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2.

Cc ph-ng thc truyn dn:


* Truyn song song:
- S dng mi cp dy mang mt bt d liu, phi dng 8
i dy truyn mt byte d liu.
- Khong cch truyn gia 2 thit b l ngn.
Tr m
ph t
Tr m thu
0
1
0
1
2 2
n-1 n-1
GND GND

.
Thi gian

Hnh 3.5: Truyn song song.
* Truyn song song:
- Khi truyn d liu vi khong cch ln th-ng s dng mt
i dy.
Tr m
ph t
Tr m thu
GND GND
Thi gian

Hnh 3.6: Truyn ni tip.
* Cc ph-ng thc truyn dn:
- D liu th-ng truyn theo mt khi (n v d liu) c
di c nh (8bt hay 1 byte).
- Do mi byte -c truyn ni tip tng bt mt, ti DTE
thu -c mt trong 2 mc tn hiu m thay i theo cc bt
trong bn tin. i vi bn thu gii m v phn bit cc
bt ny, phi thc hin cc yu t sau:
+ V tr bt u ca mi chu k bt ( ly mu tn
hiu ti vo gia chu k bt), gi l qu trnh ng b
bt, xung CLK.
+ V tr bt u v kt thc ca mi n v d liu
(byte), ng b byte hay k t.
+ V tr bt u v kt thc ca mi khi d liu
(khung hay gi d liu), ng b khung.
Thng th-ng ng-i ta thc hin bng mt trong 2 cch sau:
- ng h CLK bn thu v pht c lp nhau (truyn khng
ng b).
- ng h CLK bn thu v pht ng b vi nhau (truyn
ng b).
Vi ph-ng thc truyn khng ng b: mi k t (byte) -c
ng b mc bt, byte (k t) v bn thu ti to ng b
ti v tr bt u ca mi k t nhn -c.
Vi ph-ng thc truyn ng b: mt khung d liu -c
truyn lin tip v bn thu c gng duy tr ng b vi
dng bt n trong khong thi gian truyn khung.
2.1. Ph-ng thc truyn khng ng b:
Nguyn tc:
ng h bn thu v pht l c lp nhau. -c coi nh- l
s dch chuyn ca tng k t mt, mi k t gm 5-8 bt
thng tin -c nh dng bng bt bt u (start) v kt
thc (stop) minh ho bng hnh 3.7.
Start kt 1 Stop Start Start kt 2
1 bt
1 bt 1-2 bt 1-2 bt
5-7 bt
5-7 bt
Khng c
nh

Hnh 3.7: K t truyn dn khng ng b.
Thng th-ng mi k t -c ng khung vi mt bt start
v 1-2 bt stop. Trong mt s tr-ng hp c th thm bt
kim tra chn l pht hin li trong qu trnh truyn,
do vy mi k t truyn c t hn 8 bt thng tin, nu
truyn trn mt knh thoi th tc nh hn 64kbit/s.
khong
trng
hoc bt
stop tr- c
khong
trng
hoc bt
start sau
Start
Stop 5-7 bt
Bn thu d
vtrbt
u ca k
t m i
Ly mu
t i vtr
gia chu
k bt

Hnh 3.8: Qu trnh ng b bt, k t.
Cc tnh ca xung ng vi bt start v stop lun ng-c
nhau m bo phn bit gia cc k t lin tip nhau m
bo ng b k t.
ng b bt ti bn thu thc hin to xung ng h c
tn s ln (bng N ln tc bt) xc nh trng thi
ca mi bt truyn trong k t bng cch ly mu xp x
ti v tr gia chu k bt.
T l l-ng bt thng tin trong mi k t truyn thp nn
hiu sut truyn thng tin khng cao.
Thng th-ng, d liu truyn d-i dng ni tp, nh-ng
ti mi DTE qu trnh x l tn hiu song song, do vy mch
giao din gia cc thit b vi -ng truyn thc hin chc
nng:
- Bin i song song sang ni tip ca mi k t
chun b truyn trn lin kt d liu.
- Bin i ni tip sang song song ca mi k t nhn
-c l-u gi v x l ti thit b.
- Bn thu thc hin -c s ng b bt, k t, khung.
- To ra -c cc k t kim tra li ti bn thu.
Cc chc nng trn -c thc hin:
- Ti bn pht s dng thanh ghi dch chuyn tn hiu
dng song song sang dng ni tip v truyn vo -ng
truyn.
- Ti bn thu cng s dng mt thanh ghi dch chuyn
i ng-c li ng thi s dng thm cng logic AND
pht hin ng byte cn thu.
- t -c ng b bt, k t phi thit lp mch iu
khin truyn dn hot ng ng b vi cc k t nh-
bn pht.
0 1 1
0
1 : chp nhn
dl
0 : hu b dl
Tx CLK
Rx CLK
Start
Stop
Bin i song song
sang ni tip
Bin i ni tip
sang song song

