0' their appren is ver)" importanl, bolh RS :0 mode of hair
,i in olher ielJs. The magazines in rompe- dress and teclmical1y. Hair should be painted not
ha," giwn more and more attcntion to lay- as.<O many thousand hai .. , bUI as 10 Ihe forms ;nto
and physiml appearaooc. One of the grcat which Ihe hair falls, wilh just aS muen Ihought as
is variely. or ft change of evidenl :1$ to pbne ano valueas you would pnlinlo heforms
"O ,h=,,,, thlough, lo aUcvialC mouotony amI of the f"ce.
1 material ever fresh and inviting. Tlle You will ha,dly c'e' ind Ihe pcrfect modcJ fo<
mue is handled within Ihe any heroine. :>'1nch idealizaBon will be )'<JUI'll. YOII
, and you do not see i! unlil publishcd. wil! be callud upon lo do eIose np, and al.o
be ","opped, C\,t out, or changed half alld full -lcoglh agllTes. Yoo ",il1 h,.",e 10 slud)'
9rt dircctor 5ces al. It may be enlarged, Ihe <"!Tuul fashio" magazines lo her dre<.wd
u j interest of your piclure ", ed

it propcrly to SUlt any OC<:lIsiou. She should be more
eh,mgeJ fmm full rolM In el", . Ihan l',etly ...... he ,hOl, Id be wcllf>, ... 1 ud
never lmow what may happen. striking. So you wiU experiment wilh expn;sion
youare deHghled. Sometimes you are and geslure. You will probably dcve10p a lypC
disttppointed. Bul yon eventually leam very mueh your own, try as you rr.Q)' 10 make )'<Jur
",.. , clse blaw "p and quil. heroi ncs individual and different. U )"ou came up
269
tGtake it in ~ r slridc--or c1se blow up and quil. hcmillC$ individual and di{fcrent If yo" c;l.me up
"'"
PUlTING THE FUNDAMENTALS TO WORK
Ihn:lIIgh !he $Chool, )'On will h .... ,
be.!n devclopillg pretly-girllypes along Ihc "''ay.
wheu y<ro are uco:emul w!th Ihe be.util,, 1 girl
in ad"e1'tising, yo" gone a long !oward
succt'S, In story ill".tralion.
n,': HIUIO
First of aU, he mus! ,\e,er I.>e dfeminate. TIUlt
again mea'. head study. especially the aualOmy
of lhe male he3d. Regular reOows,lean amI mn.
cu!pr, win Oul. Clran-cul Jq\we Jaws. rull lil",
heavy eycbrows. prominente of bolle at lhe
hrows, leannen be-
cheekbone and noslrH, deep.sel
eyd, make up !he id .. al type. Y 011<5 will vs.ry from
mine, hu! ncither of uS wlll t>\'cr m.ke him fat OT
round lllOOd or danocterless. When he makC'l
loYe, nevcr let his pose be al lhe 1Io"'"CI}. malinee-
idol kind. He may even be a hit .wkward, bUI he
crU$hes her wilh a good of detcnninat ion.
Dress hlm $Iyli.hly and ne.tly, bUI no patenl
k at herhairoil . Thesmooth-shavcn Ineel:ocs best.
but giV<! hil cl\Qugh !one JO 111M he appcars
10 havc a beard, even if smoothly shnven. lUs c:<.
prcssWn is importan!. f he sits down. don1 pul
his kl"lOCS togcthtr, aud if he ,Iaods, do,, '1 pul bis
"', nd 01\ his hip ",,10:5$ wilh ebed Iist. One b "r
",Hemil\.ilcy:lOO the eaU$e lost. Study the hcr(>C.'l
of olher m"s!rators. bul best lock ar<)u"d until
you lind thal .ugged huI cultured Iype .a nd use
him,
COOI) C'IAJU.CfEKll.ATION
Ortee in a whi1e)'OI.I will fi nd a elu. raClCr ncady
pe-rfeet, bu! most of the l ime yon wrll have 10 add
)'OUr bit. Apply }'Our conceplion al !he proper
typc 10 Ihe bc!t modd)'O\1 Ciln Aad, At leas! IIII\e
Ihe valuu and pln"", 01 a hClld 10 work !rom, aOO
buHd he characte:r inlo he modcl.
Cil meta tests as Ihey do in the movies. Try lo nter-
P'e! lhe followiog moocls:

Hale Suspicion
Amrlcty S.lIi1hnes.
Surise .. DEfi ance
A<.!oration ",,"W S<:1fp;ly
" "P"
Interrogal;"" E"vy
Jo, Jmp<!lldlng ..
Btwiklmnent disasler e ....
FI'UII,atioo, IIibrily Conceil
Jo:mloll'Y
Inroxicat()n
Figure 01.11 rome Deelde on Ih" mood
CIIllcd lor. Try lo gel: Ihe modal lo live the parto
H the modc! is tolally and eannot
aet, gel It's loo important lo do wHoout.
The bst thlng yoo wanl 10 do 1$ lo creal"
piln d Ulraeters.
Just now the magazinc:s are leaning ''efY much.
to 'closc-u[O$. with the po5C and faerol exp<eJ-
$iOI15 leHing IIlOSI (){ lhe slery. TIIc dnl.ma!ic Inter
esl shol.lkl he lis roncentrale<! as po$sihle, If a part
ef o fl gllre wil! tel! Ihe slory "51 as ",di, enl il
down 10 t hat. n "t cont inuO! 10 practloe with he
larger setllog figurea ronvineingly inlo
envirol1lncnll of aH kinds, for fashions in iIlusua.
COfIstanlly ehangil1g.
Mueh can be dome wilh ]ghling 10 enhanee \he
dramatie. If you have a stmng emolional !it..a
t ion, find ways ami means tocollccntrate lheread
er's ottcnlion O" the importan! ehar",,,lcr. Muro
mn also be done by l",youl or annngcmcnt. By
!lSillg a vignet!e, conflJcting inicIes! CiD be clim
in.ated a"d dr",matic forre g\'cn lhe pose. Tbe
'nai" character 01" head can be glven lhe grulelt
contrast of background, can even be C\lt out
agaillst white papero Study the drarnalie wtren.
ever)"lU nd it. Sl udy rCIII joy, .eal rorrow, ud
":lrl<:'IIS mood. 'u Ihey hnppen in ."allife.
Thc 1Xl.'I1 wa y lo practice i:I 10 make smal! penal
JTIIOSG DRAMA 11(: ,m-.:1llWI" vi$u:tli7.alions of . tories )'011 rcad Ihal havt 001
Stutly your sloJy. Act il out yoursclr. Plan it in boon il!uslnl ted, rr rou g,,1 something thallooks
liule mnnikin rooghs. E\"en if rou cnnoot act, roo promislng il n'ighl be worlh whik: 10 ",od it
can exl'!'CSS yollrst'lf lhrougb lhe model. l" order up nlo a J41.mple illustralion. Bul makc lUre it
10 practice dramatic interprelation, gct out }"our is an il! u, tnotion and 001 JUSI a 6gllre doing
ca",,,ra and )'011' favorit" roo,]el a, " make klJllC nothing.
270
...... }U'" .... ,"'" mu"c, """''''g.
270
EXCITING ANO UNU$UAL ARRANGEMENT
1I is :al1y more impo<blnl Ihal lhe slory illus-
trato. eon.'lidc. lhe wholl! lIIge amlngcmenl tllan
I", advc'lising illustralor do so. In fact. the
IlOry wil1 ha,'o considc. ably mo.e to
do wilh lt. ln planniu!; your miniarore roughs,
",1'Na)'s dHI wilh the whole page or Ihe 'p,cad
of IWO pnges.:u lhe cut may he. BIocb or grey
t ... 1 should hc indirnt.:d. Some illll.'ltraton pa1lc
! actual text into a rough lo gel lhe cffcct of 1}'[le
I se! nrou"d tho proposw i!lustration. J kno", a
pn.!mineul ill ustrnlor ",ho his rongh in
opaque oil right O\'er a page al (e:tl mattcr 10m
01.11 or a magazme, lo gel lhe dtii.ed clfect. l'ho
plarement of title, blurb, C11lchlinc, text, 1'><1.
wl,lte 'p"cc ,h""M "n be Ifti,1 OUT. 'n,al ti ., "rt
diredor may nOI follow il dO<l't nOI lual ter. [t b
yon' lo dMigt. a good- looli"S ])IIge.
To ",akc a pnge dilrercnt, eJc<:iting.'l.Od umlSual
is by 110 rncans easy. Bullhe who c:l.n aeh.,\-.:
tbis, pl\ll good draw;ng IUld color, is Ih ... ma" most
50ught afl er. This is one of Ole q"a!ities
makeJ Al P".ker onhlanding as an illuSlmlor.
Very afIen the wlle. [jf Ihe paper can be [lulled
fII to tho subjoct An unusu .. 1 vicwpoint may hdp.
TIte k ledion el acomories is T1re Jpolling
01 unusual une:<pocted in pose .. nd g_
luro. lhe origiutlity in telling lhe story, al1 ,.
par!. M"ke every e.periment yon can
Ibln!.; of. "'m.ct' vilal it)', "ud vilaHly Is sim-
plicity \I.;lh force. Tite charactcr e.prcsscd is Im-
' porbuI. You may be sure lhal ir )'on. subject I
romplitatl, ind irect, duttcrod, ami ambigUOllf,
il tanuol lre vff)' exc:iling. Ir lhe cllar.lClcrs \re
ordinar)', withoul an)' thlng lIn1,lSualinlooks, pose,
or erulumc, tlO one ",ill bo lorrl.>ly e):eited. 11 may
seem !hat everylhing has be<)fI done, hui such
inventlon rorncslrOon lhesubjcct plus Iho ingenuo.
ity rn lelling Slory. N.o twn slories are e1actl),
.!ike, nur lwo !itualions or eharneleu. For Qn Al
P&Jker, there n always a way Ihal is dffertnl .
Yon hnve arral'gcment, tOMI ar.anllO-
men1. 00I01, .. nd !he 5101)', 'Chey can be Juggled
.boul Anything Ihal is lo be rrew, dlHer_
eTll, and exeiti.g must grow OUI ol !hese; tI.at \s
271
wh)' they have Ix:en made Ihe hasi$ol this booIc.
Out 0110",,1 am'lngemf:ut can corae man)' $U'-
prises. Supposc "'o do ,. wholc page tn ver), Hghl,
Ihen ( wham! ) da.k ha! In tbc ",iddle
of i t. Ma)'1.><: lhe whole thlng rs g. ey in fceling.
!he" 01.1 pops a conccntr..led 'poi of hlaek and
white place<! logeth<..,.. Wondcrfu! Ihings can
.,.,01.-':01.11 af a bhekg<>wn (Ir roal , Ibrovo1l againll
brilli .. n! rolar. Valucs elm he tul! nf ;mpaet a"d
SIlrI'l"iscs; i" fad, thal whr.l'e il11paet for the
mos! part co",,,,, lrom, e:ipcdally when ti...! ul'
wilh color. Your invenliverress nearly always
Otlt al lhe subjed a"d its inlerprelatio<t,
",}re,- tI ... n frorn !;!Oek byoul I. ieh. The stocl::
trieko uo""Uy 0.'" he p. np' 01 tn..
llco;"", ON ""SOlIO"
In s.ek:cting st)'lcs roc i1!mlTati .. " purposes, :tn
imporbnt rons;der.l!ion is lhe,r reblion to
,."d ",ass. 11.al a i., sl)'liJh \s ha. dl), enough.
It may be a good slyle, but not a good vah,e o.
color ro. yo". y Our compos; -
lion and patlern arrangemcnt is more important
Ihn tI,., d.CS!. Do you ""1111 :a tooe, oc :a
buS)' lone? Do you wanl II lighl , m:<ldle 100,." or
d:ll"k? \ViII you it "p ill 'igh! aad shadow o.
keep it ah,1O!t1 Hal, wi!h a f.om ...... l:ad< lighnng?
Wn,, !d st.ipc;$ or a 6gured p1\ltC'lI wdl , or nol?
n a! \s Illt! way lo piek a cos!nmc. If you WIIII a
fi gure sort in ill enviromnc"I, Ihcn you ... ould
piek a \':11"" foc Ihe eJou. 10 wk;t.1 is planned
lor Ihe bAckground. lf !he fi guro $ lo stand OUt
fordbl y, Ihen a good ronl'-Ast woukl be)'OUr le-
k"Ction. l ile will apptM 1"";"1)' :u
atlraeti .. e if I'b"ned lo fi l Ih" wholc sehc.oe. Just
bccause il ""me Oul or a lale rttslli[)t1 magnine, Of
just becan..., il !aob good on Ihe model, is not
enongh. Bul keep tI,e ruhlon ,na;wllti on yo ...
sub$cription lisl. l'ew 01 us are good enough lO
in"'.:nl slyles,
.I'racti"" dl'a w;ng cwl umei from fasllion muga-
Zncs. jusI in soft pcncil on layoul paper, Iryi" g
especially to calch lhe drape and $r.lartooss. This
will be cuier for women Ihan 1 ...... Illc".
STYLE ANO TECHNIQUE IN STORY lLLUSTRATION
Sincc the m:o.gancs are thorough[y COllscious
of fashion, il is ,m importanl basis for erHiei, ,,, of
yo"r work. Usc Ihe simpleSI tcrms of Ihe
ing m<><k .. , ],owc\'er, calher Ihan Ihe o; xtremes.
T. imnSS ,\ml ncatness ",ill o,,weigh he highly
oroa/c. ,\,'oid i f possib]e Ihe "too fussy" in style
which is prc-scn t io S011lC fono evcry scason. It is
found in the o\"erornamcntal,
in COllspicllOll\ ton """'y rn/fs
and ,,,mes, fln"'"ccs, ["ud p"ttcrn. and sO forlh.
