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of one sub division.

Sub division 1. Enterocoelous coelomata : Coelom is enterocoel which originates

as pouches of embryonic gut (archenteron)
(i) Character of Non Chordata (Invertebrates) : The animals which lack a
notochord are called invertebrates. e.g. Amoeba, sponges, Hydra, worms, insects, etc.,
Invertebrates are characterised by the following salient features
(1) The vertebral column is absent.
(2) the nerve cord is solid in nature.
(3) The nerve cord is present on the ventral side and never on the dorsal side.
(4) When alimentary canal is present, it lies dorsal to the nerve cord.
(5) Invertebrates may be acoelomate or pseudocoelomate or true coelomate.
(6) They have either asymmetry or radial symmetry or bilateral symmetry.
(7) The circulatory system is open type or closed type.
(8) They exhibit all possible type of reproduction.
The invertebrates are grouped into about 30 phyla. These phyla are of two types,
namely major phyla and minor phyla.
(a) Major Phyla : (1) Protozoa (2) Porifera (3) Coelenterata (4) Platyhelminthes (5)
Aschelminthes (6) Annelida (7) Arthropoda (8) Mollusca, and (9) Echinodermata.
(b) Minor Phyla : (1) Mesozoa (2) Nemertinea (3) Endoprocta (4) Acanthocephala (5)
Rotifera (6) Gastrotricha (7) Kinorhyncha (8) Nematomorpha (9) Ectoprocta (10)
Brachiopods (11) Phoronida (12) Chaetognatha (13) Priapulida (14) Sipunculida (15)
Echiuroidea (16) Pogonophora etc.

1.3 Phylum Protozoa.
(i) Introduction : All unicellular (or acellular)
eukaryotic animals : Most primitive (Gr. Porots = first +
zoon = animal) organisms considered animals because of
heterotrophic nutrition and motility. Although the whole
body is a single minute cell. About 50,000 species (30,000
present and 20,000 extinct) are so far known.
(ii) Brief History : Protozoans were first studied by
Leeuwenhoek (1677). The name Protozoa was coined
by Goldfuss (1817). The branch of their study is called
(iii) Salient Features
(1) Protozoans are the simple and primitive
(2) They are free living or parasitic
(3) All the free living forms are aquatic
(4) They are asymmetrical or radially symmetrical or
bilaterally symmetrical
(5) They are unicellular (acellular)
(6) They have protoplasmic grade of organization.
(7) Locomotion is effected by flagella, cilia or
(8) Nutrition is holophytic, holozoic, saprozoic or
(9) Digestion is intracellular

(10) Excretion & Respiration occurs by diffusion
(11) In fresh water protozoans osmoregulation is carried out by the contractile
(12) Encystment is a common phenomenon
(13) Reproduction occurs by asexual and sexual methods.