Anda di halaman 1dari 11

d.

Reaksi dengan KMnO4 (uji Baeyer)


Larutan KMnO
4
mengoksidasi senyawa tak jenuh. Alkana dan senyawa aromatik umumnya tidak
reaktif dengan KMnO
4
. Terjadinya reaksi ini ditandai dengan hilangnya warna ungu dari
KMnO
4
dan terbentuknya endapan coklat MnO
4
. Produk yang dihasilkan suatu glikol atau 1,2-
diol.
OH OH

3 CH
3
-CH-CH-CH
3
+ 2 KMnO
4
+ 4 H
2
O 3 CH
3
-CH-CH-CH
3
+ 2 MnO
4
+ 2 KOH
Ungu coklat
Alkena dan Kalium Manganat(VII)
Ditulis oleh Jim Clark pada 17-10-2007
Halaman ini membahas tentang reaksi antara ikatan karbon-karbon rangkap pada senyawa-
senyawa alkena seperti etena dengan larutan kalium manganat(VII) (larutan kalium
permanganat).
Oksidasi alkena
Fakta-fakta
Alkena bereaksi dengan larutan kalium manganat(VII) dalam suasana dingin. Perubahan warna
tergantung pada apakah kalium manganat(VII) digunakan dalam kondisi asam atau basa.
Jika larutan kalium manganat(VII) diasamkan dengan asam sulfat encer, maka larutan akan
berubah warna dari ungu menjadi tidak berwarna.
Jika larutan kalium manganat(VII) dijadikan sedikit bersifat basa (biasanya dengan
menambahkan larutan natrium karbonat), larutan ungu pertama-tama berubah menjadi hijau tua
dan selanjutnya menghasilkan endapan berwarna coklat gelap.
Sifat kimia reaksi
Kita akan melihat reaksi dengan etena. Alkena-alkena yang lain bereaksi persis sama dengan
etena.
Ion-ion manganat(VII) merupakan agen pengoksidasi kuat, dan etena dioksidasi menjadi etana-
1,2-diol (nama lama: etilen glikol).
Jika persamaan reaksinya ditinjau murni dari sudut pandang reaksi organik, maka dapat
dituliskan:

Persamaan reaksi lengkapnya tergantung pada kondisi-kondisi reaksi.
Dibawah kondisi asam, ion-ion manganat(VII) direduksi menjadi ion-ion mangan(II).

Dibawah kondisi basa, ion-ion manganat(VII) pertama-tama direduksi menjadi ion-ion
manganat(VI) yang berwarna hijau sesuai persamaan berikut:

dan selanjutnya direduksi menjadi padatan mangan(IV) oksida yang berwarna coklat gelap
(mangan oksida).

Reaksi yang terakhir ini juga merupakan reaksi yang akan terjadi apabila reaksi berlangsung
pada kondisi netral. Hanya saja tidak ditemukan lagi adanya ion hidrogen atau ion hidroksida
pada sebelah kiri persamaan reaksi.
Komplikasi-komplikasi
Produk yang terbentuk dari reaksi antara etena dengan Kalium Manganat(VII), yakni etana-1,2-
diol, agak mudah dioksidasi oleh ion-ion manganat(VII), sehingga reaksi tidak akan terhenti
setelah produk ini dihasilkan sebelum larutan kalium manganat(VII) sangat encer, sangat dingin,
dan tidak pada kondisi asam.
Ini berarti bahwa reaksi ini tidak terlalu bermanfaat untuk digunakan dalam pembuatan etana-
1,2-diol. Reaksi ini hanya bermanfaat dalam pengujian ikatan karbon-karbon rangkap meski
tidak begitu bagus!
Penggunaan reaksi etena dengan kalium manganat(VII) untuk menguji keberadaan ikatan
C=C
Jika sebuah senyawa organik bereaksi dengan kalium manganat(VII) basa yang encer
menghasilkan larutan hijau yang diikuti dengan endapan coklat gelap, maka senyawa organik
tersebut kemungkinan mengandung sebuah ikatan rangkap C=C. Akan tetapi, senyawa organik
tersebut bisa jadi salah satu dari banyak senyawa lain yang semua kandungannya bisa dioksidasi
oleh ion-ion manganat(VII) dibawah kondisi basa.
Apabila larutan kalium manganat(VII) dalam kondisi asam maka situasinya lebih buruk lagi
karena larutan ini memiliki kecenderungan untuk memutus ikatan karbon-karbon. Larutan ini
bereaksi keras dengan berbagai senyawa organik dan jarang digunakan dalam kimia organik.
Anda dapat menggunakan larutan kalium manganat(VII) basa untuk menguji keberadaan ikatan
C=C jika, misalnya, anda hanya ingin menentukan apakah sebuah hidrokarbon adalah alkana
atau alkena dengan kata lain, jika tidak ada lagi zat lain di dalamnya yang bisa dioksidasi.
Reaksi uji ini tidak begitu bermanfaat. Penggunaan air bromin jauh lebih jelas hasilnya.

