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Chapter 22

Transient Stability Analysis



The ETAP Transient Stability Analysis program is designed to investigate the stability limits of a power
system before, during, and after system changes or disturbances. The program models dynamic
characteristics of a power system, implements the user-defined events and actions, solves the system
network equation and machine differential equations interactively to find out system and machine
responses in time domain. From these responses, users can determine the system transient behavior,
make stability assessment, find protective device settings, and apply the necessary remedy or
enhancement to improve the system stability.

This chapter describes different tools to assist you in running transient stability studies. An overview on
the basics of transient stability study is also provided.

This chapter is organized into 8 sections:

1. The Transient Stability Toolbar section explains how you can launch a transient stability calculation,
open and view an output report, select display options, and view plots.

2. The Study Case Editor section explains how to create a new study case, to define parameters for a
study case, to create a sequence of switching events and disturbances, to globally define machine
dynamical modeling method, to select plot/tabulation devices, etc.

3. The Display Options section explains what options are available for displaying some key system
parameters and the output results on the one-line diagram, and how to set them.

4. The Calculation Methods section provides some theoretical backgrounds and quick reference for the
fundamentals on transient stability study, which are very helpful for users who do not have extensive
experience on running transient stability studies.

5. The Required Data section is a very good reference for you to check if you have prepared all necessary
data for transient stability calculations. These data range from the system side, such as bus and branch
information, to the machine side, such as machine model and parameters, exciter model and parameters,
and governor model and parameters.

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Transient Stability Analysis Overview



6. The Output Reports section explains and demonstrates the format and organization of the transient
stability text reports.

7. The One-Line Diagram Displayed Results section explains the available one-line displaying results and
provides one example.

8. The Plots section explains what plots for transient stability are available and how to select and view
them.

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Transient Stability Analysis Toolbar
22.1 Transient Stability Toolbar
The Transient Stability Toolbar will appear on the screen when you are in the Transient Stability Study
mode.



Run Transient Stability

Display Options

Alert View (Available in a future release of ETAP)

Report Manager

Action List

Transient Stability Plots

Halt Current Calculation

Get Online Data

Get Archived Data
Run Transient Stability
Select a study case from the Study Case Toolbar. Then click on the Run Transient Stability button to
perform a transient stability study. A dialog box will appear to ask you to specify the output report name
if the output file name is set to Prompt. When the calculation completes, the transient stability study
results will appear on the one-line diagram and are stored in the output report, as well as in the plot file.
Display Options
Click the Display Options button to customize the one-line diagram annotation options under the
transient stability study mode. Also to edit the one-line diagram display for transient stability calculation
results. See Display Options for more information.
Alert View
This button is disabled for ETAP 5.0. This feature will be available in a future release of ETAP.
Report Manager
Click on the Report Manager button to select a format and view transient stability output report.
Transient stability analysis reports are currently provided in ASCII formats only, which can be accessed
from the Report Manager.

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Transient Stability Analysis Toolbar


You can also select output files from the Output Report list box.

The output reports for transient stability studies have a. TS1 extension.

Action List
Click on the Action List button to view actions in from the study. The action list is updated every time
when new study is done. The information in the Action List will be also available in Action Summary
report. The action list therefore contains a list of not only those events that have been predefined but also
the ones that occur due to relay actions.


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Transient Stability Analysis Toolbar
Transient Stability Plots
Click on the Transient Stability Plots button to select and plot the curves of the last plot file. The plot
file name is displayed on the Study Case Toolbar. The transient stability plot files have the following
extension: .tsp. For more information see Plots section.
Halt Current Calculation
The Stop Sign button is normally disabled. When a transient stability calculation has been initiated, this
button becomes enabled and shows a red stop sign. Clicking on this button will terminate the current
calculation. One-line diagram display will not be available if you terminate the calculation before it
completes; but the text output report and plots do store the calculation results up to the time instant when
you terminate the calculation.
Get On-Line Data
If the ETAP key installed on your computer has the on-line feature, you can copy the on-line data from
the on-line presentation to the current presentation.
Get Archived Data
If the ETAP key installed on your computer has the on-line feature, you can copy the archived data to the
current presentation.


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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor
22.2 Study Case Editor
The Transient Stability Study Case Editor contains solution control variables, loading conditions, event
and action specifications, machine modeling selections and a variety of options for output reports and
plots. ETAP allows you to create and save an unlimited number of study cases. Transient stability
calculations are conducted and reported in accordance to the settings of the study case selected in the
Study Case Toolbar. You can easily switch between study cases without the trouble of resetting the study
case options each time. This feature is designed to organize your study efforts and save you time.

As a part of the multi-dimensional database concept of ETAP, study cases can be used for any
combination of the three major system toolbar components, i.e. for any configuration status, one-line
diagram presentation, and Base/Revision Data.

When you are in the Transient Stability Analysis mode, you can access the Transient Stability Study Case
Editor by clicking on the Study Case button on the Transient Stability Study Case Toolbar. You can also
access this editor from the Project View by clicking on the Transient Stability subfolder under the Study
Cases folder.



There are two ways to create a new study case. You can click on the New button on the Transient
Stability Study Case Toolbar to copy an existing study case to the new case.





Or you can go to the Project Editor, right-click on the Transient Stability Study Case folder, and select
Create New. The program will then create a new study case, which is a copy of the default study case,
and adds it to the Transient Stability Study Case folder.

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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor
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The Transient Stability Study Case Editor consists of five pages: Info Page, Events Page, Plot Page, Dyn
Model Page and Adjustment Page.
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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor
22.2.1 Info Page
This page is provided for you to specify some general solution parameters and study case information.

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Study Case ID
Study case ID is shown in this entry field. You can rename a study case by simply deleting the old ID
and entering a new ID. Study case ID can be up to 12 alphanumeric characters. Use the Navigator button
at the bottom of the editor to go from one study case to another.
Initial Load Flow
In this section you can specify the solution parameters for initial load flow calculation in transient
stability analysis.
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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor
Max Iteration
Enter the maximum number of iterations. If the solution has not converged at the specified number of
iterations, the program will stop and inform the user. The recommended and default value is 2000.
Solution Precision
Enter the value for the solution precision that is used to check for convergence. This value determines
how precise you want the final solution to be. The default (and recommended) value is 0.0000000001.
Accel. Factor
Enter the convergence acceleration factor to be used between iterations. Typical values are between 1.2
and 1.7. The default value is 1.45.

