Anda di halaman 1dari 106

UNIT 2

The
BIG
Question
UNIT 7
What Makes You Tick?
Michael Jordan,
professional athlete

You have to expect


things of yourself before
you can do them.

Rubberball/SuperStock
LOOKING AHEAD
The skill lessons and readings in this unit will help you develop your own answer
to the Big Question.
UNIT 7 WARM-UP Connecting to the Big Question
GENRE FOCUS: Poetry
One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775
by James Berry
READING WORKSHOP 1
Skill Lesson: Evaluating
Annabel Lee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780
by Edgar Allan Poe
Names/Nombres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786
by Julia Alvarez
WRITING WORKSHOP PART 1
Poem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794
READING WORKSHOP 2
Skill Lesson: Interpreting
Diondra Jordan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802
by Nikki Grimes
Face It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810
by Janet S. Wong
Almost Ready . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 811
by Arnold Adoff
READING WORKSHOP 3
Skill Lesson: Monitoring Comprehension
Miracles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 818
by Walt Whitman
The Pasture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819
by Robert Frost
Reading, Writing, Rapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824
by Elizabeth Wellington
WRITING WORKSHOP PART 2
Poem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 830
READING WORKSHOP 4
Skill Lesson: Connecting
Growing Pains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 838
by Jean Little
What Makes Teens Tick? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 844
by Claudia Wells, updated from Time
COMPARING LITERATURE WORKSHOP
The Womens 400 Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855
by Lillian Morrison
To James . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856
by Frank Horne
Slam, Dunk, & Hook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858
by Yusef Komunyakaa
UNIT 7 WRAP-UP Answering the Big Question
771
UNIT 7
Micah really likes hanging out with her friends.
She also likes helping out at her little
sisters day-care center. She thinks
this is important, because
someday she would like to
be a teacher. When her
friends give her a hard
time about it, she laughs
it off. But Micah would
like them to respect her
decision and stop giving
her a hard time. If you
were Micah, what would
you tell your friends?
Warm-Up Activity
In a small group, share ideas about what you think Jenny and
Micah might do. Then write a letter to Jenny or Micah, telling what
you think. Share your letter with the class.
Connecting to
WARM-UP
What Makes
You Tick?
What gets you going? What makes you want to do your best? When you
figure this out, youll know what makes you tick. It may be a talent,
a value, a belief, a person, or something else. It may be many things.
In this unit, youll read what makes other people tick. Youll see how
learning about themselves has affected their decisions and relationships.
Real Kids and the Big Question
Jenny had a tough writing assignment from her teacher.
Jenny didnt really care about writing; but now she has a new
teacher, and she wants to do her best work. She spent days
writing, proofing, and rewriting her paper. Nervously, she
turned it in. Finally, when she got her paper back, she received
a note from her teacher praising her hard work. Why might the
teachers praise motivate Jenny to do more writing?
772 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
(l) Laurence Dutton/Getty Images, (r) Syracuse Newspapers/Randi Anglin/The Image Works
Keep Track of Your Ideas
Big Question Link to Web resources
to further explore the Big Question at
www.glencoe.com.
UNIT 7 WARM-UP
You and the Big Question
Reading about what makes others tick will help you think about and
define what makes you tick. Using the reading selections in this
unit, youll be better able to answer the Big Question.
Plan for the Unit Challenge
At the end of the unit, youll use notes from all of your reading to complete the
Unit Challenge.
You will choose one of the following activities:
A. Character Study Work with classmates to conduct an interview with a
character in this unit and draw conclusions about what makes him or her tick.
B. Personal Reflection Make a collage showing things that make you tick.
Start thinking about which activity youd like to do so that you can narrow your
focus as you read each selection.
In your Learners Notebook, write your thoughts about the activities. Which
sounds like fun? Which will help you answer the Big Question?
As you read, note what makes each character or speaker tick and why.
List the kinds of things that make you tickmusic, poetry, books, friends,
and so on.
As you read, youll make notes about the Big Question. Later, youll
use these notes to complete the Unit Challenge. See page R9 for help
with making Foldable 7. This diagram shows how it should look.
1. Make one Foldable page for each selection.
At the end of the unit, youll staple the pages
together into one Foldable.
2. Label the front of the fold-over page with the
selection title. (See page 771 for the titles.)
3. Below the title, write the label My Purpose
for Reading.
4. Open the Foldable. Label the inside page
The Big Question.
Warm-Up 773
UNIT 7
GENRE FOCUS: POETRY
Poetry looks different from stories and other kinds of literature. Poetry is
written in versethat is, in lines instead of in running text. Poetry may be a
bigger part of your life than you realize. The songs you enjoy are poems.
There are two main types of poetry:
Narrative poetry tells a story.
Lyric poetry tells about the poets feelings or emotions.
Why Read Poetry?
Reading poetry is a special experience. When you read a poem, youll learn
to appreciate the use of rhyme, rhythm, and meter
to understand sensory language
to see what makes a poet tick
How to Read Poetry
Key Reading Skills
These key reading skills are especially useful tools for reading and under-
standing poetry. The skills are modeled in the Active Reading Model on
page 775; youll learn more about them later in this unit.
Evaluating You make judgments or form opinions about what you
read. (See Reading Workshop 1.)
Interpreting You use your own understanding to decide what the
events or ideas in a selection mean. (See Reading Workshop 2.)
Monitoring comprehension You read a passage again to fully under-
stand what a writer means. (See Reading Workshop 3.)
Connecting You recognize part of yourself in what you read.
Connecting makes reading more meaningful and will help you under-
stand and remember what you read. (See Reading Workshop 4.)
Key Literary Elements
Recognizing and thinking about the following literary elements will help you
understand more fully what the author is telling you.
Sound devices: techniques that create patterns and emphasize words
and ideas, such as alliteration and assonance. (See Annabel Lee.)
Symbolism: the use of people, things, and experiences to stand for
more than they really are. (See Diondra Jordan.)
Rhyme, rhythm, and meter: the repetition of sounds, usually at
the ends of lines, and the pattern of beats and stresses within lines.
(See The Pasture.)
Figurative language: imaginative language used for descriptive effect.
(See What Makes Teens Tick?)
s Focus Skills s
y skills for reading lyric Keyy
nd narrative poetry ann
Key literary elements of lyric K K
and narrative poetry
Skills Model SS
You will see how to use the
key reading skills and literary
elements as you read
One, by James Berry,
p. 775
774 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Objectives (pp. 774775)
Reading Evaluate text Interpret
text Monitor comprehension:
rereading Make connections
from text to self
Literature Identify literary
devices: sound, symbolism, rhyme,
rhythm, meter, figurative language
1 Key Reading Skill
Connecting I can relate.
Theres only one of me, too.
2 Key Literary Element
Symbolism The fingerprints
could be a symbol for iden-
titythe qualities that make
a person unique.
3 Key Literary Element
Sound Devices I like that
the ow sound is repeated.
4 Key Reading Skill
Monitoring Comprehension,
Interpreting After
rereading, I get it. A mirror
shows how you look, not
who you are.
5 Key Reading Skill
Evaluating I think the
speaker feels unique
because there is only one
of him or her.
6 Key Literary Element
Rhyme, Rhythm, Meter
I cant see any rhyme or set
rhythm. This must be free
verse, because it has no
fixed pattern.
Study Central Visit www.glencoe.com and click on
Study Central to review poetry.
UNIT 7 GENRE FOCUS
ACTIVE READING MODEL
Poetry
The notes in the side columns
model how to use the skills
and elements you read about
on page 774.
Only one of me 1
and nobody can get a second one
from a photocopy machine.
Nobody has the ngerprints I have.
5
Nobody can cry my tears, or laugh my laugh
or have my expectancy
*
when I wait. 2
But anybody can mimic
*
my dance with my dog.
Anybody can howl how I sing out of tune. 3
And mirrors can show me multiplied
10
many times, say, dressed up in red
or dressed up in grey. 4
Nobody can get into my clothes for me
or feel my fall for me, or do my running.
Nobody hears my music for me, either.
15
I am just this one.
Nobody else makes the words
I shape with sound, when I talk.
But anybody can act how I stutter in a rage.
Anybody can copy echoes I make.
20
And mirrors can show me multiplied
many times, say, dressed up in green
or dressed up in blue. 5 6
by James Berry
Write to Learn The speaker reveals a lot in a few lines. Write down
what you think makes the speaker tick.
6 Expectancy is the feeling one has while looking forward to something.
7 To mimic is to copy or imitate.
775
READING WORKSHOP 1
Skills Focus
You will practice using these skills when you
read the following selections:
Annabel Lee, p. 780
Names/Nombres, p. 786
Reading
Evaluating poetry through an
understanding of genre and
literary elements
Literature
Identifying and explaining the
effects of sound devices such
as alliteration and assonance
Vocabulary
Using structural analysis to
understand word meanings
Academic Vocabulary:
evaluating
Writing/Grammar
Identifying subjects
and verbs
Skill Lesson
Evaluating
Learn It!
What Is It? When you make a judgment or form an
opinion about something that youre reading, youre
evaluating. You ask yourself these questions:
Is the authors message clearly expressed?
Does the author use literary elements such as
tone and style to interest you in the characters
and the plot?
Is the narrators voice believable? Are the feelings
and events in the poem or story realistic?
Analyzing Cartoons
The kids evaluate plot and character
development to judge whether some-
thing is worth watching. While reading,
you can evaluate these and other
literary elements.
Academic Vocabulary
evaluating (ih VAL yoo ay ting) v. finding value; judging or determining
worth
BALDO 2003 Baldo Partnership. Reprinted with Permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. All rights reserved.
776 UNIT 7
BALDO 2003 Baldo Partnership. Dist. By UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.
Objectives (pp. 776777)
Reading Evaluate text
776-777U7RW1_845477.indd 776 3/9/07 3:55:17 PM
Study Central Visit www.glencoe
.com and click on Study Central to
review evaluating.
READING WORKSHOP 1 Evaluating
Why Is It Important? You evaluate songs and movies when you discuss
what you like and dont like about them with your friends. Evaluating helps
you make good decisions about what you will listen to or watch next.
Evaluating what you read helps make you a smart reader.
How Do I Do It? Below is an excerpt from the poem One, by James
Berry. In this stanza, the voice that the poet createdthe speaker of the
poemtalks about being unique. Read how one student evaluated the text.
Only one of me
And nobody can get a second one
From a photocopy machine.
The speaker is saying that theres no one else like him
or her in the world. A photocopy machine cant make
another person like him or her because it can make only
copies of things. The speaker is saying that every person
is an original. Using the image of a photocopier is a good
way for the poet to get his point across.
Practice It!
What do you know about evaluating a poem or a short story? In your
Learners Notebook, write questions you can ask yourself to help you
evaluate
how well the poet or author expresses ideas.
the speakers or narrators voice.
the language used in the poem or story.
Use It!
As you read Annabel Lee and Names/Nombres, ask yourself the
questions you thought of. Write your answers in your Learners Notebook.
Reading Workshop 1 Evaluating 777
Getty Images
Meet the Author
Edgar Allan Poe was born in
1809. The topic of death
played a large part in Poes
writing. He is best known for
his mystery stories and his
tales of horror and madness.
However, he wanted to be
remembered for his poetry.
Poe said, With me poetry
has not been a purpose but a
passion. Annabel Lee was
published two days after his
untimely death in 1849. See
page R6 of the Author Files
for more on Edgar Allan Poe.
Author Search For more
about Edgar Allan Poe, go to
www.glencoe.com.
READING WORKSHOP 1 Evaluating
Before You Read
Annabel Lee
Vocabulary Preview
coveted (KUV it id) v. wanted what another person had; form of the verb
covet (p. 780) Rita coveted her sisters bracelet so much that she decided
to buy one exactly like it for herself.
tomb (toom) n. vault, chamber, or grave for the dead (p. 781) In ancient
China, an emperor was buried in an underground tomb, along with
thousands of clay soldiers and horses.
Write to Learn For each vocabulary word, write a sentence using that
word in your Learners Notebook. Find a partner and check each others
sentences to make sure that you used the words correctly.
English Language Coach
Using What You Know Later in this unit, youll learn about particular
roots that will help you unlock the meanings of unfamiliar words. In the
meantime (and all the time), you should realize that you know more than
you think you do, and you should use that knowledge. Look at this exam-
ple from One:
Nobody can . . . have my expectancy when I wait.
A footnote defined expectancy for you. Did you really need that help?
Maybe not!
Word expectancy
What You Know
About It
It must be a noun (my expectancy).
It looks like it contains expect.
It has something to do with waiting.
What It Might Mean Whatever expect means when its made into a
nounmaybe way of expecting or feeling
of expecting.
The what it might mean idea makes sense in the poem. This is a good
clue that what the word might mean is likely to be what it does mean.
(If you want to be absolutely sure of what a word means, use a dictionary.)
Individual Activity In your Learners Notebook, make a chart like
the one shown above. Write one of the underlined words from these
sentences. Then fill in the chart.
Our Friday quizzes were inescapable.
The guests wore finery.
Familiarize yourself with the rules.
E
d
g
ar Allan P
o
e
778 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
FPG
Objectives (pp. 778781)
Reading Evaluate text Make connec-
tions from text to self
Literature Identify literary devices:
alliteration, assonance
Vocabulary Use prior knowledge
778-779U7BYR_845477.indd 778 3/9/07 3:56:07 PM
READING WORKSHOP 1 Evaluating
Skills Preview
Key Reading Skill: Evaluating
Evaluating is making a judgment or forming an opinion
about what you are reading.
Write to Learn In your Learners Notebook, write
the questions below. As you read the following poem,
use the questions to help you evaluate.
Does the poets writing style make his or her ideas clear?
Does the poet succeed in making you understand
the speakers feelings? Why or why not?
Key Literary Element: Sound Devices
Sometimes authors repeat consonant sounds at the
beginnings of words in a text. This technique is called
alliteration. Authors use alliteration to stress certain
words. Read aloud the following sentence: As we left
the beach, the seagull soared into the clouds. When
you hear the s sound twice in a row, your attention is
drawn to the words seagull and soared.
Authors may also repeat vowel sounds. This is called
assonance. In Annabel Lee, Poe repeats the vowel sound
u in the line To shut her up in a sepulchre When
you read this line aloud, you can hear how Poe wants to
emphasize those words with the vowel sound.
Use these tips to help you recognize alliteration and
assonance.
Read the poem aloud, exaggerating the pronunciation
of words.
Do you hear any repeated consonant sounds?
Read the poem again slowly.
Do you hear any repeated vowel sounds?
How does the alliteration and assonance affect the
way the poem flows?
Get Ready to Read
Connect to the Reading
Think about how it might feel to lose someone who is
close to you. Thats how the speaker of the poem feels
after his beloved Annabel Lee dies. There are many
ways of losing those we love. Friends move away.
Brothers and sisters grow up and leave home. Families
split up. All of these things can bring grief and a sense
of great loss.
Partner Talk With a partner, discuss how you felt
when you lost someone who was important to you.
How did losing this person change your life?
Build Background
Edgar Allan Poe lived a life as tragic as the lives he
describes in some of his famous horror tales. The
one shining light in his life was his love for his young
wife, Virginia.
Many people believe that Poe wrote Annabel Lee
after his wife died of tuberculosis, a disease of
the lungs.
Tuberculosis was the same illness that caused Poes
mothers death when he was two years old.
Set Purposes for Reading
Read Annabel Lee to find out
who is important to the speakerwho helps make
him tick.
Set Your Own Purpose What would you like to
learn from the poem to help you answer the Big
Question? Write your own purpose on the Annabel
Lee page of Foldable 7.
Keep Moving
Use these skills as you read the following
selection.
Interactive Literary Elements Handbook
To review or learn more about the literary
elements, go to www.glencoe.com.
Annabel Lee 779
Young Woman at the Beach, 18861888.
Philip Wilson Steer. Tate Gallery, Musee
dOrsay, Paris.
READING WORKSHOP 1
It was many and many a year ago,
In a kingdom by the sea,
That a maiden there lived whom you may know
By the name of Annabel Lee;
5
And this maiden she lived with no other thought
Than to love and be loved by me. 1
She was a child and I was a child,
In this kingdom by the sea,
But we loved with a love that was more than love
10
I and my Annabel Lee
With a love that the wingd seraphs
*
of heaven
Coveted her and me. 2
Practice the Skills
1 Key Literary Element
Sound Devices In lines 5 and
6, Poe uses alliteration by repeat-
ing the consonant l. Why do you
think he draws attention to these
words?
2 Key Literary Element
Sound Devices Remember
that assonance is the repetition of
vowel sounds. Identify an example
of assonance in line 7.
by Edgar Allan Poe
11 Seraphs (SAIR ufs) are high-ranking angels who are said to burn with love for God.
Vocabulary
coveted (KUV it id) v. wanted what another person had
780 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Art Resource
READING WORKSHOP 1
Practice the Skills
And this was the reason that, long ago,
In this kingdom by the sea,
15
A wind blew out of a cloud by night
Chilling my Annabel Lee;
So that her high-born kinsmen came
And bore her away from me,
To shut her up in a sepulchre
*
20
In this kingdom by the sea. 3
The angels, not half so happy in Heaven,
Went envying her and me:
Yes! that was the reason (as all men know,
In this kingdom by the sea)
25
That the wind came out of the cloud, chilling
And killing my Annabel Lee.