Mnny m,><1<:1, lo exlremes, Tf threc-inch hccls
are wom, Ihey wcnr four-ind" Tf skirt' ,U"<; short,
theirs ,,-re shurter. Jf hair-do's are high, they go
higlwr; ir I. at, Me "'ide, they o;an har"!y gct in
Ihe .loor, The arliSI ean easily be taken in if he
does nol ho",. The ouly "'ay he ron know is to
find 001 O)' Ihe m"-ga"l.ioes "nd style exhibilion,.
In good mag"o;i,,e, aud shops yOIl ",i ll al so find
informaliou aho"t acce,sorie,. Everylhing avail.
able 10 o"e [["s trntor is nvai lable to anolher. "fhe
Jilfercn"" lies in the greater pains one ",ilI go lo
ill the way of rescarelo illfon nat ioll.
n"ts will "lw,'Y-' he a p,...,h1con. Th i[[ "strator
will do be'l b)' geUing advke, lor who c,an pos-
sihl)' keep IIp witl> them? J a,"oid the ",e of ti hat
al "tt ",here""" pos'it"le, <ince they are .ubject
lo sl,eh a grcal ,""riety 01 lasle,
r belic\'e hair slyles should be determined 1001
entirely by the mode of the momeo!. bul also by
Ihe persoalily of Ihe chmacler. A yOu"'g $wcct
thiog looks younger "nd s"'eeter in a loase .Iolt
halrdress. A sophiSliealed persoH looks mOre
sophistieatoo in severc 3" ups"ept hairdr<>SIi.
11 i! Ih"rdore J maller of jadgment, aud the
mod shollld be ",mi og lo adjusl her hair dress to
re(l"irements all limes.
TH'::"""QUJS
Teehnique is yO"'$. f " Ihe only time
tcdnique will be COllll'laiuw ahont will be when
it is too "fuS$y," or whclL a lIluddinc:;s of v"l"e is
produred. liad tccl"' ;que ;,. ord inaril}' the result
of poor grotlllding in f"ndamentals, for almosl
uny 01 mcdium ",ilI look good whe n
Ihe fundament als are ,.igh!. Simplicily of lech-
272
niquo is alwa)'s in man's favor, yet il can Le so
Hal a",1 smooth as to be opprcssivc, lacking char-
"ctcr aud Ihe feeling of medin", manipulation
whk h shollld "Iways be If yo" eannOI
I"JI whal il "'aS dOlle lVilh, )'ou e'au he rairly cero
tain that il is 001 very good, Tricks of tedmiq"e
.100,,1,1 never becomc more impo.ta,,! lo yo" lhan
honencraflsmanship. J remen1her" sludenl
who <"dllle 10 me glowing ",ilh enlhmiasm. He
lhoughthe had fOlmo he key loorigi"alily. when
1 askcd him ",hal tho great W3S, he con-
fidcd Iha( hc had a "ha"kct \Veave" tech-
ni'Jue. Leavillg him lo hi, 0"'" resometes was!he
1i11<1"sl Ihing lo do. Ullfortu,,:ttd
y
hi. drawing,
,"al ,,,;!; , n",1 rolor wero al! bad, nnd wilholll Ihcse
hi. ",ea.,c' had 'lO chanceo Tho hest ",ay
lo gct tedmi'lue is lo worr)' aboul cverylhing else.
, ' AIllf:TY 1:0< M>:mUM A:<"
'" .. :
y Ol" meditom wiJl ha'" ",,,d, lo ,lo \\'i lh elTects.
E3Ch mediurn hn. its OWll peculiaritics under
your individual ;;"cry mcdium
hulds pOl;sihilili .. s for yo", ow" origi,,! upplica-
l ion "f i\. Try Hc,""r to \\'ork in Otle medium all
Ihe tim". Use pcnei] nn<1 crayon for st"dies if no!
for fiuars. When practicing, try Ihe. same s"bjeel
in dilferenl medinms. I n Ihis " '3)' yO\l r,nd the
one mmt cXl'ressi,"e.
:<'lagazilles are atwap in new trul-
m"nts <lf metJiulll ro long they prActical fDI
rCl'rodueti<ln amI eH'edive 011 tho page. Thcre are
untried I)()Ssioi ]ilies of Illed " m mmbil\3tionS,!0
lhe artis! sho"ld be rontin""lIy experimentillg
wilh new clreet.,. It i" very "asy 10 gel intv a rul
",ilh too mueh s;milarity of treabne"t. \Ve me nO\
g()iHg to c]angeawund mueh unl"'5 we do sorne-
Ihing abo,,! il, "nd we ron t 100 mueh
",tI. bona fide jobs. 'fhe e:<pcrimellt ca" "" c\()1\e
scparalcly, !he" shown as" possihili!y. Y01l may
get a ch:mcc 10 u.'le it.
If you ca,'t alTorcl motlcls fo,. sueh experime ...
tation, work from some of the exedl .. ,,! material
in Ihe fa.shion "'agunc. Work for elfccls ratl><:r
Ih:m failhf"lness 10 copy.
I
I
I
I
ILLUSTRATIONS THAT SELL THE STORY
How ofl en Ihe iUuslrutor hctlll people SIly, "If
[lib Ihe ))ietu,"", I ,cad Ihc sloryl" TIlaI I lhe
keynole o the ilJm!ratOl'. oh, te $el! lhe 510ry
jusI al he wuuld any producto You do il fl'II
by gainlng ollentJoll. wcondly hy awal::eniug curi-
OSil)', IhlTdlr by 1M: p,olllise of en!crt.>lI\nlCnl or
inleres! in Ih" material you "re illunrating. 1"1>n$
p"l of it il vm"al and par! o;motional or
Th:tl i$ why nlWI he approoehed rroro
_e Ihan the lcd1nical angk. Alllactors mUS!
work .. lo function proper1r. 1t I t!lls raet
hal thinl! do",n IIw: rank:. cr good m"stralors.
enn .ltaw and painl well. bu ! slI("(l lhe
emollonnl 'l"alil;'" mUSI be so thorouShly a part
of practlcal applient ion, and tlw imaginarlo" must
be set rree, dI(: demand "1'0" the artisl is g",al,
I do not Ihink il wotJld he unll'l ... ! rar lhe good
itluslTalQl'" 10 be r,,,.1y good actor, lo he "ble lo
wrile a good yam, or lo hims-clf in Olher
creative \Va)". Beal,"5e. after a11, slory ilh\$lrallon
ls nll}t(l oolnpletelr Ihe [ndivldual
aOO of Ihe man Ihon js Ihe: l;1SC In any
olh<..,. !leld.
The magaxinc cannol tel! you how 10 mue an
Jlull1"llOrl IJ"I wi1lsel! lhe Slory. n,cy CIIIn only
sen:e )IOw- abllily lo do il. No OBe aln len you.
Bul if Ihel lO?" is (and somelime5 eltrI
",hen nol ). Ihel"(! 5 bou,>d lo he an . pproacn el
kind IIlaI ha.. neve' been in cxactly the
SIUll() Evcn ir :\ few "di"d,cs
have bccn nii<Jd a5 illnsl,alions. Ihu two di"ching
lre e:uoet]y nor do Ihuy clineh in
]y Ihe ... ,me way, undcr u.me
1\'0' do lhey hnl:! 10 be pul on lite page in Ihe
... me ma", ICI". Somclhing can al"'"a)'S t... ndJ.e<i.
If lhe suhcct i. or a bil had"' yeJ.
$ alw.ys <lesign. polling and color, Iypes an<!
Movles I.ave been encling ... ith
clinc!..,s $Inro Ihe dar lhey begau, ye' thc:sc aTe
never oomplctely liresomc if approadJCd wilh
'nesse and intuition. Anr subecl \lllder the sun
Nn he apprw.ched Illlercstingly: il all dcpcnds on
how much nleres! Ihe artist hlmself hu in l. A
pieture wn always be made that ",iJl /leJl the
slory.
273
and conctptioo will aJWII)'5 come
ahCl\d of ul!l.:tJtion. It will forcV1)I" be ImpolSiblc
10 lell an 'nycnto, how lO invtnl . BU! Ir he sense.<l
a necd and purpose /ir.I, hiS will he1p carry him
10 idea. r think n b ck or invenliveness may
<nInc more (rom a bck of tlle ahility lo analyze
lhan 'mm R dearlh of i<kas. Sometin,CJ ;,wen-
li'"eIICJ$ In ilIustration does 001 come (rwn de-
lailed des(rlplO" wil" i" lhe Slory al ano 111e iIlus-
tr:llor lnal)I7-CS wha, mighl h:.ve place in
Ih,,i lu.tm I' l . ca! Me Ihal "'"liS 1101 made appar_
c,,1 Ioy Ihfl anthor. The Quthot prohablr tell! us
"I,e kisscd he, fuI! On lhe lips,u a",l lels il go al
Ihat. The IlIust",tor decides whether he liflS hu
fare "P lo hlm, whelher 1, l ipped baclc
O<" [aid 011 hIJ shou[der, wlleth"" soo ",ean a
[itlle hat O<" a berel, and whose faec is lo
be pnrtly hidde".
If they al a railn<:l slalion, pcrhaps
Ihe aulhor di.! '101 menlion Ihei. baggnge, TII)r lhe
fad Ihal a bag 1$ loppling 0\= or b lling in mid_
aiT. 'fhe may MI have delcribcd Ihe gr ill-
ning galen",,,. Thal inv<mlion-plausiblc analy-
5;' of tilo;! sih ... IOn!O makc)'Ol" oonoeplion inter-
esling and original. Originality is nol with
' lIdS alooe. bo,! building things reasonable 01.1 1 of
rhe 'ads. En:ry sto!')' can have m stocy within a
ltory. \'ou, illlUtration;' lhe 510<"y you leH about
the Slory.
COLOO MiD COQIl T " I!'TJ;
AlI the IhlngJ dil<:us..,d in OUt Parl Threc deal-
inS wilh color may 6."' cxprefSion In ."torr illus-
I ... tioll. rolO<" scl>emcs ha,"!! a ;real pbce.
lI.claled color am be Sfl:lPPY aOO do wonders fOC"
a page. BUI lhe ""'-gazil>C$ do '101 w.n, color for
hc sakc of gaudiness. ReOle,nl>eT, Ihe magazine
;. so[d el<ed up. The oolor d<ld nol llave 10
ac:ross teu- or flftr-lool spare-only ' ,um Ihe lap
lo lhe eyes. Scr".ming color is wocru\Iy oul of
place. YOu wou[d ,hecerore &I'proach a. .....
Il\lSlralion difFerently from a biU poste.-, calendar.
or display. Bril1iancy is aH right, bul brilliancy
sllpporled by c/$nning COtnpanlons al l<me and
00",.
oolor.
273
QUESTIONNA1RE FOR STARTlNG AN ILLUSTRATlON
5incc g<>od illmlmtian is good analysiJ, he
folh:rwing questions may develop an approach,
and hclp yoo towru-d something effective:
What is the nature of my subject?
Hal it a mood? bi! powerful, average, orweak?
Sh0'.lld it be color? If so, memld il be bnghl, Or
.omber and grey?
h il indoors, OUldoors, day o' nighl? What kind
of light?
Ca" anylhing be done with thc Hghing?
llrighl, diHuse<!, dark, shadvwy?
FDr aetion, what would!llm do unde. the SlIme
cirCUIO.tances?
Can Ih.., '!(ry be told in mtlre han one way?
Whatare the ehoioe,?
Can you ten any!hing that !he manmeript
omitsr
Wha can yOI1 do 10 enhanoo each charac!cr?
Has Ibe setting charadcr? Can)"lu add sorne?
'What have been Ih" "ction and circums!anoo.
lcading up 10 thc momen! illu.\lrated?
Wha possibilities of emot iona! C(lnl,.. ... tl a.e
there?
h he suatinn dependent upon facial cxprcs-
slons?
Which figure is ffi(),t important? Can this im-
portanoo be conoontrateJ? '
Which of Ihe are mo.t importan!?
Can ,.m' c1iminalc Ihings of llnilnporl:l.ncc?
b it to eo;prel' a feeling of Hnear o.
massmovemenl in yoor compasition, eVen though
thSe in thcmselves a", staHc?
Does yUllr sllbieel lend ilself tu pHltem? lIuw
can)"lu arnlllge il?
Wllnl;" he dominnnt thought uf yuur picturc?
Can you give jt one?
Can lhe thollghl be drnmath,ed?
Can you emplny geomelrical sllapes, line, Or
informal SUbd"j5ion here?
Can )'ou create a foeal pont wilh line, witl!
contrast , wi!h irecliun of gazc, col/)1", or;n ""y
other way?
\Vh.at abolll the poses and Cal) you
aJJ anything uf yoor uwn?
la]"" considcting his charadct, modc of \ifc, cul-
ture, background, habits, cmotions?
What about costumc? Is there a chanoo fOl"
anylhing hat wonld help)"lu 10 a . triking olfcct?
Can the costumcs be madc a partof an inteTest ing
compasilion?
Can you embellish tbe charnctcrs by tI", envi-
ronment, or do they sland up without placing
them agalos! a background?
Can you "dd 10 the drama by the.backgrolluJ-
uling ao:;cswries, neatness, el"l!er, richness, bare-
ness, or anything else?
luto wha! category would 10u plll thi, , itua
tion?
Old, new, cheap, smart, tawdry. unwhole
dean, ordcrly, unusual, average, cost
Iy, hC3lthy, dirty, vile, wholcsome, modern,
Victorian, an!iqnated, good l:aste, bad laste.
rural, uroon, c1ear,foggy, dank, musly, fresh,
bright.
If itfaUs intoone or more of lhe foregoing, how
can you ncolparate th05e qualities lnto H?
Now """ you make sorne sroall rougm of what
ha5 come 10 mind?
After '1ying out your rough, '"''QuId it be better
ir O" Ihe page?
Have you .-cread the manllSCIipt a!lld notcd al! j
Ih" beis?