Solution Parameters
Simulation Time Step
This is the integration time step in seconds in transient stability simulation. You should set this number
smaller than the smallest time constant in the system so you can see all the exciter and governor
responses. Note that the smaller this number is, the more calculations are required, so the calculation time
increases. The recommended value is 0.001 seconds. If you feel you need higher resolution, decrease
this number. However, if the integration time step is too small, accumulated round up errors may
increase.
Plot Time Step
This value determines how often ETAP should record the results of the simulation for plotting. For
instance, if you specify 20 steps, ETAP will plot points at every 20 simulation time step, i.e., for a
simulation time step of 0.001, the plot time step will be .02 seconds. The smaller this number is, the
smoother your plots will look, but also remember that the plot files on your hard disk may grow quite
large. Keep in mind that ETAP records plot information at this interval throughout the simulation. For
example, if you specified a simulation time step of 0.001 seconds, plot time step of 10, and a total time of
20 seconds, ETAP will write 20/(0.001*10)= 2000 points to disk, which may be a very large plot file,
depending on the number of machines and buses being plotted. The maximum value for this field is 999.
Apply XFMR Phase-Shift
Select this option to include the transformer phase-shift specified in the transformer editors in both the
transient stability initial load flow calculation and the time simulation calculation. Otherwise, transformer
phase-shift will be ignored (i.e., 0 degree phase-shift regardless of the transformer winding connections).
Loading Category
In the Loading Category block, you can specify the system initial operating loads by selecting a loading.
The initial loading conditions will establish an initial normal operation condition for the transient stability
studies.
Loading Category
Select one of the ten loading categories for this study case. With the selection of any category, ETAP
uses the percent loading of individual motors and other loads as specified for the selected category. Note
that you can assign loading to each one of the ten categories in the Nameplate page, Loading page, or
Rating page for most load components. Harmonic Filter loading is calculated from its parameters. SVC
loading is computed from the initial load flow.
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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor
Operating P, Q
Check this option to use operating P and Q as specified in the editors for load component. Operating P
and Q for loads are from ETAP on-line data.
Generation Category
Select one of the ten generation categories for this study case. With the selection of any category, ETAP
uses the voltage, phase angle, MW, Mvar, or Qmax and Qmin, depending on its operation mode, of
individual power gird and synchronous generator as specified for the selected category. Note that you can
assign generation to each one of the ten categories in the Rating page for power grid and synchronous
generator.
Operating P, Q, V
Check this option to use operating P, Q and bus V as specified in the Power Grid and Synchronous
Generator editors.
Load Diversity Factor
Apply appropriate load diversity factor(s) for transient stability initial load flow calculation. The choices
are:
None
Select None to use the percent loading of each load as entered for the selected Loading Category, i.e., no
diversity factor is considered.
Bus Maximum
When the Bus Maximum option is selected, the loading of all motors and other loads will be multiplied
by the maximum diversity factor of the bus, which they are directly connected to. Using this option, you
can define the initial loading for transient stability studies with each bus having a different maximum
diversity factor.

This study option is helpful when the future loading of the electrical system has to be considered and each
bus may have a different maximum diversity factor.
Bus Minimum
When the Bus Minimum option is selected, the loading of all motors and other loads will be multiplied by
the bus minimum diversity factor of the bus that they are directly connected to. Using this option, you
can define the initial loading for transient stability studies with each bus having a different minimum
diversity factor.

This study option may be used to see the effect of transformer taps and capacitors (if any) on the system
voltages under a minimum (light) loading condition.
Global
When this option is selected, ETAP will ask you to enter global diversity factors for constant kVA,
constant Z, constant I and generic loads, respectively. Generic loads represent Exponential, Polynomial
or Comprehensive types of lumped load. When you select this option, ETAP will globally multiply all
constant kVA, constant Z, constant I and generic loads of the selected loading category with the entered
values. When using this option, you can define the initial loading for transient stability analysis studies
with fixed diversity factors for all loads.

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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor


Note that a constant kVA load diversity factor of 125% implies that the constant kVA loads of all buses
are increased 25% above their values as specified by the selected loading category. This value can be
smaller or greater than 100%.
Charger Loading
Loading Category
Select this option to use the P and Q specified in the Loading Category section of the Charger Editor for
chargers.

Operating Load
Select this option to use the P and Q as specified in the Operating Load section of the Charger Editor. If
this option is selected, a DC load flow calculation is required to run first in order to estimate the charger
load.

Remarks 2nd Line
You can enter up to 120 alphanumeric characters in the Remarks box. Information entered in this
location will be printed on the second line of the header information in every page of the output report.
These remarks can provide specific information and conditions for each study case. Note that the first
line of the header information is global for all study cases and is entered in the Project Information Editor.
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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor
22.2.2 Events Page
This page is provided for you to design and store transient stability study scenarios and events.


Events
In this list, all user-defined events are displayed in their time order to give you a clear picture of the
sequence of events in this study. The active events are marked by '*' and are listed first, followed by
those which are inactive.
Event ID
The Event ID is a unique name with a maximum length of 12 alphanumeric characters.
Time
This is the time when the associated event occurs. The unit is in second. To enter the time for a 8 Cycle
breaker opening on a 60Hz system, simply enter time as 0.133 seconds.
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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor
Add (Event)
A new event can be added by clicking on the Add (Event) button and opening the Event Editor.


Active
Select this option to make an event active. Clicking on the box again will make the event inactive. Only
active events will be included in the study. Use the active option to temporarily disable certain actions
without deleting them from the study case.

Edit (Event)
Click on the Edit (Event) button to open the Event Editor and edit an existing event. You can also
double-click on an event in the Event list to activate the Event Editor.
Delete (Event)
Delete an existing event from the list.
Actions
Each event can encapsulate a number of actions (system changes or disturbances). When you select an
event by highlighting that event in the Event list, the actions associated with that event will be displayed
in the Action list.




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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor
Each action is composed of the information of the Device Type, the Device ID, and an Action. Note that
the event ID is displayed on top of the Action list for your reference.
Device Type
The type of device that is going to take an action.
Device ID
The ID of the device that is going to take an action.

Action
This option defines the action to be taken by the specified device and the device type. The following is a
table showing device types and their associated actions:
Setting1 and Setting 2
These columns display settings for the action being performed. For example, for an induction motor, you
can define and load increase using the load ramp function. Setting 1 would be the percentage by which
the load needs to be ramped and Setting 2 would be the time it takes to ramp the load. Together, Setting 1
and Setting 2 define the slope of the load ramp.



Device Type Actions Setting 1 Setting 2
Bus 3 Phase Fault/Clear Fault - -
Cable Fault/Clear Fault % of total length -
Line Fault /Clear Fault % of total length -
Impedance Fault /Clear Fault % of total length -
Circuit Breaker Open/Close - -
SPST Switch Open/Close - -
Fuse Trip - -
Contactor Open/Close - -

Ref. Machine - -
Droop - -
Isoch - -
Start - -
Loss Excitation - -
Generation Impact % change in electrical power -
Generator
Generation Ramp % change in electrical power Time (sec) for % change
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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor
Voltage Impact % change in voltage -
Voltage Ramp % change in voltage Time (sec) for % change
Delete - -
Ref. Machine - -
Voltage Impact % change in voltage -
Voltage Ramp % change in voltage Time (sec) for % change
Utility
Delete - -
Accelerate - -
Load Impact % change in loading -
Load Ramp % change in loading Time (sec) for % change
Syn. Motor
Delete - -
Accelerate - -
Load Impact % change in loading -
Load Ramp % change in loading Time (sec) for % change
Ind. Motor
Delete - -
Load Impact % change in loading -
Load Ramp % change in loading Time (sec) for % change
Lumped Load
Delete - -
MOV Start - -
None Load Flow (no action, print load
flow at the event time)
- -

Add (Action)
A new action can be added by clicking on the Add (Action) button and opening the Action Editor. Select
a device type from the Device Type drop-down list. Select the device ID from the Device ID drop-down
list. Select an action from the Action drop-down list.


Edit (Action)
Click on the Edit (Action) button to edit an existing action. You can also double-click on a listed action
to bring up the Action Editor.
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Delete (Action)
Delete an existing action.
Total Simulation Time
The total simulation time for a transient stability study. The unit is in seconds.

ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor


Notes on Transient Stability Actions:
1. Opening and closing of a protective device (CB, Switch, or Fuse) that connects a
composite motor to a bus is not allowed.

If such a device is in the Transient Stability Study Case Action List (from the converted project from a
version prior to ETAP 3.0), the device will be removed from the list and ignored by the program.

The same rule applies to devices in the Voltage Relay or Frequency Relay Editor Interlock list.


2. Static loads cannot be added or deleted by the Transient Stability Program.

Static loads are not included in the Transient Stability Editor Action List. They must be added or deleted
from the system through protective device actions.

For projects converted from versions prior to ETAP 3.0 that include such actions, ETAP at the time of the
transient stability study will purge them from the list and ignore them.

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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor

3. Single-Pole Double-Throw (SPDT) Switch action is not allowed in the Transient
Stability Program.

For projects converted from versions prior to ETAP 3.0 that include such actions, ETAP will purge them
from the Transient Stability Study Case Editor Action List and ignored them.