Hnh 3.9: Qu trnh truyn khng ng b.
1. ng b bt:
Trong ph-ng thc ny, xung ng h bn thu c lp vi
bn pht. qu trnh dch chuyn d liu vo thanh ghi
chnh xc, phi to xung ng h sao cho thc hin ly
mu gn gia chu k bt.
thc hin -c, CLK bn thu th-ng gp N tc bt
R
b
(m xung gn chnh xc sai lch v tr gia chu k bt
l 1/N.R
b
). Khi c s dch chuyn s-n xung tn hiu t
10 (s-n m), bt u qu trnh m chu k thu bt
u tin (1/N xung), v ln l-t thu cc bt tip theo.
1 1 0 TxC
Tr m ph t
msb
lsb
1 1 0
m chia
N
msb
lsb
Tr m thu
RxC = N.TxC

TxC
TxD
0 1 1
Start
Stop
0 1 1
Start
Stop
Thi gian
Thi gian RxD
RxC
Tr m ph t
Tr m thu

Hnh 3.10: Qu trnh thc hin ng b bt.
Bn thu c RxC khng ng b vi RxD, v tr chuyn
dch s ri vo mt trong cc chu k xung CLK. Do vy tn
s xung RxC cng ln th kh nng ly mu vo gia chu k
bt cng ln.
Do hn ch v mt to tn hiu xung CLK c tn s ln
(19.2kHz), tc bt trong ph-ng thc ny ln nht t
-c 9600b/s. Nu tng tc pht R
b
th gim h s t l
N, do vy chnh lch v tr thu so vi v tr gia
xung tng (nu ln hn 50% gy ln thu nhm).
chnh lch bng 1/N , vi N = 2 th chnh lch
bng 50% T
b
dn ti thu sai bt, vy vi tn s xung
19.2kHz th tc d liu ln nht m bo truyn khng
sai bt R = 9600b/s.
2. ng b k t:
- Bn thu v bn pht qui nh cng s l-ng bt trong
mi k t v s l-ng bt bt u.
- Sau khi thu -c bt bt u thc hin m s l-ng bt
thu -c hoc bng bt kt thc.
3. ng b khung:
- Khi gi tin gm nhiu k t, th ngoi vic xc nh
ng b bt v k t cn thc hin ng b khung (pht
hin v tr bt u).
- Thc hin bng cch ng gi vo gia 2 k t iu
khin bt u v kt thc STX v ETX.
STX R A F ETX

- Trong tr-ng hp k t d liu c th trng vi mt k
t iu khin STX, ETX thm cc k t DLE (ng khung
d liu lin kt).
DLE STX A DLE ETX

ng dng:
Trong truyn dn tc thp, khong cch truyn khng
xa, khng yu cu v thi gian thc. V d ng dng trong
truyn d liu gia my tnh v thit b ngoi vi nh- vi
bn phm, chut, my in, modem, my fax.. -c ng dng
rng ri trong cc mng chuyn mch gi do cc gi tn -c
ng sn thnh cc khi vi tiu nn d trong vic nhn
dng cc byte thng tin.
Ph-ng thc ny hay -c s dng trong my thu pht khng
ng b a nng UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver
Transmitter). Bn thu bt u bng vic d s-n ca xung
bt u. ng h bn thu -c to ra bng ng h ni n
nh cao, th-ng tn s khong 16-32 ln tc d liu d
nh tr-c. Xc nh ng v tr bt start bng cch t v
tr s-n xung bt start d -c m trn tn s cao s
l-ng xung va ti v tr gia bt start. Khi xc
nh ng bt bt u t v tr xc nh ng cc bt d
liu.
c im:
+ u im: yu cu nh thi l n gin nht v d khi
truyn vi gi thit sai lch ng h l 5% th vic ly
mu cho bt cui cng l bt th 8 sai lch ng h l 45%
th vn ly mu ng vo bt nn vn thu ng.
Ch trong tr-ng hp sai lch ng h ln th c th lm
bn thu ly mu sai v d sai lch ng h khong 7% vi
tc d liu 10000bit/s thi gian ca mt bt l 0.1s =
100ns. Gi s nhanh hn 7% tc l ly mu sau 93ns. Nh-
trn hnh v 3.11 thy -c ly mu bt cui b nhm.
nh thi ph t
nh thi ph t
Start Stop 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
744
0 94 186 279 372 465 558
651