\Viii yom compasiti011 have to be cropp"d lo
nt the leavil1g room for litio, text, and blurb? i
Will the gntter rul through Ihings of impor_ 1
tn"oo, ueh a. faces? j.
yon !ried out more than one tonal plan?
Can it be in more Ihan one color scllemc?
Can tbe subject! be stril'ped uf al1ything wilh-
01>1 Imrting lb", Urama. Ihe col1lposition?
Ir somoone cisc had had this a.ignrnent, do
you thil1k w<>uld hayo d011e il JIL" as yon ha .... "
l'lanned it?]s therc nO utht:r way?
Have you rt:ally planncd thi! independcntly?
lIow manyexamples uf othcrs are you foHowing?
Could yo .. jusI aS wdl pul Ihem away aud .tar!
o"e.?
[s the arlist }'O)u are imilltting ",al1y cal'abk 01
. \Vha! pD'le WQuld the character be lihly lo better thinking than yon are?
214
. . .. n .
.,.

'"
214
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1
WORKINC OUT A TYPICAL STORY ILLUSTRA n ON
At t],i, p<.>in t it ma)' I" OV" 01 '':'11"" to )'0\, if
tal:" l'" sit u:;I.tk", and It, ('u, d,,,
u ke of simplicitr, hongh the'c n'e 5e"e,al e1,ar
1ICI<"fJ in OUf stor)', wc .... ill build a " id"", abo,,!
!he hcroine OJl l)'. assmni"g rhat n dose-up
o Ihe gi.1 ",itl ha\'c impad 110M would a
ilCUiJ:g ",itl> several YOH wil! ,ecaH
1 ru"",, aid " "lOdern lI ust 'ation. Jimp!icit)'
I lhe kC)'''Cle; O .... li,sl problcm 01 Ihi kind ",ill
be handled ",ith 1))0le ,egard foc (I'l!:e eHect
Ih." lor lhe <.v"'pldc lluS!roliUI: 01 the 'I"ident ,
lI'e shall "<un,,e that th" fol!owing pa",graph .
tlle VIl(: e1,OS<,!n to be
SI", load lite nllme o/ "ncienl IiID pt, . 11 tfw, my.
ftI). o/ Ihe tI", sen'UDUJ"CSS 01 n !ult'Y
nighl On the N,le. She b"ulIg,cd to nO er.,
flOO "'os .. ", the Sphin.,_ Her 1,,11 1,1'< ..-ere
,ell lot .. go",n 110.1 lo".,. w.lte ],0..,'''.
e)'''' IuokOO ul"'" Ih. I1,naoh .
hl.ook I:ne< of het' h, ,,,,,,, seel'l'W.'d lo ,(':tel, out
001,1,\ lo l"""h,:l1 he, temple>, weal ol chon)'.
bbck h.i, Ihat c' u,,"nOO hr. he,,<1 . Sho oot, o"" .honl
dt, a cigorelte I'0is<! i" loe. ,lende' fi" .
&('1'). She <1cl.'erale:r . "Js Ihcm
"" b"yond
I
No\>', il Ihe aoo\'c no! Sli,
Ihine in yo." imaginution . tick to ad"c. ti, ing. 1
k't:" ver)' """.uom, creat",e, !lo! HC<"
essa.ily Eg:'pl ian 1Ju1 of a I}'pc th311"'SI,,--';\h tI .. ,
!pi. it al Egvpt. \Ve necd nOI pul her in a boot O"
t"" Nne, ,K>. ,-,,,cn (iriS in Ihe or the
I WS. 'Ve shonld nol Inakc he. jusI :1 l>i>bby.socks
IIlO(lcrll <ehool gir! wilh hbd, I'ai., b"l "
trpe, ""usual 0110l if pos.ible, Ihat ",i11 ""Ieh
lhe r...adcr wilh :l sorl of Orie>l lal bcauly , .. SC",
iet IllWtul dn ... lO gU"'!J: \O Illol: ,,'ood On a pase.
IIcr hai. and ",hil skh add Iwo
, .. "lil e' ((> Ihc fo<,r"aJu" ""heme. We
mn adJ a lghl lolle, al .d more <la. ki and lights lo
wlth Ihe othen. Thc fou simpk"'lIlue pbn is
III05t impo'trUlt lo liS bdorc w(' sta, t uut,
it wil! h" the basis of our pallern, (lnd of
!he minb!ure roughs in which oltcmpt 10
. ""I>ge Ihe mas.sC$.
275
Ou. ;$ quile "l)Ceillc ahon! dctllils,
lo 11." [>""C, There ,,'e pcthnp. n
hllC'l)Tetntic,ns hope that )'OUT! wil! he
,"ite fro", mi"".
I se<': Ihc girt helore 1 I"'gin, wilh he, 1"",1<1
sligh!ly d.ocpcd but looking straight :he . eader
(olle ,,1 Ihe . are , b':e.lll'O we WUllt Ihat
nllure lo ,cloh Ihe reader. almo.,t aS f he ,,"ere
the charad" lo 1 ... '1'. Sho"ld we show a
n'al1, dlC ... onld be unrohsco", of Ihe oI
a"fone elS(). Se", .. ou. eyes. howc,'cr, aro Iwiee as
sc,,,uou. t",n"tI upon )'Otl n upon w,r.eo'IC el,..."
Let us upon Iha! faet .
:\'ow, Ihe tI,<-'SS ... , .. onlr 1>01 any
.pccific mak:.i,,!. That hclps, lo. il 1",1.>'(,s .. s to
out own .,,>te.ro Iollg as our shoW$ a
lo"'eut <1r(>!s. lf Ihe ",rite. hml ."id ,-.,]\'cl, for
n;,mple. we might hu"e hud te. go te> no cud of
t,,),,!,I.; " 'eu""S" d", .. of 11."1 1'<"
as.\u.cd, if We '''0 ro'>eo:11 tnHi"g "" a single
dose.ul' .'I.e Wel" mus! not he
.i,, Ihe ",rite. ha5 gi\'cn 1,,:. <1re<s ron
inl'ort;nce,
As to h<:. hai.r I)'le. " t ICtl We ,.'atl o/ a ""'c;I h h
Qf hai.," we do 1101 or il as d Cl$C \o lhe helld.
II"the. il would he fu1l, Ioostl, sofl a\oul tI ,e
bec.
O" the 1 will prOCl.'Cu lo rouKh (Jut
SOme JIGSCS lxol!erns_ 1 "nuld lilr. ..
to hn-" )"JM do lhe !'ame. .. much as
)"" I"""'ibly I,om the wa)' [ ha"c ,wrlr.('(1 it
Out. J uggle Ihe four \';llUC5 nbout. But 'Clllcmber,
Ihe red is cquallo" darle grey in Ihe hbck,
k:alc.l ler hai' m"st hc '-el-,- black: thc
ku'. ",hite. Talro a 00[1 peual ami a ,iS\lC 1a)'00.11
lK>u. Kc<:1' 11", ro .. , .htchu tl,ink,
Ihiuk al the very Iart, a",l once you g! golng,
thc .e.' wiU f"lI in linc.
Ir)"Ju I'rerL'I' .. neW sdcct a pam!J:mph
frolll sorne 1101)' and rough out y<lI" .-ersou of il.
unly "''a)' to ca'" t(J ;s lo .Imt ,,"w
to <.'1'111 upor. yo"" Owll Ultl invcnt ivc
""". Story Ilustrolion \Vas "cver Icarned over-
nigh!.
\
275
MINIATURE ROUGHS FOR THE ILLUSTRATION
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"",' I 11 ,--,
276
DEVELOPING THE ACTUAL-$IZE ROUGH
The llt"eo:'C<li"S page of milliAlurc rough5 IId.'I
00:" Oolle "uillly lo gd al a J:lHsbctory pba:-
menlof Ihe figure amll spotllng of lhe general
""' ... """. , mad" lhe choloo ;ndkatcd
of Ihe movement in Ihe des;gn, wilh all
)ne. eanying he eye lo he The ",hi le
ooso," and shol\ ldcrs are S'I'pported hy A darl:
shado"" and lhe I,.-iglll roo dresl wilJ come 'lC.d
10 ",hile. Back al lhe head will come a 10w ton"
and dar k shadow. hoth of ",hieh $hoold enhancc
lhe \"("y lighl :U1d vcry dark ,,,,Iue wll im w1l be
n 11"", hcad itsclf.
"fhe pmblcm nO\\';5 lo muke up an aelual-siz"
rough ",hich would he suhmilled lo Ihe ",agaz",,,
editor. Thls rould be dalle;n l<Cncil. charcoal, or
colo ... '" CI"a)'OIIS. \Vher. lile nugane is Ihor-
oo.gI,ly familiar wilh )lOu, """k, elaho""le roughs
.... no! neceo.,.')' d ",iuS >","r 6 ...
melllS. Sometlmes 1"'"0 (Ir thrce are asked
foro ofl en of difieronl si:lIu!ioou. Normally, Ihl"SC
roughs ."ould be. do.!C in color. bul fo, purp . ..
of this llook, t],i< rOllgh ca .. he iII u31,aled just aS
wen in hln ami whik
If Ihe il lual iol\,:u in (,'>is ""51:, h:t$ aIread)' bcen
dlOlOCn, Ihen it j. advuble lo can in yo"r 1n<;>(lel
ro .. Ihe roug!., fOl" yo" will the" be ahle to
follow "1' in the Gnal ",it], mueh lhe Slme ehar-
act ..... , drcss, ami Jo rOTil>. 11 is also ndvanlageous
lo tlm. wilh the I)'pc roo are
going \O lai"l; the rough acto n! a prelimInar)'
stnd)' fo' younclf as ,""en ;u; for Ihe maga7.i lle
ruJlor. "011 can el lhcr make Ihe rough dlrC:C1 f '0111
the l"u(lel (lO" gel )'on .. C3. nlCra 0111 oud 12ke $Ome
You may "d fiC\\.. suggeslions w/oc!l sel-
I;ng "p Ihe .""Cct befare ron Iha! will he: bcuer
tllan ftny of )'OIlf finl 11 maUL'.-s
Itle: haw )'0" a,r;'e at ... 'hal )00 are b",;ng lo oo.
so lonS;).$ }"Ou c,',mtuany m"l:e I'P )'onr mino lhnt
il i.\ lh<ll"",st yo" can Ihink of. But once
you sla,1 the 6nal picture, c\"CI"ything .hould be
,,"di oc-<cid<.'<I..'IO !ha! tfleTe \Viii be no o
hor$C$ in A color sketch for your Own
qlisfaction is wellworlh the time il 12kes, and for
Ihis 1 s1, .. 11 make one. even Iho,,&h we do nOI
il.
277
A ","oro .hould be added here stressing the im-
porlanooof a modelfil<: :u wel1:u a file o gencral
Ihat is Jikcly 10 be ncedL-d. As D.n illul;lralOr
yo" never kuow what likcly 10 come up. or he
tyr<:' uf Itor)' Ih,,1 will h" given yo" 10 illustra!e_ I
fo""d il worth ",hile lo lah Icsts of moo_
eh a$ would 1Jc done in n"l\;on pkturCJ. Try t!lem
out (or dr:unalic abilily u pres$i()fl, Ha",
Jonle t)"l' ical heuds. f1lII-Ic"!lh. amI costumcd
poses 01\ fUe. Your file shuuld be as complete as
fI'>!Sihle, wilh men, yOlmg meno "'OTIlen. yOlmg
",nmen, a",\ children. Jt;s cxpem\"e lo c;1l in a
mo<lel aud nd out after Ihe there Ih"t her
sho" Jden 1110 huny f ... Ihe evening drcss, Iha!
she is knockkneed in a h.lhing su;l. \IT 11"' 1 "he is
SllOl\ ano thck.tlliglll_"(1. "'' ch the hcad I'hato on
rol<: "'ould nul ind icalc. TIte Ilhologmphs mooels
oo. lil" ....... ""en "",n .. _
limes abnost beyond rtrognltion. Yoo ShOllld
koow whal "he 100ks like;n frOllt of yo ... C:lmera,
)'O" a,e \Yo,k;llg with y""" individual
appMatus,
For tho m<Js t parl. nlOdels are tlisappointing in
one ""y u. It !hal "'" WllS
e-... .,. ,,,canl 10 be Ix"fccl, wilh hOlh a fine 6gure
al",1 a fi ne hcad.lf Ihey a:-e 'ea1lllfllllhey may be
",,,,ble 10 acto You may 1 .. lhal you
yonrsdf will kwe 10 con:ribule mlleh in lIle way
01 imnginaHon lo any 1'1"'log, aphic puse.
the mood l., moSI IlC'"CSJal)" i$ for Ihe conlril",.
tiOIl of cl mracter, so" ,,; lhing ror Ihe 1i:hIIO faH
IIIXln,' 1 .. "'..., a[\;,t 1",1 it, Madd. ;i,.., )'<>'\ "Ion
indication of fonn in ligll l, and ,'11100. te!l i"g >0\1
".flere the :are, "nd lile rcl.1lionship of ,,,.1_
uos. I do nol believo uny Jr so good Ihal he
can dupcn$(: ",ith ",odel .
Your dntn Glc should conlai". ,"ni"ly, Ih" mate-
rial 10 be \l5ed in haekgrollno. "" d seUings, snce
yo" cop)' :tdllnl poses uf >copIe, Try lo
kecJI "p Ol[ ill le,i.". decor:l.lion. modern f"m; !ure,
cun enl fashions and BUI s also
the life al thc paSI, lhe s",all lOwu and farm life,
OUlOOor material, horses nnd otller an;mab.
tul'l>e$ of v.rious perioili . tores aud shops, night
clubs, slXl,b, nnd almost eve')' hlUC of Ife.


i .
277
PHOTO OF THE MODEL
STUDY FROM THE PHOTO
I
f ",' J
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279
J
,
,
,
,
j\,
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I
I
., .