But our love it was stronger by far than the love
Of those who were older than we
Of many far wiser than we
30
And neither the angels in Heaven above,
Nor the demons down under the sea,
Can ever dissever
*
my soul from the soul
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee: 4
For the moon never beams without bringing me dreams
35
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;
And the stars never rise but I see the bright eyes
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;
And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side
Of my darling, my darling, my life and my bride,
40
In her sepulchre there by the sea
In her tomb by the side of the sea. 5
3 English Language Coach
Using What You Know You
know that kin means relatives.
What is the most likely meaning
of kinsmen?
4 Key Reading Skill
Evaluating Does Poe succeed
in showing you how deeply
the speaker loves Annabel Lee?
Explain your answer.
5
What gives the speakers life
meaning? Record your answers
on the Annabel Lee page
of Foldable 7. Your response
will help you complete the
Unit Challenge.
19 A sepulchre (SEP ul kur) is a burial place.
32 To dissever (di SEV ur) is to separate or split apart.
Vocabulary
tomb (toom) n. vault, chamber, or grave for the dead
Annabel Lee 781
After You Read
READING WORKSHOP 1 Evaluating
Annabel Lee
Answering the
1. How has reading this poem made you think about who is
important to you and what makes you tick?
2. Recall What is the relationship between the speaker and Annabel Lee?
TIP Right There
3. Recall According to the speaker, why did Annabel Lee die?
TIP Right There
Critical Thinking
4. Analyze How important is Annabel Lee to the speaker? Explain.
TIP Author and Me
5. Infer How did Annabel Lee feel about the speaker?
TIP Author and Me
6. Evaluate Does this poem seem realistic to you? Explain.
TIP Author and Me
Talk About Your Reading
Literature Groups Have you ever heard the expression, It is better
to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all? In your group,
discuss the expression and how it relates to the poem.
What does the expression mean?
Do you agree or disagree with the expression?
How do you think the speaker in Annabel Lee would feel about
the expression?
Write to Learn After your group discusses this expression, write your
own thoughts on a separate sheet of paper.
782 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Art Resource
Objectives (pp. 782783)
Reading Evaluate text Make connections
from text to self
Literature Identify literary devices:
alliteration, assonance
Vocabulary Identify word structure:
suffixes, roots
Grammar Identify subjects and verbs
READING WORKSHOP 1 Evaluating
Skills Review
Key Reading Skill: Evaluating
7. Did the poet do a good job of keeping you
interested in the poem while you were reading?
Which parts of the poem grabbed your interest?
Explain.
8. What is your opinion of the speaker of the poem?
Do you think you can trust what the speaker tells
readers about Annabel Lee? Explain.
Key Literary Element: Sound Devices
For each line below, write whether Poe is using
alliteration, assonance, or both. Then copy the
words in which the sound device appears. Remember,
alliteration is the repetition of consonant sounds,
and assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds.
9. So that her high-born kinsmen came
10. Yes! that was the reason (as all men know,
11. Of those who were older than we / Of many far
wiser than we
12. But we loved with a love that was more than
a love
Vocabulary Check
Answer true or false to each statement.
13. Saying you coveted something means that you
stole or borrowed it.
14. The Great Pyramid of Egypt is a tomb.
15. Academic Vocabulary What do you look for
when you evaluate a poem?
16. English Language Coach Considering what
you know about the word covet and what
you know about suffixes, what do you think
a covetous look might be?
Grammar Link: Finding
Subjects and Verbs
Sometimes its hard to tell what verb form to use. To
get the right form, you must first find the subject and
verb in a sentence. Heres a quick review of how to
find subjects and verbs.
The subject tells who or what the sentence is about.
The verb tells what the subject does, is, or has.
Natalie brings her lunch to school.
(Who or what is the sentence about? Natalie. What
does Natalie do? She brings.)
A verb can be one word or a whole phrase. The
most important word in the phrase is the main verb.
The other verbs are helping verbs.
I could have done better on that test.
(I is the subject. Done is the main verb; could have
are helping verbs.)
Subjects and verbs can be compound.
Al and I jumped and shouted for joy.
(Al and I is a compound subject. Jumped and
shouted is a compound verb.)
Grammar Practice
On a separate piece of paper, copy each sentence.
Underline the subject once and the verb twice.
17. Elms grow tall and give shade.
18. We will be planting more trees this spring.
19. Maples and elms have beautiful leaves.
Web Activities For eFlashcards, Selection
Quick Checks, and other Web activities, go to
www.glencoe.com.
Annabel Lee 783
Meet the Author
Asked where she finds the
ideas for her richly detailed
stories, Julia Alvarez says, I
think when I write, I write out
of who I am and the ques-
tions I need to figure out. A
lot of what I have worked
through has to do with com-
ing to this country and losing
a homeland and a culture, as
a way of making sense. See
page R1 of the Author Files
for more on Julia Alvarez.
Author Search For more about
Julia Alvarez, go to www.glencoe
.com.
READING WORKSHOP 1 Evaluating
Before You Read
Names/Nombres
Vocabulary Preview
ironically (eye RAH nik lee) adv. in a way that is different from what is
expected (p. 787) It rained every day except Friday. Ironically, thats the
only day I brought my umbrella.
initial (ih NISH ul) adj. at the beginning; first (p. 789) Our initial idea was
to have the pep rally on the football field.
merge (murj) v. to join together so as to become one; unite (p. 789) When
the two classes merge, there wont be enough seats for everyone.
vaguely (VAYG lee) adv. in a way that is not clear, exact, or definite
(p. 789) Elise wasnt sure who had come to the picnic. She vaguely
remembered that her cousin had been there.
specified (SPES uh fyd) v. explained or described in detail (p. 789) At the
box office, we specified that we wanted front-row seats.
exotic (eg ZOT ik) adj. strangely attractive; foreign (p. 789) Michael has
never been to Puerto Rico and thinks it is an exotic place.
chaotic (kay AH tik) adj. confused, disorganized (p. 789) On the day of the
clearance sale, the scene at the mall was chaotic.
Write to Learn With a partner, choose three vocabulary words. Write
one paragraph that uses all three words.
English Language Coach
Latin Roots In Names/Nombres, the narrator tells someone where
shes from without specifying, or naming exactly, the island where her fam-
ily had lived. Specify has the Latin root spec, meaning to observe or look
at. Some English words that have spec as a root are more clearly con-
nected to the Latin meaning. For example, inspect and spectator have to do
with observing.
Even though Latin is no longer spoken anywhere, it is one of the main
sources of English words. This chart shows another common Latin root.
Root Meaning Examples
dict say, speak predict, dictionary, ver-
dict, dictator,
contradict
Partner Talk With a partner, discuss how the Latin root is involved in the
meaning of each of the example words.
J
u
lia Al vare
z
784 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Theo Westernberger/Gamma-Liaison Network
Objectives (pp. 784791)
Reading Evaluate text Make connec-
tions from text to self
Literature Identify literary devices: figu-
rative language
Vocabulary Identify Latin roots
784-785U7BYR_845477.indd 784 3/9/07 3:56:33 PM
READING WORKSHOP 1 Evaluating
Skills Preview
Key Reading Skill: Evaluating
Sometimes when you evaluate a short story, you form
an opinion about how well an author tells the story.
Is the story meaningful? Why or why not?
Is the story believable and realistic? Why or why not?
Write to Learn As you read the story, think of
other questions that help you evaluate. Write three
questions and answers in your Learners Notebook.
Key Literary Element: Figurative
Language
A simile is an expression that uses like or as to
compare two unlike things. The phrase a person
who runs like the wind is a simile that says a per-
son runs fast.
A metaphor is an expression that compares two
unlike things and describes one thing as if it were
another. In the sentence Seth is a cheetah on the
racetrack, the author says Seth is a cheetah to
show that Seth runs fast.
As you read, use these tips to help you identify and
understand similes and metaphors:
Look for comparisons.
What two things does the author compare?
Think about what the two things have in common.
What is the author saying is alike about these
two things?
Think about why the author wants you to compare
these two things.
How does the comparison help the author explain
his or her idea?
Get Ready to Read
Connect to the Reading
In Names/Nombres, Julia Alvarez talks about the
names shes used throughout her life. Her different
names say different things about her. As you read,
think about your names or nicknames.
Do they represent different things about who you
are? Explain.
Which name or nickname do you like best? Why?
Partner Talk Discuss with a partner what your
name means to you and to your family and friends.
Take notes. These will help you with the
Unit Challenge.
Build Background
This selection is set in the early 1960s in New York City.
Julia Alvarez was born in New York, but she lived in
the Dominican Republic until she was ten.
The Dominican Republic is located on the island of
Hispaniola in the Caribbean.
Nombres is Spanish for names.
Set Purposes for Reading
Read the selection Names/
Nombres to find out why names are important to
Julia Alvarez. How do they help her get through life?
Set Your Own Purpose What would you like to
learn from the story to help you answer the Big
Question? Write your own purpose on the Names/
Nombres page of Foldable 7.
Keep Moving
Use these skills as you read the following
selection.
Interactive Literary Elements Handbook
To review or learn more about the literary
elements, go to www.glencoe.com.
Names/Nombres 785
Portrait of Virginia, 1929. Frida Kahlo.
Fundacion Dolores Olmedo, Mexico City.
READING WORKSHOP 1
W hen we arrived in New York City, our names changed
almost immediately. At Immigration, the ofcer asked my
father, Mister Elbures, if he had anything to declare. My father
shook his head, No, and we were waved through. I was too
afraid we wouldnt be let in if I corrected the mans
pronunciation, but I said our name to myself, opening my
mouth wide for the organ blast of the a, trilling my tongue for
the drumroll of the r, All-vah-rrr-es! How could anyone get
Elbures out of that orchestra of sound? 1
At the hotel my mother was Missus Alburest, and I was little
girl, as in, Hey, little girl, stop riding the elevator up and
down. Its not a toy!
When we moved into our new apartment building, the
super called my father Mister Alberase, and the neighbors who
Practice the Skills
by Julia Alvarez
1 Key Literary Element
Figurative Language Alvarez
uses figurative language to com-
pare an organ blast to how she
makes the a sound. This would be
a metaphor if she said, My a is an
organ blast. Find a similar figura-
tive expression in this paragraph.
786 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Schalkwijk/Art Resource, NY
READING WORKSHOP 1
Practice the Skills
became mothers friends pronounced her name Jew-lee-ah
instead of Hoo-lee-ah. I, her namesake, was known as Hoo-lee-
tah at home. But at school, I was Judy or Judith, and once an
English teacher mistook me for Juliet. 2
It took awhile to get used to my new names. I wondered
if I shouldnt correct my teachers and new friends. But my
mother argued that it didnt matter. You know what your
friend Shakespeare said, A rose by any other name would smell
as sweet.
1
My family had gotten into the habit of calling any
literary gure my friend because I had begun to write
poems and stories in English class.
By the time I was in high school, I was a popular kid, and it
showed in my name. Friends called me Jules or Hey Jude, and
once a group of troublemaking friends my mother forbid me
to hang out with called me Alcatraz.
2
I was Hoo-lee-tah only to
Mami and Papi and uncles and aunts who came over to eat
sancocho
3
on Sunday afternoonsold world folk whom I just
as soon would go back to where they came from and leave
me to pursue whatever mischief I wanted to in America.
JUDY ALCATRAZ: the name on the Wanted Poster would
read. Who would ever trace her to me? 3
M y older sister had the hardest time getting an American
name for herself because Mauricia did not translate into
English. Ironically, although she had the most foreign-
sounding name, she and I were the Americans in the family.
We had been born in New York City when our parents had
rst tried immigration and then gone back home, too
homesick to stay. My mother often told the story of how she
had almost changed my sisters name in the hospital.
After the delivery, Mami and some other new mothers were
cooing over their new baby sons and daughters and exchanging
names and weights and delivery stories. My mother was
embarrassed among the Sallys and Janes and Georges and
2 Reviewing Skills
Connecting Has anyone ever
mispronounced your name or
called you by the wrong name?
If so, how did you feel?
3 Key Reading Skill
Evaluating Do you think
the author really liked having
more than one name? Why or
why not?
Vocabulary
ironically (eye RAH nik lee) adv. in a way that is different from what is expected
1. This line is from William Shakespeares play Romeo and Juliet.
2. Alcatraz (AL kuh traz) is an island in San Francisco Bay that once was the home of a tough
federal prison.
3. Sancocho (san KOH choh) is a meat stew.
Names/Nombres 787
786-791U7SEL_845477.indd 787 3/9/07 3:57:02 PM
READING WORKSHOP 1
Practice the Skills
Johns to reveal the rich, noisy name of Mauricia, so when her
turn came to brag, she gave her babys name as Maureen.
Whyd ya give her an Irish name with so many pretty
Spanish names to choose from? one of the women asked her.
My mother blushed and admitted her babys real name to
the group. Her mother-in-law had recently died, she
apologized, and her husband had insisted that the rst
daughter be named after his mother, Mauran. My mother
thought it the ugliest name she had ever heard, and she
talked my father into what she believed was an improvement,
a combination of Mauran and her own mothers name Felicia.
Her name is Mao-ree-chee-ah, my mother said to the group.
Why thats a beautiful name, the new mothers cried.
Moor-ee-sha, Moor-ee-sha, they cooed into the pink blanket.
Moor-ee-sha it was when we returned to the States eleven
years later. Sometimes, American tongues found even that
mispronunciation tough to say and called her Maria or Marsha
or Maudy from her nickname Maury. I pitied her. What an
awful name to have to transport across borders! 4
My little sister, Ana, had the easiest time of all. She was
plain Annethat is, only her name was plain, for she turned
out to be the pale, blond American beauty in the family. The
only Hispanic-seeming thing about her was the affectionate
nickname her boyfriends sometimes gave her, Anita, or as one
goofy guy used to sing to her to the tune of the Chiquita
Banana advertisement, Anita Banana.
Later, during her college years in the late 60s, there was a
push to pronounce Third World
4
names correctly. I remember
calling her long distance at her group house and a roommate
answering.
Can I speak to Ana? I asked, pronouncing her name the
American way.
Ana? The mans voice hesitated. Oh! you mean Ah-nah!
O ur rst few years in the States, though, ethnicity
5
was not
yet in. Those were the blond, blue-eyed, bobby socks years of
junior high and high school before the 60s ushered in peasant
4 Key Reading Skill
Evaluating Evaluate the ideas
in this paragraph. Is Alvarez com-
plaining that Americans are lazy
with foreign names? Is she com-
plaining about parents who give
their children difficult names?
4. Third World refers to poorer, less developed countries, mainly in Latin America, Africa, and Asia.
5. Ethnicity (eth NIS uh tee) is a word for certain traits that a group of people share, such as
culture, history, race, and national origin. U.S. citizens come from many ethnic backgrounds.
788 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
5 Key Literary Element
Figurative Language What
two things does Alvarez compare
here? Does she use a simile or a
metaphor? How can you tell?
READING WORKSHOP 1
Practice the Skills
blouses, hoop earrings, serapes. My initial
desire to be known by my correct Dominican
name faded.
I just wanted to be Judy and merge with
the Sallys and Janes in my class. But
inevitably,
6
my accent and coloring gave
me away. So where are you from, Judy?
New York, I told my classmates. After
all, I had been born blocks away at
Columbia Presbyterian Hospital.
I mean, originally.
From the Caribbean, I answered
vaguely, for if I specied, no one was quite
sure what continent our island was on.
Really? Ive been to Bermuda. We went
last April for spring vacation. I got the worst sunburn! So, are
you from Portoriko?
No, I shook my head. From the Dominican Republic.
Wheres that?
South of Bermuda.
They were just being curious, I knew, but I burned with
shame whenever they singled me out as a foreigner, a rare,
exotic friend.
Say your name in Spanish, oh please say it! I had made
mouths drop one day by rattling off my full name, which
according to Dominican custom, included my middle names,
mothers and fathers surnames for four generations back.
Julia Altagracia Maria Teresa Alvarez Tavares Perello
Espaillat Julia Prez Rochet Gonzlez, I pronounced it
slowly, a name as chaotic with sounds as a Middle Eastern
bazaar or market day in a South American village. 5
Vocabulary
initial (ih NISH ul) adj. at the beginning; first
merge (murj) v. to join together so as to become one; unite
vaguely (VAYG lee) adv. in a way that is not clear, exact, or definite
specified (SPES uh fyd) v. explained or described in detail
exotic (eg ZOT ik) adj. strangely attractive; foreign
chaotic (kay AH tik) adj. confused, disorganized
6. Inevitably means in a way that cannot be avoided.
Visual Vocabulary
A serape (suh RAW
pay) is a blanketlike
outer garment similar
to a shawl and is worn
chiey by men in Latin
American countries.
Some serapes are
brightly colored and
boldly patterned.
Names/Nombres 789
Robert Van Der Hilst/Stone
786-791U7SEL_845477.indd 789 3/12/07 2:26:52 PM
The Musicians, 1979. Fernando Botero.
Oil on canvas, 85 x 74 in. Private
collection.
READING WORKSHOP 1
I suffered most whenever my extended family attended
school occasions. For my graduation, they all came, the
whole noisy, foreign-looking lot of old, fat aunts in their dark
mourning dresses and hair nets, uncles with full, droopy
mustaches and baby-blue or salmon-colored suits and white
pointy shoes and fedora
7
hats, the many little cousins who
snuck in without tickets. They sat in the rst row in order
to better understand the Americans fast-spoken English.
But how could they listen when they were constantly
speaking among themselves in orid-sounding phrases,
rococo
8
consonants, rich, rhyming vowels. Their loud voices
carried . . . 6
How could I introduce them to my friends? These relatives
had such complicated names and there were so many of
them, and their relationships to myself were so convoluted.
9