Hnh 3.11 Ly mu nhm khi c s sai lch ng h.
+ Nh-c im: hiu sut truyn thp do phi truyn cc
bt ph nh- bt start, stop, parity (kim tra chn l ), v
d 1 bt start, 2 bt stop, 1 bt parity, 8 bt d liu th
hiu sut l
8 8 1 2 1 66.7% .
2.2. Ph-ng thc truyn ng b:
Nguyn tc:
Cc khung d liu -c truyn lin tc(khng c khong
gin on). thc hin ng b thu v pht:
- Lung d liu pht i -c m ho sao cho bn thu c
th khi phc -c CLK.
- Tt c cc khung -c nh tr-c bi mt hoc nhiu
byte (k t) m bo bn thu khi phc -c cc byte
gii hn mt cch chnh xc.
- Mi khung -c ng gi gia 2 k t thc hin ng
b khung.
Trong ph-ng thc ny, trong khong thi gian truyn gia
2 khung k tip, k t ng b -c truyn lin tc
bn thu khi phc -c ng b bt/byte.
khung
D liu
Byte
bt u
Byte kt
thc

Truyn dn ng b th-ng bng 3 s : h-ng k t ,
h-ng m v h-ng bt. Cc ph-ng thc ny u s dng
chung mt k thut ng b bt.
* ng b bt:
Mc d dng cc bt start v stop trong mi k t phn
bit ng b hay khng ng b, s khc nhau c bn gia 2
ph-ng thc ny l xung ng h bn thu khng ng b vi
tn hiu n, ng-c li ng b l ng h bn thu hot
ng ng b vi tn hiu nhn -c.
Mi khung -c truyn lin tc, sau my thu duy tr
ng b bng mt trong 3cch sau:
+ Bng mt lin kt ring bit (nh- trong X.21, RS-449)
+ -c m ha trong d liu (trong m -ng dy AMI,
HDB3, Manchester), sau ti bn thu thc hin tch tn
hiu xung ng h CLK.
+ Bn thu c b to xung ng h ring v to s ng b
vi tn hiu CLK ca my pht bng thit b vng kho pha
s (DPLL).
M ho
CLK
CLK PISO T ch CLK SIPO
TxD RxD
M ho
CLK
CLK PISO
PLL SIPO
TxD RxD
Gii m bt
N x CLK
M ho
CLK
CLK PISO
DPLL SIPO
TxD RxD
N x CLK
a. M ho xung CLK v truyn
b. D ng PLL t o xung CLK
c. kt h p c 2 ph- ng ph p trn

Hnh 3.12: S ng b bt.
M ho v tch CLK:
D liu ph t
TxC
Tn hiu m ho
TxD, RxD
RxC
D liu thu
- c

Hnh 3.13: Dng tn hiu khi s dng ph-ng php m ho v
tch xung CLK.
Vng kho pha s DPLL:
Thng th-ng s dng vic truyn ng h bng cch m ho
cng d liu, nh- i h thng theo tiu chun G.703 v
Ethernet. Ti bn thu khi phc ng h bng vng kho pha
s (DPLL- Digital Phase Locked Loop).
D liu -c truyn d-i dng khung vi di tr-ng d
liu ln, ngoi ra cc thnh phn iu khin li, c u v
c cui nhm pht hin ra khung d liu truyn. Do kch
th-c phn d liu ln nn ci thin hiu sut truyn.
M ho Gii m
DPLL
Data
CLK
Data
CLK
B n ph t B n thu
CLK