\,
,
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279
THE FINAL lNTERPRET AT10N
1 have reproduced the photograph poscd ac- uality. Tho physica! appearance of lhe oonlenls
cording lo my .dedion in miniature rough. This will be closely "l1iM wilh lhe perrona! !ikes ami
)"oung b.dy was selcctoo n,ainly IlC<'ause .he dislikes of the art director. Ther" "'"" art directors
appcalcd 10 m" as being:1n unusual type. 1 am who seem 10 h:we very d"cided preferences as lo
dc1ibcralcly seeking 10 gel away from Ihn stond_ ooth and types of iIl"..tralion. On.. may likt
ardizad cove. girl type, o. Ihe w-cal1cd photo- the "oIo.C"I1" Iypcof picture showing large heads
gcnic mOOcl. !ler .!ante<! eycs and bm", ... Ihe and exp", ion. Another may prefcr he Mfun
f,dlncss of he. moulh, logclhcr wilh thc smooth piel\ITe type," showing lhe cI'araeter. in a setting.
n/XOk "ud shouWe"" $e<lmed 10 coincide with h(> Any aTl director slrives lo produce a varicty 01
aulhors description. The charco,,1 .tudy of hc approach Ihroughout the magazine. This i. olten
photograph was done mainly lo sce if 1 could the realOn for the croppillg of a hdl_si7-c paillting,
brng oul these qualities ",ilhoul Jilerany oopying fo. he may not wish to ha'-c two similady treated
Ihe photograph. Were Ihis a definitc oornmissiOl1, su hjL'<:'1s clrue !(>ge!he,. There are thme arl dire(-
I wQnld semllhe charco.,l drawing 10 he editor, ron who lean 10\Vard oorlai" mcdiums, perhapi
accornpanied hy eomrnent. abouI \Vhal J in pref""ing "'ater color lo ol ; or cray<ln.
mind aS lo Ihe illl1str::otion, he color, and anylhiog dry hrush, and smih, mcdium5 lo Ihe so-calle<!
dsc that mig!.t mal:e my inlention. pe,lcctly heavy. mediums.11 i. a good plan al tite .!:arIIO
clcar. familiar .... yoursclf as mueh as pQ$Shlc wilh tM
Thc art director \Vould in lurn submit Ihis lo t)'pe.1 of i!1ustnlt(>ns most gencrally used hy 6.dr
he lIthcr officiuls or Ihe mugane and rctum l lr you have uny ncw or ap-
to me willt their ('Ilrnment. as to the po!iSibllities. proaeh in mind. it ;s better lo submil sornelhiDg
Thi. migh! 'ave a grcat deal of Iost molion. If the along this lil\C at an cudy .hlge lhan
magazine were nOI in sympathy with my ap- attcmp! 10 surprise the magazine wilh an "nt::t.
proach, OT ha<! aoy objections, Ih;, would loe made pcctL-d teclmique on a r,nal ousignment.
clear befare he Slart of Ibe final work. If!he ehar- AlI in aU, (he whole proccdurc shauld be Olle
coal sludy ;s approved, Ihc iIlu$lrator can pro- of e10sest co-opcralion. Thc art director is just lIi!
cccd \Vilh COl\fidcnoo that all is wd!. Thi. prore- eage. as you are lo givc hi., magazine distinction
dure is most practical for al! oonoemOO. Eaeh by any means poi5sible, but he musl kllOw bis
i:>sue of he magazine has a delinile closiog dale grouml. from slarl to lioish as far as y<llll abWty
by whfell Urna al1 ..-ml: mud be satisfaclorily i. ooncomed. This i.whyacerlain amounl of yO\!!
oompleted. The average monlhly maga",in dos- liUle should be set aside for e"P"'"irnenl and .tady,
og date i., tllrro rnonths in advanoo of publica- so that you Cln keep y<lur ab;[iy aud approo.dr
ton. The i1Iustralor 5hollld try lO llave hi, wmk flexible and dynamie. You can kccp him infonned
complete<! ten days befare he dcadlne.lt is very of 3Uy !le W idea. you have, and this may oflen
bad \O force the maga1.ille to liS<: you. work. be- pave Ihe Wl:ly 10 new opportunities if the maga-
Muse of the shorlnge of time, whcII il is unsalis- zinc is wingto experimcnt with y<ln.
factory. For the masl part, erilicisms from the Sinoe the 6nal interprntation of oue subject is
magazine ore warranlcd and W1Juld not be ror!h- in rolar, il s nel'essary !oplaee hepict"re A!OODg
comi"g unlcss doo",cd absolu!ely The otbcr oolor plMes in his book. The reproductlOD
las( thiog an art dircelor ",",,"nls lo do i. to dclay of thepainling wil! be found on page291, entitled
publication. He will Ihereforc appreclate ear1y A Sample IIlu.stTutiou. 1 suggcsl that Ihe readH
dc1ivery upon y<lur part, which wil1 gi\"C hirn an review Ibc p.uagra!,h ",hich we havc hlkcn asO ...
opportunity of making changes wthout cau:>ing problem. and Ihen decidc whether, n his judg-
delays. ment, r havc caughllhe draOlatic ami. cmotional
You ",i11 nd that earo maga7.ine has (tU individ- qllalilies suggestoo.
280
HEAD STLI DIES r-OR ILLUSTRATIONS
<. "A'" 'M " 1I ". , " ....... n
11 .. ' .... .. r .... r" . c. 00 '.10<) ... ,
... 0 ""''''''' '',''''''' , .. C' T ....... \. .. cw .. .. C,.,..
281
281
CE I IINC INTO STORY ILLUSTRATION
Tl,is ,'Olume ",ould hnrdly be COmplele "'Hho"t ion, otller poople's opinion, and 011e must labor
a dlscu$si<m 01 how yo" can gd intostory ilIustra. almost In sI,; le 01 11. somclhing Ihal
tion ",ha! prepM3tiOll you musl J,"ve. To dis- "'e gd more 01 wit h lC$s efforl than anytl,ing in
cons it Ir:tnkly is nol meunt to be disooumgl ng nor Ih" ""lIr!d, I I 311ythlng e!se is gi".,,, Ir(.<.:Iyas
disiIJusioning, hui 10 lay before )'Ou some 01 Ihe 0l,ioloos, cspccial1y negalive ooes, I c:>nnot Imag
undispulcd requircmcnls. Seldom does an ;Hus- ine ",hnt jt can be. Yel we muSI 10 a lilTgc
tratorol magnlncs gel wilho .. t art Iralnl"g. aLlde by ",hatothcrs Ihlnkof O .. T work. 1'h.,y can
Wheth"r the {minlns is in sd.ools Or by dinl uf ,nak" or break uso
'is owu hart! elforl, Ihe tr:alni"g is a ",in al"."ys he s .. bjec1 lO publle
a"junet 10 his natiVi: talenl. opinlon. Bul opiolons t\CC<1 nol """,,$0:: us 10 break
1I 1$ likcly that mosl of you, as you"g arlists, failh wilh Imlh as we see 11. And opinioo On lhe
even as skllled and Irni,.ed artisls, chcri51, this ",bol .. is nOI onlyllpt 10 befair. Ihank IIcaven, bnl
"'nbitioll. I lo go 011 'ecord as stating J,al II1Wt of the time it pro\'C5 i\SeU ,ight. Publicop;".
Ih" 0l>porlunily ;s Whelhe, )'011 can lo" is fa ' more in witl, I',esenl-day ill us-
il a reali ly On maoy "ifs." lratlon Ihan witb modcm e,'Cry 'C\I501I
First uf aH, you will need to be ski lkd iul,le lo be! ie,-e it will5la)' Ihat ",ay, lor hOlh iIIustra-
drawing nod nn:ltomy, oomposition, 110u and pub!ie 0l'i"ion spring frO!l1 Ibc same
3nd color. But you ",in also "ced that rnre source. Ihe , ..,adlon lo]fe itllc11.
of Ihe appropria"', u,d the ablily lo tell 3 Slor)' II 15 nl y pk-a thal ill llstrat ion 00 kepi
JIlustr:ation may be hought of as i" keepins wil), goo.:.I laste and tlle bctter
belongillg 10 IWO classes, Ihe idealistle. fOl" one, thlngs of life. I n hclplng >'Ou 10 chose a lalh 10 '1
and Ihe interpretation and of life ilIuslration. 1 ",ould beg of you lo I<eep you, tW<J
as ;1 is. for Ihe oth"r. JUnstration in lbe highesl leel fiunly grnundcd in rea.son 811d tmll! a il
scuse 15 nOI a maller of drawing prelly sirls and npJ>l'ars 10 you. The'" m311y blind allC)'!.
Ilink JuI, ,ibOOns. Thc Seco",1 \Vorld Wa. has whctting our curiosit)' aud glo"'ioS
hrol1ght forlh muelo is ncw "mi (ored .. ! in tl,e Ilons Ihal 1>rO\'1l 10 kad 10 I1owhere, Ihal 1 (cel yOll
\Vay o( IlIuslraliol1. lIIustr:ltlon is holding Ihe ml._ should givc mudo considcratiou befare tossingout
ror U? 10 lile. a.\d the beSI of il earrics the slrong- ti", dietates of yo", o,,"n pcrwllallty and ahilily.
est mesagc of life ilsclf. Much 01 our prcscnl-day 1 contcud thal arl is nol i",italio" nor duplica.
ill .. stratioll can11()t h"l appe:tr insipld as <;Om- jon of real ism, l",1 an exprcssion 01 Ihe indi"idual
",ith Ihe of Ilo",a," P)'Ie, Ile h:<t Icft hase<! 011 Irulh, Sn .. h " definit"'n is oeither n"rrow
a ",cordof early Americana Ihal exc-els all others. nor confining. tt is as "'ide opon as the Mue sl;es.
Tllal 'pirit should goon. rt go 011 In ro.ne of 1 Ihalyou ,--a,,"01 be" flnishcd 111.,.
yoo, who perhaps are !ill in Y01)r tccus. J"' I who Iralur In one jump. 11,,-, malo reason is that you
l,a\lC ow:rp<>we,l"g ambillon and .t,englh of p"r. ('8",.01 take in Jfe in one gbnee, ORe d;,y, or OUt
pose. Bul il will nol come by dreamins. E" ery fc:t r. 1I is far beuer 10 seek your dc.,.c1opment
,by ",111 ha"e !() col1lrib"te " smalll><l't 10 }'O'" Ih.ough Ihe ehannels tll"t poinl 10 )"Our gool than
"llimale goal. lo try lo one leal" 10 lhe 1,'031. AIJ commerci.ol
Art is an exacUug mistress. 11". rewar<ls 9rl i$ il1uslral;on, Md aIl of It gi\'cs yo" equa!
great. bUI lhey are for a chosen fe"'. Yel art is 0l'porlunHy 10 p:rogr,'$S. Be conten! for awhile
one of Ihe few \'OcatiOIlS where lies wboll), wilh lhe little jobs, kl\owillg lhnl il is "H training
in lile eIJOr! aud eharac1er of the indi"idu"l- lor he big joh later on. V,rhen yol1 h.:wc a chall\ll!
gr:lIIlcd of all, of coursc, Ih"l JIC has talcnt. 10 drilw a lace, a ehamcter, a gure. Iry 10 hin!;
Thcrc are '10 strings le) pul1, no f"vol"$ 10 he uf it a5 ilIusITaliug one of Ihe besl slorio:.: in Ihe
granloo. Art is Ihorough!y subject lo pubUe opin- maga7-ines; "o it Ibat weU. Do 11 as Ihough
282
282
I
CE I'IINC INTO STORY ILl.USTRA llON
)'OU. ",boJe future depended upon 11, Adua11y,
)'OUr wboIc fUlute oould easily depcnd upon il. for
tIs samplc mighl inlerCSI anotlw;r pe.-.
wiltl a bigger opporlunity 10 offer, al'ld tha! mighl
brlng aoolhcr, ami so on, You ntve. Imow wha!
a goo<l)oh ",ay do for you; bul a sJighled one, a
\al:)" one, disinlcrt;Sted Olle, leaW$ an impression
hard 10 llake off,
When your work il'l other &ekb bet-omes nooIice-
.Ille, Ibe are lhal somebody wi11 6nd )"ou.
Tbete '1"Cl artisU' "-gen" constanlly on ti ... Iook-
out rOC' la!enl , jusI as Ibe ... are moYie soouts. If
your daily W<)rk js nol provdi"g yoo with vcnues
poi"ti"g 10warc1 your goal, Ihere!s no;>lhfng 10 do
but tnake yon, Own opportunily. Tak<: a S!ory
and mustl'lll" il. Shuw your work lo otllCl"S.lf lhey
rc<po,KI f.voraOly, mayOO M:uy Jones lhe maga_
nn.e subsc-ribcr mighl Ji!:" 11. 1 woold nol submil
illuslJ1l lions lo lhe lop magn.ines unli! ro" llave
devdoped a bodr.ground of espcrienc:e and 3re
m.al:ing a SucteSs in othcr 6ekls. Send YOU' Wl;>rk
le repulahle agcnts 6rsl; they c:on .dvise you
intelJigently, .nd even 5ubmit yon. W()TI: tel Ibe
if it seems promi.sing, Such work may
be $C,.I IM:rOdiaUy. You wll probably get in
faster through _ good _genl Iha" by Irying 10 go
dim:tly 10 !he magazine. However, if SCJmelhing
I un ..... ally good Is senl lo a they wJ1
1
, tentae! you quickJy enough i! they Uke it.
Bul yt>u may Ix: SUTe Ib"y are aH gelti ng a
deluge of mediocre "wk by c:very un-
quali6ed Torn, Did<, amI HarT)', IIlld ollly once
i" a ve')' ,real while does an unheard-of l\O\'ice
break direaly inlO thc maga7."es, 1'here is no
ritual 10 he perlCll'llled; anything can hlppcn. Bul
Iogical SIq..by-Slq'l prottdure lo your goal is
the hesl bet in ti ... long rutI.