There was my Ta Josena, who was not really an aunt but
a much older cousin. And her daughter, Ada Margarita,
Practice the Skills
6 English Language Coach
Latin Roots Can you think of
another word that has the root
flor? (Hint: It has to do with flow-
ers, just as florid does.)
7. A fedora (fuh DOR uh) is a soft, felt hat with a curved brim and a crease along the top. See The
Musicians at the top of this page.
8. Florid and rococo (ruh KOH koh) both mean very showy or owery.
9. Something that is convoluted is twisted and wound around. The rest of this paragraph identies
some of the writers convoluted family relationships.
790 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Christies Images
READING WORKSHOP 1
who was adopted, una hija de
crianza. My uncle of affection,
To Jos, brought my madrina
Ta Amelia and her comadre
Ta Pilar. My friends rarely had
more than their nuclear family
10

to introduce.
After the commencement
11

ceremony my family waited
outside in the parking lot while
my friends and I signed
yearbooks with nicknames
which recalled our high school
good times: Beans and Pepperoni and Alcatraz.
We hugged and cried and promised to keep in touch.
Our good-byes went on too long. I heard my fathers
voice calling out across the parking lot, Hoo-lee-tah!
Vmonos!
12
Back home, my tos and tas and primas, Mami and Papi,
and mis hermanas had a party for me with sancocho and a
storebought pudn,
13
inscribed with Happy Graduation, Julie.
There were many giftsthat was a plus to a large family!
I got several wallets and a suitcase with my initials and a
graduation charm from my godmother and money from my
uncles. The biggest gift was a portable typewriter from my
parents for writing my stories and poems. 7
Someday, the family predicted, my name would be well-
known throughout the United States. I laughed to myself,
wondering which one I would go by. 8
Practice the Skills
7 English Language Coach
Latin Roots The root of
portable is port. Think about
what one is able to do with
something portable. Can you
guess what port means?
8
What do names mean to the
author, and how do they help
make her who she is? Explain
your answers on the Names/
Nombres page of Foldable 7.
Your response will help you
complete the Unit Challenge later.
10. Parents and their children make up what is called a nuclear family. An extended family
includes other close relatives, such as grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins.
11. A commencement is a graduation ceremony.
12. Vmonos (VAW moh nohs) means Lets go.
13. A pudn (poo DEEN) is a pudding.
Analyzing the Illustration Imagine that
this traditional American cake was for a
boy named Jules. At his graduation party,
how should Jules deal with the cake
decorators mistake?
Names/Nombres 791
Mark Burnett
After You Read
READING WORKSHOP 1 Evaluating
Names/Nombres
Answering the
1. After reading Names/Nombres, what ideas do you have about what
makes you tick? Is your ethnic heritage a part of who you are? Explain.
2. Recall What happens almost immediately when Alvarezs family arrives
in New York?
TIP Right There
3. Recall Why does Alvarezs sister Mauricia have a hard time getting an
American name?
TIP Right There
Critical Thinking
4. Analyze How does Alvarez feel about her family and her familys
culture as she grows older?
TIP Author and Me
5. Infer How does Alvarezs attitude about blending in with her
classmates change as she grows older?
TIP Think and Search
6. Interpret Why do you think the author chooses to write under the
name of Julia Alvarez?
TIP Author and Me
Write About Your Reading
Write a letter to Julia Alvarez that compares her experiences to your
experiences. Include details about your family and friends. Think about
these questions to get started:
When you were young, did someone ever mispronounce your first or last
name? How did you feel?
Did you ever wish you had a different name? If so, what is it? Why do
you like it?
Do your friends call you nicknames? What are they?
Does your family call you a different name than your friends call you?
Which name do you like better? Why?
792 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Schalkwijk/Art Resource, NY
Objectives (pp. 792793)
Reading Evaluate text Make connections
from text to self
Literature Identify literary devices:
figurative language
Vocabulary Identify synonyms
Grammar Identify subjects and verbs
READING WORKSHOP 1 Evaluating
Skills Review
Key Reading Skill: Evaluating
7. Would you recommend this story to anyone?
Why or why not? Think about how you evaluate
the story.
Key Literary Element:
Figurative Language
8. Write down the word or words in this example
that make the phrase a simile:
a name as chaotic with sounds as a Middle
Eastern bazaar
9. Is this an example of simile, metaphor, or neither?
they singled me out as a foreigner
Reviewing Skills: Connecting
10. Alvarez does not want to be a rare, exotic
friend. How would you feel if people only talked
to you about your name and where you were
from? Why?
Vocabulary Check
For each word in bold, choose the word that means
most nearly the same thing.
11. ironically surprisingly warmly happily
12. initial last first time
13. merge combine destroy elevate
14. vaguely uncertainly largely jumpy
15. specified used explained wondered
16. exotic boring foreign excited
17. chaotic neat cute messy
Grammar Link: Tricky
Subjects and Verbs
Usually the subject comes before the verb in a
sentence. There are two main exceptions.
Questions In many questions, all or part of the
verb comes before the subject.
Do you and your friends have plans?
helping verb / subject / main verb
To make it less tricky to find the subject and verb,
turn the question into a statement.
You and your friends do have plans.
Here/There The words here and there cannot be
subjects. To find the subject of a sentence that
begins with here or there, omit the word. Find the
verb; then ask yourself, who or what ___?
Example: There is a big party on Saturday.
Omit there; then find the verb.
There is a big party on Saturday.
Ask, who or what is? Party is.
There is a big party on Saturday.
verb subject
Grammar Practice
On a separate piece of paper, copy each sentence.
Underline the subject once and the verb twice.
18. Is my brother at baseball practice?
19. Here is his baseball jersey.
20. Are you and Bill going to the game?
Writing Application Review your letter to Julia
Alvarez. Look for questions and for sentences that
begin with here or there. Underline the subject once
and the verb twice in these sentences.
Web Activities For eFlashcards, Selection
Quick Checks, and other Web activities, go to
www.glencoe.com.
Names/Nombres 793
WRITING WORKSHOP PART 1
Poem
Prewriting and Drafting
ASSIGNMENT Write a
poem
Purpose: To write a
poem about an object that
shows what makes you tick
Audience: You, your
teacher, and possibly
some classmates
Writing Rubric
As you work through this
assignment, you should
follow poetic conventions
of verse and stanza
develop a rhyme pattern
use figurative language
and sensory details
use word choice to set a
tone
See page 832 in Part 2 for a
model of a poem.
Writing a poem will help you express your feelings about the Unit 7 Big
Question: What makes you tick?
Poetry is probably a bigger part of your life than you realize. Think of songs
that you enjoy. Songs are poems set to music. Poetry appeals to your emo-
tions and senses in the same way that music does.
Prewriting
Get Ready to Write
Writing a poem is like writing a song. Both the poet and the songwriter use
rhythm and rhyme and express emotions and ideas. Writing a poem is also
like painting a picture. An artist uses shape and color to put an image on
canvas. A poet uses words to put an image in the readers mind.
Gather Ideas
Pretend that you are about to paint a portrait. First, you have to decide what
to paint. Some artists choose simple, everyday objects like pieces of fruit.
Artists can paint an ordinary object in such detail that it becomes a work of
art. You can do the same thing in poetryusing words instead of paint!
Choose a Topic
Choose an object to write about that you know well and can picture in your
mind. Or select one object that you can place in front of you on your desk.
Either way, you should choose something that shows what makes you tick.
The object could be a piece of furniture, a favorite book, your shoe, a
favorite toy from when you were a child, a pencil, a soda can, or almost
any thing.
Write your object in your Learners Notebook. Then answer these questions.
1. What color is it?
2. What shape is it?
3. Is it heavy or light?
4. Does it have a smell or a taste?
5. Does it remind you of a person?
6. What is your best memory of it?
794 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Objectives (pp. 794797)
Writing Use the writing process:
draft Write a poem Use literary
elements: conventions of poetry,
figurative language
Vocabulary Use synonyms
Grammar Use correct subject-verb
agreement
Writing Models For models
and other writing activities, go to
www.glencoe.com.
WRITING WORKSHOP PART 1
Drafting
Start Writing!
There is no right or wrong way to start a poem. Just start writing about your
object in any way you like.
Get It on Paper
Read the notes in your Learners Notebook.
Use a favorite memory to start your poem.
Include a sensory detail such as how the object smells or tastes.
Remember that poets write in versethat is, in single lines of textinstead of
in continuous text as the author of a story would do. Although poems may
look different from what you are used to reading, they can still tell stories
and express ideas. They also include figurative language. Gary Soto wrote a
poem about a tortilla! Heres part of that poem.
Personification Personification gives human characteristics
to nonhuman objects. A tortilla cant dance, of course. Soto
says this to describe carrying a tortilla thats fresh from the
frying panits hot! So his hand makes it dance.
Metaphor A metaphor compares two unlike things without
using the word like or as. Here, Sotos metaphor compares a
yellow ribbon and butter. Its an unusual way to describe butter,
but it creates an effective image in the readers mind.
Simile A simile uses the word like or as to compare two
unlike things. Its a good, easy way to make the reader
notice similarities between things. Soto compares the spar-
row to fruit, or the way the sparrow will drop to the way
fruit drops from a tree.
Sensory Detail Words and phrases that appeal to any
of the five senses are a good way to add interesting detail.
Sotos sparrow gargles and chirps. These words appeal
to the senses of taste and hearing.
The tortilla
Dances in my hands
As I carry it
To the drainboard,
Where I smear it
With butter,
The yellow ribbon of butter
That will drip
Slowly down my arm
When I eat on the front lawn.
The sparrow will drop
Like fruit
From the tree
To stare at me
With his glassy eyes.
I will rip a piece
For him. He will jump
On his food
And gargle it down.
Chirp once and fly
Back into the wintry tree.
from Ode to la Tortilla, by Gary Soto
Writing Workshop Part 1 Poem 795
WRITING WORKSHOP PART 1
Applying Good Writing Traits
Word Choice
Poems are usually short, yet they may express
complicated ideas and feelings. So good poets
choose their words very carefully.
What Is Word Choice?
Many words have synonymswords that mean
the same or nearly the same thing. But a writer
cant use just any synonym in place of a word. For
example:
Two synonyms for breeze are gust and draft.
A breeze is a gentle wind that continues to blow.
A gust is a short, not-so-gentle burst of wind.
A draft is a strong flow of airusually indoors.
If youre describing a quiet, pleasant setting,
breeze is the best word choice. But if you want
to suggest something less pleasant, one of the
other words could work better.
Why Is Word Choice Important?
Good word choices will help you express your
thoughts and emotions more clearly, and theyll
make your writing more interesting. This is impor-
tant in all kinds of writingpoetry, fiction, and
nonfiction. But word choice is especially important
in poetry. Again, most poems are fairly short. That
means every word in a poem has to do more
work than the same word would do in a story.
How Do I Do It?
Determine your purpose for writing. Do you
want to entertain? Inform? Reflect? Persuade?
Decide who your audience is.
Choose words that are appropriate for your
purpose and for your audience. A letter to your
best friend should probably not sound the same
as a report for your social studies class.
Choose words that create the mood you want.
Dark, mysterious, and spooky help to set one
mood. Sparkling, magical, and enchanting
describe a very different mood.
Write to Learn
When you have a draft of your poem, circle the
more important wordsthe nouns, adjectives,
verbs, and adverbs.
Look up each circled word in a dictionary or
thesaurus.
Copy good synonyms next to each circled word.
Replace circled words with synonyms that you
think fit your poem better.
Analyzing Cartoons
Perhaps the girl should
say as bad as my vocab-
ulary. Well, lets give her
a break. Finding the right
word can often be . . .
whatever.
STONE SOUP 1998 Jan Eliot. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. All rights reserved.
796 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
STONE SOUP 1998 Jan Eliot. Reprinted wih permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. All rights reserved.
Grammar Link
WRITING WORKSHOP PART 1
Looking Ahead
Part 2 of this Writing Workshop is coming up later. Save the writing
you did so far; youll need it later to finish your poem.
Subject-Verb Agreement
Do you ever use was when you should use were
or dont when doesnt is correct? Learn the basics
of subject-verb agreement to fix this problem.
What Is It?
Subject-verb agreement is picking the verb form
that matches, or agrees with, the subject.
1. If the subject of a sentence is he, she, it, or its
equal, the verb must end in s.
He wants a car. Al wants a car.
(He = one male. Al = one male. Al = he.)
She drives a bus. Lu drives a bus.
(She = one female. Lu = one female. Lu = she.)
It runs on gas. The bus runs on gas.
(It = one thing. A bus = one thing. Bus = it.)
2. If the subject of a sentence is I, you, we, they,
or its equal, the verb does not end in s.
I want pizza. You make good pizza.
We like them. Ed and I like them.
(We = I + other people. Ed and I = I + other
people. Ed and I = we.)
They taste good. The pizzas taste good.
(They = two or more things. Pizzas = two or
more things. Pizzas = they.)
They use a recipe from Italy.
Gino and Marie use a recipe from Italy.
(They = two or more people. Gino and Marie =
two or more people. Gino and Marie = they.)
Why Is It Important?
Good grammar and good writing go hand in
hand. When your subjects and verbs agree, read-
ers can focus on your ideas, not on your mistakes.
How Do I Do It?
Follow these steps to subject-verb agreement.
Step 1: Find the subject and verb in the sentence.
She plays the tuba in the school band.
Step 2: Apply the subject-verb agreement rules.
She plays the tuba in the school band.
(The subject is she, so the s on plays is cor-
rect.)
Grammar Practice
On a separate piece of paper, write the subject
and the correct verb form for each sentence.
1. Colin always (give, gives) his all.
2. He never (do, does) anything halfway.
3. Colin and his sister (work, works) hard.
Writing Application Look again at your poem.
Fix any mistakes in subject-verb agreement.
Writing Workshop Part 1 Poem 797
READING WORKSHOP 2
Skills Focus
You will practice using these skills when you
read the following selections:
Diondra Jordan, p. 802
Face It, p. 810
Almost Ready, p. 811
Reading
Interpreting
Literature
Identifying symbolism and
explaining its effects
Vocabulary
Using structural analysis to
understand word meanings
Academic Vocabulary:
interpret
Writing/Grammar
Using appropriate word
choice
Using correct subject-
verb agreement
Skill Lesson
Interpreting
Learn It!
What Is It? When you interpret, you use your
own understanding of the world to decide what the
events or ideas in a selection mean.
Interpreting is more than just remembering and
understanding the facts.
When you use what youve learned from your own
experiences to understand what the author is really
saying, you are interpreting.
Academic Vocabulary
interpret (in TUR prit) v. to explain the meaning of; to make
understandable
Analyzing Cartoons
When you interpret what you read,
you combine whats in the text with
your own knowledge to figure out
what the author is saying. But first
you have to read the book.
STONE SOUP 2003 Jan Eliot. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. All rights reserved.
798 UNIT 7
STONE SOUP 2003 Jan Eliot. Reprinted wih permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. All rights reserved.
Objectives (pp. 798799)
Reading Interpret text
Study Central Visit www.glencoe
.com and click on Study Central to
review interpreting.
READING WORKSHOP 2 Interpreting
Why Is It Important? Every reader creates meaning by using what he or
she understands about the world. Finding meaning as you read is all about
getting the most out of a text.
How Do I Do It? Think about what you already know about yourself and
the world. Ask yourself: What is the author really trying to say here? What
larger ideas might these events be about? Heres how one student inter-
prets a sentence from Names/Nombres.
I just wanted to be Judy and merge with the Sallys and
Janes in my class.
Practice It!
In your Learners Notebook, practice interpreting the bold-faced lines below
from Annabel Lee. Ask yourself these questions:
What does the selection say about the topic?
What do I know about myself and the world as it relates to this topic?
What is the author really saying? Is there a larger picture?
She was a child and I was a child,
In this kingdom by the sea,
But we loved with a love that was more than love
I and my Annabel Lee
Use It!
As you read Diondra Jordan, Face It, and Almost Ready,
remember to use the questions above to help you interpret the texts.
Write the questions in your Learners Notebook ahead of time, and
answer them whenever you need help interpreting.
The author wants to be Judy and merge with the
Sallys and Janes. I know that merge means to join
together to be one. Sometimes its easier to join in with
the crowd if youre not different, but sometimes differ-
ent is good. I think the author is different from the other
girls in the class and is having a hard time fitting in.
Reading Workshop 2 Interpreting 799
Getty Images
Meet the Author
As a child, Nikki Grimes
moved a lot. She constantly
had to adjust to new homes,
new friends, and new schools.
She found comfort in reading.
She says that Books were my
souls delight. Even so, in one
sense, the stories I read
betrayed me. Too few gave
me back my mirror image. . . .
When I grow up, I thought,
Ill write books about children
who look and feel like me.
Author Search For more about
Nikki Grimes, go to www.glencoe
.com.
READING WORKSHOP 2 Interpreting
Before You Read
N
ikki Gri m
e
s
Vocabulary Preview
self-portrait (self POR trut) n. a painting or photograph of an artist by that
artist (p. 802) It was clear that Raul had been working on a self-portrait.
gallery (GAL ur ee) n. a room used for a special purpose (such as showing
pictures) (p. 803) With pictures hung everywhere, the classroom became
our gallery.
identity (eye DEN tuh tee) n. the qualities and features that make one
person different from another (p. 803) Art class is a good place to
explore identity.
tirade (TY rayd) n. a long, angry speech (p. 803) Max launched into an
angry tirade when he was accused of cheating on the test.
Write to Learn In your Learners Notebook, answer these questions.
1. What would you focus on if you were going to make a self-portrait: your
face, your personality, or both? Explain.
2. What kind of gallery would you want to hang your self-portrait in? What
other kinds of art would be in there?
3. How would you show your identity in the self-portrait?
4. What makes you feel like going into a tirade?
English Language Coach
Latin Roots The common Latin root vis or vid is found in both simple and
difficult words. If you learn to recognize it in simple words, you can use
your knowledge of it when you run across it in difficult ones.
Root Found In
vis or vid vision, visual, video, visibile, visit
mem remember, memory, memo, memorable
sent or sens sensitive, sentimental, sensory
Partner Talk With a partner, use the examples above to figure out what
the roots are likely to mean. Then, with your partner, find vista, memoir,
and sentimental in a dictionary. See if these words are related to the mean-
ings you guessed for vis/vid, mem, and sent/sens.
Diondra Jordan
800 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Steve Elliot
Objectives (pp. 800805)
Reading Interpret text Make connec-
tions from text to self
Literature Identify literary devices:
symbolism
Vocabulary Identify Latin roots
READING WORKSHOP 2 Interpreting
Skills Preview
Key Reading Skill: Interpreting
To interpret Diondra Jordan, think about word
choice and phrasing. Think about her view of the
world. What do you already know about yourself and
the world that helps you understand what the author
is really saying?
Partner Talk As you read Diondra Jordan, pick three
lines from the story or poem and talk with a partner
about what Diondra is really saying.
Key Literary Element: Symbolism
When a person, a place, an object, or an action
represents something else it becomes a symbol. In
literature, this is known as symbolism. Writers use
symbolism in poems and stories to add meaning and
to emphasize themes.
A tree may be a symbol for life.
A mountain may be a symbol for strength.
An island may be a symbol for loneliness.
Use these tips to help you recognize symbolism.
Look for repeated words, images, or actions.
What do they mean? Why are they important?
When a character takes action, what are the
reasons? Think about a time you made something
for someone. Your action was a symbol of how
you felt.
How is the action a symbol of who he or she is or
how he or she feels?
Look for things or ideas that are important to the
writer, speaker, or character.
What does he or she care about? Why?
Partner Talk With a partner, match these symbols
with their meanings.
Symbol Possible Meaning
rose
dove
river
peace
time
love
Get Ready to Read
Connect to the Reading
If you created a self-portrait, how would you make your-
self look? What would you use to make itpencils, paints,
ink? What would be in the background? What would you
be doing? Would the self-portrait be in color?
Write to Learn In your Learners Notebook, write
about something positive that youve always wanted to
do but have been afraid to do. What holds you back?
Build Background
Writers and other artists often focus on identity. This
story mentions the Harlem Renaissance and identity.
In the 1920s, the Harlem neighborhood of New York
experienced a creative movement of African
American literature, art, and music; this became
known as the Harlem Renaissance.
African American writers gained a wide audience
and received the praise of critics.
The works of the Harlem Renaissance often centered
around the question of identity.
Set Purposes for Reading
Read Diondra Jordan to find
out what makes a student artist tick.
Set Your Own Purpose What would you like to
learn from the story to help you answer the Big
Question? Write your own purpose on the Diondra
Jordan page of Foldable 7.
Interactive Literary Elements Handbook
To review or learn more about the literary
elements, go to www.glencoe.com.
Keep Moving
Use these skills as you read the following
selection.
Diondra Jordan 801
READING WORKSHOP 2
I f only I was as bold as Raul. The other day, he left one of
his paintings out on Mr. Wards desk where anybody could
see it. Which was the point. He sometimes works at Mr. Wards
desk during lunch. The wet paintbrushes sticking up out
of the jar are always a sign that hes been at it again. So of
course, anybody who glances over in that direction will be
tempted to stop by and look. 1
This particular painting was rough, but anyone could tell
it was Raul. A self-portrait. Hell probably hang it in class.
Practice the Skills
by Nikki Grimes
1 Key Reading Skill
Interpreting Have you ever
known someone like Raul? How
did you feel about him or her?
How do you think the narrator
feels about Raul?
Vocabulary
self-portrait (self POR trut) n. a painting or photograph of an artist by that artist
802 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Getty Images
READING WORKSHOP 2
Practice the Skills
Back in September, Mr. Ward covered two of the classroom
walls with black construction paper and then scattered paper
frames up and down the walls, each one a different size and
color. Now half the room looks sort of like an art gallery,
which was the idea. Were supposed to use the paper frames
for our work. Whether we put up poems or photographs or
even paintings is up to us, so long as the work is ours and we
can tie it in with our study of the Harlem Renaissance. I
guess Rauls self-portrait ts, since weve been talking a lot
about identity. Hell probably put it up next to his poem. You
should have seen him hang that thing. Youd think he was
handling a million-dollar masterpiece the way he took his
time placing it just so. If you look close, you can see the
smudges where he erased a word or two and rewrote it.
Mr. Ward must be in shock. He can never get Raul to rewrite
a lick of homework or anything else. And dont even talk to
him about checking his spelling! Hell launch into a tirade
on you in a minute. What? hell snap.
You think Puerto Ricans cant spell?
Forget it. Anyway, I dare you to nd one
misspelled word in that poem of his!
Maybe its a visual thing. Maybe he wants
his poem to look as good as his self-
portrait. And it is good. 2 3
Ive never tried doing a self-portrait, but
why not? I could maybe do one in
charcoal.
1
I like drawing faces in charcoal.
Ive been drawing since I cant remember
when. Not that anyone here knows that,
except Tanisha, and she found out by
accident when she came to my house to
study once and saw a couple of drawings
2 Key Reading Skill
Interpreting The students have
been talking a lot about identity.
What does the word identity
mean here? Why does Mr. Ward
encourage the students to create
poems, photographs, and paint-
ings to express their identities?
3 English Language Coach
Latin Roots Diondra says
Maybe its a visual thing. What
is the root of visual? What does
she mean by saying this?
Vocabulary
gallery (GAL ur ee) n. a room used for a special purpose
(such as showing pictures)
identity (eye DEN tuh tee) n. the qualities and features that
make one person different from another
tirade (TY rayd) n. a long, angry speech
1. A stick of charcoal, or a charcoal pencil, can be used to make
drawings in tones of black.
Diondra Jordan 803
David Nicholls/CORBIS
READING WORKSHOP 2
Practice the Skills
hanging in my room. Mom loves my watercolors
2
and she
hung one in the living room, but it isnt signed. Nobody ever
mentions it, especially not my father. Hes not too wild about
my art. Mostly, hes disappointed, rst off that I wasnt born a
boy, and second that I wont play ball like one. Im six feet tall,
almost as tall as he, and he gures the height is wasted on me
since I dont share his dreams of me going to the WNBA.
3
I
keep telling him not to hold his breath. 4
I hate always being the tallest girl in school. Everybody
expects me to play basketball, so they pick me for their team,
throw me the ball, and wait for me to shoot. Big mistake. I
fumble it every time. Then they have the nerve to get mad at
me, like I did it on purpose! But basketball is not my game. I
have no game. Im an artist, like Raul. The difference is, I
dont tell anybody. I refuse to give them new reasons to laugh
at me. The Jolly Green Giant jokes are bad enough. 5
Yeah, its denitely time to try a self-portrait. I think Ill
paint myself in front of an easel. With a basketball jersey
sticking up out of the trash. Then I could hang it in Mr. Wards
class. See if anybody notices. 6
4 Reviewing Skills
Connecting Diondra thinks that
her father is disappointed in her.
Have you ever thought that a
family member was disappointed
in something you did? What
happened, and how did you feel?
5
Think about what youve learned
about Diondra so far. What
makes her tick? Support your
answer with details, and record
it on the Diondra Jordan page
of Foldable 7. Your response
will help you complete the Unit
Challenge later.
6 Key Literary Element
Symbolism A symbol is some-
thing that means more than just
what it is. What do the self-por-
traits symbolize in this selection?
2. A watercolor is a type of painting made by mixing water and paint on the paper.
3. The WNBA is the Womens National Basketball Association, a professional basketball league
for women.
804 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
READING WORKSHOP 2
Practice the Skills if
by Diondra Jordan
If I stood on tiptoe
reached up and sculpted
mountains from clouds
would you laugh out loud?
5
If I dipped my brush in starlight
painted a ribbon of night
on your windowsill
would you still laugh?
If I drew you adrift
10
in a pen and ink sea
in a raging storm
would you laugh at me?
If I planted watercolor roses
in your garden
15
would you laugh then?
Or would you breathe deep
to sample their scent?
I wonder. 7 8
7 Key Literary Element
Symbolism A symbol is some-
thing that means more than just
what it is. What might the water-
color roses in lines 1318 sym-
bolize? Think back to Diondras
story for help with this symbol.
8 Key Reading Skill
Interpreting What do you
think Diondra is saying in her
poem? Think about what you
know about her, and think about
your own experiences.
Diondra Jordan 805
Francisco Cruz/SuperStock
After You Read
READING WORKSHOP 2 Interpreting
Answering the
1. Compare what makes you tick with what makes Diondra Jordan tick.
Explain how you are like Diondra and how you are different from her.
2. Recall What kind of painting does Raul leave on Mr. Wards desk?
TIP Right There
3. Summarize Why doesnt Diondras father like her art?
TIP Think and Search
Critical Thinking
4. Evaluate Is school a good place for students such as Diondra and Raul
to discover who they are and what makes them tick? Explain your
answer with details from the story and from your own experience.
TIP Author and Me
5. Draw Conclusions Why is Diondra afraid to tell people that she is an
artist?
TIP Author and Me
6. Interpret Why does Nikki Grimes include Diondra Jordans poem at
the end of the story?
TIP Author and Me
Write About Your Reading
Write a short self-portrait. Describe who you are. If you want to draw a
picture with your written self-portrait, you can, but be sure to answer
these questions in your writing:
If you had to use three specific words to describe yourself, what would
those words be?
What kind of hobbies or interests do you have that others know you for
(your athletic or art skills, or your ability to write well)? Do you have any
hobbies that you would like to tell people about? What are they? What is
it about the hobbies that you like?
What makes you tick?
Diondra Jordan
806 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Getty Images
Objectives (pp. 806807)
Reading Interpret text Make connections
from text to self
Literature Identify literary devices:
symbolism
Vocabulary Identify Latin roots
Writing Respond to literature: self-portrait
Grammar Use correct subject-verb agree-
ment: be verbs
READING WORKSHOP 2 Interpreting
Skills Review
Key Reading Skill: Interpreting
7. What personal experiences did you use to
interpret this story? What larger ideas in the
story did they make you think about?
8. Did using the reading skill of interpreting help
you understand and enjoy the story? Explain.
Key Literary Element: Symbolism
9. The narrator says that she will paint a self-portrait
and show a basketball jersey in the trash. What
might the jersey in the trash symbolize?
Reviewing Skills: Connecting
10. If Diondra were a student in your class, how
would students react to her poem? How would
you react to her problems?
Vocabulary Check
Choose the vocabulary word that best complete each
sentence.
identity self-portrait tirade gallery
11. Wow, your really does look like you.
12. I sent the note without signing it so no one would
know my .
13. There were many paintings and sculptures in
the .
14. Dont launch into a just because I forgot to
return your art supplies.
15. Academic Vocabulary What can you interpret
from a self-portrait?
16. English Language Coach Diondras height is
evident. Her interest in art is not. How does the
meaning of the root vid connect to the meaning
of evident?
Grammar Link:
Making To Be Agree
The verb to be has a variety of forms in the present
and past tenses.
Present Tense Forms of To Be
Singular Plural
I am We are
You are You are
He, she, it is They are
Past Tense Forms of To Be
Singular Plural
I was We were
You were You were
He, she, it was They were
Always use the form of to be that agrees with the
subject of the sentence. For example, which past-tense
form of to be is right for the sentence below?
The players (was, were) late for the game.
(The subject is players. Players is equal to they. The
right past-tense form to go with they is were.)
Grammar Practice
On a separate piece of paper, write the correct form of
to be for each sentence.
17. I (am, is, are) your friend.
18. You (was, were) with me from the start.
19. The other kids (wasnt, werent) friendly.
20. You and I (was, were) meant to be friends.
Writing Application Look again at the Write About
Your Reading assignment you completed. Fix any mis-
takes you made in your use of the verb to be.
Web Activities For eFlashcards, Selection
Quick Checks, and other Web activities, go to
www.glencoe.com.
Diondra Jordan 807
READING WORKSHOP 2 Interpreting
Before You Read
Face It and Almost Ready
Vocabulary Preview
English Language Coach
Anglo-Saxon Origins Anglo-Saxon is the name of the language also
known as Old English. It developed when the Angles and the Saxons
conquered England in the fifth century.
Anglo-Saxon, or Old English, was spoken and written in England for
hundreds of years.
Old English was gradually replaced by Middle English.
Middle English was gradually replaced by Modern English.
During those many years, words came into English from other languages,
too. We tend to study the roots of those words more than we study Old
English roots because the words Old English gave us are so simple.
Some Words with Anglo-Saxon Roots
come forget
bread hate
wife friend
child dinner
love neighbor
Old English spelling was simple for the people who spoke it because words
were spelled exactly the way they sounded. Over time, the pronunciations
changed. Unfortunately, the spellings often did not!
sight was pronounced (sort of like) sikt
knight was pronounced (sort of like) kih nikt
Guess the Roots Guess which word in each pair is the one that came
from Old English. Then check your guesses in a dictionary. (The history of a
word is given inside [ ] marks at the beginning of the dictionary entry. OE
means Old English.)
1. chicken / poultry
2. construct / build
3. begin / initiate
4. break / fracture
Meet the Authors
J a
n
e
t