ALKENES and POTASSIUM
MANGANATE(VII)

This page looks at the reaction of the carbon-carbon double
bond in alkenes such as ethene with potassium manganate(VII)
solution (potassium permanganate solution).

Oxidation of alkenes with cold dilute potassium
manganate(VII) solution
Experimental details
Alkenes react with potassium manganate(VII) solution in the
cold. The colour change depends on whether the potassium
manganate(VII) is used under acidic or alkaline conditions.
If the potassium manganate(VII) solution is acidified with dilute
sulphuric acid, the purple solution becomes colourless.
If the potassium manganate(VII) solution is made slightly
alkaline (often by adding sodium carbonate solution), the purple
solution first becomes dark green and then produces a dark
brown precipitate.
Chemistry of the reaction
We'll look at the reaction with ethene. Other alkenes react in just
the same way.
Manganate(VII) ions are a strong oxidising agent, and in the first
instance oxidise ethene to ethane-1,2-diol (old name: ethylene
glycol).
Looking at the equation purely from the point of view of the
organic reaction:



Note: This type of equation is quite commonly used in organic
chemistry. Oxygen written in square brackets is taken to mean
"oxygen from an oxidising agent". The reason for this is that a more
normal equation tends to obscure the organic change in a mass of
other detail - as you will find below!
The full equations are given below, although you probably won't
need them.


The full equation depends on the conditions.
Under acidic conditions, the manganate(VII) ions are reduced to
manganese(II) ions.



Note: If you want to know how to write equations for redox reactions
like this you could follow this link, and explore in the redox section of
this site.
Use the BACK button (or HISTORY file or GO menu) on your
browser to return to this page later.


Under alkaline conditions, the manganate(VII) ions are first
reduced to green manganate(VI) ions . . .

. . . and then further to dark brown solid manganese(IV) oxide
(manganese dioxide).

This last reaction is also the one you would get if the reaction
was done under neutral conditions. You will notice that there are
neither hydrogen ions nor hydroxide ions on the left-hand side of
the equation.


Note: You might possibly remember that further up the page it says
that potassium manganate(VII) is often made slightly alkaline by
adding sodium carbonate solution. Where are the hydroxide ions in
this?
Carbonate ions react with water to some extent to produce
hydrogencarbonate ions and hydroxide ions. It is the presence of
these hydroxide ions that gives sodium carbonate solution its pH in
the 10 - 11 region.


Using the reaction to test for carbon-carbon double bonds
If an organic compound reacts with dilute alkaline potassium
manganate(VII) solution in the cold to give a green solution
followed by a dark brown precipitate, then it may contain a
carbon-carbon double bond. But equally it could be any one of a
large number of other compounds all of which can be oxidised
by manganate(VII) ions under alkaline conditions.
The situation with acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution is
even worse because it has a tendency to break carbon-carbon
bonds. It reacts destructively with a large number of organic
compounds and is rarely used in organic chemistry.
You could use alkaline potassium manganate(VII) solution if, for
example, all you had to do was to find out whether a
hydrocarbon was an alkane or an alkene - in other words, if
there was nothing else present which could be oxidised.
It isn't a useful test. Bromine water is far more clear cut.


Note: You will find details of the use of bromine water in testing for
carbon-carbon double bonds in the page about the reactions of
alkenes with halogens.



Oxidation of alkenes with hot concentrated acidified
potassium manganate(VII) solution
This is where it gets complicated! Check with your syllabus to
see whether you need to know about it before you go any
further. This section was written to cover a statement in the
Cambridge International (CIE) A level syllabus.
The problem
The diols, such as ethane-1,2-diol, which are the products of the
reaction with cold dilute potassium manganate(VII), are
themselves quite easily oxidised by manganate(VII) ions. That
means that the reaction won't stop at this point unless the
potassium manganate(VII) solution is very dilute, very cold, and
preferably not under acidic conditions.
If you are using hot concentrated acidified potassium
manganate(VII) solution, what you finally end up with depends
on the arrangement of groups around the carbon-carbon double
bond.
Writing a structural formula to represent any alkene
The formula below represents a general alkene. In organic
chemistry, the symbol R is used to represent hydrocarbon
groups or hydrogen in a formula when you don't want to talk
about specific compounds. If you use the symbol more than
once in a formula (as here), the various groups are written as
R
1
, R
2
, etc.
In this particular case, the double bond is surrounded by four
such groups, and these can be any combination of same or
different - so they could be 2 hydrogens, a methyl and an ethyl,
or 1 hydrogen and 3 methyls, or 1 hydrogen and 1 methyl and 1
ethyl and 1 propyl, or any other combination you can think of.
In other words, this formula represents every possible simple
alkene:

The first stage of the extended oxidation
The acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution oxidises the
alkene by breaking the carbon-carbon double bond and
replacing it with two carbon-oxygen double bonds.