I have trie<.! my ulmost in this volumc 10 givc
you a workng bosis and suggesl Ihe Ihings yon
will ,>eed. Bu you will nalur.lly makl5 your OWD
inl"'P'"elalioll DI lhe fundamentals Iu:rc. 'The
ffilIin Objed has bcen lo malee you think and 10
do fOl" younclf, lo belie"" in yoursclf. Thcre is
0Il1y one \Jthcr oourse open ancl lha! iS lo go out
and imitale lhe olher fel1ow. 11 is grllnle<! that
sueh a cour5e might bring in mme ret",n, bul it
scenu 10 100 thal jf you are good CTIOIJgh 10 gct
there by mi!llion, you anoertainly good el>Ough
ID gd IheuOll yoor own. The imi!3tor is going
lo outlasl by '"Cf}' long lhe imillltcd. SuIlPO" lhere
are liso live thoosa .. d otilen im[Iling the same
mil" you are. Surpose by Ihe I,n<: you are ready
yon, idol hs already been im;tated 10 dea!h,!he
wholc vogue hiU >lIssed, and someouc ncw is
Ihe.e In yum idors place, Alter yo.., idol is ouI,
",hal chat>l'e have you?
"OllllS peoplc imitate lhoughtlessly, They
lo be led. "11".". than takeresponslbUily based Iln
hei. 1lW1\ peowpliom, bdid"s, .nd decillioll$. Bu!
the yollng people ",ho he:!d are hose woo
lak .. lhe rei,,, 3nd do lheir OWn driving, They
musl thi. i.s Iheir ...o,ld, not nurJ in which
they always 10 be lold wha! ID do. \Ve ,",ould
much <alhe, h"e t1,em do ;1, givin!; ",hat assis!-
anee wc llan lo do it for thetll , JI is no! imi
tating when you work " .. ilh J(tIf!, Ionc, .oo color,
."d produce fCll'lll. It i. nol intaling lo work fmm
a photo you ha"e oonoehed and posed. NO!" is il
imitating when you are practicing, It i$ imllllting
when yoo tack n .u<.=SSful ob by 1.,lOther arti.st
011 you, dra"'ing board aud ool'y it lor profes-
sional use, 11 ;s imilating when you try lo seU
somelhing )"ou have not in any way CTeated.
is. vast dilf""c'o;:e.
If you are rully mtdy ror lhe magariroes, you
wi ll not llave lo worry. You w1\ gel In, Worry jusi
aboul gelling ready, so you Ciln men wony aboul
.taying in when yOIl get thcre. Bu! worry can be
Iots of ru", whcn it's over somclhing we love lo
do anywayl
I
EXPERIMENT AND STUDY
Tllmu: i$ no grcntcr mpetus lo. suroessful caree. ing, h011! indoon amI (Iut . If, a shame lo m,,! il
in crenli\le illU$ITatioll than expetimenl and OUI 10 Ii Jeep. II SundaY;5 pmr golf day. then play
In lhe carlier ye:l.rs 01 actual onl,. dghlL-en hores :Iml work Sm,day aftcmoon
praclice, 1 would rcoomrncnd a CQtll i'Hh:lIK'e oI tlt cver)' olher SUllday. If Su".!ay is yollr dmrch
school study in lhe ... YOI! wi1l6nd ha! day, hen no artist will u,Ter by Ilcvdoping his
after haY;n!; $OI'I1oC practical "'l<pt'ri.mce in Ihe licld 500.11. wot'k Saturday aftcmOOl" Ir' J " [1 10 you a!ld
yOIl wil1leam rwia: lL$ fast. Yon are more enlight. Ihe Misus when yon will sludr, ami ir she is!lO!
cncdll$lowhat yQU "'3111, aoo pc..,.haps your weak cnlh",;""!;.,, ' 1)' p:ainl ing he. anu Ihe km.U does
pointl; h.we bcgun loshow up. Bu whetheran arl nol mall..". huw you w(lrk il out, hu' il is impor-
sdlOOl istvtibbleor 11.ot.yO\I can set up an organ- ta"t hat you do work iloul.
i7.ed routino of f"rther sludy for yollrsclf. 11 good Set upsllbjects fo. still fe. They llJ"e nol boring
"'ay is for a group of commereinl tu set \lp al all ""hen you . e:olly 10 $ee lone "nd !.'\llar
a das:! by the"'$elves,callng In modds and dmw- dcsig". Make onldoor sketehes while Ihe young
ing and painting Ihern. Ir sU("h a dan cannol be sters wade .ntl Motile. reads a magam.:. Pul
0<g:>ni7.cd, the" sel up a 'pace at home where you your p e lch in lhe car and 10 01,11 and try l.
can ,..orlc evenings, Saturtlay aftemoons, or Snn- hn!;ng fram Jife i!I refreshing afler a harrowing
day$. I do no! mea" l1,al you should nol take l im<.: wcek on the jobo It $timulates )"01.1 lo good <XJIor
out f(Jl" relaxal ion, huI the fasler you gel (}Ver the and in )'Ou. work. You fiud lhal
ground in devcloping yourse1f, the sooner you shadows are Ighl and niry, tI,al Ihe hlue of Ihe
are golng lo gel there. The.e i$ a cour:se of sludy sky rcally ge," inlo Ihorn. YO\l get :ow;,y from he
rOl eaeh individual, and iIOme ti rTlC$ he can by Te<b. hrowu5, nnd orange'l tha! wo all icem lo use
out sU("h 11 fo< himself hetter tll:l.n $Ome9ne when fakng. Seldom do we fi"d an ""00
cbe can prescribe it rOl" him. in delicate gre)" aOO 0001 oom. In fad,
There is ooe thing not lo do. "Id thal is simply thcse 5Qfl tooes aOO coIoo$ r.arcly enler he mlOO )
lo dTi!! along wit}, the dail)' routine. mlllciug 1\0 al the arti!ll"ntil he has rome 10 the beauty
e.dea efforl. You wiU 500" fiud ,oiddle- of them. l o lhe nm]io. rok>r 1$ tho\lght of in errns
aged, hRving done Jl<)lhing more tI'au routine of u.es and polS; when you for the same
jam. and being iule farlher alang Ihan yOIl Were colo.s in nalure I hey do nol 10 be there.. i
yellTS agu. The extra elfort is Ihe dilferencc be- Nalure loon qui le dull al " rsl, huI when yon set
lween the ;reat mass of mediocre artists nOO Ihe down he. tonal alld greyed rolun )'01.1 are sur-
oomparatively small group of very good 0fIC3:. lo 600 that they are much more beantiful
Jt will take a groat <leal al COOC('ntmlion aOO tha" the t'Ontenls ollhe JXlI' and "I>es.
delermi' l:I. tion lo gel mer the flrsi hump. If you So llIany of US IlCver take Ihe Irouble lo rcaUy
do nol reaJly know analomy, hat is a good place gel a<XJl1ainted wi th old Mother NMure, aOO lhen
lo start. It can be done nt home in a few evenillgs 've wonde. wby our progress iJ so slow. SlH:: i. he
a week. Perspective is auotho. thing lhat you uno real source. and the more you neglcct hcr, lhe
mighl as wcJl gel al am] lean. It will ,lOt take f"rlher you slray frorn home. MOSI uf U5 du no!
Ioog. Praetieing composilion is somethiug you tah the trouble lo go skelehin8' lceling lhal
need oot go lo sehool foro Pract)cing pen amI ink. where Wl! livc th.ereis nothing In the wayof amb-
cno.Y(lIl, and charcoal can al! be done in lcisure ject. TI,a! can hardly he trllC. Even a bacl:: allO)'
l ime. Color lhould be practiocd in the daytime. or a Ium can he wondcrful m:lteTial ir reen
in good Ighl. No l;ghl is nleer Ihan Sundlly mom- an artis eyes.
286
FINDING SUBjECTS FOR EXPERIMENT AND STUDY
lIiver toWll1, mili tO\\'lU, old IOwru:, e',en pro;,ie 'rhis is sorrw:thlng RO aTI seh()Cll can g;ve you, and
alw,yl presen! material. 'TI><.:re il bleak i close. lo rcal :tri Ih&1l ""ylhlng yon <:oto gel.
drama as weU :u t'xeitiog drama, :lOO it is ,.U ){ tha! fronl 13"", l'Ieeds mowing. gel up ear1y
Pl'fl of tM AmeriCln socn.e. Those funor I'IJ'COI:'O and Jo ji , bul oo. k l it.ob roo of your chaoce
honses are great subjects. Arl does no! ha," lo be 10 study. Anyway. il is not enough real"" fo. oot
"p.e!!y." Prtolly arl Irou1.>IOO Ihis o:ountry too slno)' ing. Kep a sketch pall and a sha'l'cned 50ft
long airead)'. Artists aTe seciog for IIC Ii,st lime p . :oci! in yo ... pocket. Gel used lo nOl"g Ihings
!uneric:> "" ji ;1, and sorne wOllderful lhings are quidr.ly and selting them dO\'oTl. TIlO! 1$ where
be;", done. pictorial id .. "", Olmc 'rom. Tllc meres! nolation
I do nOI '"'Can lhal we ddihcrately 01l t lo mar Iale. hccom.., Ihe or a gr"al pdure-
paint !he grolcsquC aoo ugly. The poinl if lhat you never ICl lOw.
all thillgs have rQml, lone, aoo rolor and il ;1 It seems slrange thal mus! of os oeed 10 hewld
(l uite wilat thal f<lnn :100 rolor migh! 011 the workl ,,"e live no \\le do no! kll<'lw how
1001,: 1;ke n paint. 1 thok lhat haviog tI,e nItra good il is ""til wc are n dangcr of [os"!; 11. The
100 super oC everythiog tht"()\\ll us SO long has a,...,ragear\SI is 1;,' ingin a 01 material
nlht-r bl,odcd os to the bcauty of the romnl(Jfl- lhal he se.. it. He i5 100 elose. Main Streel
11 makcs '11 thinl.: Ihat cvecythng mlls! be may Ilot mean much 10 you, bllt il does lo Ihe
polished and and new. l.Ieauty ii morc apt Salll.doy liud";"g Prul f It s seen will> SY'""PIl-
10 [e iu dla.aclcr. JUSI Ihe old barnl 011 fann lhetie aud uolderslanding cyes. The world wa.nts
ha.,c eharacter, vi$iolL and illlcrprel3.tion oIlhe lire Ji ..... , alld
Vmlut'$, tOlle (lQIor, desgn! "11 have eharm, our life $ ust as .-ital 10 <IiI :,I.S ,he lite al Ihe
whelhe. ther OCCU' n l'f:Ot i;. or on Ffth A"en"e. F.eneh ro".1 nobi lilY, or Ibe life depkled by
1
1 Thal liltlc palch of gatden baek of Joe Melcl,'s C.illsbor<lugh, W1I.I lO paulen of Iho<e cr .. ,. 1'001"
GkI hoouse takes Gil tremcndous meaniug In ';ew iD sw'"'y Spain .. 11 its color,
Yurk. Ame.ieans are becomng mote aod more ti .... incling $treets, ils hhlC , redilerranun, hat.l lO.
I of lhc 'iguificanc .. uf our naliGnal baek- $Iay in the hOllse and noblem,,", lIe dicd
gro,md- th(L\ \\"e are a1l a single people wilh dif- yOUhg, prohahly necdng frcsb airo I le m'151 ha\lC
(erent $(!uinnccl limes "ud bee" gbllslly sick of It. Sul
1',cre !I 'IU ,.,.Iid rC:ISOn why)'ou c;nnol ' IOOy he Icl! os rIlas!erpH::ocs.
on )'on. OW", benelit by iI, aod enjay il. Sel up Subjccl$ are i .. Ihe Illnd of ti", q"ick
Iha! bllll ch oI cut !lowcrs. See if yoo ca" pai,,1 it eye, and he nlercsled hand. \Ver" the.e srca'
Ioo$ely aud artklically. Sketch fWUl)' Mil, Hig- C:Ul\'as eaJled -S"OOay Aflerrooon m Ihe Park,-
gin", who you :dways though! "":oo. a sketch p"nted in any smal! lown in lhe 'eghl les, people
anyway. Make lO. pcncll sludy of tha! goarled old \\'{IulJ swarm 10 sce il today, It would auy
Irce you ha\lC admrcd clown on Sawyer Aveone ir w.,JI.lonc. Thiok ol the cluaint ros-
" .. her .. liJe ean turno Take a Iook al lile dlildren lun_, tite Me of ou, grandr .. thers made "ivid
door in lemu 01 planCll, <:(Ilor, and porwn.al- todal Tite llIUlC thing will I..e Ime ill tI' e
"y. They !)rohab[y as kds al :l.I\y C\lCr 2000 A.U., $ really '\O! "cry far off. People
1'3i"IOO. dogs, cals, cId folb, snow, bams, will be lIst in!ereslcd tI"m. The AmcriClln Jife
"tcrioo. buudiOgs, m""", lumber yarm, ca..u., of torlay and ",hal is I.!ft or yesterday \Viii soon
doeh, bridgC$. Ix>au, vegclahles, fru its, bric-a- dnal'pcat. Catch il \Vhk you caO. \Ve are com-
hrJc, rountry tOad", ",voded hins, skies, lhe old ng .. cry definile1y into Ilew era. So wQrk
iwimming 001". Trn"re are iubjcets galore if you yl)U"g wilh your eyes 0llcn.
rerogniu: tltem aOO t1)' Ihem oul . 111s is all If you ha .. e nosubjecls 1<> plint,)"'" Ire go;og
material COI" learning and material for thc future. aboul blirulfoldcd or total1y unCOlHCiow,
287
I
matcflM IOr leanung ano materml /Ur u'" .Ulut".
2f37
YQUR PENCIL CAN KEEP BUSY


I
~ 2 1 I ' __ ""
.