Hnh 3.14: S khi h thng truyn theo ph-ng thc
ng b.
Gii thiu v PLL, DPLL.
o PLL vng kho pha:
Mch iu khin to dao ng c pha khng i t-ng ng
vi tn hiu tham chiu. Ti bn thu s dng PLL to CLK
vi tn hiu tham chiu l 1 phn tn hiu thu -c.
o DPLL vng kho pha s gm :
- Thanh ghi dch ni tip thc hin thu cc bt d liu
nhn -c.
- B to xung CLK n nh thanh ghi dch hot ng.
- Mch hiu chnh pha to li tn hiu CLK ng pha vi
tn hiu thu -c.
o Nguyn l hot ng ca DPLL:
Ly mu tn hiu thu -c vi tn s CLK cc b ca bn
thu (bng khong 32 ln f
CLK
cn to li)
Mi mu tn hiu -c -a vo thanh ghi dch.
iu chnh pha ca tn hiu CLK pht li thng qua qu
trnh thit lp mu tn hiu trn thanh ghi dch:
- Nu v tr trung tm ca bt nm ng gia thanh ghi dch
th tn hiu CLK to li ng pha vi tn hiu bn pht.
- Nu v tr trung tm lch so khi v tr gia thanh ghi
dch th thc hin hiu chnh pha tn hiu CLK to li.
c im:
+ u im:
Tn hiu nh thi ti bn thu chnh xc nn c th
truyn ti tc cao.
Do dng vng kha pha s to li xung ng h nn c
th ko tr mt xung khi c hin t-ng tri xung.
+ Nh-c im:
Thit k cc giao tip phc tp.
Kh kt hp vi cc giao din vi nhau do yu cu ng b
mt cch chnh xc.
ng dng:
C th khng khi phc -c xung ng h mt cch chnh
xc tuyt i nh-ng ng-i ta c th khc phc bng nhiu
bin php k thut nh () m bo thu -c chnh xc
thng tin da trn xung ng h. V vy -c ng dng ch
yu trong cc mng truyn thng tin tc cao vi khong
cch ln nh cc mng ng trc
2.2.1. Truyn ng b h-ng k t:
- Truyn ng b h-ng k t s dng truyn mt khi k
t (nh- mt fle k t ASCII). Trong truyn dn ng b
khng s dng bt start, stop. t -c ng b k t,
bn pht thm vo khung truyn 2 hoc nhiu hn k t iu
khin truyn dn (k t SYN) tr-c mi khi. K t iu
khin c 2 chc nng:
+ Cho php bn thu duy tr ng b bt.
+ Cho php bn thu bt u thu dng bt da trn -ng
bao k t (k t bt u).
SYN SYN STX ETX
kt
ng b
Bt u
khung
Kt thc
khung

- Nh- trong hnh trn ng b khung -c thc hin t-ng t
nh- cc truyn dn khng ng b bng cch ng gi cc k
t (1 khung) bi cp k t iu khin STX v ETX. Cc k t
iu khin SYN -c s dng bn thu t ng b tr-c
khi nhn k t bt u khung STX. Khi bn thu duy tr
ng b th bt u thc hin thu bt (hunt mode).
00 01101000 01101000 01101000 01000000 00110
SYN SYN SYN STX D liu
M y thu
ch d
D kt
SYN
Nhn kt
SYN

- Ngoi ra d liu truyn trong sut, c th thc hin
chn thm cc k t DLE d on tr-c k t iu khin.
SYN SYN DLE DLE
kt
ng b
Bt u
khung
Kt thc
khung
STX DLE DLE ETX .. ..
Khung d liu


Giao thc h-ng k t:
Cc giao thc h-ng k t -c pht trin t nhng nm
1960 v hin vn ang -c dng kh rng ri, tuy km
phn hp dn so vi cc giao thc h-ng bt.
Bng 3.1: Cc k t iu khin c bn
SYN Synchronous Idle Gi cho knh trng
thi tch cc
PAD Frame Pad Lp y gia cc k t
DLE Data Link Escape Dng t chc trong
sut theo m
ENQ Enquiry Dng vi kiu thm
d/chn lc
SOH Start of Header Khi u ca mo u
STX Start of Text Khi u vn bn
ITB End of
Intermediate
Block
Kt thc mt khi trung
gian
ETB End of
Transmision Block
Kt thc khi truyn
ETX End of Text Kt thc vn bn
EOT End of
Transmission
Kt thc truyn
ACK Acknowledge Phc p tch cc (phc
p d-ng)
NAK Negative
Acknowledge
Phc p ph nh (phc
p m)
BCC Block Check
Character
K t kim tra khi
Chng ta s xem xt mt giao thc h-ng k t c tn gi
l giao thc iu khin ng b nh phn BSC (Binary
Synchronous Control, bisynch). Giao thc ny gn vi mt b
m k t c th ( EBCDIC hay ASCII) v trong b m ny, mt
s k t l k t vn bn, mt s l k t iu khin. Cc
k t iu khin chung nht -c lit k trong bng 3.2.
Bng 3.2: Bng m ASCII
Quy tc: V d: Xc nh m ca k
t SYN
m HEX ct 1 6 Nh phn b
7
b
6