The products are known as carbonyl compounds because
they contain the carbonyl group, C=O. Carbonyl compounds can
also react with potassium manganate(VII), but how they react
depends on what is attached to the carbon-oxygen double bond.
So we need to work through all the possible combinations.


Warning: The rest of this page is going to look quite difficult,
because it talks in some detail about compounds you probably won't
have studied yet. It may be best just to go through this quickly for
now, and then come back to it later on after you have studied
aldehydes and ketones.


What happens next?
If both attached R groups in the products are alkyl groups
Carbonyl compounds which have two hydrocarbon groups
attached to the carbonyl group are called ketones. Ketones
aren't that easy to oxidise, and so there is no further action. (But
see note in red below.)
If the groups attached either side of the original carbon-carbon
double bond were the same, then you would end up with a
single ketone. If they were different, then you would end up with
a mixture of two.
For example:

In this case, you would end up with two identical molecules
called propanone. On the other hand, if one of the methyl
groups in the original molecule was replaced by an ethyl group,
you would get a mixture of two different ketones - propanone
and butanone.
What would you get if there was a methyl and an ethyl group on
both sides of the original carbon-carbon double bond? Again,
you would get a single ketone formed - in this case, butanone. If
you aren't sure about this, draw the structures and see.


Important: This last section is a gross over-simplification for the
purposes of the CIE A level syllabus. In practice, ketones are
oxidised by potassium manganate(VII) solution under these
conditions. The reaction is untidy and results in breaking carbon-
carbon bonds either side of the carbonyl group. If you are doing CIE,
then you will have to learn this as stated above. If you are doing
anything else, you probably shouldn't be wasting your time reading
this anyway. Potassium manganate(VII) is such a devastating
oxidising agent that it is rarely used in organic chemistry. Check your
syllabus!


If a product has one hydrocarbon group and one hydrogen
For example, suppose the first stage of the reaction was:

In this case, the first product molecule has a methyl group and a
hydrogen attached to the carbonyl group. This is a different sort
of compound known as an aldehyde.
Aldehydes are readily oxidised to give carboxylic acids,
containing the -COOH group. So this time, the reaction will go
on a further step to give ethanoic acid, CH
3
COOH.

The acid structure has been turned around slightly to make it
look more like the way we normally draw acids, but the net effect
is that an oxygen has been slotted in between the carbon and
hydrogen.
The overall effect of the potassium manganate(VII) on this kind
of alkene is therefore:

Obviously, if there was a hydrogen atom attached to both
carbons at the ends of the carbon-carbon double bond, you
would get two carboxylic acid molecules formed - which might
be the same or different, depending on whether the alkyl groups
were the same or different.
Play around with this until you are happy about it. Draw a
number of alkenes, all of which have a hydrogen attached at
both ends of the carbon-carbon double bond. Vary the alkyl
groups - sometimes the same on each end of the double bond,
sometimes different. Oxidise them to form the acids, and see
what you get.
If a product has two hydrogens but no hydrocarbon group
You might have expected that this would produce methanoic
acid, as in the equation:

But it doesn't! That's because methanoic acid is also easily
oxidised by potassium manganate(VII) solution. In fact, it
oxidises it all the way to carbon dioxide and water.
So the equation in a case like this might be, for example:

The exact nature of the other product (in this example,
propanone) will vary depending on what was attached to the
right-hand carbon in the carbon-carbon double bond.
If there were two hydrogens at both ends of the double bond (in
other words, if you had ethene), then all you would get would be
carbon dioxide and water.

Summary
Think about both ends of the carbon-carbon double bond
separately, and then combine the results afterwards.
If there are two alkyl groups at one end of the bond, that
part of the molecule will give a ketone.
If there is one alkyl group and one hydrogen at one end
of the bond, that part of the molecule will give a carboxylic
acid.
If there are two hydrogens at one end of the bond, that
part of the molecule will give carbon dioxide and water.

What is the point of all this?
Working back from the results helps you to work out the
structure of the alkene. For example, the alkene C
4
H
8
has three
structural isomers:

Work out which of these would give each of the following results
if they were treated with hot concentrated potassium
manganate(VII) solution. Don't read the answers in the green
box until you have had a go at this.
Isomer A gives a ketone (propanone) and carbon dioxide.
Isomer B gives a carboxylic acid (propanoic acid) and
carbon dioxide.
Isomer C gives a carboxylic acid (ethanoic acid).


Answers: Acids are produced when there is a hydrogen atom
attached to at least one of the carbons in the carbon-carbon double
bond. Since in C there is only one product, the alkene must be
symmetrical around the double bond. That's but-2-ene. If you have
got two hydrogens at one end of the bond, this will produce carbon
dioxide. A is 2-methylpropene, because the other molecule is a
ketone. B must be but-1-ene because it produces carbon dioxide
and an acid.




Struktur senyawa feromon yaitu alkohol dan aldehid