\

I
4 .. 0 J.. DOQ, , ~ GIO;UNQ " .r1.Il.,.,.. Ola t, .... QOOI) Mooeo.., eLOCto( tN eto ,"ORMI
.. , IUT 4NO "'o;I!.N ""'",01 n+e "Oll o'" T NI!. o..I!6D L"'Y IN " "'"- OI .. L .. TO .. I!' ..... t>D6 RJ<J',
2S8
~ \ f U r ANt> ..... " ...... " .. ,"e J "". v'" , ...... "'''' ........ , '" " .... h_ .... ' .... " ........ ................... .
PRACTICE HEADS ALL YOU CAN
j"To!o.Q."l ... lo(ET(.H ;,;;,
t<OW OF PRACTI CI!
OR6W !OMI! I'ROi"f
O THf.AI FROM
NOT .. INO C6N
MORE. p RAW O Ne. bOA ....
FI L L YQUR eoot<; .
PI'lW A1.L "lYPEI
(. .. .t.RACYI!!R.I'. THEY
A L I. "OUT Y'OU,WILL.I NC< TO POse .
289
STUDY OF AN OLD MAN
/
A SAMPLl ILLUSTRATION
SKETCHING
]( i>c '''pun""t tk.t arti,l nx fin"l)' in 1,;,
mind he basic difference of altitl\de in a sketch
as C'Ompul'cd with flnal work Logically collsid-
cl' cd, a sletch js (l "careh rOl' information tha! will
be transv,scd later on to he final \h:ng. Il is th(,
"n:liling down" "f (",,,nlial, tha! yO\] dccm impor_
.,ke!('h ,hould havc [1 dcnnitc som!?-
lhi ng you are going arlee A skdeh prE'sup'
poses action, mass arrangemenl, lighl, shadow,
and cok .. , without "triente det nil, Jf yo," are
[Ol' Jetail, yo," WOJld thi nk of
sltch preliminary work as a l udl"
A ,ke/eh mar he fOI d"sigll Or arrang""","t
alonc, and he dec;son as to fl- role,- approach_
Such a sketch a "color COlllJXlsition."
ln con-,mercial work there is whal i known as n
"comprehensive sketeh_" Sueb a ske(eh migh( be
quite nnished. Usua]])' it is (he act"nl size oE lhe
intended reproduction (exeep( in (he case of dis
plays nnd p-oslers ). 'rhe purpose here. of course.
is lo give lhe c!ien( a faidy aceurat" :dea oE what
you iutelld lo do wi(h Ihe subjeet. its color ar-
rallgeme"t a"d general dled. sll"h a ,ketclo is
ll,nally ,lme from ti", material Ihnt he ,,,ed
in tI." final wmk, and its pmpose to d"ar IIp
an)" diflkulties or "I'jechon., that otherwi'e might
e;lny over into thc final work.
l\lake up ),our mi"d as to (he inlent nud l'ur-
pose oE (he sketch. Iler .. is lh" real joy of sk"kh-
ug. III a Se",e y011 cnst off t[", labor
for ''' ' '" ,inhibitcd cxpr""ioll of tI", thl 'g in mi"d.
\V" kn"w mOre aho"t "n artid f,-()rn hi" "",td",,,
th"" from hi, IiTli,hed work. That is the waWIL
,k"che, are often mor" nter", tl 'g and heautifllL
being of ,tatc",cnt and far more e"pres-
Aftcr having made sueh an ;lnd
stntemed, (be final wo)"k is much more apt to
carry lht .. motions of the arUst into jt.
In the biggest sense, sketching is nn experiment
wilh lbe p!C"lOrJal materJal, searchJng out lhe usa
ble facls and assembling them for efecto You are
meeting and getting acquainted wi:h your sU[J-
jedo The mental C"onceplion of a subjed is always
ahshad. \Ve cannol kno,"" whnt lh" visual effed
will b" ""til we se! it down. '"Seeiug a pielu", i"
d", ",,d\ , a IJi[ WOI" '" a
phra,e than it is in actuaht)'. \Ve do nol tmly See
11", thing unli! we h:ive mastered the prohlems
altu:h",) lo it.
So many dfeehi of Jire und nature are flee ting.
s" we make "notes_" TIlC eumcra has helped to
eateh m;",)' or the ehangeable aspeeh ,,[ life. But
the camera eannot suppbnt tbe vivid mental im
press ionone to pnxluee a good picture.l:ly
actually coming to grips with rhe sl1bjoct. you are
drawing upon )'Ol1\" taste and and yOl'
nrl' filled wilh an inward .. _\cilemenl over ",hal
the subjed c-outains. Th" whol" cOL<:eption is
mor" "pI to 1", and original b)' ,tarting
with YOUT OWll !ir,t interpretali"n rdher thu"
w;j, a phc,to_
'rhe time elelll ent in sketching is importanl.
Nature ehanges SO fast we have no! time to hc-
come absorbcd in little thing'. Th:,t i, why so
mnny fail completel), in the ability to make a
sketch [,.om Jire_ Bot suppose the drawing i, a bi t
out:' A ske:ch is not a clemonstrntion o( the things
yon "an d with lime. Uig shapes, big tones, big
relalion,hip' are what you are afler. lf you wnnt
to carry a",ay the detail, take along yo ... r camera:
thnt is what it fOL Bnt 11", detail win nol make
lh .. final work any he/ter a, a piclure. Th .. lonal
cdor and mass willlx bctter Iha" anythiug your
"amera c-nn cnptl,re.
Th" a[Jility lo make a good :md "ve" fa,1 sketch
will ",ake a beller artist of YOll in ti", end.
1\" "hould Ilot be ne"ketod nO!' 1\nd",,,,timated.
" ,
292
The Illnin value les in the h",hn"" aud SpOll-
ta""il}" it wil! evelltually givc y011.
Shtd,ing .\[wuld be done in uh"osl ev,,,.y me-
di"m, "n<icr e"el}" kind of ci reumstanees, and of
aH kind., of ",bj"eb. f you ",ould ill ustratc, Y01l
will prepare yourself lo dmw allything.and cvery-
thing_ That i, nol so difficult as it '.""n<i" lor
CYn)'thing is simpl}" line, \U"", "HU ,,,1,,,.. F"lI11
is always expressed in plain light, halftone, and
shadow.
Your ,htdling outfit can bring yOlL mOre real
plcasurc than an)' olh"r pnrl of you)" equipmcnt,
iE yo" sketch \Vilh a pUrpSe.
FIGURE PAINTING
1 woulJ lik", lo Ihe importan<'e
or figuro: I'aillting 10 Ihe ","cr:lgc craFtsmao in
ill ustmlloll .... 11 lOO .1ften a slndcnl lc:,,cs , he (lrt
0.1Id \'al" e. Al",- ",iJlling he Iltlds Iha! he
approaches all things in " ni .. "" hgh!, or v.11h ne\\'
\' I$;on.
school ha,'illg had "" a Il lcage,- ""ar! al ;' , o. nd, 11 .., neXI greal val"", of il is he oorreL,tron or
lo gt:l lulO r.'""",emli"c liclds, disooUllts drawing, lone, "al"e, ami coh r, all of whieh ar ..
lhe real ""lue of it a S "1'1' 1;(' <1 lo c"cryda)' ,,'(lIk p"t"SI;'nt in Ibe flg""". W,; <'''0 paio! one apple too
Truc ,,"ougl!. t]l(, l'"id.f"r pict ure :;el dom ti red, ano il .loes II()I ", atl,;r. fI\1! n forchea d or
1l\J(J" , ""d il may 1)(, hard lo undnstund check \00 red-ami ,mI)' 8li ghtly too red- can he
COI" ,,,di,,,, il C(1 \lId have wi t h other "orl. very haJ. Almostany olh"r Ihn):: can 00 too mllch,
in ",,,, 1 inslane<:s it "'(luId be nC'tunll y uHIn wful 10 a "ky too bluc, )::I'ass too greE' ll, a too ydlow,
I",inl " nucl c flgl'Te in!o no ndverl iseownt, ",j,y a shndow loo warm Or too t'O"' , I1l1t no! lIesh.
blJlhl'f wilh fi g\lre stv(ly" Ir s wilh dffiC'Ulty Cood fle:<; h tones OI nsl he in I",ne "alue and
tl' e a"C'Tflge young wife can apIlrecialt: ils r"al ilU- oolor, 01 Ih,,)' do no! h'l\"e Ihe q"nlilY o[ Desh.
10 hel' arlisl hushalld's career. I loof!'C artists "' .. >o ha,'e spenl liUle time nI
she ... ill "'y " v Td ror ji here tha l il i. \' CI >, figure painting h:we l'OIll " IOIl loa],it of
importonl, Bu! (nr more i"'portant i. h(',' Ilesh (In Ihe si,lr." ",i tl, m,J, p,Uow,
and ho"",1 "ttitllde toward (1, It :tnd while. in lighl Or shadO>l . 1I mueh <Jr
i.s, a delicalt: .it""tion ",hich be the eheap-l ookiug art work Wil
met fl'aI1\.. 1>" nll u lf )'011 cau huly d",,"op >""' lr Sl":nSl' ,, [
Figur" r ai n! ing in the r,.,ginning IXl nnu (d or, coll rkd with the of plnne and
dom, in d a, s ;n associal ion wilh other paint ers. tha! s evidcnl in lh" !lude, ycm CaH
Thi s, mainl)' fOI' the reasoll On(, 1cnrns almosl anylhing el,,, wilh (.'()lls derable
in wilh otl\(".,. [f p' l'55;ble Ihe sl lIdy (lss urnnce o[ gelliug tJw,;c, A c..'llnhina-
he ullder n good " ,lmelor. 1 real1y f" ,,] ioll of ligUr<, 3",1 s!iIl Me pnmting. 1ln; 1 on,.. ami
Ihal rhe ngh! is 1""1 31 Ihc starl, ... Ihe Ih<':1I Ihcotllf!T, '>VCT ano o>"er again. offers yo" tlo"
artifod allight rllorl! d ""rly defines lhe fonn, rru- 1>C!i 1 possible chance to de" d o!, th" Ilt'St fl nall""
ducing dell nilr Iig"l ,,,,d shadow. Dayligl ,t h 01 p;lll tillg. Be<-ause you Jrnw well is .. o r.,.dl
most suhtle a"d ,uitc (tiffie" ll. 1I0w"\"f:r . il h aS$urnnce Ihat yo" can ror 11", '"' pie
most renson o[ values aud reJ:ttiomJ,irs. Th(' only W:' }"
The!" i.\ a diffcrcnce bf lwet:n life drawing anu yon gd tlwm ;" In pain!, aml rainl wi lh .1
p"inling. In o1'.1wing "'e ar" de"ling wilh linE' ami gH,,,t d",,1 oI Thc rcaWl1 f 01'
lone in a black medillm. 111 painting there is s"l- wmking in " gl'O\lp is thal good or !lod, are
dmn .1 rcal black Oll aH of ti", fi",' Tt lllemlS Ihat "1(\re nppal'ent in lhe olher fellow's ,,"ol k Ihall 011
Ihe nh!s t h" vl,,,,, l"_",,,-," uuu, ly. U,,- lhe modelo You lenm fnlm ",1 wdl as
cause he has !leen us<'d lo sclling down blacl rlom ], s ad over ),1'111.
white Iones i" dlllWi llg, lhe sludenl 's Srsl r ainl- Gv al.sv lo Ihe arl galleries and mus.eums nnd
Ilgs are \1$1111 11 )' n"erly dn,'k, he(\\'y, ", itll sl tldy Ihe W3)' fl esh 10"0:'" aT<: I t ",iIl hdl'
n("SS in tI,,, Th.e plaues in ti ,,, lighl are rnll scc hcm for }"Qurself.
rilostly o[len too I>rO\m. I-{ere s l.carning lo painl Resh \\"(>11 is 1101 a"J it
oue 01 J", IIIusl important qualiti.,,; I'e C\\1l ndd dOoe$ no! happen o\f might. It is 1101
to his dai l}' or l"IJutille WI";.rk from thc thA l, of all thing>, IIcsh il. th" d ffi e"lt lo
of Sguro: raint ing:. aUf l mooeHII g painl, f ot, of al! thiugs. th:-sh 's pmhap, th" 1I10.,t
tlw '!l osl .\\l btle ond delieat" oI ,,11 formo "Iay we llol he thal\kf\ lllJ, 'lt l , mlhcr
li ke Ihe llloo,,'ling of doud, in li ghl. Il tl"l\l tlN: hid"s amI fnrs of the k,W(T was
for ces Olle lo g"t up inlu fresh higl, k(,}" in color gi""" t () ",! [.el "pprcdate il and rcspec! it.
293
OUTDOOR $KI::TCI I I:-.J COI.OR
--
29-1
rORTRAIT SKETCH 11'\ COLOR

,:
CLOSING CHAT
h s wilh n feeling of rcgret hat r come lo he
c1osin!( page" Df lbi, dforl. It is somelhing jike
he partng of falher ancl.,on. \V" have he"" dose
compaujons, this book and r, over (l perioc! of
nwnv months_ 1 ean scul'cclv 1cuvc it-and )'on-
whotL ! tO\lchin g upo" a few uf he more personal
lhings lhal are bound to make ur YO\lr life :'S
an <lrlisl ami illustratvr.
Frs! o al!, may I impress upoO) )'0" the impor-
01 devel0l'iug lhe ablil)' lo make decisions.
