Anda di halaman 1dari 13




Trisakti University Faculty of Medicine

The purpose of this research is to know how gastroenteritis rates street children that
means the children who work on street and as the control, we used school children, that means
the child who active and learn at the school. Methodologies used for this research is cross
sectional by filling in the questionnaire given to street children at age 8-15, lived on west jakarta,
and 5
grade elementary school students in SDN 07 and 08 Duri Kepa. This survey involved 50
Children divided into two groups. Each group consists of 25 Child from street children and
school children. The data was collect on June 21, 2012 for street children and June 19, 2012 for
school children. This research used chi square to analysis the data to find the correlation with
significant level set at p0,05. The result is X
= 0,102 with df (degree of freedom) = 1, and P
value is p0,05, the is 3,841. So, with the result of X
is less then the value of , there is no
correlation between the incidence rate of gastroenteritis among street children and school

Gastroenteritis is a condition that causes irritation and inflammation of the stomach and
intestines (the gastrointestinal tract). The most common symptoms are diarrhea, nausea,
abdominal pain, and vomiting. Diarrhea is the passage of excessively liquid or frequent stools
with increased water content.
Worldwide, 3-5 billion cases of acute gastroenteritis and nearly 2 million deaths occur
each year in children under 5 years. Acute gastroenteritis is among the most common illnesses of
humankind, and its associated morbidity and mortality are greatest among those at the extremes
of age, children and the elderly. In developing countries, gastroenteritis is a common cause of
death in children<5 years that can be linked to a wide variety of pathogens. In developed
countries, while deaths from diarrhoea are less common, much illness leads to hospitalization or
doctor visits.
gastroenteritis affects both the stomach and the intestines, resulting in vomiting and
diarrhea. and the common clinical presentation of this disease are : Low grade fever (around 37,7
C), nausea with or without vomiting, mild to moderate diarrhea, and the painful abdominal
And the serious symptoms of gastroenteritis are : blood in vomit or stool, vomiting more
than 48 hours, fever higher than 40 C, swollen abdomen, and dehydration, that marked by
weakness, lightheadedness, decreased urination, dry skin, dry mouth and lack of sweat and tears.

Most cases of gastroenteritis have a viral etiology and are self-limited. However, more
severe or prolonged cases of gastroenteritis can result in dehydration with significant morbidity
and mortality. Most children with gastroenteritis can be treated with physiologically balanced
oral rehydration solutions. In children who are hypovolemic, lethargic and estimated to be more
than 5 percent dehydrated, initial treatment with intravenous boluses of isotonic saline or Ringer's
lactate may be required. Children with severe diarrhea need nutrition to restore digestive function
and, generally, food should not be withheld.

3.1 Research Design
For this research, we use Cross Sectional study at two different subject groups, they are
street children that work on the street in west Jakarta and school children that his life is supported
by their parents in West Jakarta, on June 21, 2012 for street children and June 19, 2012 for school
3.2 Research Location and Time
Location : Streets dominated by trading children in West Jakarta
SDN 07 and 08 Duri Kepa, West Jakarta
Time : June 21, 2012 for street children
June 19, 2012 for school children.
3.3 Population and Sample
The target population of the study is all street and all school children grade 5 and 6.
Meanwhile, we state the accessible population, that is street children and school children are
elementary students grade 5 and 6 located in West Jakarta. The street children are still trading on
the streets in June 2012; school children are also located in West Jakarta, with studying period
throughout 2012. The sample will be the subset of the population selected consecutively and we
consider they represent the population, that is 25 street children working in West Jakarta and 25
elementary students studying in SDN Tomang 09, West Jakarta, throughout 2012.

3.4 Data Collection
The result of this research was collected in two days with questionnaires, including name,
age, and health status. We will process and analyze the data for about one week. The
questionnaires will be conducted to subjects, consisted of 50 children who divided into two
groups that are 25 street children and 25 school children.
This is the form of questioner
A. Identity
Name :
Age :
Gender :
School at :
Adress :
B. Antropometry
Weight :
Height :
Upper Arm Circumference :

C. Questions
1. how many times do get diarrhea in last 3 months ?
A. 1x C. 3x
B. 2x D. Never
2. Do you wash your hand before you eat ?
A. Yes B. No
3. Where you often eat ?
A. At Home C. At Street
B. At Restaurant D. At School
4. Is the food that you eat clean ?
A. Yes B. No
5. How many times do you eat in a day?
A. 1x a day C. 3x a day
B. 2x a day D. >3x a day
6. Where are the place that you take to Defecate ?
A. Public Bathroom C. School Bathroom
A. Private Bathroom D. At RIver

3.5 Sampling Technique
We use Consecutive Sampling as the sampling technique for the research. Consecutive
sampling is one of methods of non-probability sampling. All subjects attended and qualified for
criteria judged by us, will be included in the study. The process of sampling is described as