W
o
n
g
A
r n
o
l
d

A
d
o
f
f
Janet Wongs mother
is Korean. Her
father is Chinese.
Growing up, I
never felt very
Korean, Wong
says.. . . for the
first time I find myself craving
Korean beef bone soup and
kimchi, which I used to hate.
An award-winning
poet, teacher,
and lecturer,
Arnold Adoff
believes that
writing a poem
is making music
with words and space.
Author Search For more about
Janet Wong and Arnold Adoff, go
to www.glencoe.com.
808 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
(t) Courtesy Simon & Schuster, (b) Virginia Hamilton Adoff
Objectives (pp. 808811)
Reading Interpret text Make connec-
tions from text to self
Literature Identify literary devices:
symbolism
Vocabulary Identify Anglo-Saxon roots
Keep Moving
Use these skills as you read the following
selections.
READING WORKSHOP 2 Interpreting
Skills Preview
Key Reading Skill: Interpreting
Think about what you already know and what the
author is really saying. Use these questions to
interpret the poems.
What does the selection say?
What do you know about yourself and the world as
it relates to this topic?
What is the author really saying; is there a larger
idea?
Write to Learn In your Learners Notebook, answer
these questions as you read the poem.
Key Literary Element: Symbolism
A symbol is something that represents something
else. Symbolism means the use of symbols in a work
of literature. For example, a rose can represent love.
Writers use symbols to share ideas in a memorable
way. As you read, use these tips to help you find
symbolism. Look for
Items that seem significant or important to the
speaker
What meaning does the item have for the speaker
beyond what it seems to have for the reader?
What is the items relationship to the speaker?
Objects, people, or images that might represent
something else
What traits or qualities does this item have that
may make it a symbol?
Partner Talk With a partner, take turns reading
Face It aloud to each other. As you read, talk about
the symbols in the poem and what they mean.
Get Ready to Read
Connect to the Reading
What is the real you like? Think about your physical
characteristics and your personality traits. Which are
family traits? Which are unique to you?
Write to Learn In your Learners Notebook, make a
chart showing your personality traits and some physi-
cal characteristics. Label the ones you think are family
traits and those that are unique to you.
Build Background
Our cultural and ethnic background is also part of
what makes us tick. Janet S. Wong, the author of Face
It, writes: Sometimes the first question a stranger
will ask me, even before learning my name, is What
are you? or Where are you from? These kinds of
people usually stare hard at my face, as if they are
testing themselves on how well they can tell the differ-
ence between Chinese, Korean, and Japanese.
The speaker in the poem Face It is part Chinese
and part French.
The speaker has traits from both cultures, but the
speakers personal characteristics help her define
her identity.
Set Purposes for Reading
Read Face It and Almost
Ready to find out what makes the speakers tick.
Set Your Own Purpose What would you like to
learn from the poems to help you answer the Big
Question? Write your own purpose on the Face It
page of Foldable 7.
Interactive Literary Elements Handbook
To review or learn more about the literary
elements, go to www.glencoe.com.
Face It and Almost Ready 809
READING WORKSHOP 2
My nose belongs
to Guangdong, China
short and round, a Jang family nose.
My eyes belong
to Alsace, France
wide like Grandmother Hemmerlings. 1 2
But my mouth, my big-talking mouth, belongs
to me, alone. 3
Practice the Skills
1 Key Reading Skill
Interpreting Why is the
speaker talking about parts of
the face? What does this say
about the speaker?
2 Key Literary Element
Symbolism What do facial
features inherited from relatives
symbolize to the speaker?
3 English Language Coach
Anglo-Saxon Roots Because
most of the poems words,
except for names, come from
Old English, they are very simple.
What is the effect of the poets
use of such simple words?
by Janet S. Wong
810 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Roy Morsch/Zefa/CORBIS
READING WORKSHOP 2
I as
am this
going cool
to and
her in-
birth- control
day young
party dude:
as as as as
soon soon soon soon
as as as as
I I I I
nd nd nd nd
my my my my
new hip deep right
shirt, 4 shoes, voice, mask. 5
Practice the Skills
by Arnold Adoff
4 English Language Coach
Anglo-Saxon Roots This word is
from the Old English word scyrte,
meaning short garment. What
other word do we get from scyrte?
(Just pronounce the OE word!)
5
For each of these poems, what
makes the speaker tick? Record
your answers in Foldable 7. Your
responses will help you complete
the Unit Challenge later.
Face It and Almost Ready 811
SuperStock
After You Read
READING WORKSHOP 2 Interpreting
Face It and Almost Ready
Answering the
1. Do you think that where your ancestors are from has anything to do
with what makes you tick? Does your appearance make you tick?
2. Recall What images does the poem Almost Ready focus on?
TIP Right There
3. Compare and Contrast How does the third stanza of Face It differ
from the first two stanzas?
TIP Right There
Critical Thinking
4. Infer How do the titles of these poems and the images presented in
them relate to the Big Question?
TIP Author and Me
5. Evaluate Do you agree with the speaker of Face It that people are a
combination of their ancestors characteristics and their own unique
traits? Explain.
TIP On My Own
6. Connect How do you prepare to go to a party? In what ways are you
like the speaker of Almost Ready? In what ways are you different?
TIP Author and Me
Talk About Your Reading
Literature Groups Both of these poems offer surprise endings. In your
group, discuss these endings.
In Almost Ready, the speaker says as soon as I find my right mask.
What does this line mean? Do you agree or disagree that clothes and a
deep voice can be masks?
The poem Face It also ends with a surprise. When the speaker refers to
her big-talking mouth, what is she telling about herself?
Write to Learn If you had to write a poem about yourself, which of these
two poems would you use as a model? Try writing a poem about yourself.
Use either Face It or Almost Ready as your model. Share your poem with
your group.
812 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Roy Morsch/Zefa/CORBIS
Objectives (pp. 812813)
Reading Interpret text Make connections
from text to self
Literature Identify literary devices:
symbolism
Vocabulary Identify Anglo-Saxon roots
Writing Respond to literature: poem
Grammar Use correct subject-verb agree-
ment: inverted sentences
READING WORKSHOP 2 Interpreting
Skills Review
Key Reading Skill: Interpreting
7. Think about the words in the first poems title.
Think about those words in a statement like Face
it: We lost the game. How do you interpret the
title, Face It?
8. How does the arrangement of lines in Almost
Ready add to the poems meaning? Explain.
9. Almost Ready suggests that young people often
show an outside that looks cool and in-control
even when they feel quite differently inside. Do
you agree? Explain your answer.
10. What does the title Almost Ready suggest about
the inner conflict the speaker is feeling?
Key Literary Element: Symbolism
11. In Face It, what does the speakers nose sym-
bolize to the speaker?
12. In Almost Ready, what do the shirt, hip shoes,
and deep voice symbolize to the speaker?
Reviewing Skills: Evaluating
13. Did you find these poems humorous, serious, or
both? Explain.
Reviewing Literary Elements:
Sound Devices
14. Identify the sound device (or devices) used in the
third stanza of Face It.
Vocabulary Check
15. English Language Coach The speaker of Face
It talks about being a combination of traits from
different sources. How is English similar? Can you
think of any words that we could say belong to
American English alone? Jazz is one word that
was first used in the United States. What might
be another?
Grammar Link: Agreement
in Inverted Sentences
Make sure the subjects and verbs in inverted sen-
tences agree. In an inverted sentence, all or part of the
verb comes before the subject. Two kinds of inverted
sentences are questions and sentences that begin with
here or there. (See the Grammar Link on page 793.)
Questions To check subject-verb agreement in
questions, change the questions into statements.
That makes it easier to find the real subject.
Question: Where is the keys?
Statement: The keys is where.
The subject is keys. Keys is plural, or equal to they.
So the right verb form is are, not is.
Agreement: Where are the keys?
Here and there cannot be subjects. To find the sub-
ject of a sentence that begins with here or there,
mentally omit the word. Find the verb; then ask
yourself, who or what ___?
There was two people in line.
There was two people in line.
The verb is was. Who or what was? People was.
People is the subject. People is plural, or equal to
they. So the right verb form is were, not was.
Grammar Practice
On a separate piece of paper, write the subject and
the correct verb form for each sentence.
16. There (goes, go) Jermaine and Annie.
17. What (is, are) they wearing?
18. (Does, Do) the twins have to dress alike?
19. Here (is, are) their matching sweaters.
Web Activities For eFlashcards, Selection
Quick Checks, and other Web activities, go to
www.glencoe.com.
Face It and Almost Ready 813
READING WORKSHOP 3
CALVIN AND HOBBES 1987 Watterson. Dist. By UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.
Skills Focus
You will practice using these skills when you
read the following selections:
Miracles, p. 818
The Pasture, p. 819
Reading, Writing, Rapping, p. 824
Reading
Monitoring comprehension
Literature
Identifying rhyme, rhythm,
and meter in poetry
Understanding the effects of
rhyme, rhythm, and meter
Vocabulary
Use structural analysis to
understand word meanings
Academic Vocabulary:
monitoring
Writing/Grammar
Using correct subject-verb
agreement
Learn It!
What Is It? Monitoring comprehension means
checking to make sure that you understand what you
read. To monitor comprehension, you review, reread
slowly, or ask someone to help you. For example,
when you read the poem Annabel Lee, you could
have monitored your comprehension by stopping to
ask yourself questions. If you couldnt answer a ques-
tion, you would go back and reread.
To monitor something is to pay attention to it.
Comprehension is understanding, especially
understanding a reading.
Monitoring comprehension is paying attention to
your understanding.
Skill Lesson
Monitoring
Comprehension
Analyzing Cartoons
Hobbes makes a good point. If you
dont care about understanding a piece
of writing, read it as fast as you can.
If you do want to understand,
rereading can help.
814 UNIT 7
CALVIN & HOBBES 1987 Watterson. Dist. by UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.
Objectives (pp. 814815)
Reading Monitor comprehension
814-815U7RW3_845477.indd 814 3/9/07 3:57:25 PM
Study Central Visit www.glencoe
.com and click on Study Central to
review monitoring comprehension.
READING WORKSHOP 3 Monitoring Comprehension
Why Is It Important? How do you feel when you realize that youve
read a whole page and have no idea what you just read? You might feel
frustrated. When you monitor your comprehension, you check often to
make sure that you understand what youre reading. When you start to
drift off, you catch yourself.
How Do I Do It? To monitor your comprehension, ask yourself these
questions:
Do I understand all of the words?
Do I see how this sentence fits in with what Ive read so far?
Do I know what the author is trying to say?
If you dont know the answers to these questions, rereading can help.
Heres how one student used these questions to monitor comprehension
while reading the poem One:
But anybody can mimic my dance with my dog.
Anybody can howl how I sing out of tune.
At first I wasnt sure what mimic meant. I looked it
up and saw that it means copy. I wasnt sure how this
part of the poem fit with what I had read so far. Then I
reread the first part of the poem. I noticed that it was
about how no one could be a perfect copy of me. I guess
this part of the poem shows another side. Someone might
not be a perfect copy, but he or she could still copy me in
some ways.
Practice It!
Did you understand everything on this page? Or did you find yourself
going back to reread? In your Learners Notebook, write about a spot on
this page that confused you. How did rereading help you understand? If
you didnt need to reread, write three things that you learned from what
you read.
Use It!
As you read, stop often to ask yourself the following questions:
Do I understand what I just read?
Do I understand how this fits with the reading as a whole?
In your Learners Notebook, keep track of your answers to the questions.
Be sure to note times when you had to reread to answer the questions.
Reading Workshop 3 Monitoring Comprehension 815
Getty Images
READING WORKSHOP 3 Monitoring Comprehension
Before You Read
Miracles and The Pasture
Vocabulary Preview
English Language Coach
Using What You Know Its a good idea to memorize certain common
word partsroots, prefixes, and suffixesespecially those from Latin and
Greek. They show up in many words, and their meanings can be a big help
in figuring out the meanings of unfamiliar words.
However, using what you know works both ways. You can often figure out
the meaning of an unfamiliar word by thinking about a familiar one that
has some of the same parts.
The familiar words, below, appear in Walt Whitmans poem Miracles.
Familiar Unfamiliar
opposite oppositional
quiet quietude
curve curvature
distinct distinctive
Use What You Know Use what you know about the familiar words
above to choose the correct unfamiliar word for each blank below.
1. Her shoulders were so slumped that she looked as if she had of
the spine.
2. I always recognize Antonios voice on the phone because he has such
a accent.
3. You mom is relaxing for a few minutes, so try not to disturb her .
4. The soldiers were slowed by the actions of the enemy.
5. Phew! How could you have failed to notice the white stripe down
that black cats back?
6. For every action of mine, the mule responded with some action of
its own, and we got nowhere!
7. You can see a ships sails on the horizon before you see the whole ship
because of the of the earth.
8. Paco enjoyed the soothing of the meadow in which the only sound
was the faint, distant song of a wren.
Meet the Authors
W
a
l t
W
h
i
t
m
a
n
R
o
b
e
r
t