4. Operation of the protective devices connected to an outside pin of the old composite
network is ignored.

Composite Networks included in converted files from versions prior to ETAP 3.0 need to be replaced if
the opening and closing actions of the protective devices connected to outside pins are desired.

Note: ETAP does not convert Composite networks automatically. To replace the composite networks, a
new composite network needs to be added. The content of the old composite network needs to be Cut and
then Moved from dumpster into the new composite network.

5. Addition of a source element (Synchronous Generator or Power Grid) to a system when
directly connected to a protective device is not allowed.

A source must be connected to a terminal bus in order to be added to the system during the Transient
Stability Studies.





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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor
6. All actions to the devices in a completely de-energized subsystem are ignored.

Device actions in a portion of a system that is de-energized during the Tansient Stability Simulation are
ignored.



7. Loads for a de-energized panel or a single-phase feeder are ignored.

When for an initially de-energized panel or a single-phase feeder, its loads are not calculated by ETAP.
Therefore, when such an element is switched on, it will not carry any loads.

8. Switching device operations for devices connected to a SPDT switch are ignored

When a SPST switch or breaker is connected to a SPDT switch without a bus in-between, the switching
action for the SPST switch or breaker is ignored. Therefore, a bus must be inserted to consider these
actions.



22.2.3 Plot Page
The plot page is used to plot/tabulate those devices whose results need to be displayed on the one-line
diagram at the end of the simulation.

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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor

Device Type
Select a device type or category.
Syn. Generators
This machine group consisting of all synchronous generators.
Syn. Motors, MV
The machine group consisting of all dynamically modeled synchronous motors, which are rated above 1.0
kV.
Syn. Motors, LV
The machine group consisting of all dynamically modeled synchronous motors which are rated equal to
or less than 1.0 kV.
Ind. Machines, MV
The machine group consisting of all dynamically modeled induction machines, which are rated above 1.0
kV.
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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor
Ind. Machines, LV
The machine group consisting of all dynamically modeled induction machines which are rated equal to or
less than 1.0 kV.
Buses
The device group consisting of all buses.
MOVs
The device group consisting of all MOVs with initially open or closed status.
Branches
The device groups, consisting of all different types of branches, with the exception of tie circuit breakers
(protective devices).
Lumped Loads
This device group consists of all lumped loads. Note that the lumped load plot is available even if it is not
dynamically modeled.
Plot Options
Once a machine or device group is selected, all devices in that group will be displayed in the Plot Options
list for you to select.
Device ID
Device IDs for the selected machine or device group, excluding the non-dynamically modeled machines.
Plot/Tabulation (column)
You can click on this column to select or deselect the plot/tabulation option for a particular device. Once
this option is set, an X will show in this column next to the selected device. By selecting this option,
information for the selected device will be tabulated at the end of the transient stability output report and
stored in the plot file to be plotted.
Plot/Tabulation (check box)
This provides another way to set the plot/tabulation option for the highlight device.
22.2.4 Dyn Model Page
This page is provided to globally assign dynamic modeling of synchronous and induction machines in the
system. Motors are subdivided into medium voltage (above 1.0 kV) and low voltage (less than or equal
to 1.0kV) synchronous motor and induction machine groups.

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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor


A machine will be dynamically modeled if you have specified a dynamic model in its editor and you
select to globally model that motor group from this page.

Note that all synchronous generators are dynamically modeled.
Dynamic Modeling
Syn. Motors, MV
The machine group consisting of all synchronous motors, which are medium voltage (rated above 1.0
kV).
Syn. Motors, LV
The machine group consisting of all synchronous motors that are low voltage (rated less than or equal to
1.0 kV).
Ind. Machines, MV
The machine group consisting of all induction machines that are medium voltage (above 1.0 kV).
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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor
Ind. Machines, LV
The machine group consisting of all induction machines that are low voltage (rated less than or equal to
1.0 kV).
Lumped Loads
This group consists of all lumped loads that are connected in the system.
Do Not Model Dynamically
If selected, the corresponding machine group will not be dynamically modeled in the transient stability
study for this study case, regardless of dynamic models specified for individual machines.
Model Machines Larger or Equal To
If selected, machines that are in the corresponding machine group and rated larger than the size specified
in the HP/kW field will be dynamically modeled, and machines in the same group that are rated less than
the size specified will not be dynamically modeled.

Note that for the machine to be dynamically modeled, it should also have a dynamic model specified for it
from its editor.
HP/kW
Specify the size of machines (in HP or kW) for the selected machine group to be dynamically modeled.
Dynamic Modeling During Simulation (Time>0)
Include LTC Action
Check this option if you want to globally include or exclude LTC operation for time > 0 seconds. When
checked, ETAP will consider the individual LTC initial time delay and operating time specified for
transformers with LTC option (Tap Page).
Include Starting Device
Check this option if you want to globally include or exclude starting device for accelerating motors.
When checked, ETAP will consider starting device control scheme for accelerating motors.
Starting Load for Accelerating Motors
Specify the base for load torque vs. slip models used for accelerating motors.
Based on Motor Electrical Rating
Load torque vs. slip curve is defined based on the motor electrical rating, i.e., the load torque vs. slip
curve will be scaled to reach 100% at the synchronous speed, corresponding to 100% of the motor
electrical rating.
Based on Motor Mechanical Load
Load torque vs. slip curve is defined based on the motor mechanical load, i.e., the load torque vs. slip
curve will not be scaled.
Constant Power Load
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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor
Threshold Voltage (VLC Limit)
This field is used to control automatic conversion of a constant kVA load to a constant Z load for
Transient Stability calculations. If the connected bus voltage is below this value, a load type conversion
will occur for all applicable loads (constant kVA and constant Z). VLC Limit is specified in percent. Its
typical value is 80%. The allowable range is 0 to 200%.
Delta V
To avoid a sudden jump during the load type conversion, a 5% of voltage margin may added to make an
undetermined region of VLCLimit +/- 5%, which means if the connected bus voltage drops below
VLCLimit 5%, a constant kVA load is to convert to constant Z load. On the other hand, if the
connected bus voltage recovers about VLCLimit + 5%, the load is to converted back to constant kVA
load.
Reference Machine
Auto Assign Reference Machine
This option Auto Assigns a Reference Machine for each sub electrical system. By default this option is
checked and disabled.

Synchronous Machine Damping
Use Nominal System Frequency
System nominal frequency will be used in the swing equation to calculate the machine damping power.
This option assumes the actual network frequency remains constant during the transient, which is usually
the case when the system has a power grid.
Use Weighted Machine Frequency
An equivalent network frequency will be calculated by taking the weighted average of the speed of the
synchronous generators that are in the same subsystem. This equivalent frequency is then used in the
swing equation to calculate machine-damping power. This option is more accurate for the system that
does not have a power grid and thus the network frequency is not guaranteed to remain constant during
the transient.
Generator Start-Up
Specify special frequency dependent models for generator start-up studies here.
Frequency Dependent Models for Network, Motors, & Generators
The network, motors, and generators will be modeled as frequency dependent. This option has to be
checked in order to perform the generator start-up study.
22.2.5 Adjustments Page
This page allows the user to specify tolerance adjustments to length, equipment resistance, and
impedance. Each tolerance adjustment can be applied based on the individual equipment percent tolerance
setting or based on a globally specified percent value.

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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor


Impedance Tolerance
This group allows the user to consider tolerance adjustments to impedance values for transformer, reactor,
and overload heater.
Transformer Impedance Adjustment
This adjustment is applied to transformer impedance. The net effect of the transformer impedance
adjustment in load flow calculations is to increase the impedance by the specified percent tolerance value.
For example, if the transformer impedance is 12% and the tolerance is 10%, the adjusted impedance used
in the load flow calculation will be 13.2%, resulting in higher losses.