Ihrdlya dar goes ,y hal you do no! have lo
'"cj,j" ""ndIJillg. \1akillg .lec;,;',,!, j, llll' higll-
road lo e .. "ati"""",", Every bi t Df arl that y01! do
is a collection of lit/k dccisions_ From the single
plan of app1'0uch to a single sllbjcct, t0 he whok
plan of approach to your ultimale goal, and [he
carrying lhrolOgh lOf thal plan, all is deeisilOn. Il
is lObvious lhal lhe arlisl musl be agreeable and
co-lOperative ill order llO sueceed, Iml lhere is
.meh thing heillg a lillle tlOo lUl1ch lOf a "yes"
mallo Yo" can "a.,il)' gel sO ,,,ed lo folJowillg diree-
tio,,", am1 i"-'Irudions Ihal j'O\1 ecase lo
yulOr bcst laeulties. There nre mnny proper nnd
legilimnte ways lOf projecting l'lOllr l'ersollalily
inlo Ihc Ihing., yOll do, while ,lill (,nlinuini lo
meel the demands lOf ylOur assignment. By real
analysis, ylOu will find lhe average assigllment
, .... ide lOl'ell llO <:realivelless. 1 "Iwuld sal' Ihal if
ylOlL have n jlOb lhal never allo\\s a ,keisilOn lOr
lOl'illilOn lOll ylO\![ parl, gd lOut ,,1 il, 10'- yU11 eim
only move 11pward by "ddin!; somelhing uf you,-
individuali!y to nny jubo
l'erhal's it is jusI as [md lo waHI to dn ''''''Ty-
Ihing in yOllr Wi'Y and YlOurs alone. There mal' be
very slOuad and practicnl ceasoll' 1m cerlain in-
strlLctilOns wh<:h hapl'eu lo "go aiai"-'I the grain"
wilh )'011 aTtistically_ Olten it is the uther way
TOllnd, sinec the instruclions may have he"lIpre-
pared by lhlOse who ceall)' ha"" nO .",n.'" "f the
arlistic, all!l wlJO wUllld he tu change
if Ihe pradieal rea,ons frenn thc artis viewplOint
296
were tactfnlly poinleu lOut. Arl buyers as a rule are
not artists, and it is up to thc ,rtis! tu sell his
knowledge ami good laste wherevcr pssihle.
YO\! ,,,'" give 11", lmyer ",hat 1", ",ans, and ,till
he givini hln what he ,h""ld have. YOl1 would
not sell a man a had anything just occallse he did
not knlOw it was bnd.
1f yo" fi"d lhal ylO\! Si","1l lo antago"ize your
die"ts cepeatedl)', il i, bdkr llO gel a n'prc.,enla-
ti vc, oc work tlmmgh m agenl who knows how
to cleal with iirl huyers _ ,>\rti,l, are not nlways
).;,",,1 ,,,1,,,,,,,,,, Ha'] ,,,k,,,,,,,,,l,jl' """ '["HU in
lhe way of yuur prugress. Jf yuu raiL it should be
'eeausc lOf your wlOrk, nol because lOf lack 01
,alc'lIlall,hil" f aTt wmk is g<X><l, solllehlOdl'
always sell it
The essence lo( good sn1esm,mship on thc prt
ot lhe adist is the evidenee lOf real cnthusiasm
over the jobo H )-'0\1 like lo work flOr a nwn, tel!
him so. But never criticize Ihe ideas of a \"'yer.
Thnl buye,- m:,I' e,,<I "p a, lhe aTt diredor of lhe
'-'gene)' or magazine that late,- cm yO\! rniglol wanl
mmt lo sello Again, evcrI' man i_, cntit1cd to hi.'
i,]"as, the fad thal you do not alway' agrcr, docs
not make ti,,, idea uHsound.
lt is so easy, afte,- a prolonied ,trnggle, for the
fiTSl successes of a youn g nrtist to "' go lo his lwatl."
Ol"" tl,is can he a great and lmsusp"",,d detri-
ment lo sueeess. I have yct to sc" Ihe arli,t \Vho
infallihk The way up is long and slow, bul thc
trip down can be lib greaseu lightniog_ T have
alwnvs contcnded Ihat tJw man whu is big lOn the
oubidc musl be equal ly hig imide. l'elOple are
scmitive tbe world over.);lO lOne is big ""ough to
bclittle he olher felllOw. Il cuts de"p, "ud lhe
wound is lastin".lll mv dav I havc ,ecn TUanv of
b
lhe lutle fellows ",ubke anu pass thc bi g one.',
making the "big shot," callheir wlOrds. Therc is
an olel saying in Hollywuod, "Be nice to people
on the way \JI', for ylOu may 1l1ect the ,ame p'oople
lOn thc way
CLOSING CHAT
I sJloke o[ making: dedsions, 1'here are many
kinck On the negative 5ide tbere are lazy ones,
intoklant (mes._ procrastinating ones, impalie"t
mw" inJilferent oncs, inadequa!e ones, and im-
pubivc ,mes. 1'hcn thClC are thosc that cont ribute
so much, Tberc ale those blcssed wHh humililY,
determination, thollght f\llness, intelligence, and
pel's everanee. There ean be lhe deeision each tlay
lo make lha! day eount in some way lo\vard yOtLr
big: goal. Arl lakes so mueh lime thnt ",aste of
predous lime is cosl ly , You Illust uol jml tr!f to
fimllime for study, Y0tL mnst somd10w rnake i!.
All(L i1l arL 'lndy "an !leve]" .1101" Yo" will find
sketch,,, galore in Ihe , In,{io 01' th" good m,m,
with thc ]l:<int quite h c,h_ The mediocre artisfs
_,letche, are old and dustv, J ha"e seen so marlV
rn icldle.aged arlists slill hoping. ",hose "a"'ples
are frayed al the edge>. a1lJ tl"uuh-",,,rkcd wi th
SO!lll'times il ha, hce" a mall"r of year,
sillcc they ,al dow1l "nd ad"ally did ,omething
to giv" Il",ir loop"" an)' prmnise. Thc), are plod.
di"g Iheir li"e" ,-,,,,ay at "omething they hale, amI
doing nothing :,l,oul il. Thcsc lhe mell who
,,,'v,," " "'''' lo l,ave h"d a chanee. The lnolh is.
Il",!, ne"er seizcd " chanee_
Th"", i, :' ,Jilkrcncc in ",ol'king "at" a tli"g,
Ol' ",mling "for" it. \Ve can really sl"dy. Or we
C:II1 J\ltter, Thc "(or" should be deli"ite hdo[('
yo" sil dow", Yo" are worki"g for" be/ter k"owl-
edg" of a""tom)', pcrspcetive, values, or some
ddinitc objcdi vc, You are training yonr eye for
propol'lion, or lo s,'C' thc lo,t and fo"nd or cdges,
yOl! are developillg yOllf ,-Llio" anrl teehniqlle rol'
more looscuess ""d expr""ion If you do nol seel,
how call)'lm po."ihly Jf you feel lhat you
are maki"g ma"y "nors, that is good. Tllal yOll
ean ,,'me the,,, i, so m,,(,h bctter lhan if you
could 1I0!.
H is U1O,t ""h ,ral lo seck advice on importanl
que;lio"s. Bul do no! gd thc hab of goi ug lo
otl",", for VO\lr So manv arlist, hav"
,
writlen (o me fOl' decisions lllJt r "Or
one else cOllld possibly make for Ihem_ "Shall 1
lake up art:''' "Vl,'o" ld 1 bc u bettel' illuslralor Or
p<der arti,t?' "Should 1 work in oil Or wakr
297
<-'Olo r?" "Shonld 1 quil a steady job to clraw amI
paiul?" O"" ebap ucI"ully wrote, "Sllall 1 get a
divorce aud have the fre"":lom to follo", up my
arl ?" Mauy ask if they are too old 10 IJegitl, whal
dlies lo work i", "11,,,,,, do you gct work, amI how
111",,10 do yrm ("fe
lI, 'l"y 1 sa)' lhat most is cn.,crvative_
pcople do nol want lo shon!der the l'CSp'm-
.'ibili l)' o( anolher's d1Oi,;." or f"ilur"
Askiog {O" seldor" bring' the adYi"c you
wun!. Too orterl ad vice i, negati "e. -" ohody wan!s
to make vour a,, J "o'o,]v ''''Cl' ",il!.
1 eannol reeommeud o"" art ,d, ool ovel' ""-
other, Ior ,,,,,eral rea"",, _ O"" i.' !h:,t it is impos
sibl" lo 1", fa",ili;,,- "li tio thc coursc, nnd inslwe
to" of e"erv ,d"H,L 1I i$ m:m" Ve:lr, since J
, ,
attended any art 'ch'Hll, und sillc, thcn caeh ",ay
ha"e ch:mged :md prolmbly has a nt'w
I",r"",,,el. To reco" nncnd a sdlOol r wo"ld have
lo he r,,,niliar wirh yo"" woJ'k-, sympalhdic wit!,
YO"l' pal'ticular ambil ions, and pl'0bnbl y k"owi ug
sOrlwlhing of your pers onalily, charader, per,e-
"ernu"." "",1 adal'lability, fl is too m" d, to "sk,
au\ 1 Jo "o1 fee! fI"alified to "n""er.
St'ek tllC whidl shows ,,,,id,,,,,,,, of tl",
tbi,,,,s ,'0" would lik" lo do. A " ""uot ",ake
o
yrm" good ,tud"ul, h"t you ea" he" goo,l , t",leul
i" any ,d,,,o1. Sc!oool i, m"i" 1)' !l ,e opporl l n, ily for
y"u lo work t h ing_' 0,,1 for your,elf ,In ,kr Ihe 1",-'1
of conditio"-, , with 'P,lC'(" ",,)dels, :md in, tr ue-
tio" "uppJied_ But you ",il! _,till h,,\'e lo do your
job, II may he a bit harsh, L"l lnl<" lha! tlw aver-
age school is nllleh hd ler lhan lhe average \t n
dCll l, and il would Ix' hcUer ir lhe school C0uld
l'ick tI,,, "11,,{,,,,t, rall",r !lo"" 11", 110"
So,ne ,ellO"ls re'l"ire ""tr."",,, n"",i"a-
tio",_ 'lI1d if so, you "e('el no! "'OH)' !Io"
_'chooL
1 wish it were p,,,.,il)!c!o Ji.,t place, lo ,ell yo",-
work. But yOUl' expcl'ienC will probably he some-
lhi ng like mine, After winni ng an art s('hool sellOl
arship with a figure l'aillt ing, my (irst jo\' was lo
pai,,1 a lctdl1lJ 110ttl,,_ 1 fmmd then, "la.' a lol
mOl'e lo painling a k-etehup hoUle .for aclvel'lis-
ing tl1m! rever tlr"anwd, Theu o"" day r pai"t"d
CLOSING CHAT
a Santa Claus. An urt direclor 'aw il, (lId ,ome-
O"e wllo was looking fol' talent aoout it. It gol me
a tryon! in a sludio. Tha! led to other work, whieh
"pened IIp fuclher Oppol'tunitiGs. Th:'1 about
the ,vay il worb out. You call1lot be good in url
in this country "ery long heforc someone begins
lo take no(ice. ;\m\ vo1\ can lo it lha! your
work is noticed, by ,cllding it ,,],ont,
lf you inlend writing me, as so many have done.
1 musl apologize hcre [(lr not being "hI" lo amwer
more lhan a fraction (lf yon,- letter,_ \Iy nlutine
work demands mos! f my tim(\ und 1 do TlO! hc-
"ve in ronu leUel's or secl'etaria1 an,wcr8 . .1 h:!.Ve
t,-j,' lo "",," yo" lo Ih" l",sl nf my " hili!y in Ihi,
hook, and, tho!lgh I tremenclously apprecia te pero
sonal (,mIad with ni)' re-adcr!;, I llnd il impSsible
to make personal amwerS lo Ibeir queries, 1'01'
this reaSO)' J ha ve ",1 up Amwers to Qlleries ill Ihe
Lack of this Look_ Perhap' you can find yom
answer there, Of at !cast it may indicale wherc
Ihe decision mllS! Le your own. I shall, howcvcr ,
apprcciate I"tt"rs, "specially Ihose Ihat do not
r('quest :.dvicc in peT.sona] mattc,"" which ill Ihe
long run wil! be bdtcr if worke,] out hy yoursdf.
Tbe most imx,rtant tbought J wish to 1cuvc
with you, aside [mm making big :md ]itt!c ('VCT}-'-
day decisions, is lhe great wurthiness uf uu]' craft_
If )-'UU sl1c('eed in it, the world hoJd, high rcspcct
for your accomplishmcnt_ 11w)'e secms to be a
eertain reverence for good arl in all walks of life,
Jml beca use al'! is made for induslrial or commer-
cialuse, ther" need be no sligma allnched lo il.
"fhe fine artisl works for a living also, and his pic-
tmes lllay he l'eproduc-ed and >old for profil. I can
see liUle dilterellee helw"en painting u portrail
for J fe" ami pailllillg anylhillg else for a fc"_ Such
dlIerence les only in the skill of Ihe artisl, and
Ihere s 1I01hillg to limil . kill in l'Olllmereial art.
For lhis reasoll eommercial arl hu., by far the
grealest h,lure, sillce il is o[wn to greater and
grealer abilily; where"s in thc liclds of fine art
there has been such perfection as to leave fl
very nanOw margin to be surpassed. 1 believe
298
this is Ihe real reason f or the trend of fine art toda)'
to diverge from the idealistic loward lhe spectac-
ubr, from lhe langibl" lo Ihe abs traet. Thi, is lhe
onl)" uoor that .,cems lo be 0rcn_
Le! "" remembe,- thc inAuencc cxerted upon
the average individlml by piclures, From lhe cra-
dIe he leams lo love lhem. Pictures of OU" killU or
anolh"r do mueh lo shape the pattern oE cvcryday
life, Pielures sllggest the dothc_' peop1c wear, the
inlerior.1 lhey live in, Ihe things Ihcy buy Pictures
visualize th" prc,,,nt, the pa,!, and the fulure_ Still
more, af! brings to Me lhe nonexistent, enables
the eye to see lhe prodtLd of Ihe imaginMion. Arl
":>" ". h"t flr prr"'n,,l nr ;"'pe""'"0 1,
truth or distol'tion, dynamic Or static, concrele or
ahstl'act, fundamental or /lamboyan!, , , it's what
you make il. \\-"here else ill the world is Ihere 16\
limitalioll?
Le! ll> as arti"ts, then, k'1Cl that we have a trust.