F
r
o
s
t
Walt Whitman loved
the people
and places
of America.
Leaves of Grass,
his famous
collection of
poetry, celebrates the variety
and vastness of this country.
See page R7 of the Author
Files for more on Walt
Whitman.
For much of his
life, Robert Frost
lived on farms
in New England
and wrote
poems about the
area. Three things
have followed me, he wrote,
writing, teaching, and a little
farming. See page R3 of the
Author Files for more on
Robert Frost.
Author Search For more about
Walt Whitman and Robert Frost, go
to www.glencoe.com.
816 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
(t) FPG, (b) E.O. Hoppe/CORBIS
Objectives (pp. 816819)
Reading Monitor comprehension
Make connections from text to self
Literature Identify literary devices:
rhyme, rhythm, meter
Vocabulary Use structural analysis:
roots, prefixes, suffixes
READING WORKSHOP 3 Monitoring Comprehension
Skills Preview
Key Reading Skill: Monitoring
Comprehension
Sometimes poetry is hard to understand. Stay on track by
asking yourself questions as you read:
Do I know what these words mean?
Can I explain this stanza in my own words?
Do I understand how this stanza fits in with the rest
of the poem?
Key Literary Element: Rhyme, Rhythm,
and Meter
A rhyme is made up of two or more words that appear
close to one another and whose sounds match: knew/
dew, boast/toast. Rhymes form a pattern that connects
the lines of poem. Rhymes may also show you which
words the poet thinks are important.
End rhyme is at the end of a poems lines.
Internal rhyme is within a single line.
Slant rhyme is when the end sounds are similar but
not identical.
Poems have rhythm just as songs do. Rhythm is the
pattern of beats made by the parts that are stressed,
or spoken with greater force, and the parts that are
softer, or spoken with less force. Often all stanzas in a
poem have the same rhythm.
Some poems have a predictable rhythm, called meter.
To find meter, look for a pattern of stressed and
unstressed syllables.
As you read, use these tips to help you think about
rhyme, rhythm, and meter.
Look for rhyming words, especially at the end of a line.
Are any rhyming words in the two poems?
See whether the poem has rhythm.
Is there a pattern of beats?
Try to find meter in the poems.
Is there a predictable pattern or rhythm?
Get Ready to Read
Connect to the Reading
What small things do you appreciate? The speakers in
both poems talk about the small details or events that
they enjoy.
Partner Talk Share with a partner your thoughts
about what you appreciate. List three small things that
you appreciate most about life.
Build Background
Both Walt Whitman and Robert Frost worked at
many different kinds of jobs and had widely varying
experiences.
Whitman lived during the time of the Civil War and
helped take care of wounded soldiers.
For ten years Frost lived on a farm, but he was not
suited for farm life and eventually had to give it up.
Although both men lived through difficult times and
tragedies, their poems show an appreciation for the
world around them.
Set Purposes for Reading
Read to find out how Whitman
feels about the universe and Frost feels about nature.
Set Your Own Purpose What would you like to
learn to help you answer the Big Question? Write your
own purpose on the Miracles page of Foldable 7.
Interactive Literary Elements Handbook
To review or learn more about the literary
elements, go to www.glencoe.com.
Keep Moving
Use these skills as you read the following
selections.
Miracles and The Pasture 817
READING WORKSHOP 3
1 English Language Coach
Using What You Know The
meaning of the Old English suffix
ward is easy: in the direc-
tion of. Here, it appears in the
familiar word toward. What do
earthward and skyward mean?
2 Key Reading Skill
Monitoring Comprehension
In line 19, what does the same
mean? (Reread the two lines
before this one. Notice the word
that ends each of them.)
3
According to the poem, what
is important to Whitman? What
makes him tick? Write your
answer on the Miracles page
of Foldable 7. Your response
will help you complete the
Unit Challenge later.
by Walt Whitman
15 This line suggests that all of these small, separate miracles are involved in, or refer to, some
greater miracle.
Why, who makes much of a miracle?
As to me I know of nothing else but miracles,
Whether I walk the streets of Manhattan,
Or dart my sight over the roofs of houses toward the sky,
5
Or wade with naked feet along the beach just in the edge of
the water,
Or stand under trees in the woods,
Or talk by day with any one I love . . .
Or sit at table at dinner with the rest,
Or look at strangers opposite me riding in the car.
10
Or watch honey-bees busy around the hive of a summer
forenoon,
Or animals feeding in the elds,
Or birds, or the wonderfulness of the sundown, or of stars
shining so quiet and bright,
Or the exquisite delicate thin curve of the new moon in
spring;
These with the rest, one and all, are to me miracles,
15
The whole referring, yet each distinct and in its place.
*
1
To me every hour of the light and dark is a miracle,
Every cubic inch of space is a miracle,
Every square yard of the surface of the earth is spread with
the same,
Every foot of the interior swarms with the same. 2
20
To me the sea is a continual miracle,
The shes that swimthe rocksthe motion of the waves
the ships with men in them,
What stranger miracles are there? 3
Practice the Skills
818 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
READING WORKSHOP 3
Practice the Skills
Im going out to clean the pasture spring;
Ill only stop to rake the leaves away
(And wait to watch the water clear, I may):
I shant be gone long.You come too. 4 5
5
Im going out to fetch the little calf
Thats standing by the mother. Its so young,
It totters when she licks it with her tongue.
I shant be gone long.You come too. 6
4 Key Literary Element
Rhyme, Rhythm, and
Meter Frost creates rhythm in
the poem by adding punctuation.
Where should you pause when
reading this poem aloud or to
yourself?
5 Key Literary Element
Rhyme, Rhythm, and
Meter Each stanza repeats a
pattern of rhyme. In the first
stanza, lines 2 and 3 rhyme.
Does the same rhyme pattern
appear in the second stanza?
What else is the same in the
two stanzas?
6 Key Reading Skill
Monitoring Comprehension
What is this poem about? Reread
it to make sure that youre right.
Focus on the meaning of the
word spring.
by Robert Frost
Hay Meadows, 1938. Adolf Dehn. Watercolor on white wove paper, 14 X 21 in.,
Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago.
Miracles and The Pasture 819
Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago/Art Resource, NY
After You Read
READING WORKSHOP 3 Monitoring Comprehension
Miracles and The Pasture
Answering the
1. What do you think Whitman and Frost love about life? Explain.
2. Recall The speaker in Miracles calls many events miracles. List three
of these events.
TIP Right There
3. Recall What two chores is the speaker of The Pasture planning to do?
TIP Right There
Critical Thinking
4. Synthesize What other miracles could have been included in
Whitmans list? Give at least three possibilities. Explain.
TIP Author and Me
5. Infer Why do you think Frost ends both stanzas with the same line?
TIP Author and Me
6. Interpret What attitude toward life and nature do the authors show in
these poems?
TIP Author and Me
Write About Your Reading
Pretend that Frost wanted to write a poem based on one of the events in
Whitmans Miracles. Use these questions to help you write a short poem
or stanza in Frosts style.
Step 1: What event will you focus on from Miracles? Announce this
event in your first line.
Step 2: Plan the next two lines of your poem. What can you say
about this event? What two rhyming words will you use for the second
and third lines?
Step 3: Write a line to end the poem.
Step 4: Write the poem in your Learners Notebook. Use the format
below. Dont forget to include end punctuation.
Im going out to
Ill
(And
I shant be gone long.You come too.
820 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago/Art Resource, NY
Objectives (pp. 820821)
Reading Monitor comprehension Make
connections from text to self
Literature Identify literary devices: rhyme,
rhythm, meter
Vocabulary Use structural analysis: roots,
prefixes, suffixes
Writing Respond to literature: poem
Grammar Use correct subject-verb agree-
ment: compounds
READING WORKSHOP 3 Monitoring Comprehension
Skills Review
Key Reading Skill: Monitoring
Comprehension
7. Think about a place in one of the poems where
you had to stop and reread. What confused you?
Where did you find the answer that helped you
go on reading?
Key Literary Element: Rhyme, Rhythm,
and Meter
8. Miracles does not use meter, or a regular
pattern of rhythm. Why do you think Whitman
decided not to use meter in the poem?
9. The second stanza of The Pasture contains the
rhyme young/tongue. What does the calf being
young have to do with the mother licking it with
her tongue?
Vocabulary Check
10. Academic Vocabulary If a doctor tells you to
monitor what you eat, what is he or she telling
you to do?
English Language Coach The word forenoon
was not defined for you in Miracles because its
a familiar word for morning.
Given the meaning of forenoon, think of what the
word part fore- means.
Now use your knowledge of fore- to come up with
ideas about what the following words mean.
11. foretell
12. forefathers
13. forejudge
14. foreseeable
15. foregone (Hint: What do you think it would mean
if someone said that winning tomorrows game
is a foregone conclusion?)
Grammar Link: Agreement
with Compounds
A compound subject is two or more subjects joined
by a conjunction.
The verb form that agrees with a compound subject
depends on the conjunction that is used to join the
subjects. Here are the rules.
Subjects joined by and: When and joins subjects,
use the plural verb form.
The student president and principal are there.
(student president principal they. Use are.)
There were a discussion and a vote.
(discussion vote they. Use were.)
Subjects joined by or or nor: When or or nor joins
compound subjects, the verb agrees with the subject
that is closer to it.
Cookies or cake is always served.
(Cake is closer to the verb. Cake it. Use is.)
Grammar Practice
On a separate piece of paper, write the subject and
the correct verb form for each sentence.
16. Neither my sister nor I (am, is, are) going.
17. Here (comes, come) the teacher and principal.
18. When (does, do) you and your dad plan to go?
19. The kids or their sitter (has, have) ordered pizza.
Writing Application Look again at the Write About
Your Reading assignment you completed. Fix any sub-
ject-verb mistakes you made.
Web Activities For eFlashcards, Selection
Quick Checks, and other Web activities, go to
www.glencoe.com.
Miracles and The Pasture 821
Meet the Author
Elizabeth Wellington worked
as a fashion writer at The
News and Observer in
Raleigh, North Carolina. She
has written about fashion for
The Philadelphia Inquirer
since 2002. Her fashion col-
umn appears every other
Sunday, and her stories
appear in the papers Daily
Magazine section.
Author Search For more about
Elizabeth Wellington, go to www
.glencoe.com.
READING WORKSHOP 3 Monitoring Comprehension
Before You Read
Reading, Writing, Rapping
Vocabulary Preview
dissect (dih SEKT) v. to examine carefully and in close detail (p. 825) We
had to dissect the song before we could record it.
obvious (OB vee us) adj. easily seen or understood (p. 825) Hip-hop has
an obvious appeal for various school-age groups.
shunning (SHUN ing) v. avoiding; keeping away from; form of the verb
shun (p. 825) Teachers who have been shunning hip-hop should take
another look at it.
era (AIR uh) n. a period in history (p. 826) Hip-hop could have developed
only in an era of high technology.
Write to Learn For each vocabulary word, write a sentence using the
word correctly.
English Language Coach
Greek Roots The students youll read about in the next selection have a
microsociety class. In this class, the students make a model version of a
recording studio. The word part micro comes from Greek and means
small. You have seen it in microscope (which allows one to see small
things) and microphone (which allows small sounds to be heard).
The English language borrowed many roots, prefixes, and suffixes from
Greek. Some are called combining forms because they are so often used
with other Greek parts.
This chart shows six common Greek roots or combining forms.
Root Meaning Examples
auto self automatic, automobile
bio life biology, biography
cycle circle bicycle, recycle
geo Earth geography, geology
graph write / draw autograph, graphics
log / logy word / study / speech dialogue, biology
Partner Talk With a partner, discuss how the Greek root or combining
form is involved in the meaning of each of the example words for that root.
(Several of the words involve two Greek roots or combining forms.)
822 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Objectives (pp. 822827)
Reading Monitor comprehension
Make connections from text to self
Literature Identify literary devices:
rhyme, rhythm, meter
Vocabulary Use structural analysis:
roots, prefixes, suffixes
822-823U7BYR_845477.indd 822 3/9/07 3:58:19 PM
READING WORKSHOP 3 Monitoring Comprehension
Skills Preview
Key Reading Skill: Monitoring
Comprehension
You can catch yourself when youre not following a
reading. Perhaps you get distracted by something going
on around you or realize that you have blanked out
and dont know what youve read. Many people show
some signs that their attention is wandering. What signs
tell you that your attention is wandering?
Write to Learn In your Learners Notebook, list two
ways that you can tell youve lost track of a reading.
Watch for these signs as you read this selection.
Key Literary Element: Rhyme, Rhythm,
and Meter
Rhyme and rhythm are important in hip-hop. Think
about your favorite song. Does it contain rhymes?
Does it have a good beat? A singer or MC creates
vocal patterns by stressing certain words, and the
music usually reinforces that rhythm. Some songs
have a meter, or predictable rhythm; some dont.
As you read, keep these points in mind:
Rhyme and rhythm are hooks that pull the reader
or listener along.
How do the rhymes and rhythms help to keep you
in the song and understand the message?
Meter is often used to reflect the message.
Is there a predictable rhythm? Is the message
straightforward or more complicated?
Partner Talk Read The Pasture (p. 819) aloud, as if
it were the lyrics to a rap song. Get a good feel of the
rhyme, rhythm, and meter.
Get Ready to Read
Connect to the Reading
The classes described in Reading, Writing, Rapping
are using song lyrics to help them learn. What line
from a song has made you really think about an idea
or issue?
Partner Talk With a partner, talk about different
ideas that youve thought about after listening to
music. How did listening to a particular song make
you interested in an idea or issue?
Build Background
Reading, Writing, Rapping talks about hip-hop
music in the classroom. Youve probably heard some
hip-hop or rap, which is rhythmic, rhyming speech on
top of music.
Rap first gained importance with the release
of Rappers Delight in 1979 by New Yorks
Sugarhill Gang.
Set Purposes for Reading
Read Reading, Writing,
Rapping to find out how some teens learn about
themselves and the world from music.
Set Your Own Purpose What would you like to
learn to help you answer the Big Question? Write
your own purpose on the Reading, Writing, Rapping
page of Foldable 7.
Keep Moving
Use these skills as you read the following
selection.
Interactive Literary Elements Handbook
To review or learn more about the literary
elements, go to www.glencoe.com.
Reading, Writing, Rapping 823
READING WORKSHOP 3
Hip-hops going from the top of the charts to the head of the class.
Teachers are using hip-hop as a learning toolsometimes on the sly.
T he beats seeping out of Room 214 suck Talley Middle
School students down the hallway. Its rst period:
microsociety
1
class.
The Delaware eighth graders assignment: to compose a rap
around the theme Achievement Matters. They shake their
heads as they write. This is right up their alley. Here, they
practice reading, writing, and math skills by running a make-
believe record label. Their rhymes are written in stanzas; they
learn about budgets and use high-tech music equipment to
earn grades. Students say they love Jennifer Bishops class.
I think its better than all the other classes Im taking,
said Michael Hurtt, 13, whose rap name is Miraculous. It
challenges me. Its helping me . . . use similes and metaphors.
Bigger words. You learn how not to include just the basic
words when you talk. 1
Such enthusiasm is why teachers are using hip-hop to teach
students. Teachers are taking hip-hops bestthe catchy beats,
clever use of words, and social messagesto encourage
students to learn.
Practice the Skills
1 English Language Coach
Greek Roots Our word
metaphor comes from the
Greek metaphora, meaning a
transfer. Meta means over or
across. Phor comes from a word
meaning to carry. How does a
metaphor transfer something
or carry something across?
by Elizabeth Wellington
1. Microsociety is a school program that has students construct a model version of a real-world
institution, such as a museum or a recording studio.
824 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
philly.com
WEB SITE
READING WORKSHOP 3
Practice the Skills
Some high school teachers are pulling lyrics from popular
artists to help students build reading-comprehension skills.
The idea is that a 14-year-old would rather dissect the
meaning of Jay-Zs Excuse Me, Miss than Shakespeares
A Midsummer Nights Dream.
Hip-hop is a vehicle through which school concepts can
make sense, said Shuaib Meacham, an assistant professor at
the University of Delaware, who shows teachers in the state
how to blend hip-hop into their curriculums.
Without engagement, you cant connect students to skills
so that they want to learn, Meacham said. Hip-hop grabs
them off the bat. 2
A lot of things are behind hip-hops move into the
classroom. The obvious reason is that elements of the
genreits slang, fashion, and messageare a part of pop
culture, from television to political campaigns.
But its also because
hip-hops earliest fans are
slipping into teaching,
administration, and even
political ofces that decide
how children learn. Detroit
Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick,
31, virtually ran on a hip-
hop platform. And last
month, Kilpatrick held the
countrys largest hip-hop
summit to date, during
which rap mogul Russell
Simmons
2
suggested that
teachers use hip-hop
instead of shunning it.
2 Key Reading Skill
Monitoring Comprehension
Check your understanding by
asking yourself questions as
you read. What does Shuaib
Meacham think about hip-hop
in the classroom? If you dont
remember, reread to find out.
Vocabulary
dissect (dih SEKT) v. to examine carefully and in close detail
obvious (OB vee us) adj. easily seen or understood
shunning (SHUN ing) v. avoiding; keeping away from
2. A mogul (MOH gul) is a rich, powerful person. Russell Simmons is one of the founders of
Def Jam Records, which has released many popular rap albums.
Reading, Writing, Rapping 825
David Swanson/The Philadelphia Inquirer
824-827U7SEL_845477.indd 825 3/9/07 3:58:44 PM
READING WORKSHOP 3
But not everyone is quick to welcome hip-hop in the classroom.
We found that teachers are using pieces of the [hip-hop]
lifestyle in the classroom in their own way. But they are not
letting their school boards know because they are afraid their
superiors wont approve, said Kelly Quintero, coauthor of
Shades of Literacy: Hip-Hop as Authentic Poetry, published
by the National Association of English Teachers.
Still, there are a few classrooms across the United States
and locally where hip-hop has made appearances, said
Dennis Creedon, who works in the Philadelphia school
systems Ofce of Creative and Performing Arts. 3
At a Northeast Philadelphia school, a teacher taught his
students a rap to help them with the era from the Revolutionary
War to the Civil War, Creedon said. And a music teacher turned
Mozarts The Magic Flute,
3
into a hip-hopera.
Practice the Skills
3 Key Reading Skill
Monitoring Comprehension
Who are Kelly Quintero and
Dennis Creedon? You may need
to reread to find the answer.
3. The Magic Flute is an opera by the composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (175691).
Vocabulary
era (AIR uh) n. a period in history
826 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
David Swanson/The Philadelphia Inquirer
824-827U7SEL_845477.indd 826 3/12/07 2:27:38 PM
READING WORKSHOP 3
Children understand this culture, and
this gets their attention, Creedon said.
Still, we have to be aware what kind of
music they are listening to, because music
enters our consciousness on a deeper level.
Bishops class started working on its rap
label in September. Since then, she said,
she has seen her students writing skills
improve. They can master music
equipment, and most important, they
are excited about learning.
At the end of the school year, the class
will produce a six-song CD that includes
tunes the students wrote about writers
block, poverty, and the struggles of
being a middle-schooler.
Within minutes of getting their
assignment Monday morning, the
rst group comes up with an
Ashanti-style
4
hook:
You can achieve it. . . .
All you got to do is believe it.
Kevin Barnes, 15, isnt having the same kind of luck with
lyrics. While his friends are tapping their feet to the beat as
they write, Kevin is stuck.
I really got writers block, he said, shaking his head. I
just cant make this happen. I got so much stuff in my head.
I cant put it on paper.
He walks to the stairwell. Within 15 minutes, his notebook
is lled with tiny handwriting. He grabs the mike, and just
like Brooklyn-born rapper Notorious B.I.G., he starts to ow.
Its KO the kid. Achievements the bid
Never ever lost a battle. Cause Im in it to win
Cuz I step to the plate. With the bat as my mate.
And the other teams say. That fat boys in shape.
Cuz Im achieving. Coke and drugs Im leaving.
In the car, Im speeding
And Im still achieving. 4 5
Practice the Skills
4 Key Literary Element
Rhyme, Rhythm, and Meter
What words does Kevin Barnes
rhyme? Do his lyrics create
rhythm? Is there a regular meter?
5
What do you think makes
these students tick? Write your
answer on the Reading, Writing,
Rapping page of Foldable 7. Your
response will help you complete
the Unit Challenge later. 4. The singer Ashanti is known for her singles Foolish and Rock Wit U (Awww Baby).
Reading, Writing, Rapping 827
David Swanson/The Philadelphia Inquirer
After You Read
READING WORKSHOP 3 Monitoring Comprehension
Reading, Writing, Rapping
Answering the
1. Does music make you tick the way it makes the students in the
article tick? Why or why not?
2. Recall Give two examples of school subjects that have been taught
using hip-hop.
TIP Right There
3. Summarize Why do students and teachers support using hip-hop in
the classroom?
TIP Think and Search
Critical Thinking
4. Infer What do you think helped Kevin Barnes solve his writers block?
Explain.
TIP Author and Me
5. Interpret What is a hip-hopera?
TIP Author and Me
6. Connect Jennifer Bishops class wrote songs about the struggles of
being a middle-schooler. What issue might one of these songs address?
TIP On My Own
Write About Your Reading
Write the lyrics to a short rap song about a specific event in your life. You
can follow the pattern of the song by Kevin Barnes. Use the following steps
to get started.
Step 1: What event are you going to write about? Jot down three
or four details about the event. Include details that use at least two
senses, such as sight and hearing.
Step 2: How did you feel about this event? What particular details
made you feel this way?
Step 3: What are three rhymes that you can use in your rap song?
Where will you put them?
828 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
David Swanson/The Philadelphia Inquirer
Objectives (pp. 828829)
Reading Monitor comprehension Make
connections from text to self
Literature Identify literary devices: rhyme,
rhythm, meter
Vocabulary Use structural analysis: roots,
prefixes, suffixes
Writing Respond to literature: rap song
Grammar Use correct subject-verb
agreement
READING WORKSHOP 3 Monitoring Comprehension
Skills Review
Key Reading Skill: Monitoring
Comprehension
7. As you read Reading, Writing, Rapping, what
parts were easy to understand? What parts gave
you trouble? Rank the following three parts of the
selection according to how easily you understood
them, with 1 being the easiest and 3 the hardest.
Explain your rankings.
Description of Jennifer Bishops class (p. 824)
Quotation from Shuaib Meacham (p. 825)
Rap lyrics by Kevin Barnes (p. 827)
8. How did rereading help you understand the most
difficult part of the selection?
Key Literary Element: Rhyme, Rhythm,
and Meter
9. One group of students rhymed achieve it with
believe it. What could they have rhymed with
its right?
10. Why is rhythm important in hip-hop?
Vocabulary Check
Match each vocabulary word with the synonym that
best fits it. You will use two words twice.
dissect obvious shunning era
11. time
12. avoiding
13. period
14. clear
15. analyze
16. plain
17. English Language Coach The students use
high-tech music equipment. Tech is a shortened
version of technology. Techn is a Greek combin-
ing form that means art, skill, or system. How is
it related to todays meaning of technology?
Grammar Link: Subjects
Separated from Verbs
Subject-verb agreement can be challenging when a
prepositional phrase separates the subject from its
verb. When the subject and verb are not next to each
other, you may wonder what the real subject of the
sentence is. For example, in the sentence below is the
subject One or children?
One of the children (is, are) lost.
Heres a hint: Subjects and predicates do not appear
in prepositional phrases. If you mentally leave out
the prepositional phrase from the sentence, the real
subject becomes easier to find.
One of the children (is, are) lost.
prepositional phrase
(Once the prepositional phrase is gone, its easy to see
that the subject is One. Since the subject is One, the
right verb form is is.)
Grammar Practice
On a separate piece of paper, copy the sentences
below. Cross out the prepositional phrase that sepa-
rates the subject and verb in each sentence. Underline
the subject once and the correct verb form twice.
18. The purpose of the quizzes (is, are) clear.
19. A few students in our class (is, are) behind.
20. Quizzes on reading assignments (keeps, keep) us
on our toes.
21. The student with the best grades (wins, win) a
prize.
Writing Application Look back at the Write About
Your Reading assignment you completed. Check to
make sure all the subjects and verbs agree. Fix any
mistakes.
Web Activities For eFlashcards, Selection
Quick Checks, and other Web activities, go to
www.glencoe.com.
Reading, Writing, Rapping 829
WRITING WORKSHOP PART 2
Poem
Revising, Editing, and Presenting
In Writing Workshop Part 1, you learned about verse, figurative language,
and word choice. In Part 2, youll experiment with words as you work toward
a finished poem. Also, youll keep a copy of it in a writing portfolio so that
you and your teacher can evaluate your writing progress over time.
Revising
Make It Better
The revision process allows you to think about how your ideas are
organized and expressed in your poem. It also gives you a chance
to look over each word that youve chosen. Use the chart below to
help you revise your poem.
Do you . . . Hints for Revising
follow poetic
conventions of
verse and stanza?
Write in versesingle lines of textand stanzassets
of lines. Start a new stanza to show a change in set-
ting, tone, or mood. Like a paragraph in a story, a
stanza is a set of lines that helps organize your ideas.
use sensory details? Sensory details appeal to the senses of sight, smell,
taste, touch, and sound. They help readers tune in
to what youre saying.
use figurative
language to create
strong images?
Create stronger images by using figurative language:
simile (the breeze is like a kiss)
metaphor (the breeze is a kiss) and
personification (the breeze kisses me)
use vocabulary to
express a tone and
to set a mood?
Tone is your attitude toward the subject, ideas,
theme, or characters in your poem. Mood is the
atmosphere you want your readers to feel. Careful
word choices are important in establishing both tone
and mood.
ASSIGNMENT Write a
poem
Purpose: To write a
poem about an object
that shows what makes
you tick
Audience: You, your
teacher, and possibly
some classmates
Revising Rubric
Your revised poem should
have
vivid, concise words that
tell readers exactly what
you are thinking
subjects and verbs that
agree
words and images that
express your message
mood and tone that reflect
your feelings
830 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Objectives (pp. 830833)
Writing Revise your writing
for key elements, style, and
word choice
Grammar Use correct subject-verb
agreement
Listening, Speaking, and Viewing
Present poem Use appropriate
expressions and gestures Listen
for elements of poetry
Writing Models For models
and other writing activities, go to
www.glencoe.com.
WRITING WORKSHOP PART 2
Partner Talk
Get together with a partner and exchange your poems. Read your partners
poem, and then answer the following questions on a separate sheet of
paper. Give examples to support each answer. When you finish, return the
poem and your answers to your writing partner.
1. What mental images do you see in your head?
2. What does the poem make you think about?
3. What emotions does the poem make you feel?
4. Does figurative language make the poem interesting and enjoyable?
Use Feedback to Revise
Feedback tells you whats working and whats not. Look at the feedback your
partner just gave you. What emotions did he or she feel when reading your
poem? Were they the emotions you had in mind? If not, you should revise,
paying special attention to meaning and tone.
Editing
Finish It Up
When you have a final draft of your poem, edit and proofread it for gram-
mar, usage, mechanics, and spelling. Use the Editing Checklist to help you
spot errors.
Editing Checklist

Punctuation tells the reader when to pause.

Subjects and verbs agree.

All words are spelled correctly.