The Impedance Adjustment can be applied to individual transformers by using the tolerance percent value
specified in the Transformer Editor Rating page. A global Transformer Impedance Adjustment can be
specified as well by selecting and specifying a global tolerance other than 0% in the corresponding field
of Load Flow Study Case Editor Adjustment page. The global Impedance Adjustment overrides any
individual transformer tolerance value.
Reactor Impedance Adjustment
This adjustment is applied to the reactor impedance. The Load Flow module increases the reactor
impedance by the specified percent tolerance resulting in larger impedance and consequently a larger
voltage drop. For example, if the impedance of the reactor is 0.1 Ohm and its tolerance is 5%, then the
adjusted reactor impedance used in the load flow calculation is 0.105 Ohm.

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Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor
The Impedance Adjustment can be applied to individual reactors by using the tolerance percent value
specified in the Reactor Editor Rating page. A global Reactor Impedance Adjustment can be specified as
well by selecting and specifying a global tolerance other than 0% in the corresponding field of the Load
Flow Study Case Editor Adjustment page. The global Impedance Adjustment overrides any individual
reactor tolerance value.
Overload Heater Resistance
This adjustment is applied to the overload heater (OH) resistance. The Load Flow module increases the
OH resistance by the specified percent tolerance resulting in a larger resistance and consequently a larger
voltage drop. For example, if the resistance of the OH is 0.1 Ohm and its tolerance is 5%, then the
adjusted OH resistance used in the load flow calculation is 0.105 Ohm.

The Resistance Adjustment can be applied to individual overload heaters by using the tolerance percent
value specified in the Overload Heaters Editor Rating page. A global Overload Heater Resistance
Adjustment can be specified as well by selecting and specifying a global tolerance other than 0% in the
corresponding field of Short Circuit Study Case Editor Adjustment page. The global Resistance
Adjustment overrides any individual overload heater tolerance value.
Length Tolerance
This section allows the user to consider tolerance adjustments to cable and transmission line lengths.
Cable Length Adjustment
This adjustment is applied to the cable length. The Load Flow module increases the cable length by the
specified percent tolerance resulting in larger impedance and consequently a larger voltage drop. For
example, if the length of the cable is 200 ft. and the tolerance is 5%, then the adjusted cable length used in
the load flow calculation is 210 ft.

The Length Adjustment can be applied to individual cables by using the tolerance percent value specified
in the Cable Editor Info page. A global Cable Length Adjustment can be specified as well by selecting
and specifying a global tolerance other than 0% in the corresponding field of the Load Flow Study Case
Editor Adjustment page. The global Length Adjustment overrides any individual cable tolerance value.
Transmission Line Length Adjustment
This adjustment is applied to the transmission line length. The Load Flow module increases the
transmission line length by the specified percent tolerance resulting in larger impedance and consequently
a larger voltage drop. For example, if the length of the transmission line is 2 miles and the tolerance is
2.5%, then the adjusted transmission line length used in the load flow calculation is 2.05 miles.

The Length Adjustment can be applied to individual lines by using the tolerance percent value specified
in the Transmission Line Editor Info page. A global Transmission Line Length Adjustment can be
specified as well by selecting and specifying a global tolerance other than 0% in the corresponding field
of the Load Flow Study Case Editor Adjustment page. The global Length Adjustment overrides any
individual transmission line tolerance value.
Resistance Temperature Correction
This group allows the user to consider resistance correction based on the maximum operating temperature
for cable and transmission line conductors. Each temperature resistance correction can be applied based
on the individual cable/line maximum temperature setting or based on a globally specified value.
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-25 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Study Case Editor
Temperature Correction for Cable Resistance
This adjustment is applied to the cable conductor resistance. The Load Flow module adjusts the conductor
resistance based on the maximum operating temperature. If the maximum operating temperature is greater
than the rated base temperature of the conductor, then its resistance is increased.

The temperature correction can be applied to individual cables by using the maximum operating
temperature value specified in the Cable Editor Impedance Page. A global temperature correction can be
specified as well by selecting and specifying a global maximum temperature value in the corresponding
field of the Load Flow Study Case Editor Adjustment Page. The global temperature correction value
overrides any individual Cable Impedance Page maximum temperature. Please refer to the Cable Editor
Impedance Page section in Chapter 12 (AC-Editors).
Temperature Correction for Transmission Line Resistance
This adjustment is applied to the transmission line conductor resistance. The Load Flow module adjusts
the conductor resistance based on the maximum operating temperature. If the maximum operating
temperature is greater than the rated base temperature of the conductor, then the resistance is increased.

The temperature correction can be applied to individual lines by using the maximum operating
temperature value specified in the Transmission Line Editor Impedance page. A global temperature
correction can be specified as well by selecting and specifying a global maximum temperature value in
the corresponding field of the Load Flow Study Case Editor Adjustment page. The global temperature
correction value overrides any individual Transmission Line Impedance page maximum temperature.
Please refer to the Transmission Line Editor Impedance Page section in Chapter 12 (AC-Editors).



Operation Technology, Inc. 22-26 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Display Options
22.3 Display Options
The Transient Stability Analysis Display Options consist of a Results page and three pages for AC, AC-
DC, and DC info annotations. Note that the colors and displayed annotations selected for each study are
specific to that study.
22.3.1 Results Page
The Results page allows you to define options for one-line diagram calculation results display. These
results can be displayed for each plot time step as selected from the Time Slider. The results include bus
voltage and frequency, synchronous machine power angle and speed, induction motor speed, and power
flow to machines. The bus and machine data that are displayed on the one-line diagram are the same
data, which are stored in the plot file, i.e., to show a bus voltage and frequency on the one-line diagram,
you need to plot/tabulate devices from the Transient Stability Study Case Plot Page.


Color
Select the color for result annotations to be displayed on the one-line diagram.
Bus
Display the calculated voltage and frequency of buses selected for plotting.
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-27 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Display Options
Voltage
Bus and machine terminal voltages in kV or in percent of the bus nominal kV.
Frequency
Bus frequency in hertz or in percent of system frequency.

Syn. Machines
Display the calculated power angle and frequency of synchronous generators and motors, which are
selected for plotting from the Study Case.
Power Angle
Machine power (rotor) angle in degrees or radians.
Speed
Display speed of synchronous machine as RPM or % speed
Ind. Machines
Speed
Display speed of induction machines (RPM or % Slip), which are selected for plotting from the Study
Case. % Slip = (
s
-
m
)/
s

Machine Flows
Specify how the flows will be displayed in (kW+jkvar or MW+jMvar), or (kVA or MVA), or Amp.
Show Units
Select the check boxes under this heading to show units for the displayed results.


c. 22-28 ETAP 5.0 User

Transient Stability Study Results Displayed on the One-Line Diagram at Time 0.701 Seconds
Operation Technology, In Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Display Options
22.3.2 AC Page
This page includes options for displaying info annotations for AC elements.
Color
Select the color for information annotations to be displayed on the one-line diagram.
ID
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the ID of the AC elements on the one-line diagram.
Rating
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the ratings of the AC elements on the one-line
diagram.

Device Type Rating
Gen. (Generator) kW/MW
Power Grid (Utility) MVAsc
Motor HP/kW
Load kVA/MVA
Panel Connection Type (# of Phases - # of Wires)
Transformer kVA/MVA
Branch, Impedance Base MVA
Branch, Reactor Continuous Amps
Cable/Line # of Cables - # of Conductor/Cable - Size
Bus kA Bracing
Node Bus Bracing (kA)
CB Rated Interrupting (kA)
Fuse Interrupting (ka)
Relay Automatic for Voltage, Reverse Power, Frequency
Relay. For Multifunction relay or UR, use the Display
Tag field in the Info Page to display the appropriate
designations
PT & CT Transformer Rated Turn Ratio
kV
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the rated or nominal voltages of the selected
elements on the one-line diagram.

For cables/lines, the kV check box is replaced by the button. Click on this button to display the
cable/line conductor type on the one-line diagram.
A
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the ampere ratings (continuous or full-load ampere)
of the selected elements on the one-line diagram.

