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= The parameters that describe each mode are natural frequency or resonance frequency (modal)
damping mode shape; these are called the modal parameters. by using the modal parameters to
model the structure, vibration problems caused by these resonances (modes) can be examined
and understood (1-4).

= modal analysis is a process whereby a structure may be defined in terms of its natural
characteristics which are the frequency, damping, and mode shapes-its dynamic properties. Since
all bodies have mass and elasticity, they are capable of vibration. Therefore, most engineering
structures and machines experience some form of oscillatory motion.

= to better understand any structural vibration problem, the resonances of a structure need to be
identified and quantified. A common way of doing this is to define the structures modal

= experimental modal analysis is an experimental approach for solving technical problems
which is a mean to estimate or evaluate modal properties of a mechanical structure.

= modal analysis is vital to understanding and optimizing the inherent dynamic behavior of
structures, leading to lighter, stronger, and safer structure with better performance.

= in modal analysis, a mathematical model of a structures dynamic behavior is obtained. The
mathematical model consists of a set of mode shapes each with an associated natural frequency
and modal damping. These modal parameters provide a complete description of the structures
dynamic behavior.

= baker and his co-researchers used finite element method to analyze the instability of machining
process (5). They create a structural model of machine tool system using the commercial FE
code, ANSYS, without any experimental test.

= in another research with the aim of analysis of chatter phenomena, the tools natural
frequencies and the shape of their vibration modes were obtained by modal testing result. In this
case, the variations of acoustic emission signal during chatter are analyzed, so that it can be used
for chatter detection in machining duration (6).

= the paper is focused at dynamic properties of a vertical milling machine, namely, at the
resonance frequencies and vibration shapes of vertical machining centre components. All this
properties are identified by measurements. The machine tool vibration was excited by impulse
force and a response of excited vibration was recorded. The measurement points for vibration
were selected the different location of spindle, tool, and collect.

= natural frequencies and damping ratios of machine tool structures are very basic parameters
necessary for the design of strategies for possible chatter or resonance vibration avoidance. This
information also provides the basis for further dynamic analysis such as modal or structure
parameter identification necessary for the design of more efficient machine tools.

= conventionally the natural frequencies and the damping ratios of a mechanical structure have
been obtained by experimental measurements of frequency responses of the system and a
subsequent graphical approximation or curve fitting procedure (1,3)


= structural damage can be defined as changes introduced into a system that adversely affects the
current or future performance of that system. Therefore, structural damages should always, at a
sufficient level of severity, cause a change in a structures vibration behavior, described by
modal properties; natural frequencies, damping loss factor and mode shapes.

= common features used in vibration based damage detection studies are: 1) modal
frequencies,2) frfs, 3)mode shapes, 4) mode shapes curvatures, 5) modal strain energy, 6)
dynamic flexibility


= essentially, the machining performance is determined by the dynamic characteristics of the
machine tool structure and dynamic of cutting process, which can further be identified in terms
of stability lobe diagram.

= both the finite element simulations and experimental measurements reveal that the linear guide
with different preload greatly affects the vibration behavior and milling stability agrees well with
the cutting tests.

= with the demand of high speed and high precision machining, machine tools are being
designed and manufactured with high dynamic performance in positioning accuracy and

= however, chatter vibration induced by self excitation during chip generation process has been a
fatal problem for a machine tool in machining operation.

= for this purpose, the finite element approach has been widely used to assess the static and
dynamic behavior of machine tool structures because of the efficiency and reliability that it
offers in the task of analysis.

= with intense nonlinearity, the interface characteristic at joints could not be directly obtained
using an analysis method unless experimental measurements were also made (7)

= the dynamic behavior and cutting stability of the milling machine were predicted. Furthermore,
the simulation results were validated with the experimental measurements performed on a
prototype machine.


= in this paper, a dynamic characterization and vibration analysis have been used for the
detection and identification of machine tool condition.

= the natural frequencies of the lathe machine with no cutting process were acquired. The system
modal analysis is used to identify the natural frequencies. These ones and these obtained on the
spindle numerical model by finite element method are compared.

= this research is validated by experimental tests being based to measures of the lathe machine
tool frequencies domain. Main focus is to identify a procedure to obtain natural frequencies
values for machine tool components in order to establish better conditions in the cutting process
on the machine tool.

= the cutting process stability is very studied for many reason of which, particularly, its the
influence on the final surface quantity (chiou, karabay). Many modelings are implemented to
optimize the cutting condition (Benardos,Karube, Toh). The introduction of the non-linear
interaction between the tool and carries it part always gives interesting results which go from
regular (periodic or quasi-periodic) vibrations to possibilities of chaotic ones (Litak) or, always
within the orthogonal framework of the cut, while utilizing in more the dry friction. (Litak)

= the case 2D is also examined while considering carries it rigid part but by taking into account
the tool flexibility (Insperger), the tool holder flexibility (Chen) or the rotor system (Qi).


= when the vibration is due to a resonance of a structural natural frequency or an unexpected
geometry change such as looseness or cracking, it becomes more complicated.

= therefore, through vibration testing combined with detailed calibrated finite element analysis
(FEA) models have become powerful tools to identify and mitigate vibration issues.

= the paper shows the impact hammer FRF of cutting tool shown the effect on clamping force
and acceleration orientation.

AHMAD (non-linear)

= all models in prediction chatter require FRF from the cutting tool specifically the dynamic
characteristic of the cutting tool form experimental modal analysis.

= impact testing was developed since the late 1970 when the ability to compute FRF
measurement in an Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) (edwin 1984).

= impact testing is an experimental modal analysis to determine dynamic characteristic of the
structure such as natural frequency, damping ratio and mode shape (edwin 1984,Hewlett 1986).
= impact hammer can be used to excite the force to the system while accelerometer as transducer
to measure the response (snoeys 1987, lieven 2001, tenguria 2011).