Presenting
Show It Off
Copy your poem neatly on a separate sheet of paper. If you prefer, type it.
Add illustrations or decorative lettering. Make a class bulletin board called
Objects That Make Us Tick. Arrange the class poems on the bulletin board.
Writing Tip
Revising Think about how
your poem looks on the page.
If youre writing about an
object that has a definite shape,
consider writing the poem in
that shape.
Writing Tip
Subject-Verb Agreement
If a prepositional phrase sepa-
rates a subject from its verb,
ignore the phrase, and revise
the verb so that it agrees with
the subject.
Writing Tip
Spelling Remember that
some nouns have the same
singular and plural forms.
Examples: deer/deer, species/
species, sheep/sheep. Use a
dictionary to check the
singular and plural forms
of any nouns that youre not
sure about.
Writing Workshop Part 2 Poem 831
WRITING WORKSHOP PART 2
Active Writing Model Writers Model
What Makes Me Tick?
by Sara Elliott
The clock on the wall
Ticktocks past 9:05.
I need my rest.
School tomorrow,
Big test,
Soccer practice.
But, Nancy Drew is about to
Crack the case of the hidden staircase.
Ticktock.
Tomorrow calls ticktock,
But Im caught up in the mystery,
Cant leave Nancy to solve the case without me.
Turning pages as fast as I can,
Trying to beat the sandman.
Ticktock.
Nancys quest,
A black and white mirror of my own
To find the answers to all my questions
Before the clock stops.
Ticktock.
Poems dont have to rhyme, and
this one doesnt. It happens to have
rhyming words (rest, test, quest) at
the ends of three lines, but theres no
regular pattern of rhymes throughout
the poem. It also doesnt have a regu-
lar meter or line-length pattern. Thats
all fine. Poems that dont follow fixed
patterns are called free verse. (By the
way, a word cant rhyme with itself, so
the repetition of ticktock is not rhyme.)
Tomorrow calls is personification,
since people (not days) call one
another. Sandman is a personification
of sleep.
Nancys quest, / A black and white
mirror of my own is a metaphor.
(The poet leaves out the word is after
quest.) The speaker is comparing
Nancys effort to solve a crime to her
own effort to finish the book.
Ticktock does several things at once.
It appeals to the sense of sound. It
serves as the ending to each stanza.
And it stands for the passing of time.
832 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
WRITING WORKSHOP PART 2
Listening, Speaking, and Viewing
Poetry Reading
or Poetry Slam!
Three thousand years ago, some
Greek guy stood up and read his
poem aloud. He had invented the
public poetry reading. And poets
havent stopped talking ever since.
What Is It?
In modern times, as far as most people were con-
cerned, there were two kinds of poetry readings.
There were stuffy poets reading stuffy poems in
stuffy university lecture halls. And there were
weird hippie-poets reading weird poems in weird
bookstores.
Then along came slams! At a poetry slam, poets
reciteand shout, cry, scream, laugh, chant, and
whispertheir works. Audiences listen attentively
and cheer, boo, clap, hiss, and stompand then
give the poets and poems scores.
The important thing is that, whether its a tradi-
tional reading or a slam, poetry is read out loud to
an audience that wants to listen.
Why Is It Important?
Reading a poem silently is okay. You can enjoy it.
But theres something missing. Poetry, like music, is
meant to be heard. In fact, poetry and music share
many qualitiesbeat, tone, mood, and even melody.
How Do I Do It?
To read poetry aloud, pay attention to these
hints:
Pause at the end of a sentence (a complete
thought). Dont pause at the end of a line just
because its the end of the line.
Analyzing Cartoons
How does reading aloud help
Calvin appreciate the poem?
(And what effect does listen-
ing have on Hobbes?)
Decide ahead of time which important words to
emphasize with your voice.
Vary the speed, volume, and pitch of your voice
so that your poem comes alive for your listeners.
Speak loudly and clearly enough so that every-
one in your audience can hear and understand
you.
Practice reading the poem aloud in private
before you read in front of anyone else.
To be a good listener, follow these hints:
Pay attention to each word the reader says, as
well as to his or her voice and gestures.
Listen for figurative language, rhyme, rhythm,
and other poetry tricks.
Try to connect to the poems theme and message.
Talk It Out In a small group, plan either a poetry
reading or a poetry slam. In either case, youll
need a day, a time, a place, and an audience.
Youll have to figure out how to get the audience
(invitations and posters, for example).
You should also decide how many poets will read,
in what order, and how many poems each will
read. If you do a poetry slam, you also need to
establish rules and a scoring system.
CALVIN AND HOBBES 1993 Watterson. Dist. By UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.
Writing Workshop Part 2 Poem 833
CALVIN & HOBBES 2003 Watterson. Dist. by UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.
READING WORKSHOP 4
Skill Lesson
Connecting
Skills Focus
You will practice using these skills when you
read the following selections:
Growing Pains, p. 838
What Makes Teens Tick? p. 844
Reading
Connecting
Literature
Understanding the use of
figurative language
Identifying and explaining the
effects of figurative language
such as simile, metaphor, and
imagery
Vocabulary
Understanding English as a
changing language
Understanding historical
influences on English
Writing/Grammar
Using correct subject-verb
agreement with indefinite
pronouns
Learn It!
What Is It? When you get involved in what you
are reading, you usually identify with the characters,
situations, or events in the selection. Connecting is
linking what you read to your own experiences or
to other selections youve already read. You may
remember a time when you, a family member,
or a friend had to go through a similar situation.
Or maybe the selection makes you think about
a character from another story that youve read.
Thinking about these connections while you
read makes the selection more meaningful.
Analyzing Art
Link what you know to what you read.
Think about people you know and
situations youve experienced. Then
connect them to characters and
situations in your reading.
834 UNIT 7
Images.com/CORBIS
Objectives (pp. 834835)
Reading Make connections with text
Study Central Visit www.glencoe
.com and click on Study Central to
review connecting.
READING WORKSHOP 4 Connecting
Why Is It Important? Connecting your personal experiences to the
events, characters, or ideas in a selection helps you better understand what
you read. Connections make reading much more interesting and help you
recall information and ideas. For example, if youve performed in front of
people before, you may understand why a character feels nervous before
going on stage for the first time.
How Do I Do It? As you read a selection, ask yourself connecting ques-
tions such as these: Do I know someone like this character? Have I ever felt
the way this character feels? What opinions do I already have about this
topic? What else have I read that reminds me of this situation?
Heres how one student connected this stanza from the poem One, by
James Berry, to his own experiences:z
Nobody can get into my clothes for me
or feel my fall for me, or do my running.
Nobody hears my music for me, either.
This reminds me of the time when I fell during the
soccer game. The rest of the game went on around me.
No one seemed to notice, but it was a big deal to me. I
think thats what the poem is about: what its like to
have my own experiences in life.
Practice It!
Here are some topics that youll find in the reading selections in this
workshop. Make a connection to each one. Think about things youve
read, events in your life, or even people in the news that link to these
topics. In your Learners Notebook, write a connection to each topic.
Family disagreements
Growing up
The brain
Taking chances
Use It!
As you read, think about other reading selections youve read in this
book that might help you connect with the new selections. Write your
new connections and ideas in your Learners Notebook.
Reading Workshop 4 Connecting 835
Getty Images
Meet the Author
Jean Little was born in 1932
with poor eyesight. As she
grew older, her sight improved
enough so that she could learn
to read on her own. When she
was eighteen, a magazine pub-
lished two of her poems. She
remembers her father reading
them aloud. I listened, she
says, and [when] his voice
broke, I knew why I wanted to
be a writer. See page R4 of
the Author Files for more on
Jean Little.
Author Search For more
about Jean Little, go to
www.glencoe.com.
READING WORKSHOP 4 Connecting
Before You Read
Growing Pains
Vocabulary Preview
English Language Coach
Word Origins The meanings of words often change over time, some-
times quite a bit. In the poem you are about to read, someone apologizes.
Apology is an example of a word that has gone through an important
change in meaning.
Apology comes from the Greek apologia, which means a speech made
in defense.
Today, apology means an expression of regret for having done
something wrong.
These two meanings have a certain similarity, but they are quite different.
Today, a person who apologized by defending what he or she had done
would be missing the whole point of making an apology!
The meanings of words also grow. A noun may be created by a word that
started out as a verb, or the other way around. Sometimes new phrases are
created, and they become a permanent part of the language. In the poem
you are about to read, a child is bawled out.
Bawl has been used in English for 600 years. It originally meant to make
a sound like a cow. Today it has still has a very similar meaning: to yell,
bellow, or cry loudly.
To bawl out, meaning to scold loudly was born right here in the United
States in the early part of the 20
th
century.
On Your Own Copy the chart shown below in your Learners Notebook.
Then fill in the Old Meaning and Todays Meaning for the two remain-
ing words. (The oldest meaning for a word is usually the first one given
in a dictionary entry.)
Word Old Meaning Todays Meaning
mail (n.) a bag or wallet something sent through
the postal service
meat (n.)
awful (adj.)
Jean Lit tle
836 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Courtesy Penguin Books, Toronto
Objectives (pp. 836839)
Reading Make connections with text
Literature Identify literary devices:
figurative language
Vocabulary Explore word origins
READING WORKSHOP 4 Connecting
Skills Preview
Key Reading Skill: Connecting
The title of the poem Growing Pains refers to grow-
ing up. As you read the poem, connect the events in
the poem to
things that have happened that made you realize
you were growing up.
other poems and stories about growing up.
Write to Learn In your Learners Notebook, write
about three or four events that made you realize you
were growing up. Refer to your examples as you read
the poem to help you connect to it.
Key Literary Element: Figurative Language
Figurative language is imaginative language used by
writers for descriptive effect. Descriptive language makes
the reading selection more interesting and colorful.
Some examples of figurative language are simile and
metaphor. A simile uses the words like or as to com-
pare unlike things. When my brother gets angry, hes
as loud as thunder is a simile.
A metaphor also compares two unlike things, but it
does not use like or as. In a metaphor, one thing is
described as if it were another. That science test was a
piece of cake is a metaphor.
Use these tips to help you identify and understand
similes and metaphors.
Look for comparisons.
How are the two things similar? How are they different?
Think about why the author would make the
comparison.
How does the comparison help the author explain
his or her idea?
Look for sensory details.
To which of the five senses do the details appeal?
Write It Down Use figurative language to write a
sentence about growing up. Be sure to use the tips
above to create a simile or metaphor.
Get Ready to Read
Connect to the Reading
Growing Pains describes a situation in which a
mother and child get angry with each other. Think
about how you feel when you are angry or when
someone is angry with you.
Partner Talk With a partner, talk about how you felt
when you and a close relative or friend were angry
with each other. Talk about how you responded.
Build Background
The poem you are about to read is Growing Pains.
The term growing pains has more than one
meaning. Some children feel physical pain in their
legs, perhaps because the bones grow longer and
stretch the muscles. And some children feel emo-
tional pain or stress as they get older and accept
more responsibilities.
The poems speaker is probably your age. The poet,
Jean Little, was that age in the 1940s. It seems that
disagreements between kids and parents have been
part of growing up for a long time.
Set Purposes for Reading
Read the poem Growing Pains
to find out how the speaker feels about growing up.
Set Your Own Purpose What would you like to
learn from the poem to help you answer the Big
Question? Write your own purpose on the Growing
Pains page of Foldable 7.
Keep Moving
Use these skills as you read the following
selection.
Interactive Literary Elements Handbook
To review or learn more about the literary
elements, go to www.glencoe.com.
Growing Pains 837
READING WORKSHOP 4
Mother got mad at me tonight and bawled me out.
She said I was lazy and self-centered.
She said my room was a pigsty.
She said she was sick and tired of forever nagging but
I gave her no choice. 1
Practice the Skills
1 Key Literary Element
Figurative Language A meta-
phor describes one thing as if it
were another. Find the metaphor
in these five lines.
Painting of a Young Girl,
1993. Alan Byrne. Oil on
canvas, 53.3 x 43.2 cm.
Private Collection.
by Jean Little
838 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Bridgeman Art Library
READING WORKSHOP 4
Practice the Skills
5
She went on and on until I began to cry.
I hate crying in front of people. It was horrible. 2
I got away, though, and went to bed and it was over.
I knew things would be okay in the morning;
Stiff with being sorry, too polite, but okay.
10
I was glad to be by myself. 3
Then she came to my room and apologized.
She explained, too.
Things had gone wrong all day at the store.
She hadnt had a letter from my sister and she was worried.
15
Dad had also done something to hurt her.
She even told me about that.
Then she cried.
I kept saying, Its all right. Dont worry.
And wishing shed stop.
20
Im just a kid.
I can forgive her getting mad at me. Thats easy.
But her sadness . . .
I dont know what to do with her sadness.
I yell at her often, You dont understand me!
25
But I dont want to have to understand her.
Thats expecting too much. 4 5
2 Key Reading Skill
Connecting How do you feel
when someone is angry with
you? How do you make yourself
feel better?
3 English Language Coach
Word Origins Originally,
polite meant polished, as a
stone might be. Later it came
to mean elegant and sophisti-
cated. Now it means having
good manners. What connec-
tion do you see between one
meaning and the next?
4 Reviewing Skills
Interpreting What line shows
the speakers sympathy toward
her mother? Which line expresses
the speakers helplessness?
5
Do you think the speaker is
ready to take on adult responsi-
bilities? Write your answer on
the Growing Pains page of
Foldable 7. Your response will
help you complete the Unit
Challenge later.
Growing Pains 839
After You Read
READING WORKSHOP 4 Connecting
Growing Pains
Answering the
1. After reading the poem, what are your thoughts about your
relationships and growing up?
2. Recall How does the speaker feel just after her mother yells at her?
TIP Right There
3. Recall What are the feelings the speaker experiences?
TIP Think and Search
4. Summarize What events and feelings would you include in a short
summary of this poem?
TIP Think and Search
Critical Thinking
5. Infer What does the speaker suggest actually caused her mother to yell
at her?
TIP Author and Me
6. Infer The speaker says that shes upset about her mothers sadness.
What else does the speaker suggest is upsetting to her?
TIP Author and Me
7. Evaluate The poems speaker says that she does not want to have
to understand her mothers feelings. What do you think about this
statement? Explain your answer.
TIP On My Own
Write About Your Reading
Has a younger brother or sister or a good friend ever asked you for advice?
Do you enjoy giving people words of wisdom?
Imagine that the speaker of this poem has sent the poem to your school
advice column, and you are the person who gives the advice. What advice
would you give to the speaker of the poem?
Write a three paragraph response to the speaker. Try to give her advice
related to each stanza of the poem.
840 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Painting of a Young Girl, 1993. Alan Byrne. Oil on canvas, 53.3X43.2 cm. Private Collection. Bridgeman Art Library
Objectives (pp. 840841)
Reading Make connections with text
Literature Identify literary devices:
figurative language
Vocabulary Explore word origins
Grammar Use correct subject-verb agree-
ment: indefinite pronouns
READING WORKSHOP 4 Connecting
Skills Review
Key Reading Skill: Connecting
8. What connections did you make while reading
Growing Pains? Give an example of one of the
following:
a connection to an event in your own life
a connection to another story or poem
a connection to a historical or current event
Key Literary Element: Figurative
Language
9. What forms of figurative language do you see in
Growing Pains? Give one example and explain
what it means.
10. Why do poets use figurative language?
11. How do you think the authors use of figurative
language affects your interpretation of the poem?
Reviewing Skills: Interpreting
12. Does the speaker in the poem think that she
deserved to be bawled out? How can you tell?
Vocabulary Check
English Language Coach The dictionary, any dic-
tionary, is nothing more than a record of how people
spell and pronounce words, and what they use them
to mean. So dictionaries change as language changes.
Words enter the language; words drop out of the lan-
guage; words get new meanings.
13. What meaning of mad did the speaker use in
lines 1 and 21? What does a dictionary record
as the words original meaning? How might the
word have developed its newer meaning?
14. What meaning of kid did the speaker use in line
20? What does a dictionary record as the words
original meaning? How might the word have
developed its newer meaning?
15. The word okay didnt exist at all before 1839.
What can you find out about the history of this
word by looking in a dictionary?
Grammar Link: Agreement
with Indenite Pronouns
Indefinite pronouns do not refer to a particular per-
son, place, or thing. Certain indefinite pronouns are
always singular, or equal to he, she, or it.
anybody every nobody
anyone everybody no one
anything everyone nothing
each everything somebody
either neither someone
See if you can make the subject and verb agree in the
sentences below. (Use the chart for help.)
Everybody (was, were) cold.
(Everybody is singular, or equal to he, she, or it. So
the right verb form is was.)
Each of the students (has, have) a book.
(Subjects and predicates cannot be in prepositional
phrases. Omit the phrase.)
Each of the students (has, have) a book.
(The subject is each, so the right verb form is has.)
Grammar Practice
On a separate piece of paper, copy each sentence
below. Underline the subject of each sentence once
and the correct verb form twice.
16. (Is, Are) somebody able to lend us money?
17. Everything in those stores (is, are) expensive.
18. Neither of us (has, have) money for clothes.
Writing Application Look again at the Write About
Your Reading assignment you completed. Fix any sub-
ject-verb mistakes you made.
Web Activities For eFlashcards, Selection
Quick Checks, and other Web activities, go to
www.glencoe.com.
Growing Pains 841
Meet the Author
Claudia Wallis wanted to
become a scientist or a doctor
when she was a kid. Instead,
she became a writer and edi-
tor at Time magazine. As a
reporter, she covered medi-
cine and science for Time.
Then she became the manag-
ing editor of Time for Kids.
Wallis says that the best thing
about her job is that she loves
constantly learning new
things, seeing fantastic pic-
tures from all over the world
and universe.
Author Search For more about
Claudia Wallis, go to www.glencoe
.com.
READING WORKSHOP 4 Connecting
Before You Read
What Makes Teens Tick?
Vocabulary Preview
bland (bland) adj. dull; unexciting (p. 844) The walls were a bland white.
adolescence (ad uh LES uns) n. the period between childhood and
adulthood (p. 844) Scientists used to believe that the brain was fully
developed before adolescence.
peer (peer) v. to look closely (p. 845) Modern technology allows scientists
to peer inside the brain.
abnormality (ab nor MAL uh tee) n. anything that is not normal or usual
(p. 845) The doctor said there was no abnormality in the boys brain.
craving (KRAY ving) n. a strong desire or longing (p. 848)
A craving for adventure can cause a teenager to take risks.
Group Activity Take turns using each word correctly in sentences.
English Language Coach
Language Changes and Growth There are many ways in which the
meanings of words change and grow. A few ways follow.
Widening or Narrowing: A meaning may get wider and begin to
include more than it did originally. Or a meaning may get more narrow.
Figurative Use: Many words keep their original meaning while also
developing a figurative meaning. If the figurative meaning is used often
enough, it becomes one of the dictionary definitions of the word.
Association: A word may develop such a strong connotation that it
comes to actually mean what it was once associated with.
Word Old Meaning New/Additonal Meaning Type of Change
fever a high temperature
from illness
a state of nervous
excitement
widening
girl any young person a young female person narrowing
crane a large, wading
bird with a long
neck
a machine with a long
moveable arm
figurative use
beads prayers small objects that can be
strung together
association (due
to use of prayer
beads)
On Your Own What do you think is a most likely explanation for how or
why the following meanings developed?
from ear what one uses to hear to ear of corn
from fishy (like a fish) to fishy (suspicious)
842 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Objectives (pp. 842849)
Reading Make connections with text
Literature Identify literary devices:
figurative language
Vocabulary Explore language growth
READING WORKSHOP 4 Connecting
Skills Preview
Key Reading Skill: Connecting
What Makes Teens Tick? suggests that some of the
changes in the way teenagers act are related to physi-
cal changes. Have you noticed any changes in the way
you think or act?
Write to Learn In your Learners Notebook, write
about a teenager that you know or have read about who
went through many changes when he or she became a
teenager. How did this person act? How did the people
who knew the teenager react to his or her changes?
Key Literary Element: Figurative
Language
Prose writers and poets use similes and metaphors to
compare things in fresh ways. A simile compares by
using the words like or as. A metaphor, on the other
hand, compares two things without using like or as.
The sheets were as cold as ice cubes.
Sheilas room is a disaster zone.
Use these tips to help you find and understand similes
and metaphors.
Look for comparisons that use like or as.
Think about why the writer makes the comparison.
Does it make the description more interesting?
Look for descriptions or comparisons that arent
exactly true.
If the comparison isnt actually true, its probably a
metaphor or simile.
Ask yourself what the items being compared have
in common.
Get Ready to Read
Connect to the Reading
Scientists are studying how changes in peoples brains
affect how they think and act. Some scientists think that
chemical changes in teenagers brains might make them
more likely to take risks around their friends. Do you
ever take risks around your friends that you wouldnt
take if you were alone?
Partner Talk With a partner, talk about why teenagers
are more likely to take risks than younger or older people.
Build Background
In What Makes Teens Tick? youll learn about how
your brain changes as you get older.
The brain has several regions. Two of the most
important are the cerebral cortex, where thought
takes place, and the cerebellum, which controls
movement and balance.
The brain is made of cells called neurons. Neurons
carry messages.
Neurons connect to one another at meeting points
called synapses. Chemical and electrical reactions
at the synapses pass messages from one neuron to
another.
Set Purposes for Reading
Read What Makes Teens Tick?
to find out how processes in the developing brain
make young people act different ways.
Set Your Own Purpose What would you like to
learn from the article to help you answer the Big
Question? Then write your own purpose for reading
on the What Makes Teens Tick page of Foldable 7.
Keep Moving
Use these skills as you read the following
selection.
Interactive Literary Elements Handbook
To review or learn more about the literary
elements, go to www.glencoe.com.
What Makes Teens Tick? 843
READING WORKSHOP 4
F
ive young men in sneakers and jeans troop into a
waiting room at the National Institutes of Health
(NIH)
1
in Bethesda, Maryland. They drape them-
selves all over the chairs, spreading out backpacks, a
DVD player, and a laptop loaded with computer games.
Their presence adds a buzz to the bland hospital setting.
Twins Corey and Skyler Mann, 16, and their big brothers
Anthony and Brandon, 18, who are also twins, plus oldest
brother Christopher, 22, are here to have their heads exam-
ined. Literally. The five brothers from Orem, Utah, are
volunteers for a major study thats been going on since
1991. Its goal: to determine how the brain develops from
childhood into adolescence and on into early adulthood. 1 1 Key Literary Element
Figurative Language The
writer very helpfully tells us shes
using a figurative expression lit-
erally. What would be the com-
mon figurative meaning of have
their heads examined?
Developing brains and hormones help
shape teen behavior
By CLAUDIA WALLIS
What Makes
Teens
Tick?
Vocabulary
bland (bland) adj. dull; unexciting
adolescence (ad uh LES uns) n. the period between childhood and adulthood
1. The National Institutes of Health is a U.S. government agency in charge of carrying out and
supporting medical research.
Making mistakes
is part of how the
brain grows.
844 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
2. A brainchild is a product of ones creative imagination. Magnetic resonance imaging uses
magnets to produce high-quality computer images of the bodys internal organs.
Vocabulary
peer (peer) v. to look closely
abnormality (ab nor MAL uh tee) n. anything that is not normal or usual
READING WORKSHOP 4
This project is the brainchild of Jay Giedd (Geed), a doctor
at the National Institute of Mental Health. Giedd has spent
many years using magnetic resonance imaging
2
(MRI) to take
pictures of brains to peer inside the heads of thousands of
kids and teenagers. For each volunteer, he creates a unique
photo album. Giedd takes images of each volunteers brain
every two years. Each photo album is a record of the brains
changes and growth.
Before Giedds studies, most scientists believed that the
brain was fully developed by age 12. However, Giedd has
proved that the brain continues to change well past age 12.
In fact, it doesnt fully develop until age 25. Researchers now
are looking at how these later changes might help explain
some teen behaviors such as excitability, risk taking, and
rule breaking.
In recent years, Giedd has shifted his focus to twins, which
is why the Manns are such exciting subjects. Most brain
development seems to be genetic. Other, smaller changes in
the brain, however, are inuenced by experience and the
environment. Twins start out with identical or similar genetic
codes. But then experiences take them along different paths. 2
By studying twins, Giedd hopes to separate the inuences of
genes and experiences in the development of the teen brain.
Eventually, he hopes to nd, for instance, that Anthonys plan
to become a pilot and Brandons plan to study law will cause
brain differences that can be seen on future MRIs.
Throughout the afternoon, the Mann brothers take turns
completing various brain tests. Then they head downstairs
to get their MRIs. Anthony stretches out on the examining
table and slides his head into the MRI machines giant
magnetic ring.
The brain of each brother is scanned three times. The rst
scan is a quick survey that lasts one minute. The second scan
lasts two minutes and shows any damage or abnormality.
2 English Language Coach
Language Growth Twins, says
the article, take different paths.
Does one go off on a bicycle
path while the other takes a
footpath? Or can this statement
be explained by a growth in the
original meaning of path as a
narrow trail?
What Makes Teens Tick? 845
3 Key Literary Element
Figurative Language The
comparison each slice as thin as
a dime is literal, not figurative.
This is not a simile because each
slice really is as thin as a dime.
4 English Language Coach
Language Growth The original
meaning of branch is a limb of
a tree. Why do you suppose this
word came to be used as a verb
meaning to grow out in differ-
ent directions?
5 Key Reading Skill
Connecting Think about a per-
son who is good at a particular
activityan athlete or a musician,
for example. In your Learners
Notebook, describe how this
person performs. Given what
youve read, what do you think
this person might have done
during the second phase of
brain development?
3. A trauma is a serious injury or shock.
READING WORKSHOP 4
The third scan is 10 minutes long and shows the greatest
detail. Giedd watches as Anthonys brain appears on a
computer screen. The machine scans 124 slices of the brain,
each slice as thin as a dime. It takes twenty hours of computer
time to process the images. 3
Under Construction
Before birth, nerve cells in the brain undergo a phase in which
they multiply and grow rapidly. Then the brain gets rid of
cells that arent needed. Giedds studies show that brain cells
undergo a second phase of change that starts in childhood and
lasts until the early twenties. Unlike the earlier phase, which
changes the number of nerve cells, the second one changes
the number of connections between the nerve cells.
When a child is between 6 and 12 years old, nerve cells
become bushier. Each nerve cell branches out to other nerve
cells. These branches carry signals between the cells. This
process peaks when girls are about 11 and boys are about
12. Then some of the branches are slowly thinned out over
several years. 4
At the same time, a fatty layer covers branches of the
nerve cells that remain. With each passing year, the fatty
coverings thicken, much like tree rings. During this time,
a persons brain has fewer but faster connections. Its a
trade-off. The brain becomes more efcient but is probably
losing its potential for learning and its ability to recover
from trauma.
3
Most scientists believe that genes as well as experience
cause changes in the brain during this second phase of brain
development. One scientist, Gerald Edelman, describes the
process as survival of connections that are most used. The
cells and connections that are used the most survive and
thrive, while those that arent used shrink and die. So how
you spend your time during this phase may be very
important. Research shows, for instance, that practicing piano
quickly thickens the branches of nerve cells in parts of the
brain that control the ngers. 5
846 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
THE MANN BOYS: From left, Brandon,18; Skyler, 16; Corey, 16; and Anthony, 18
READING WORKSHOP 4
Giedds research suggests that the cerebellum, a part of the
brain that controls both physical and mental activities, reacts
to experience. Giedd hopes his studies of twins will provide
more information about the second phase that occurs in the
teen brain. Were looking at what [teens] eat, how they spend
their timeis it video games or sports? Now the fun begins,
says Giedd.
Brain Development and Behavior
Is there a link between the changing brain structure of teens,
hormones, and teen behavior? About the time that the teen
brain goes through the second phase of change, the body is
also dealing with an attack of hormones. Hormones are
chemicals that speed up or slow down cell processes. Some
hormones that are very active in the brain affect mood and
excitability. 6
The parts of the brain responsible for things like thrill
seeking are getting turned on in big ways around [this
C
h
r
i
s