For cables/lines, the Amp check box is replaced by the button. Click on this button to display the
cable/line length on the one-line diagram.
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-29 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Display Options
Z
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the rated impedance of the selected AC elements on
the one-line diagram.

Device Type Impedance
Generator Subtransient reactance Xd
Power Grid (Utility) Positive Sequence Impedance in % of 100 MVA (R + j X)
Motor % LRC
Transformer Positive Sequence Impedance (R + j X per unit length)
Branch, Impedance Impedance in ohms or %
Branch, Reactor Impedance in ohms
Cable/Line Positive Sequence Impedance (R + j X in ohms or per unit length)
D-Y
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the connection types of the selected elements on the
one-line diagram. For transformers, the operating tap setting for primary, secondary, and tertiary
windings are also displayed. The operating tap setting consists of the fixed taps plus the tap position of
the LTC.
Composite Motor
Click on this check box to display the AC composite motor IDs on the one-line diagram, then select the
color in which the IDs will be displayed.
Use Default Options
Click on this check box to use ETAPs default display options.
22.3.3 AC-DC Page
This page includes options for displaying info annotations for AC-DC elements and composite networks.
Color
Select the color for information annotations to be displayed on the one-line diagram.
ID
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the IDs of the selected AC-DC elements on the one-
line diagram.
Rating
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the ratings of the selected AC-DC elements on the
one-line diagram.

Device Type Rating
Charger AC kVA & DC kW (or MVA/MW)
Inverter DC kW & AC kVA (or MW/MVA)
UPS kVA
VFD HP/kW
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-30 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Display Options
kV
Click on the check boxes under this heading to display the rated or nominal voltages of the selected
elements on the one-line diagram.
A
Click on the check boxes under this heading to display the ampere ratings of the selected elements on the
one-line diagram.

Device Type Amp
Charger AC FLA & DC FLA
Inverter DC FLA & AC FLA
UPS Input, output, & DC FLA
Composite Network
Click on this check box to display the composite network IDs on the one-line diagram, then select the
color in which the IDs will be displayed.
Use Default Options
Click on this check box to use ETAPs default display options.
22.3.4 DC Page
This page includes options for displaying info annotations for DC elements.
Color
Select the color for information annotations to be displayed on the one-line diagram.
ID
Select the check boxes to display the IDs of the selected DC elements on the one-line diagram.
Rating
Select the check boxes to display the ratings of the selected DC elements on the one-line diagram.

Device Type Rating
Battery Ampere Hour
Motor HP/kW
Load kW/MW
Elementary Diagram kW/MW
Converter kW/MW
Cable # of Cables - # of Conductor/Cable - Size
V
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the rated or nominal voltages of the selected
elements on the one-line diagram. For cables, the kV check box is replaced by the button. Click on
this button to display the conductor type on the one-line diagram.
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-31 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Display Options
A
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the ampere ratings of the selected elements on the
one-line diagram. For cables, the Amp check box is replaced by the button. Click on this button to
display the cable length (one way) on the one-line diagram.
Z
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the impedance values of the cables and impedance
branches on the one-line diagram.
Composite Motor
Click on this check box to display the DC composite motor IDs on the one-line diagram, then select the
color in which the IDs will be displayed.
Use Default Options
Click on this check box to use ETAPs default display options.
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-32 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Calculation Methods
22.4 Calculation Methods
Performing the power system transient stability study is a very comprehensive task. It requires
knowledge of machine dynamic models, machine control unit models (such as excitation system and
automatic voltage regulators, governor and turbine/engine systems, and power system stabilizers),
numerical computations, and power system electromechanical equilibrium phenomena. The full
discussion on this topic is far beyond the scope of this manual. In this section, we will brief you with
some fundamentals and underlying principles on the power system transient stability study, with the focus
on applications with ETAP.
Purpose for Performing Transient Stability Study
Dynamic performance of a power system is significant in the design and operation of the system. The
transient stability study determines the machine power angles and speed deviations, system electrical
frequency, real and reactive power flows of the machines, power flows of lines and transformers, as well
as the voltage levels of the buses in the system. These system conditions provide indications for system
stability assessments. The results are displayed on the one-line diagram, and also can be printed or
plotted. For transient stability studies, you should model particular groups of machines in the system ,
which are known to have important influences on the system operation. The total simulation time for
each study case should be sufficiently long to obtain a definite stability conclusion.
Power System Stability Definition
Power system stability is the property of a power system that insures the system remains in
electromechanical equilibrium throughout any normal and abnormal operating conditions.

Because the power system stability is an electromechanical phenomenon, it is thus defined as the ability
of designated synchronous machines in the system to remain in synchronism with one another following
disturbances such as fault and fault removal at various locations in the system. It also indicates the ability
of induction motors in the system to maintain torque to carry load following these disturbances.
Synchronous Machine Rotor Angles
Synchronous machines play a decisive role in the power system stability because during and after
disturbances their rotor angles will oscillate to cause power flow oscillations in the system. Depending on
the level of these oscillations, the electromechanical equilibrium in the system could be destroyed and the
instability could occur. Therefore, power system stability is sometimes also referred to as synchronous
machine rotor angle stability.

The following two equations are often referenced in power system transient stability studies:

Torque Equation (Generator Case)

sin
8
2
r
F
air
P
T =

where
T = mechanical shaft torque
P = number of poles

air
= air-gap flux
F
r
= rotor field MMF
= power (rotor) angle
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-33 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Calculation Methods
The torque equation defines the relationship between the mechanical shaft torque, the stator voltage, the
excitation system, and the rotor angle. Changes in any one of them will cause the rotor angle to readjust
itself to a new position.

Swing Equation (Generator Case)
elec
P
mech
P
dt
d
D
dt
d
M = +

2
2

where
M = inertia constant
D = damping constant
P
mech
= input mechanical power
P
elec
= output electrical power

The swing equation shows that the solution of the rotor angle is a function of balance between the
mechanical power and the electrical power. Any change in the system that breaks this balance will cause
the rotor angle to undergo a transient and reach a new position in an oscillatory manner. This oscillation
is usually called the rotor angle swing.
Stability Limits
There are two types of stability limit for a power system, namely steady-state stability limit and transient
stability limit.
Steady-State Stability Limit
The steady-state stability is defined as the stability of a system under conditions of gradual or small
changes in the system. This stability can be either found by the load flow calculation for a steady-state
operation, or determined by a transient stability study if there are system changes or disturbances
involved. The system is said to be steady-state stable if, following any small and/or gradual disturbances,
all synchronous machines reach their steady-state operating condition identical or close to the pre-
disturbance operating conditions. The steady-state stability limit for any synchronous machine is when its
rotor angle is less than 90 degrees.
Transient Stability Limit
Transient or dynamic stability is defined as the stability of a system during and after sudden changes or
disturbances in the system, such as short-circuits, loss of generators, sudden changes in load, line tripping,
or any other similar impact. The system is said to be transient stable if following a severe disturbance, all
synchronous machines reach their steady-state operating condition without prolonged loss of synchronism
or going out of step with other machines.
Causes of Instability Problems
The major causes to industrial power system instability problems include, but are not limited to:

Short-circuits
Loss of a tie connection to a utility system
Loss of a portion of in-plant co-generation (generator rejection)
Starting a motor that is large relative to the system generating capacity
Switching operations of lines, capacitors, etc.
Impact loading (motors and static loads)
A sudden large step change of load or generation
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-34 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Calculation Methods
Consequences of Instability Problems
The consequences of power system instability problems usually are very severe and can range from
permanent damage on equipment and shutting down processes, all the way to causing a whole area power
outage. Some typical consequences are listed below:

Area-wide blackout
Interruption of loads
Low-voltage conditions
Damage to equipment
Relay and protective device malfunctions
Power System Transient Stability Enhancement
Depending on the causes of instability problems in a particular system, a number of enhancements can be
made to improve the system stability. Typical enhancements include:

Improve configuration and system design.
Increase synchronizing power
Design and selection of rotating equipment use induction motors, increase moment of inertia,
reduce transient reactance, improve voltage regulator and exciter characteristics
Application of Power System Stabilizers (PSS)
Add system protection fast fault clearance, system separation, etc.
Add load shedding scheme

However, note that each of the above remedies requires careful consideration and we recommend that you
re-run all system studies again, because changes brought by those remedies very likely will impact system
load flow, short-circuit, and motor starting results.
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-35 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Calculation Methods
Simulation of Time Events and Actions
Transient Stability study is essentially an action driven time-domain simulation. Actions should be
specified at different time instants (events). There are two ways to specify events and actions. One way
is to use the Event Editor and Action Editor in the Transient Stability Study Case Editor. Another way is
to use relay-controlled dynamic actions.