I.ct liS be sincere, if for nO olh"r reaSOll lhan to
give Ollr eraf! eh"racteL Le! us lo repro-
,]"C'<) 'eau\' ralher than the sordid, if onlv to ele-

vate the ,t:mdHnls uf Leauty, If we seek un audi-
encc to our \Val' of expression. 1,,1 us make lhe
things \Ve Iwve lo sal' worlh while, Whe!l w" have
a choice, let u, ]Juild, !lot t"ar down, H we are
,-,mIo",,,,] wit], t),,, vision lo encompass bcaut)', let
m h" grate/u!' hut not sdfish abotLl il. To li,'e and
work on Iy to piense one 's sdf, llsing url a, a Tllean>
of display fo!' uncolllroll"d lernp"rarncnt !md un-
disciplined lic"us", for divorein g r f rom the
1I0rma! aml cthi\,al ,tandards of lifc, lo my mind
i" 'Hong_ Arl lwlongs !o1ire, and essentiall,. lo lhe
conlInon, evcryday mano
Art is csscntially giving, Ahilily of higil ordcr i,
!'are, "fhe succ'es,ful rnay weH rejoiee thal they
few, mnollg tlt" rnany, h:,ve be"n given the eyes
lhal ""'. th" to sct duwn, the perceptionlo
gra,p, ,md he heart to understancl, lhe big trulh,
\Vhal we tuke, in, we can strive to give back in
grcalcr perfection. It seems lo m" Ihal this woulJ
not he possible wilhoul Imrnility, and
respect for life ami manki"d,
ANSWERS
l. 1 woukl no! adyj,,, the ,luden! ju'! out "f art , choo1
ro . el up immediate free-lance .tuJio. Gd a ,tcady
ob, il p"ssiLle, in an art departm. nt or organization, Y ou
wil) nced a perioo 01 practical "pplic"tion of y"'" ",ork.
Work among olloe" artL<t<_ One learn, trom anothcr.
2. Begin lo worx t<, a 'p"cifi, d date as soon os
1)(l,,LIc, Do no\ lel we>rk dall,. .Iong. Filli,h 0"" thing
rou ,n"lh")",
S, do Tll a,k me l o Imntup 1.001 ro< Y"'L ),10,1
art Looks can be purcha,ed by Prol"" inquiry hum a
book dealer, who li,t. of publications ancl pob-
li,he", y"" can go tu he libro,y anJ ba," hO<lh Jooked
up for yOLL. Arl magazine, .150 mually ha"e a book
, ervict .
4. Do oo! "'" wha! bwh lo "acl. all yo"
afford lo buyo Start now to Luild " libral}' of roo, o",",.
Do ,,01 he "li,fl ed with one book lo a . ubject
Do not ,"", me check. Ol" mo",,)' <in"" Ihe
authm ha, Ilothing to do witl, lhe ,ale ofhi. I>ooks. Wtilc
diteel to lhe publi,l>er,
6. PIcase do not osk me to , upply )'ou with inlonna
ti"" <x>noeming art ... rt mpply deal." ore
li'tro in m""t art magazille., eily ha, them, Spc
cific materials ean be ""'ate<! by inquiry 01 a good
What sehaol? You m",t deci<le. Art ad
verti,e<! iu art magazine, and Ji'ted under
training d , ewhere, s.cnd lor the pro.peetu, .
\\'hat eou"e' Yon mu,t decide.
9. What medium'? Yon mn, decide, T,y tbem aH. Al!
are practieal ex""pt pastel. Even tloi., can u'ed 11 fixe<!
and "hipped carefully, U,e a pa,te! (not chat<C'O"I)
n"ativc.
10, Wh.t dty to worle in? You must decide, "ew Y<>rk
and Chicagn are the large' t arl (tnle", Evcrr eily ha,
possibilitie"
ll. Yoo eannot ""py picture, hom the an,
.ell t"'=. AH printed pichlre, carry a copyright. Espe-
ciaUy do 001 wpy picture, 01 lIlOvie ,I",s or o\hcr indi-
viduals, You mu,t have a relea,e or written permi"ion
12, Name, o models . ppe.ring in my b<><.>k, con""t
"" oul,
13. Thore i'!lo 'peciBe price lor (fl(l<Iel time. She ma)'
worle at any price agrceablc to boIh partic" other-
wise ' pedned by hn agen\ or agency. Model lee, , hould
he paid at on"<, withoul w'iling 1m puhlication.
14. An .rt diploma i, not neroed i" commerci,l and
illuslrative neld,.
15, Either yoo or purchascr mar sel !he price,
Sh tche, ,ho"ld be j>"id 10' ir they hve been ordered
TO QUERIES
""d suhmitted, whelher .ccepled 1m final work or oo!.
Sl:etehcs m"l' he i()c!",led in the final price. hice for
IlIJOI w"rx ,h(,.,ld be agreed upn belore wo,le i, st"led,
W. If )'Oler ,h!eh " g;ven '0 arli" for """'.
pleti on of flnal work. j'ou paid lor thc
,ketd), This should he dedncted from lhe final price paid
to Ihe "rti,\ ""d raid to y'>\'.
17. wriHen ",de" lor Y()Hr w()I'k. du Iy aulhor-
ized hy a re'p',mibl e sig"a\urc. II i, within yur right,
IR. Chonge, or ""r!tc!i"n' 01" "a!me no! in Jo., orig-
inal r(lue"t OT ""d ch"ngcd throllgh nO
fau lt 01 your', ,ll<lUld he paid for, Correetio", made lo
b, ing Ihe worle up lo " re'l"ired or worthy ,tondard
a!!he artist'; cxpc",e, JI ehangcs Or
",e simply a m"tleT nf orinion, .' uoh e'p"n,e, if any extl'a,
,hmlld ,., " pon kfor" ch''''ge' are made, 0., (K)I
bill a dient 1m lee, unl ess so Sticle lo your
ori ginal pricc if yoo possibly call. for thi, mal' h"'e heen

19. Jf you hove made a fini,bcd picture n ordor alLd
il i, rejecl",l, il i, fai, to a,k for adju,tment. jI oot the
fllll acC'()rding to yon1" time and . xpen,..,. 11 you ue
a well-k"own ""d arlisl. your "knl i, Cx-
ped "' to he lamiliar en'>\'gh wi!h your work lo gh'e you
" h.-,,," ,,1' r'y",e,,', w), ether '''''''P'",l "
tum by hi, dient or noto Ordinarny the ,hou ld malee
'HLy re,,""nuble c'O(oc. ",iom. lIe slwuld consider card'ully
whe\hcr the work tn,II' rcpre,en(s hi, hest JI not, ],e
.ho"ld do it OWl" at tb. original price e<t,a fee.
All arti,' bave" few do-o,'."'. H tbe dient is reput"Lle
and fair, hi, fulurc Lusincss i, worlh the drort. ond
he will nC>! he wjtho .. t of yOllr fairness. He
connot pay ""i<,. 1m the ""me jobo H he ",ill nol give
y"u the 'c""n(] Ch'Htt to reMem )"ou"elf. Jo., ,hould
a lair pri"" IOT the expense a"d ell'r! yoo have gone
to. If 1", w"nt, to do il <>wr witholl t mig-
inal im\ruetio"" yOIl ,h",lid do "" at no extra fee. Bu\
doing it ove]"!o Et new cireum'tance" through no fa"l t
of Wll ,hould k paid lo, at a prie" agreeablc alld
previou, to the fin al exeeution.
20, me" dient wilhout having a pr. viom )(I""
fide ort!cr and an agre.ment ,. lo price. also evidencc
Ihat )'01' havc ,ati..factorily delivered cqua!))" important
worx to other dien!s. Your work h lih ly te> 1", passed on
by a ju')', u,,, oll)' arti,b 01 lt i, ktter to
lorget it il yo" are certain lhe worle ha, not hee n. and
will )(It he. u,cd, M.ybe it really i, I<)() had lo "ecept .. t
any rale, il , 'ou sue and win. you mal' be , me you are
through. at le, ,,t with Ihat dient. Few gwd ar\ish have
law ",it> over lheir work. In Ihe ca,e l long or
work, lhat i, diffcrent. lf p.Tt 01 tk worle w,,-, accept"ble
and u,ed, that . hould Ix- p"id for, If . c"ntraet wa, made.
youe di . nt , I1OUld be held liohle
299
ANSWERS TO QUER1ES,
21. ... lJ.., tn tioo ' .... m.U)' par> a
p""" Ihao stury m",lT:I. t;"n.
1)" "'" oi go . .. lno",,,;,,, or
"'id, ""y "'1.""""Wivo or ag .. ,( ,,,. "",1<", ,,
)' OU bo I'-)'Ins f()f loe rol! your life on c""f)' lloi ng
<1", whl'lhet it i.< ,,,,,,,",1 by Ihat og"" Ol' ",,1, 1I " ",;1
.... _p",,Scd !h.1 yO\! pa,' ""'IOIni .. ion , ... ly "" ., oh ,,,,,,1<
OS t101 hM ..,ld lo< i''''' , and for 3 Jitn,tut ""Iiod.
11 . 11 i. ",t iri, ,,,,,,,!, you (>'" renew t he ",hilo i il
i< ,,,,, ...... l",re.
2:) . TI>e ."""", ;";0" .bould " al ....,. >.5,(,. "
"".or wte "'.,)' be rou bero"1<' ", ... 1\ known,
sil ..,. il willb. Ie.., dillk,, 1t 10 ",,11
\ti A fil!. ti"" b " Co,,,,,,i,,iOJl ... "ylh"'g"l"" onu
I"olly ag(1O<' SQmo go high .. oo<,,,
25. Yo" connol , wllho,,! po!tal "",horlly, oo,ld n .. de
.,!>oto< t h.-oogh 1'1>311 . 1, ""1 mbn,,""" m",t P""
"""",..1>11'. uIl I ... , ' '''4u .. ti .. >4 Ott t.,b
Cc-ts, '" u,o<:! in wilh oel
26, .'lll ",<>ek " ,bml" .., 001 sperobtl ,,,, <lloold b<t
by tu." '" No wi11
,. liA!,k or Ion.
2'1, Thc o,,\ bol' do<.. ,IOl ", k<:l thc 111",t .... tor.
2/) , y"" <:8 ' U'IOt oree anyone fo publi,h }"OIIf ",orl:.
. "en jr paid for.
z , do '>01 a,k me lar .. ,,1 ""r k",J.
:}O, .., do no! ill lo, orginal .ke.d",,, anJ painl .
In!:'. <incr 1 c., ,,,.o. I'"",lbly m""t lbe "uo,bn <>1 ' '''1''''* _
3l el<> oot . , k Iot aulograph" While I om
plea' ed, I hotl<,<tly " m time ro repad:: m" il r oo'
booh Fa!' thl = pl my . 100.1 . illc,,,, tegt d ' _
:}2, I oal)llOt p<lS'ibly .. 1I roor W<>Tk lo.- lO\! 00 com-
.. i()1l. Dor huy ,i"turos, "'" can I b;rc a" i.<h oc r'1' roo-
""101 ,h""..
300
:n rlo., c "ot .. "" yw r wo,k le>< 1''''.00.1
",itk;' m and 'I'I' ,.; ..:J. 1 ha,-c )'ou IIv" ylhi"S 1 can
Iho bool , ' 11,J """not . ''''''d . ueh ... " ,"" to my ruJ
.. iI i , lo lJly ,cg.d.
301 , Ple do nOI fOl' k-ttet& 01 o. r'-
," mo. 'K[at" m, TI y<mr ",.".k l. good yUl' woul ,,,,d .hern.
I hc,iloto \0 an ort", t fri." d 01 timo, lar bal ;,
whal ni"", moo t. lE 1 """,klllOl do il, I <::In"'" "".
Imo t ll gi'-e l '''' time_ d"y )'Q" ",iU u,Ki"",t."d.
35. I wi,lo it "ere (,< ,,>lb!. '0 gn ... )'Q" perlooal InIer
.... ""., bui I "m i" Iho "'r ... wat as my artW: friend.
WI .. m working lo a fi lie" '''''""" k, there juot j, 1101 time.
The ar1i,t h .. solJ lo> time "mi it ]"' 1onl9' h, his clie>LI
1\ lo not his lo glV<' .
36. Thc time gj,,,,,, lo Ihi, bock ha, bc<:t> si".,n al am
. ide, ,,bl. e' l"'""o an<l 10>, o 011>", work. 1 o." of
mm., Ik I """Id ten)'l'" I""'"nolly. I urge)'W
lo get 111 Ihat boot 01 yO\! rS "lid ro .. lt with ,11 , .>ur
0"",\ a,k fo' """,,,,,al d", I,;."". YOII wfU liDd It lo bet:ter
'" m"ke rI,em Y<J" ",elf "" d """ .h"", ''' '''''!jh,
31. \ \1' 0"""'" your prob!",,," tlo. re !los 1"",,, tl", "'me
I,roblem o,-c, 0""1' fu,. elsc. ",me hove
lided it, w ca n you,
;l:Il I d<> oot coodlld . ny .. , es "". t,y tu gi.,.- ind i
,dual lIlr"ct;on. b""o., I want lo ",,,,,' un activo in
Ih r.ekl a, long a, I """ . 1 """Id , ... tchool, I ' "ppose,
b,, l'cl r. tru,r I,.itll. \Vheu l' m rcady to quit (:he '"'Id.
th"" I llape 10 r.el "' I e.,,,,-,t1 my rigln lo ",h Ol
time rs Iclt to w'" 1m d,e "'""" plCls"", (Ir 11. n .
wlll nl\\' ay. he u , he doing . n"- r,1 mue" "" h ,.
.. al_y,.
;'19, I 00 . ppr .,bte M"", "'I'"cially those that do
.lOl " k m. '" male
4(), In I ",i5' tu .. lhat ;n ,,1 tbeR i.
. ",Iy a """", d waitog ro.- . 11 wno .... ,., II>e "ou, ase it
d(-'I"' oo"