U
s
h
e
r
6 Key Literary Element
Figurative Language The
writer uses a metaphoran
attack of hormonesto describe
the release of hormones in teens
bodies. What does this metaphor
tell you about the release of
hormones?
What Makes Teens Tick? 847
Chris Usher
Vocabulary
craving (KRAY ving) n. a strong desire or longing
READING WORKSHOP 4
time], says Temple University psychologist Laurence
Steinberg. A craving for adventure often brings about the
need for exploration. Teens might feel a sense of excitement
about leaving home and nding their own way in the world.
But these urges can also place teens at risk because the parts
of the brain responsible for making good decisions are still
developing. But Steinberg thinks the proof isnt there yet. In
all likelihood, [teen] behavior is changing because the brain is
changing, he says. More and more psychologists, however,
are trying to get that proof.
Steinberg, for example, has been studying why people take
risks. In an experiment using a driving-simulation game, he
studied teens and adults as they decided whether to run a
yellow light. Both teens and adults made safe choices when
playing alone. But teens started to take more risks in the
presence of their friends, whereas adults over age 20 didnt
show much change in their behavior.
Other studies of the teen brain and behavior are ongoing.
Its nice to know, however, that teen behavior is not just a
matter of strong will. Theres a debate over how much
conscious
4
control kids have, Giedd says. Making mistakes
is part of how the brain grows. But dont be surprised when
adults offer advice. Theyre trying only to make up for what
the teen brain still lacks. 7
Updated 2005 from TIME, May 10, 2004
7
What does this article suggest
about the relationship between
brain development and teen
behavior? Do you think this arti-
cle tells the whole story? Discuss
with a partner, and write your
answer on the What Makes
Teens Tick page of Foldable 7.
Your response will help you
complete the Unit Challenge
later.
4. Conscious behavior is behavior that a person is aware of and has control over.
848 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
READING WORKSHOP 4
C
o
r
p
u
s
c
a
llo
s
u
m

Basal
ganglia
Amygdala
Corpus Callosum
This is thought to be involved in problem solving and creativity. It is a
bundle of nerve fibers that connects the left and right sides of the brain.
During the teen years, these nerve fibers thicken and handle information
more and more efficiently.
Inside the Adolescent Brain
Prefrontal
Cortex
Located just behind the fore-
head, this part of the brain is
the center of decision making
and judgment. It grows dur-
ing the preteen years. Then it
shrinks as nerve connections
are thinned out during the teen
years. This is the last part of the
brain to develop.
Basal Ganglia
These four parts help the
brain prioritize information.
They are connected to the
prefrontal cortex and active
in small and large motor
movements. While they
are growing, preteens may
benefit from exposure to
music and sports.
Cerebellum
This area plays a role in physical coordination and
may also regulate some thought processes. It sup-
ports activities of higher learning like mathematics
and music. New research shows that it changes a
lot during the teen years, increasing the number of
nerve cells and their connections.
Amygdala
This is the emotional center of the brain. In dealing
with emotional information, teens tend to rely heav-
ily on the amygdala. Adults depend on the sensible
prefrontal cortex, which is underdeveloped in teens.
This may explain why some teens react more impul-
sively than adults.
P
r
e
f
r
o
n
t
a
l

c
o
r
t
e
x
D
i
a
g
r
a
m
:

J
o
e

L
e
r
t
o
l
a

P
h
o
t
o
:

T
r
u
j
i
l
l
o
-
P
a
u
m
i
e
r
/
T
h
e

I
m
a
g
e

B
a
n
k
/
G
e
t
t
y

I
m
a
g
e
s
C
e
r
e
b
e
l
l
u
m
What Makes Teens Tick? 849
Diagram: Joe Lertola Photo: Trujillo-Paumier/The Image Bank/Getty Images
After You Read
READING WORKSHOP 4 Connecting
What Makes Teens Tick?
Answering the
1. After reading this article, what new thoughts and ideas do you have
about what makes you behave the way you do?
2. Recall When does the second phase of brain development begin?
TIP Right There
3. Recall Why does Dr. Giedd study twins?
TIP Right There
Critical Thinking
4. Infer Suppose that someone studied painting and drawing during his
or her teen years. What do you expect would happen to the branches
of nerve cells in the visual area of this persons brain?
TIP Think and Search
5. Infer After reading the article, do you think that a teenager is more
likely to behave badly when alone or with friends? Explain.
TIP Think and Search
6. Connect Giedds studies show that brain development continues
through teenage and young adult years. How could Giedds research
affect when and how you plan to learn those skills?
TIP Author and Me
Write About Your Reading
Design a cover for the issue of Time that contains What Makes Teens Tick?
The cover should have a full-page illustration or picture, as well as text (one
or two sentences) to catch peoples attention.
Step 1: Decide what the important ideas in the story are. What ideas
connect the sections of the story? List three or four main topics.
Step 2: Identify a visual image that could represent each topic you
listed. Does your image make it clear what the article is about?
Step 3: Choose the two most striking images. Is it possible to com-
bine them into a single cover illustration?
Write to Learn Use your notes to draw a cover illustration. Write one
or two sentences that tell what the article is about. Make sure that your
sentences capture your readers interest.
C
h
r
i
s

U
s
h
e
r
850 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Chris Usher
Objectives (pp. 850851)
Reading Make connections with text
Literature Identify literary devices:
figurative language
Vocabulary Explore language growth
Grammar Use correct subject-verb agree-
ment: collective nouns
READING WORKSHOP 4 Connecting
Skills Review
Key Reading Lesson Skill: Connecting
7. Giedds studies show that hormones turn on
parts of the brain responsible for thrill-seeking
behavior in teenagers. But the parts of the brain
responsible for good decision-making arent fully
developed yet. Does your experience with teenag-
ers support or oppose this idea? Explain.
Key Literary Element: Figurative
Language
8. The article says about the twins, Their presence
adds a buzz to the bland hospital setting. What
type of figurative language does the author use in
this sentence?
9. In the sentence quoted above, what is the writer
comparing the twins to?
Vocabulary Check
Choose the best word from the list to complete each
sentence below. Rewrite each sentence with the cor-
rect word in place.
peer adolescence bland
abnormality craving
10. The decorations were too to catch the kids
attention.
11. The doctor was concerned about the he
found in his tests.
12. Once he reached , he knew he would become
an adult soon.
13. I get a for cranberries every fall.
14. Ryan used a telescope to at the strange man
on the street.
15. English Language Coach Look at the following
words from the article:
sneakers jeans laptop pilot
Guess which two words had different meanings
in 1850 than their most common meanings today.
Guess which two words didnt even exist then.
Grammar Link: Agreement
with Collective Nouns
A collective noun names a group.
audience faculty
jury class
A collective noun is considered to be singular when it
names a group that acts as a unit. A collective noun is
considered to be plural when it refers to the members
of a group acting as individuals.
Singular Collective: The class is taking a test.
(Everyone in the class is doing the same thing. Since
the group is acting as one unit, the collective noun
class is singular.)
Plural collective: The jury do not agree.
(The members of the jury are acting as individuals.
Since the group is not acting as one unit, the collec-
tive noun jury is plural.)
Grammar Practice
On a separate piece of paper, copy each sentence
below. Underline the subject of each sentence once
and the correct verb form twice.
16. The committee (is, are) arguing about the issue.
17. The faculty (meets, meet) every Wednesday.
18. The orchestra (is, are) beginning the first song.
Writing Application As you write the text for
your magazine cover, be sure that your subjects
and verbs agree.
Web Activities For eFlashcards, Selection
Quick Checks, and other Web activities, go to
www.glencoe.com.
What Makes Teens Tick? 851
COMPARING LITERATURE WORKSHOP
Skills Focus
Youll use these skills as you read and
compare the following selections:
The Womens 400 Meters, p. 855
To James, p. 856
Slam, Dunk, & Hook, p. 858
Reading
Making connections across
texts
Comparing/contrasting
figurative language in
different texts
Literature
Identifying and explaining
the effects of figurative
language in poetry
Writing
Write using comparison
and contrast
You compare things by thinking about how theyre alike
and different. For example, you know that dogs and cats
are alike and different. Both are pets. Both come in differ-
ent colors. But you wouldnt take your cat for a run in the
park, and you wouldnt expect your dog to purr.
In literature you make comparisons too. You look at impor-
tant elements, such as language and theme. Thinking about
similarities and differences helps you understand how dif-
ferent works of literature are connected.
How to Compare Literature:
Figurative Language
When you read the three poems in this workshop, youll com-
pare the way each poem uses figurative language.
Remember that figurative language is imaginative language
that writers use to make descriptions more meaningful.
Keep an eye out for figures of speech, or expressions, such
as similes and metaphors.
A simile uses the words like or as to compare two unlike
things.
Tom slid into the room like a snake.
A metaphor compares two unlike things but doesnt use
like or as. It describes one thing as if it were another.
Toms a snake!
Also look for other language that helps the reader see,
hear, feel, smell, or taste what the writer describes.
by Yusef Komunyakaa
&
&
by Frank Horne
by Lillian Morrison
852 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Objectives (pp. 852853)
Reading Compare and contrast: figurative
language
COMPARING LITERATURE WORKSHOP
Get Ready to Compare
As you read, keep track of figurative language using a web like the one
below. Copy this web into your Learners Notebook, and use it to take notes
as you read. Make a separate web for each poem. In the center circle, write
the title of the poem. In each outer circle, write an example of figurative lan-
guage from the poem. Later, youll use your notes to write your comparison.
Even if you dont realize it, you come across figurative
language all the time. One place youll find it is in
advertising. An ad for a brand of shampoo may tell
you that your hair will smell like a spring garden when
you use the product.
Think about the advertisements that you have seen
recentlyin print or on radio or TV. Choose one that
contains figurative language. Discuss your chosen ad
with a partner. What effect is the figurative language
meant to have on a reader or viewer? Summarize
your ideas in your Learners Notebook.
Use Your Comparison
Title of Poem
Example of
Figurative Language
Example of
Figurative Language
Example of
Figurative Language
Example of
Figurative Language
Comparing Literature Workshop 853
Meet the Authors
Full-time author and poet
Lillian Morrison is a sports
fan who has written collec-
tions of poems about sports.
See page R5 of the Author
Files for more on Lillian
Morrison.
Frank Horne once coached a
high school track team. At
the beginning of his writing
career, he told other African
American poets, Your task is
definite, grand, and fine.
Yusef Komunyakaa uses his
Louisiana childhood and
experiences in Vietnam as
resources for his poetry. A
winner of the Pulitzer Prize
for Poetry in 1994, he writes
poems on many subjects.
See page R4 of the Author
Files for more on Yusef
Komunyakaa.
Author Search For more about
Lillian Morrison, Frank Horne,
and Yusef Komunyakaa, go to
www.glencoe.com.
Before You Read
COMPARING LITERATURE WORKSHOP
The Womens 400 Meters,
To James, and Slam,
Dunk, & Hook
Vocabulary Preview
insignia (in SIG nee uh) n. a mark or sign that indicates rank, authority, or
honor (p. 858) The insignia showed that Mercury was the gods messenger.
feint (faynt) v. to move in a way thats meant to trick an opponent (p. 859)
The players attempt to feint to the outside didnt fool anyone.
English Language Coach
Roots A root is the main part of a word that carries the main meaning.
Other pieces can be attached to a root to change its meaning, or a root
can stand alone.
The root phon means sound or voice.
A telephone is an instrument for sending voices.
The root align means to arrange in a line.
Align is a root word that can stand alone.
Get Ready to Read
Connect to the Reading
Is there one sport that you like to play more than anything else? What is it?
Why do you like it? How do you feel before, during, and after you play?
Build Background
The poems in this workshop are about track and basketball.
Track-and-field events are the oldest organized sports. In races like the
400-meter dash, runners begin in a crouch. When the race begins, the
runners leap into a full stride and run at top speeds to the finish line.
James Naismith invented basketball in 1891. He hung two peach baskets
on opposite sides of a gym and used a soccer ball. The rules he made up
form the basis of the game today.
Set Purposes for Reading
Read these poems to find out why athletes love to play.
Set Your Own Purpose What would you like to learn from the poems
to help you answer the Big Question? Write your own purpose on the
Comparing Literature page of Foldable 7.
854 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Objectives (pp. 854859)
Reading Compare and contrast:
figurative language
Vocabulary Use structural analysis:
roots
COMPARING LITERATURE WORKSHOP
1 Comparing Literature
Figurative Language What is
the simile in this stanza? Look for
the word like. What two things is
the poet comparing?
2
What does the bright tiger
symbolize? Write your answer
in Foldable 7.
by Lillian Morrison
1 Someone who is skittish is restlessly active or nervous.
8 Someone who is careening is rushing and swerving as if out of control.
Practice the Skills
Skittish,
*
they ex knees, drum heels and
shiver at the starting line
waiting the gun
5
to pour them over the stretch
like a breaking wave. 1
Bang! theyre off
careening
*
down the lanes,
each chased by her own bright tiger. 2
The Womens 400 Meters 855
BONGARTS/SportsChrome
COMPARING LITERATURE WORKSHOP
3 Comparing Literature
Figurative Language
Descriptive words help you
visualize the runner. When
he flung his body, he threw it
forcefully. What other words on
this page help you visualize the
runner running?
by Frank Horne
9 To catapult is to leap or hurl oneself, as if from a giant slingshot.
13 To lurch is to move forward suddenly in a jerky manner; stagger.
Practice the Skills
Do you remember
how you won
that last race . . . ?
how you ung your body
5
at the start . . . 3
how your spikes
ripped the cinders
in the stretch . . .
how you catapulted
*
10
through the tape . . .
do you remember . . . ?
Dont you think
I lurched
*
with you
out of those starting holes . . . ?
856 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Spencer Rowell/FPG
COMPARING LITERATURE WORKSHOP
Practice the Skills
15
Dont you think
my sinews
*
tightened
at those rst
few strides . . .
and when you ew into the stretch
20
was not all my thrill
of a thousand races
in your blood . . . ?
At your nal drive
through the nish line
25
did not my shout
tell of the
triumphant ecstasy
*
of victory . . . ? 4
Live
30
as I have taught you
to run, Boy
its a short dash. 5 6
Dig your starting holes
deep and rm
35
lurch out of them
into the straightaway
with all the power
that is in you
look straight ahead
40
to the nish line
think only of the goal
run straight
run high
run hard
45
save nothing
and nish
with an ecstatic burst
that carries you
hurtling
*
50
through the tape
to victory . . . 7
4 English Language Coach
Roots The Latin root vict means
to conquer. Which word in the
first stanza contains the root vict?
What does the word mean?
5 Comparing Literature
Figurative Language How
does the speaker tell the boy to
live? Does the poet use a simile
or metaphor? How can you tell?
6 Comparing Literature
Figurative Language The
metaphor in line 32 compares it
to a short dash. What two things
is the poet talking about?
7
In the last stanza, what advice
does the speaker give the boy
about how to achieve his goals?
Write your answer in Foldable 7.
16 Sinews (also called tendons) are cords of tissue that connect muscles to bones.
27 Triumphant ecstasy is a state of overwhelming joy or delight as a result of success or winning.
49 If you are hurtling, you are moving quickly or forcefully.
To James 857
Blair Seitz/Photo Researchers
COMPARING LITERATURE WORKSHOP
Fast breaks. Lay ups. With Mercurys
*
Insignia on our sneakers,
We outmaneuvered
*
the footwork
Of bad angels. Nothing but a hot
5
Swish of strings like silk 8
Ten feet out. In the roundhouse
Labyrinth
*
our bodies
Created, we could almost
Last forever, poised in midair
10
Like storybook sea monsters.
A high note hung there
Practice the Skills
8 Comparing Literature
Figurative Language Theres
a simile in this line. What two
things does the poet compare?
by Yusef Komunyakaa
1 In Roman mythology, Mercury was the messenger of the gods. He wore sandals that had small
wings on them.
3 If you outmaneuvered (owt muh NOO vurd) someone, you used clever movements to defeat
that person.
7 Here, roundhouse refers to wide, swinging arm movements, and a labyrinth is a confusing,
complicated arrangement.
Vocabulary
insignia (in SIG nee uh) n. a mark or sign that indicates rank, authority, or honor
858 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Carl Schneider/Gamma-Liaison International
COMPARING LITERATURE WORKSHOP
Practice the Skills
A long second. Off
The rim. Wed corkscrew
Up & dunk balls that exploded
15
The skullcap of hope & good
Intention. Bug-eyed, lanky, 9
All hands & feet . . . sprung rhythm.
We were metaphysical
*
when girls
Cheered on the sidelines.
20
Tangled up in a falling,
Muscles were a bright motor
Double-ashing to the metal hoop
Nailed to our oak. 10
When Sonny Boys mama died
25
He played nonstop all day, so hard
Our backboard splintered.
Glistening with sweat, we jibed
*
& rolled the ball off our
Fingertips. Trouble
30
Was there slapping a blackjack
*
Against an open palm.
Dribble, drive to the inside, feint,
& glide like a sparrow hawk. 11
Lay ups. Fast breaks.
35
We had moves we didnt know
We had. Our bodies spun
On swivels of bone & faith,
Through a lyric slipknot
Of joy, & we knew we were
40
Beautiful & dangerous. 12
9 English Language Coach
Roots The root tend means
to stretch toward. Intention
is from this root. It means an
expected goal or something
that one plans to do.
10 Comparing Literature
Figurative Language What
does the metaphor in line 21
compare muscles to?
11 Comparing Literature
Figurative Language A player
is compared to a sparrow hawk,
a bird that flies at high speeds
and changes directions quickly.
How does this simile help
you visualize the players
movements?
12
This poem suggests different rea-
sons that people play basketball.
Describe two of these reasons.
Write your answer in Foldable 7.
Your response will help you com-
plete the Unit Challenge.
18 Here, metaphysical means beyond the limits of the physical world.
27 To jibe is to be in harmony with one another.
30 A blackjack is a exible, leather-covered weapon, used to hit an opponent.
Vocabulary
feint (faynt) v. to move in a way thats meant to trick an opponent
Slam, Dunk, & Hook 859
COMPARING LITERATURE WORKSHOP
After You Read
Vocabulary Check
Write the correct word for each definition.
insignia feint
1. to move in a way thats meant to trick an opponent
2. a mark or sign that indicates rank, authority, or honor
3. English Language Coach The word memory comes from the Latin
root mem, meaning to bring to mind. Name another word that
comes from the root mem. What does that word mean?
Comparing Literature
Figurative Language
The following sentences may contain figurative language. Some sentences
do not. If a sentence contains a figure of speech, identify it as a simile or a
metaphor. Write No if the sentence doesnt contain a figure of speech.
4. They forgot their troubles as they played.
5. That test was a piece of cake.
6. She jumped up and down, flapping her arms like a chicken.
7. James felt so worried that he was unable to sleep.
8. The two front-runners were as confident as gold medalists.
9. Sweat poured down his face like a rushing river.
10. She was a doll for watching my cat.
&
&
860 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
(t) BONGARTS/SportsChrome, (b) Carl Schneider/Gamma-Liaison International
Objectives (pp. 860861)
Reading Compare and contrast: figurative
language
Writing Respond to literature: write about
figurative language
COMPARING LITERATURE WORKSHOP
Reading/Critical Thinking
Answer the following questions.
11. Evaluate Explain the second stanza of The
Womens 400 Meters. How effective is the poets
description?
TIP Author and Me
12. Interpret How does the speaker in To James
feel about the runner? How can you tell?
TIP Author and Me
13. Connect What experience of your own does this
poem remind you of? Explain.
TIP Author and Me
14. Evaluate Is Slam, Dunk, & Hook a good title
for this poem? Explain.
TIP Author and Me
Writing: Compare the
Literature
Use Your Notes
15. Use the notes on your webs to compare figurative
language in Slam, Dunk, & Hook, To James, and
The Womens 400 Meters.
Step 1: Look over the webs that you have
completed. Underline any metaphors. Circle
the similes.
Step 2: On a separate sheet of paper, make a
two-column chart of the figurative language you
found. Write the metaphors in the first column
and the similes in the second column.
Step 3: Look at your chart. In a short paragraph,
explain how the figurative language adds to or
doesnt add to the meanings of the poems.
Step 4: Look at what kinds of figurative lan-
guage appear in all of the poems and what kinds
appear in only one or two poems. You will use
this information to back up what you write.
Get It on Paper
Compare the way that the three poems use figurative
language by copying and answering these questions.
16. What is the best example of figurative language
in The Womens 400 Meters? Why?
17. What is the best example of figurative language
in To James? Why?
18. What is the best example of figurative language
in Slam, Dunk, & Hook?
19. In which poem does figurative language play the
biggest role? Why? In which poem does it play
the smallest role? Why?