When using actions specified in the Transient Stability Study Case Editor, Action List, the exact time
instant for the action to take place needs to be given. Type of actions in this category includes all the pre-
scheduled operations such as generator start-up and shutdown, generator control mode change, load
addition and rejection, motor acceleration, MOV start and others. When to simulate the system response
for existing events, such as a recorded fault in the system, user also can use this type of action, because
the recorded fault occurring time and duration are known. To specify this type of action, user first creates
a new event and the event occurring time in the Event Editor of the Transient Stability Study Case Editor,
Event page, as shown below.



Secondly, user can use the Action Editor in the same page to add as many actions as desired for this
event.
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-36 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Calculation Methods




Relay Operation

In power systems, many actions occur without any pre-acknowledgment, instead, they are controlled by
sensors and relays. For instance, a current relay will trip off circuit breakers once the measured current by
relay exceeds a pre-set value. In another case, a voltage relay can be used to open or close circuit
breakers based on its monitored voltage and comparison with an upper and lower settings. These types of
action do not have a definite time of happening and are solely depending on the system dynamic
responses and relay settings. They, therefore, have to be implemented using the second method, i.e., relay
controlled actions. To use relay-controlled actions, user needs to add a relay and connect it to the one-line
diagram via a PT or CT, depending on type of the relay. Next in relay editor, user specifies relay-
controlled circuit breaker ID, control settings, time delay, and other data related to relay operations.
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-37 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Calculation Methods
During the transient stability simulation in time-domain, if a relay setting is met, then its controlled circuit
breaker will take an automatic action. This method avoids requesting to give a pre-defined action time
and is a true resemblance to real power system operating conditions.

The following two pictures give an example of how to use relay-controlled actions. In the first picture,
assuming CB2 and/or CB11 are tripped off due to a fault in transformer T2, thus substation Sub2A-N
loses power. To make a bus transfer for Sub2A-N to the adjacent bus Sub2B, user can place a voltage
relay (27) on bus Sub2A-N to monitor the bus voltage magnitude and close a normally opened tie circuit
breaker Tie CB when it is necessary.



To do so, user can set the voltage relay to pick up under-voltage at 65% and close Tie CB after 0.1 relay
delaying time and what ever the closing cycle by Tie CB itself. Settings for the voltage relay is shown in
the second figure down below.


Operation Technology, Inc. 22-38 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Calculation Methods



Other relays like Reverse Power Relay, Directional Overcurrent Relay and Motor Relay follow a certain
connection logic in the program for correct operation.

Operation of Reverse Power Relay (Device 32)
Device 32 uses a predefined reference direction for sensing the current flow in the one-line diagram.

Relay Connection Normal Flow
32-1 Generator From the Generator to the Bus
32-2 Branch From Bus to the Branch
32-3 Branch From Bus to the Branch
32-4 Load From Bus to the Load
32-5 & 32-6 Tie-CB From Polarity (Dot) to other end

The diagram below shows the reference current direction for relays connected to sources, branches, loads
and tie circuit breakers.
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-39 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Calculation Methods

Consider the following setting for Relay 32-1









0.0

Operate Operate
Normal Flow
MW or Mvar
% Pickup %Pickup
Under Power Over Power
-10% 100%
(-1MW) (10MW)

Operation Technology, Inc. 22-40 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Calculation Methods
Hence the relay will not operate between the region of 10MW and -1 MW. It will operate outside this
region.

Operation of Directional Relay (Device 67)
Device 67 like Device 32 uses a predefined reference direction for sensing the current flow in the one-line
diagram along with the polarity of the CT (dot). Consider a UR element with Device 67 enabled.
Irrespective of where the Device 67 is connected, it will follow the polarity of the CT. The reference
direction is always from the CT polarity (dot) to the other end for forward and into the CT polarity (dot)
for reverse direction.



Hence if the relay were set in the forward direction, its operation region would be as shown below based
on the instantaneous setting






0.0
Instantaneous
Setting








Operation of Multifunction Relays (Device 49/50/51)
For transient stability trip signals are send based on Any, Phase and 49/50 elements only. Multifunction
relays such as UR use the following logic for sensing tripping current. Note that multifunction relays only
trip based on instantaneous settings. Overcurrent settings are ignored by transient stability. OCR(x)
denotes Overcurrent Level being used. For example OCR(1) means OCR with OC1 setting.

Relay Element Level/Zone Trip (if instantaneous selected)
Any Any Trip OCR(1) & OLR
Phase Any Trip OCR(1)
Any or Phase OCR(1) Trip OCR(1)
49/50 Any Trip OLR
49/50 OCR(1) None
ForwardDirect
ion
Operate
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-41 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Calculation Methods
Any, Phase or 49/50 OCR(2) None

No Library Selected
Any or Phase Any or OCR(x) Trip OCR(1)
49/50 Any or OCR(x) Trip OLR


If library data is not selected then OC levels are not considered. Trip signal is sent based on only Phase or
49/50 settings.



If library data has been selected then ETAP considers only two Level/Zone - Any or OC1

If library data has been selected and the relay is not active, the trip signal is not sent. For example, if
output is 49/50, Level = (Any) and 49/50 is not active then no trip signal is sent.

If output is Any, Level = (Any orOC1) and Instantaneous (Phase and 49/50) is not active then no trip
signal is sent.