b
5
b
4
b
3
b
2
b
1

Hng 0 1 1 0 1
1 0
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

b
7


b
6


b
5


b
4


b
3


b
2


b
1

Ct
Hng

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7
0 0 0 0 0 NUL DLE
(TC7)
S
P
0 @ P ' p
0 0 0 1 1 SOH
(TC1)
DC 1 ! 1 A Q a q
0 0 1 0 2 STX
(TC2)
DC 2 " 2 B R b r
0 0 1 1 3 ETX
(TC3)
DC 3 # 3 C S c s
0 1 0 0 4 EOT
(TC4)
DC 4 $ 4 D T d t
0 1 0 1 5 ENQ
(TC5)
NAK
(TC8)
% 5 E U e u
0 1 1 0 6 ACK
(TC6)
SYN
(TC9)
& 6 F V f v
0 1 1 1 7 BEL ETB ' 7 G W g w
(TC10)
1 0 0 0 8 FE 0
(BS)
CAN ( 8 H X h x
1 0 0 1 9 FE 1
(HT)
EM ) 9 I Y i y
1 0 1 0 A FE 2
(LF)
SUB * : J Z j z
1 0 1 1 B FE 3
(VT)
ESC + ; K [ k {
1 1 0 0 C FE 4
(FF)
IS 4
(FS)
, < L \ l |
1 1 0 1 D FE 5
(CR)
IS 3
(GS)
- = M ] m }
1 1 1 0 E SO IS 2
(RS)
. > N ^ n -
1 1 1 1 F SI IS 1
(US)
/ ? O _ o D
E
L
Hnh 3.15 -a ra mt v d minh ho cch truyn mt
vn bn khi dng BSC. ng b v k t gia u pht v
u thu, hai hay nhiu k t SYN -c bt u cho mi khi
d liu. D liu ch dng vn bn, khng -c php c cc
k t iu khin, hay ni mt cch hnh t-ng: d liu
khng trong sut.
S
Y
N
S
Y
N
S
T
X

D liu dng vn bn
(Khng trong sut)
E
T
X

BCC
Hnh 3.15
Song trn -ng truyn c th c nhng sai lch bin k
t vn bn thnh k t iu khin, hay khi cn phi gi cc
thng tin dng bt k khng ch l vn bn. Khi ny c
th ny sinh mt s vn . Tr-c ht ta hy v d khi do
mt s thay i no , d liu ng-i dng c mt k t
EXT. (hnh 3.16).
S
Y
N
S
Y
N
S
T
X

D liu

E
T
X

D liu
E
T
X
Kim
tra
li



Hnh 3.16.
Bn tin s b ngng gia chng v phn sau s b mt.
iu ny l khng th chp nhn -c. Nh dng thm k t
DLE (Dala link Escape), vn ny -c khc phc khi i
hi tr-c cc k t ETX v STX u phi c k t DLE mi c
tc dng. t-ng ny -c m t trn hnh 3.17. Nh vy,
mc d c k t ETX xut hin trong d liu ng-i dng, bn
tin vn -c kt thc mt cch chnh xc.
S
Y
N
S
Y
N
D
L
E
S
T
X

D liu
trong sut
D
L
E
E
T
X
Kim
tra
li
Hnh 3.17.
m bo tnh trong sut tht s, nu c k t DLE cn
truyn trong d liu ng-i dng, k t ny -c pht p 2
ln t bn pht v s -c phn thu l-c b t ng. Khi
ny d liu l bt k, v giao thc c th truyn cc loi
thng tin bt k nh- vn bn, c s d liu, ch-ng trnh
my tnh...vv
H thng ngh
rng y l k t
iu khin ETX
H thng ngh
rng y l m
kim tra li
Hnh 3.18 m t mt v d truyn bn tin phc tp hn vi
tip u (header) v hai tr-ng d liu km theo khi kim
tra m ca chng.