3.6 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
Inclusion Criteria:
- Both sample groups are children aged 8 15 years old
- Both sample groups are included in any gender
- Street chidren are
Those who are working on the streets (hawkers or a small trading)
The subjects are willing to participate during research by signing an
informed consent.
- School children are :
Elementary students who participate in academic activities
Elementary students who are recorded in the database of SDN Tomang
09, West Jakarta
Those whose necessities of life depend on their parents
Subjects are willing to participate during the research by signing an
informed consent.
School and Streets in West
Street and schools children as
subjects of research
Subjects qualified for inclusion
50 subjects

Exclusion Criteria:
- children with disabilities or defects physically or mentally (including cognitive

4.7 Working Procedures

Children on streets and in a school will be sorted so that the subjects will be obtained in
accordance with the inclusion criteria. The subjects should be assesed with the parameters of
questionnaire in order to know their health status.
Data will be proceed and analyzed. The final of the study is generalizing the subjects, stating the
results of the research and concluding.

Qualified for inclusion criteria
Assesment by using questionnaire
Data Analysis
Result and Conclusion
4.8 Processing and Data Analysis

Data Processing
Collection of the data of street children and the elementary students will be done in West
Jakarta. Then, performing assesment by using questionnaires towards the subjects who meet
the inclusion criteria regarding to the goal of the research and approve to take part in each
process of the researh.

Data Analysis
Analysis carried out on two variables to be compared. In this study, bivariate
analysis was done to see to answer the hypothesis. This research will be used chi square
to analysis the data.


On of 50 students we have surveyed, we will find out whether street children and school
children had suffered from gastroenteritis in the last 1 month or not. To process the data, and find
is there any difference in outcome between street children and school children, we are using chi-
square analysis.
Table I. Distribution of Gastroenteritis in school children and street children
School Children Street Children Total
Yes 18 7 25
No 19 6 25
Total 37 13 50

Table II. Distribution of Gastroenteritis in school children and street children
Yes No Total
School Children 18,5 6,5 25
Street Children 18,5 6,5 25
Total 37 13 50

With the general formulation of Chi-square : X
(df) = ( O E )
/ E , the result from
this research X
= (18-18,5)
/ 18,5 + (18-18,5)
/ 18,5 + (7-6,5)
/ 6,5 + (6-6,5)
/ 6,5 = 0,013 +
0,013 + 0,038 + 0,038 = 0,102. with df (degree of freedom) = (2-1)*(2-1) = 1 , it show that P
value is 3,841.

So, the conclusion of this formulation is the hypothesis of this research is rejected. There
was no significant difference between the incidence rate of gastroenteritis among street children
and school children.
Many factors that can cause gastroenteritis in children. Environment is only one factor
among others. Our study showed that there was no significant difference in the frequency of
gastroenteritis in children. In our study also showed that both street children and school children
affected by gastroenteritis during this month showed nearly the same frequency.
Table III. Frequency distribution of Gastroenteritis in school children and street
One time a month Two times a month More than three times
a month
School children 55% 22,5% 22,5%
Street Children 42% 26% 32%

Nevertheless, in the table above shows us that if a street children has gastroenteritis, then the
frequency will be higher in comparison with school children. This can happen because only 12%
of the sample go to the doctor if they got gastroenteritis. And the rest, about 88%, not find any
treatment, and they just cared at home.
Wash hands before eating also affects the frequency of gastroenteritis in children. Because
effective handwashing is the most important measure for preventing the spread of pathogens.

Both on street children and school children wash their hands before eat, so, the hand-washing
does not affect for the results of the study.

Food hygiene and sanitation are also very influental on the frequency of gastroenteritis. Both
street children and school children, they have good food hygiene. For sanitation was already
good, because both street children and school chidren, both defecating in the bathroom and not
Therefore, it can be concluded that there was no significant difference between the
incidence rate of gastroenteritis among street children and school children.


The author would like to thank Prof. dr. H. Widagdo, Sp.A as my supervisor for his guidance
throughout this period of research. The author also like to thanks to both SDN 07 and SDN 08
duri kepa, all the street children in west jakarta for their participation in this research and all my
research group to support the author to finish this research.


1. EmedicineHealth. Gastroenteritis (stomatch flu) . Available at: Accessed on: May 30

2. Glass RI, Bresee J, Jiang B, Gentsch J, Ando T, Fankhauser R, et al. Gastroenteritis
viruses: an overview. Novartis Found Symp. 2001;238:5
3. Elliott, EJ. Acute Gastroenteritis in children. BMJ 2007;334:35-40
4. Mayo Clinic. Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu). Available at:
gastroenteritis/DS00085/DSECTION=complications. Accessed on: May 30
5. Eliason, BC, Lewan RB. Gastroenteritis in Children: Principles of Diagnosis and
Treatment. Am Fam Physician. 1998 Nov 15;58(8):1769-1776
6. Centers for Disease Contron and Prevention. OPRP general information on hand
hygiene. Available at : Accessed on : July

, 2012