Operation Technology, Inc. 22-42 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Required Data
22.5 Required Data
To run a transient stability study, you need to provide all the data required for load flow calculation. In
addition to that, you need to provide machine dynamic model data, load model data, and any control
units, such as exciter and governor data. Required data for transient stability calculations include:
Bus Data
Bus ID
Nominal kV
Load Diversity Factor (when Loading option is set to Maximum or Minimum diversity factor)
Branch Data
2-Winding and 3-Winding Transformers
Transform ID
Bus Connections
Rated kV and MVA
Impedance and tolerance
X/R ratio
Tap and LTC settings
Phase Shift as in Standard Positive or Negative Sequence connections, or Special configurations
Cable/Transmission Line
Cable or Transmission Line ID
Bus Connections
Type, size, rated kV, # of conductors per phase, and length
Use library data or enter cable's resistance, reactance, and susceptance values
Impedance
Impedance ID
Bus Connections
Resistance, reactance, and susceptance values
Current-Limiting Reactor
Current-Limiting Reactor ID
Bus Connections
X/R ratio, impedance, and tolerance
Protective Device Data
Protective Device ID
Bus and Branch Connections
Status
CT/PT Data
CT/PT ID
Bus or Branch or Source or Load Connections
Rating (Ratio)
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-43 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Required Data
Relay Data
Relay ID
CT/PT Connections
Device, CB ID, Action, Delay, Setting, Unit
Power Grid Data
Power Grid ID
Bus Connections
Operating mode (Swing, Voltage Control, or Mvar Control)
Nominal kV
%V and Angle for Swing mode
%V, MW loading, and Mvar limits (Qmax & Qmin) for Voltage Control mode
MW and Mvar loading for Mvar Control mode
3-Phase MVAsc and X/R values
Synchronous Generator Data
Synchronous generator ID
Bus Connections
Operating mode (Swing, Voltage Control or Mvar Control)
Rated kV
%V and Vangle for Swing mode of operation
%V, MW loading, and Mvar limits (Qmax & Qmin) for Voltage Control mode of operation
MW and Mvar loading for Mvar Control mode of operation
Rated MVA
Model type (None, Equivalent, Transient, or Subtransient)
Machine type (Round-Rotor or Salient-Pole)
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo for Equivalent model
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo, Tqo for Transient model Round-Rotor machine type
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xq, Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo, Tdo, Tqo, Tqo for Subtransient model Round-Rotor
machine type
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq (= Xq), Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo for Transient model Salient-Pole machine type
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xq (= Xq), Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo, Tdo, Tqo for Subtransient model Salient-Pole
machine type
S100, S120, H, and Damping
Sbreak for Generator Start-up Study
Exciter Type and all associated parameters or fixed excitation
Governor Type and all associated parameters or no governor action
Power System Stabilizer (PSS) Type and all associated parameters or no PSS control
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-44 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Required Data
Synchronous Motor Data
Synchronous motor ID
Bus Connections
Quantity
Rated kW/hp and kV
Power factors and efficiencies at 100%, 75%, and 50% loadings
Loading Category ID and % Loading
Equipment cable data
Model type (None, Equivalent, Transient or Subtransient)
Machine type (Round-Rotor or Salient-Pole)
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo for Equivalent model
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo for Transient model Round-Rotor machine type
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xq, Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo, Tdo, Tqo, Tqo for Subtransient model Round-Rotor
machine type
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq (= Xq), Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo for Transient model Salient-Pole machine type
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xq

(= Xq), Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo, Tdo, Tqo for Subtransient model Salient-Pole
machine type
S100, S120, H and Damping
Exciter Type and all associated parameters or fixed excitation
H
Load model

Induction Machine Data
Induction machine ID
Bus Connections
Application type (motor or generator)
Quantity
Rated kW/hp and kV
Power factors and efficiencies at 100%, 75%, and 50% loadings
Loading Category ID and % Loading
Equipment cable data
Model type (None, Single1, Single2, DBL1, or DBL2)
Xlr, Xoc, X/R, and Tdo

for Single1 model


Rs, Xs, Xm, Rr,fl, Rr,lr, Xr,fl, and Xr,lr for Single2 model
Rs, Xs, Xm, Rrl, Rr2, Xr1, and Xr2 for DBL1 and DBL2 model
H
Load model
% Start Loading for the First Starting Category (defines the motor start loading percent)
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-45 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Required Data
MOV Data
MOV ID
Bus Connection
Quantity
Initial Status & Associated Demand Factor
Rated kW/hp & kV
Power Factor & Efficiency
Rated Torque
Hammer Blow & Micro Switch Flags
Locked Rotor (LR), No Load (NL), Normal, & Rated Torque (Rated T) Time Duration
Loading Category ID & % Loading
Equipment Cable Data
% Voltage Limit
Static Load Data
Static Load ID
Bus Connection
Quantity
Status & Associated Demand Factor
Rated kVA/MVA & kV
Power Factor
Loading Category ID & % Loading
Equipment Cable Data
Lumped Load Data
Lumped Load ID
Bus Connection
Status & Associated Demand Factor
Rated kVA/MVA & kV
Power Factor
% Motor Load & % Static Load
Loading Category ID & % Loading
Panel Schedule
Panel Schedule ID
Phase connection
State
Loading per phase
% Loading for each Loading Category
Capacitor Data
Capacitor ID
Bus Connection
Status & Associated Demand Factor
Rated kV
Mvar/Band and # of Bank
Operation Technology, Inc. 22-46 ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Required Data
Loading Category ID & % Loading
Equipment Cable Data

Harmonic Filter
Harmonic Filter ID
Filter Type
Rated kV & 3-Phase kvar for Capacitors
Xl & Q for Reactors
R, if applicable
Grounding Connection
Grounding Type
UPS Data
UPS ID
Bus Connection
AC Connections
Rated kW/MW & kV
AC Input & Output Rated kV
Power Factor & Efficiency
Loading Category ID & % Loading
VFD Data
VFD ID
Bus Connection

VFD is Modeled as a Transparent Device in the Transient Stability Study
Charger Data
Charger ID
Bus Connections
Status & Associated Demand Factor
AC Ratings
Loading Category ID & % Loading
Inverter Data
Inverter is not Modeled in the Transient Stability Study
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Transient Stability Analysis Required Data
Study Case Parameters
Study Case ID
Max. Number of Iterations
Solution Precision
Acceleration Factor
Simulation Time Step
Plot Time Step
Initial Loading Category
Initial Loading Condition (Loading Category, Operating Load)
Load Diversity Factor (None, Bus Maximum, Bus Minimum, or Global)
Charger Loading Condition (loading Category, Operating Load)
Total Simulation Time
Events & Actions
Dynamic Modeling Information
Starting Load Modeling Method
Plots/Tabulated Selection

Study Case parameters are entered into the Transient Stability Study Case Editor.

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Transient Stability Analysis Output Reports
22.6 Output Reports
ETAP provides transient stability study results at all different levels of detail, depending on your
requirements. The results are reported in three different formats: a Crystal Report output, a one-line
view display, and plots. Note that from ETAP 5.0, the text report format for transient stability is not
available. Crystal reports can be exported into text format using the Crystal Report export function.
22.6.1 Transient Stability Report Manager
Click on the View Output File button on the Transient Stability Toolbar to open the Transient Stability
Report Manager. The Transient Stability Report Manager provides the format for text and consists of
four pages.
Complete Page
From this page you can select the report format that gives you the complete output report. There are two
formats available under the Complete report page.


Complete Report
The Complete report gives the complete information for the system and the study case. It includes the
system summary, buses, branches, and machine input data, initial load flow and intermittent load flow
results, tabulated transient responses of the selected plot components and a list of actions. Below is the
first page from the Complete report.


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Transient Stability Analysis Output Reports

Input Page
From this page you can select the report format that gives you the input data output report. There are
twenty-one formats available under the Input report page.
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Transient Stability Analysis Output Reports

Action Summary Report
The Action Summary report gives a complete list of actions taken during the study.
Adjustments
The adjustments report gives the tolerance settings used during the study.
Branch Zero Sequence Z
This report gives the zero sequence impedance values for all branches.
Branch Report
The Branch report gives all branch impedance in per unit and the branch connections.
Bus Report
The Bus report gives all buses input data, including ID, voltage rating, generation, and loading.
Cable Report
The Cable report gives all cable input data, including ID, length, impedance, and susceptance.

Cover Report
The Cover report gives the system and the study overall information.
Exciter Report
The Exciter report gives the excitation and AVR systems input data.
Governor Report
The Governor report gives the engine/turbine and speed governor systems input data.
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Transient Stability Analysis Output Reports
High Voltage DC Link
The HVDC link reports gives the HVDC input data related to rating as well as dynamic model data.
Impedance Report
The Impedance report gives all impedance branches input data.
Lumped Load
The lumped load report gives all lumped load input data including lumped load dynamic model data.
Machine Report
The Machine report gives all synchronous machine input data, including their model parameters.
PSS Report
The PSS report gives all PSS systems input data.
Reactor Report
The Reactor report gives all reactor branches input data.
Relay Report
The Relay report gives all relays input data, including their controlled protective device information.
Starting Ind Motors Report
The Starting Ind Motors report gives input data for all induction machines.
Starting MOVs Report
The Starting MOVs report gives input data for all MOVs to be started.
SVC
The SVC report gives input data for all Static Var Compensators.
System Islanding Index
The system islanding index report contains information about the zones considered for each susbsystem.
Transformer Report
The Transformer report give input data for all 2-winding and 3-winding transformers.