20. In each of the selections, you read about what
makes athletes tick. Answer these questions in
your Learners Notebook:
How are the ideas about what makes athletes
tick in the three selections alike?
How are they different?
Comparing Literature Workshop 861
UNIT 7
Answering
WRAP-UP
What Makes
You Tick?
Youve just read other peoples responses to the Big Question: What makes you tick? Now use what
youve learned to do the Unit Challenge.
The Unit Challenge
Choose Activity A or Activity B, and follow the directions for the activity youve chosen.
A. Group Activity: Character Study
The editor of Tick magazine wants to know what
brings out the best in the characters and speak-
ers in this unit. Your group has been asked to
interview the characters and speakers.
1. Talk to the Characters Each group
member identifies one character or speaker
and tells how that person would answer
these questions:
Who or what is most important to you?
Why?
If other group members have different ideas,
they can add answers. Have one or two
group members record all of the answers.
2. Study the Answers Look for similarities
among the answers so that you can organize
them into categories:
People (friends, family)
Feelings (love, friendship, happiness)
Things (possessions, money)
Ideas and Goals (fame, peace, success)
Some answers may fit into two or more cate-
gories. Make a chart with a column for each
category, and write the responses in the
appropriate spaces.
People Feelings Things Ideas
and
Goals
3. Draw Conclusions As a group, check to
see which categories have the most entries.
What general statements can you make
about individual characters and speakers?
What conclusions can you form about what
makes people tick?
4. Present Your Findings Choose one or two
people to present the groups work to the
class. How do all the groups conclusions
add to your understanding of what brings out
the best in people?
862 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Big Question Link to Web resources
to further explore the Big Question at
www.glencoe.com.
UNIT 7 WRAP-UP
The characters and speakers in this unit share
their private thoughts and feelings about their
own identities. Now its your turn to share some
of the things that you like and that make you
tick. Follow these steps to make a self-portrait
collage.
1. Plan Your Collage Review the information
you wrote about yourself in your Learners
Notebook. Create a web diagram like the one
below and include the most important things
that make you who you are.
2. Put It Together Using what you identified
as being important to you, begin to gather
images and words for your collage.
Search through old magazines or catalogs
for pictures and words that represent
whats important to you. (Make sure
that no one else wants the magazines or
catalogs before you start cutting.)
Find photos and create your own
drawings.
Decide how you want to arrange things
before you glue them down. Try different
arrangements. Throw out images that dont
work. Add more images as needed.
When youre happy with your collage, glue
the pictures onto a sheet of heavy paper or
poster board.
3. Show It Present your collage to your class.
Explain why you chose certain images and
what they represent to you. Compare
collages with classmates. Discuss similarities
and differences.
B. Solo Activity: Personal Reection
Important to Me
Wrap-Up 863
UNIT 7
Your Turn: Read and Apply Skills
By TRACY EBERHART and ROBERT A. BARNETT
The Giggle
Laughter is the best medicine
Prescription
A
r
n
i

K
a
t
z
/
I
n
d
e
x

S
t
o
c
k
G
o ahead, grin. Or better yet, laugh out loud.
Laughter is an important part of a healthy life,
according to Lee Berk, assistant professor of
family medicine at the University of California.
Just thinking about a silly video you are going to watch
864 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Arni Katz/Index Stock
1. Stimulating circulation is encouraging the movement of blood
through the body.
2. To utilize (YOO tih lyz) is to make use of.
YOUR TURN: READ AND APPLY SKILLS
can reduce feelings of tension, anger, and
sadness, says Berk.
Berk and other researchers have done
studies to conrm that laughing spells keep
your body and mind healthy. In fact, Berk
says, Laughter is an instant vacation.
Laughing for a few seconds may give you
the same workout as a minute of aerobic
exercise by increasing the activity of the
heart and stimulating circulation.
1
A good
case of the giggles massages not only the
heart but also the lungs, muscles, and
digestive system. This increased physical
activity, coupled with the feel-good mental
benets of having a good laugh, may have
lifesaving effects.
According to studies done by doctors at
the University of Maryland Medical Center
in Baltimore, people with heart disease
were 40% less likely to laugh in a variety of
situations compared with people of the
same age without heart disease. This may
mean, researchers say, that laughing can
have something to do with helping to keep
your heart healthy. Doctors are not sure
exactly how laughter helps prevent heart
disease, but they do know that mental
stress causes physical changes that damage
the lining of blood vessels, which can cause
them to swell. At these sites of swelling, fat
and cholesterol often build up, which can
cause heart attacks. And because laughter
can reduce mental stress, it may actually
protect you against a heart attack!
Laughing prevents disease
and eases pain
Part of laughters benet is its positive effect
on the immune system, which is the system
that helps the body ght disease. Laughter
helps your body stop the release of a
hormone that weakens the immune
system. Laughter also boosts your bodys
production of certain cells and proteins
that ght infection and disease.
Hospitals and nursing facilities have
learned to utilize
2
another of laughters
great benets. Doctors have learned that, if
a patient is in pain, a good laugh can help.
Fits of laughter boost chemicals in the brain
T
r
i
b
u
n
e

M
e
d
i
a

S
e
r
v
i
c
e
s
Your Turn: Read and Apply Skills 865
Tribune Media Services
YOUR TURN: READ AND APPLY SKILLS
that control pain. Your ability to withstand
pain is raised during laughter and for a
short time after you laugh. For this reason,
many hospitals use laughter programs,
including clowns and other performing
artists, as part of their patients treatment.
But maybe kids already know that
laughing makes them feel good. Studies
show that young people laugh many more
times a day than older people. Just try to
keep your ability to laugh as you get older.
And remember to be silly. Its good for you!
Updated 2005, from Parenting, May 2003 and Fall 2000
For a long and healthful life, eat right, get plenty of sleep, and
laugh as often as you can. Dont just wait for funny things to
happen. Plan for humor in your life.
Watch funny movies (with other people if possible).
Laughing is contagious.
Create a humor journal. Record some of the funny
things that happen to you. When you talk about your
day with family or friends, find the humorous moments
in it.
Observe young children. They do and say a lot of funny
things.
Collect funny cartoons. Post some around your room.
Read joke books or funny stories.
Visit a zoo and watch the monkeys.
Spend time with people who have a good sense
of humor.
Play charades, using only funny titles.
866 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
YOUR TURN: READ AND APPLY SKILLS
Meet the Author
Ogden Nash was one of
Americas best-loved poets.
Born in 1902, he produced
more than thirty volumes
of poems. In the 1950s and
1960s, he began writing
poetry for children. Nash
said, The main thing I
find in writing for children
is to absolutely avoid the
tendency to write down to
them. See page R6 of the
Author Files for more on
Ogden Nash.
Author Search For more about
Ogden Nash, go to www.glencoe
.com.
O
g
den Nash
Some primal
3
termite knocked on wood
And tasted it, and found it good,
And that is why your Cousin May
Fell through the parlor oor today.
1 Something thats agile (AJ ul) is able to move quickly.
2 A carcass is a dead body.
3 Here, primal means from the earliest time; original.
by Ogden Nash
They tell me of a distant zoo
Where a carcajou met a kincajou.
Full soon to savage blows they came
From laughing at each others name
The agile
1
ajous fought till dark
And carc slew kinc and kinc slew carc,
And beside the conquered kincajou
Lay the carcass
2
of the carcajou.
by Ogden Nash
Your Turn: Read and Apply Skills 867
Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS
UNIT 7
Reading on Your Own
Fiction
To read more about the Big Question, choose one of these books from your
school or local library. Work on your reading skills by choosing books that
are challenging to you.
Come Sing,
Jimmy Jo
by Katherine Paterson
This novel tells the story of young James Johnson,
who is discovered by a country music agent and
thrust into a life on the road with his musical family.
Where the
Red Fern Grows
by Wilson Rawls
In this well-loved classic,
a yound boy and the pair
of hunting dogs he trains
learn about hunting and life in the Oklahoma Ozarks.
This story has become a favorite among young
readers.
So Far from the
Bamboo Grove
by Yoko Kawashima
Watkins
In this novel based on the authors experience, Yoko
and her family must leave their home in North Korea
and go through many hardships to get to Japan.
Letters from Vinnie
by Maureen Stack Sappy
Based on a true story, this novel is told through the
letters that young Vinnie Ream writes to her friend
Regina. Vinnie describes Washington, D.C., during the
Civil War; her loyalty to Abraham Lincoln; and her
passion for capturing Lincolns character in sculpture.
868 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
(tl) Eclipse Studios, (tr) Eclipse Studios, (bl) Eclipse Studios, (br) Eclipse Studios
UNIT 7 READING ON YOUR OWN
Nonction
Talkin About Bessie:
The Story of Aviator
Elizabeth Coleman
by Nikki Grimes
Illustrated by E. B. Lewis
Family and friends gather to mourn the death of
Bessie Coleman, the first African American female
pilot. Each speaker pays special tribute to Bessies
courage and her passion for flying. Bessie Coleman
helped pave the way for other African Americans in
the field of aviation.
Guts: The True
Stories Behind
Hatchet and the
Brian Books
by Gary Paulsen
In a collection of wilderness survival and hunting
essays, Paulsen compares his own life to the
fictional adventures of Brian Robeson in Hatchet
and its sequels.
Vaqueros: Americas
First Cowmen
by Martin W. Sandler
The author looks at the
history of vaqueros, or
Hispanic cowmen, and
their influence on cowboy
folklore. The book retells
legends of the vaqueros, including their courage, loy-
alty, and heroism, and what makes the vaqueros tick.
Andy Warhol,
Prince of Pop
by Jan Greenberg
and Sandra Jordan
The authors describe how
Warhol, the man who said
everyone would have 15 minutes of fame, made his
art. Warhol took everyday images like soup cans and
elevated them to art. He became the symbol of the
1960s American art movement known as Pop.
Reading on Your Own 869
(tl) Eclipse Studios, (tr) Eclipse Studios, (bl) Eclipse Studios, (br) Eclipse Studios
UNIT 7 SKILLS AND STRATEGIES ASSESSMENT
870 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Test Practice
Part 1: Literary Elements
Read the first poem. On a separate sheet of paper, write the numbers 17. Next
to numbers 1 and 2, write the letter of the correct answer.
The Eagle
by Alfred Lord Tennyson
He clasps the crag with crooked hands;
Close to the sun in lonely lands,
Ringed with the azure
1
world, he stands.
The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls;
He watches from his mountain walls,
And like a thunderbolt
2
he falls.
1. Which of the following lines contains alliteration?
A. 1
B. 3
C. 4
D. 6
2. The main way in which the eagle is like a
thunderbolt is in
A. its beauty
B. the noise it makes
C. the speed of its fall
D. the shape of its fall
Read the following poem. On your paper, write
the letter of each correct answer for questions 36.
Next to number seven, write your answer to the
final question.
1. sky blue
2. a single ash of lightning with its accompanying thunder
Objectives (pp. 870871)
Literature Identify literary devices: symbolism,
sound, rhythm, metaphor
UNIT 7
SKILLS AND STRATEGIES ASSESSMENT
Skills and Strategies Assessment 871
Your world is as big as you make it.
I know, for I used to abide
1
In the narrowest nest in a corner,
My wings pressing close to my side.
5
But I sighted the distant horizon
Where the sky line encircled the sea
And I throbbed with a burning desire
To travel this immensity.
2
I battered the cordons
3
around me
10
And cradled my wings on the breeze
Then soared to the uttermost reaches
With rapture,
4
with power, with ease!
3. Which of the following lines of the poem rhyme?
A. 1 and 3
B. 2 and 4
C. 5 and 6
D. 9 and 11
4. Which pair of words from the poem provides an
example of assonance?
A. I, abide
B. wings, side
C. encircled, sea
D. cradled, breeze
5. What does the nest seem to symbolize in this
poem?
A. a small world with no room for growth
B. a danger from which the speaker must escape
C. a childhood home to which the speaker longs
to return
D. the controls that are put on the young to keep
them safe
6. Think about which words in the last two lines are
emphasized by the meter. This use of rhythm helps
to communicate the idea that
A. anything is possible
B. life is full of surprises
C. we must not give up when life is hard
D. small changes should come before large ones
7. To what is the speaker compared throughout this
poem? Do you think this metaphor is effective?
Explain.
1. Here, abide means either live or remain.
2. Anything huge, in size or distance, is an immensity.
3. Cordons are barriers or, sometimes, guards that prevent getting
into or out of an area.
4. Rapture is intense joy.
Your World
by Georgia Douglas Johnson
Unit Assessment To prepare for the Unit test,
go to www.glencoe.com.
UNIT 7
SKILLS AND STRATEGIES ASSESSMENT
872 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Objectives
Reading Evaluate text Interpret text Make
connections from text to self
Part 2: Reading Skills
Read the poems. Then, on a separate sheet of paper, write the numbers 14. For
the first three questions, write the letter of the right answer next to the number for
that question. Then, next to number four, write your answer to the final question.
Primer Lesson
by Carl Sandburg
Look out how you use proud words.
When you let proud words go, it is
not easy to call them back.
They wear long boots, hard boots; they
walk off proud; they cant hear you
calling
Look out how you use proud words.
Flint
by Christina Rossetti
An emerald is as green as grass;
A ruby red as blood;
A sapphire shines as blue as heaven;
A int
1
lies in the mud.
A diamond is a brilliant stone,
To catch the worlds desire;
An opal holds a ery spark;
But a int holds re.
1. A int is a stone that produces a spark when struck by steel.
UNIT 7
SKILLS AND STRATEGIES ASSESSMENT
Skills and Strategies Assessment 873
1. Which of the following might be said by someone
who is making connections while reading Primer
Lesson?
A. I remember when I regretted a remark.
B. I wonder why Sandburg didnt use rhyme.
C. This is an interesting way of giving a warning.
D. This poem gives human traits to proud
words.
2. The speaker of Primer Lesson describes proud
words as wearing hard boots to suggest that
such words
A. have practical uses
B. can hurt other people
C. are heavy and awkward
D. protect the person who says them
3. What does Primer Lesson offer as the main rea-
son that you should look out how you use proud
words?
A. People do not understand them.
B. They reach peoples ears quickly.
C. Its difficult to use them correctly.
D. Once said, they cant be taken back.
4. The words of Flint describe jewels and flint.
Interpreting those words and how they are used in
the poem suggests that jewels and flint represent
A. wealth and poverty
B. nature and technology
C. imagination and reality
D. beauty and inner qualities
5. What is the most reasonable interpretation of the
last line of Flint?
A. Flint can be dangerous.
B. Flint can do only ordinary things.
C. Flint has a value not found in other stones.
D. The ability to do something is less important
than actually doing it.
6. Choose one of the two poems to evaluate. That is,
tell whether you think the poem is good and
explain your reasoning.
UNIT 7
SKILLS AND STRATEGIES ASSESSMENT
874 UNIT 7 What Makes You Tick?
Objectives
Vocabulary Use structural analysis Use context clues
For questions 15 write the letter of the word or
phrase that means about the same as the underlined
word.
1. if roads merge
A. end C. come together
B. need repair D. become dangerous
2. her initial comment
A. first C. shortened
B. quiet D. most important
3. to express his identity
A. ability C. individuality
B. feelings D. hopes and goals
4. to be virtually impossible
A. totally C. proven to be
B. practically D. the opposite of
5. to master long division
A. teach C. begin to learn
B. enjoy D. become skilled in
6. The Greek prefix hyper- means overly, too
much. What is a synonym for hypersensitive?
A. kind C. touchy
B. cruel D. difficult
7. The Latin root ject means to throw, and the
prefix pro- means forward. Who would need
to project (pro JEKT) his or her voice?
A. a singer on stage C. a tourist in a
foreign country
B. a person with a secret D. someone who has
a sore throat
8. The Greek root path means feeling, and the
prefix a- means without. What would someone
do to show apathy?
A. nod C. frown
B. shrug D. applaud
9. The Greek root phon means sound. What
would the phonetic spelling of pharmacy be?
A. phar C. pharmacy
B. frmcy D. farmuhsee
10. The Anglo-Saxon root flot means to hold up by
air or water. Which of the following is used for
flotation?
A. a rocket C. a life preserver
B. a television D. a sink or bathtub
Part 3: Vocabulary Skills and Acquisition
On a separate sheet of paper, write the numbers 110. Next to each number,
write the letter of the right answer for that question.
UNIT 7
SKILLS AND STRATEGIES ASSESSMENT
Skills and Strategies Assessment 875
Objectives
Grammar Use correct subject-verb agreement
Part 4: Writing Skills
Read each sentence, and decide which forms of the verbs in parentheses are
correct. On a separate sheet of paper, write the numbers 18. Next to each
number, write the letter of the correct verb forms for that sentence.
1. The news (is, are) bad today, as everyone who
(reads, read) the paper can tell.
A. is, reads C. are, reads
B. is, read D. are, read
2. Both of my aunts or my cousin Nita (comes, come)
by every day, and no one (is, are) happier about
that than I am.
A. comes, is C. come, is
B. comes, are D. come, are
3. How (does, do) Chip and Rocky feel when guests
from out of town (shows, show) up?
A. does, shows C. do, shows
B. does, show D. do, show
4. He and she (is, are) sure that one of our teams
fastest runners (is, are) going to win the track meet
today.
A. is, is C. are, is
B. is, are D. are, are
5. Outside the walls (was, were) a forest, but only
one of the trees (was, were) big enough to use
for lumber.
A. was, was C. were, was
B. was, were D. were, were
6. (Has, Have) you ever noticed that the most colorful
birds in the jungle (is, are) as beautiful as jewels?
A. Has, is C. Have, is
B. Has, are D. Have, are
7. There (goes, go) my best friend, and here (is, are)
the books she left for me.
A. goes, is C. go, is
B. goes, are D. go, are
8. The owner of those five dogs (is, are) always busy
walking them, but he (dont, doesnt) seem to
mind.
A. is, dont C. are, dont
B. is, doesnt D. are, doesnt