Below is a sample report from the Machine report.

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Transient Stability Analysis Output Reports

Result Page
From this page you can select the report format that gives you the study result output report. There are
two formats available under the Result report page.

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Operation Technology, Inc. ETAP 5.0 User Guide
Transient Stability Analysis Output Reports
Dynamic Stability Report
The Dynamic Stability Report lists dynamic responses of the selected components during the time
simulation.
Load Flow Report
The Load Flow report gives the initial and intermittent load flow results.
Below is a sample report from the Dynamic Stability report.



Summary Page
From this page you can select the report format that gives you the summary output report. There is one
format available under the Summary report page.

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Transient Stability Analysis Output Reports

Action Summary Report
The Action Summary report gives the summary of all actions taken during the study.
Below is a sample report from the Action Summary report.



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Transient Stability Analysis One-Line Diagram Displayed Results

22.7 One-Line Diagram Displayed Results
In addition to the text report, ETAP displays the transient stability calculation results on the one-line
diagram.
Transient Stability Time-Slider
Once a transient stability study is completed, a Transient Stability Time-Slider, as shown below, will
appear next to the Configuration & Mode Toolbar. The slider ranges from zero to the total simulation
time. Initially, the reference pointer is at the far left, corresponding to t = 0 seconds. You may click on
either end of the ruler to move the pointer one grid at a time, or hold the mouse button down to move the
pointer continuously. You may also click on the pointer, hold the mouse button down, and then drag the
pointer to the desired position. The time corresponding to the pointer position is also displayed next to
the ruler in units of seconds. As you move the pointer along the slider, the displayed results change
accordingly, providing you with a quick way to examine the calculation results.



The one-line diagram displays are only available for those devices that are selected for plot options.
Depending on the device type, different calculation results are displayed as defined below:
Buses
Voltage bus voltage magnitude in kV or percent
Frequency bus frequency in Hz or percent
Syn. Generators
Power Angle synchronous generator rotor angle in degree or radian
Speed synchronous generator speed in RPM or percent
Efd synchronous generator field voltage in per unit
Real and Reactive Power synchronous generator electrical power generation in kW+jkvar or
MW+jMvar
Apparent Power synchronous generator electrical power generation in kVA or MVA
Current synchronous generator terminal current in Amp
Syn. Motors, MV
Power Angle synchronous motor rotor angle in degree or radian
Speed synchronous motor speed in RPM or percent
Voltage synchronous motor terminal voltage in kV or percent of bus nominal kV
Real and Reactive Power induction machine electrical power loading in kW+jkvar or MW+jMvar
Apparent Power induction machine electrical power loading in kVA or MVA
Current induction machine terminal current in Amp
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Transient Stability Analysis One-Line Diagram Displayed Results

Syn. Motors, LV
Power Angle synchronous motor rotor angle in degree or radian
Speed synchronous motor speed in RPM or percent
Voltage synchronous motor terminal voltage in kV or percent of bus nominal kV
Real and Reactive Power induction machine electrical power loading in kW+jkvar or MW+jMvar
Apparent Power induction machine electrical power loading in kVA or MVA
Current induction machine terminal current in Amp

Ind. Machines, MV
Speed induction machine speed in RPM or percent slip
Voltage induction machine terminal voltage in kV or percent of bus nominal kV
Real and Reactive Power induction machine electrical power loading in kW+jkvar or MW+jMvar
Apparent Power induction machine electrical power loading in kVA or MVA
Current induction machine terminal current in Amp
Ind. Machines, LV
Speed induction machine speed in RPM or percent slip
Voltage induction machine terminal voltage in kV or percent of bus nominal kV
Real and Reactive Power induction machine electrical power loading in kW+jkvar or MW+jMvar
Apparent Power induction machine electrical power loading in kVA or MVA
Current induction machine terminal current in Amp
MOV
Real and Reactive Power MOV electrical power loading in kW+jkvar or MW+jMvar
Apparent Power MOV electrical power loading in kVA or MVA
Current MOV terminal current in Amp

The units for the displayed results are defined in the Results Page of the Transient Stability Display
Options.

The following is a sample of one-line diagram display from the Transient Stability study.

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Transient Stability Analysis One-Line Diagram Displayed Results

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Transient Stability Analysis Plots

22.8 Plots
ETAP also provides simulation plots for you to examine Transient Stability calculation results in a
graphic form. To view the plots, click on the Transient Stability Plots button on the Transient Stability
Toolbar. It will bring up a dialog box for the Transient Stability Plot Selection, as shown below, from
which you can specify the devices and types of plots to view.


Device Type
Select a device type for plotting.
Device ID
From this list, select the devices (up to 16 devices at a time) to be plotted. This list contains the devices
that have been selected for plots from the study case editors.
Plot Type
Check plot type(s) for plot. Different device types have different plot types.
Syn. Generators
Power Angle (Relative) synchronous generator power angle in degree
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Transient Stability Analysis Plots

Power Angle (Absolute)
Speed synchronous generator speed in RPM
MW mechanical synchronous generator shaft mechanical power generator in MW
MW synchronous generator electrical power generation in MW
Mvar Synchronous generator reactive power in Mvar
Current synchronous generator terminal current in Amp
Efd synchronous generator field voltage in per unit
Ifd synchronous generator field current in Amp
Machine Z synchronous generator terminal impedance in % on machine base

Syn. Motors, MV (medium voltage motors)
Power Angle (Relative) synchronous motor power angle in degree
Power Angle (Absolute) -
Speed synchronous motor speed in RPM
MWm synchronous motor mechanical power in MW
MWe synchronous motor electrical power in MW
Mvar synchronous motor reactive power in Mvar
Current synchronous motor terminal current in Amp
Vbus synchronous motor connected bus voltage in % of the bus nominal kV
Vterminal synchronous motor terminal voltage in % of bus nominal kV
Machine Z synchronous motor terminal impedance in % on machine base

Syn. Motors, LV (low voltage motors)
Power Angle synchronous motor power angle in degree
Frequency synchronous motor frequency in Hz
MWm synchronous motor mechanical power in MW
MWe synchronous motor electrical power in MW
Current synchronous motor terminal current in Amp
Voltage synchronous motor connected bus voltage in % of the bus nominal kV
Machine Z synchronous motor terminal impedance in % on machine base
Ind. Machine, MV (medium voltage machines)
Slip induction machine slip in %
Accel Torque induction machine acceleration power in MW
MWm induction machine mechanical power in MW
MWe induction machine electrical power in MW
Current induction machine terminal current in Amp
Voltage induction machine connected bus voltage in % of the bus nominal kV
Machine Z induction motor terminal impedance in % on machine base
Ind. Machine, LV (low voltage machines)
Slip induction machine slip in %
Accel Torque induction machine acceleration power in MW
MWm induction machine mechanical power in MW
MWe induction machine electrical power in MW
Current induction machine terminal current in Amp
Voltage induction machine connected bus voltage in % of the bus nominal kV
Machine Z induction motor terminal impedance in % on machine base
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Transient Stability Analysis Plots

Buses
Voltage Angle bus voltage angle in degree
Frequency bus frequency in % of system frequency
MW bus real power loading in MW
Mvar bus reactive power loading in Mvar
Voltage/Hz bus voltage per Hz in volt/Hz
Voltage bus voltage magnitude in % of the bus nominal kV

MOVs
Slip MOV slip in percent
Acce l Power MOV acceleration power in kvar
kvar MOV reactive power loading in kvar
kW MOV real power loading in kW
Current MOV current in Amp
Voltage MOV terminal voltage in % of the connected bus nominal kV base

Note that for synchronous motors and induction machines, terminal voltages are also displayed on the
one-line diagram.

The following is a set of sample plots from the Transient Stability study:


Combine Plots
Operation Technology, Inc.

Curves for the selected item will be plotted on the same graph. Multiple scales will be used.
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