S
Y
N
S
O
H

Ti
p
u
D
L
E
S
T
X
D
liu
trong
sut
D
L
E
I
T
B
B
C
C
D
L
E
S
T
X
D
liu
trong
sut
D
L
E
E
T
B
B
C
C
Hnh 3.18.
Vic ph thuc vo mt b m k t c th l nh-c im
ca giao thc ng b h-ng k t. Bn cnh , cc giao
thc h-ng k t cn c hn ch khi lm vic trong ch
bn song cng: Mi khi d liu sau khi pht u i hi
phi c tr li ACK t u thu tr-c khi c th pht tip
khi khc. iu ny c th nh h-ng ln ti hiu sut,
nht l vi nhng -ng truyn di nh- thng tin v tinh.
2.2.2. Truyn ng b h-ng m:
Trong giao thc h-ng theo cch m, di (tnh theo
Byte) ca gi d liu -c xc nh. Hnh 3.19 m t cch
t chc ny.
SOH S
gi
LEN D liu Kim
tra
Hnh 3.19
Ngoi tr-ng d liu, cc tr-ng khc u c di l 1
Byte. di tr-ng d liu -c xc nh bi gi tr trong
tr-ng LEN (LENG = di). in hnh cho giao thc ny l
th tc Kermit.
Mt dng t chc khc l dng gi vi di c nh, nh-
th tc X-MODEM. Trong th tc ny, di mi gi d liu
-c quy nh sn l 128 Byte. Byte cui kim tra theo
cch kim tra tng. tin cy trong sp xp gi, thng tin
v s gi -c -a lm 2 ln: theo s gi v s b ca n
theo modul 2. Vi cc ph-ng n ci tin sau ny l X-MODEM
CRC, di tr-ng d liu c th ln ti 1Kbyte = 1028
Byte v dng 2 Byte kim tra theo m CRC
SOH

S
gi
B
ca
s
gi
d liu
(128 Byte)
CHECK
SUM
Hnh 3.20 T chc khung theo chun X MODEM
Cc giao thc h-ng theo cch m khng -c ng dng
rng ri. Chng gp phi mt s vn . V d nh- khi
truyn trn cc -ng truyn s, phn -ng truyn c th
thm vo mt s d liu iu khin/nh thi vo trong d
liu truyn, c th lm cho u thu b m nhm.
2.2.3. Truyn ng b h-ng bt:
Ph-ng php truyn ng b h-ng k t c c im: cn
mt cp k t bt u v kt thc cho mi khung ng b
khung, v cp k t DLE truyn d liu trong sut, do
vy s truyn ng b h-ng k t khng hiu qu. Hn
na, dng ca k t iu khin thay i i vi tp k t
khc nhau. Thm ch khung cha ton b d liu n gin.
khc phc, dng k thut truyn ng b h-ng bt, vi s
gm 3 phn chnh.
01111110 D liu 01111110
C C

Hnh 3.21: Cu trc khung HDLC
ng dng truyn trong lin kt im - im.
bn thu pht hin v duy tr ng b bn pht thc
hin pht d liu trong gii hn gia 2 c.
d liu truyn trong sut th phn c khng xut hin
trong khung d liu. Thc hin bng k thut chn thm bt
0. Mch thc hin chc nng ny t ti u ra ca thanh
ghi PISO. i vi tr-ng c c dng 01111110 th m sau 5
bt 1 lin tip t ng chn thm bt 0 v ti bn thu
thc hin ng-c li.
Ch n bt
0
PISO
Xo bt 0
SIPO
TxD RxD
TxC
Enable/
disable
RxC
Enable/
disable
01111110 11011001111101101111100 01111110
ch n vo (ph t)
xo b (thu)
C u
C cui

Hnh 3.22: S thc hin m bo d liu truyn
trong sut.

Giao thc truyn k t h-ng bt:
Giao thc truyn ng b h-ng bt -c pht trin t
nhng nm 1970 v hin nay chim -u th rng ri.
Giao thc h-ng bt hon ton khng da trn mt b m
alphabeta no nh- ASCII hay EBCDIC. Trong cc giao thc
ny, cu trc khi (Frame) -c chun ho cho vic trao i
d liu thng tin, cc lnh iu khin v cc phc p. Mt
octet (8 bt) theo mu c bit -c to thnh (gi l c)
nh du mt khung. C ng ng thi l c m cho khung
tip sau. u pht s dng k thut chn bt trong khi
d liu s khng xut hin mt t hp bt no ging nh- c.
u thu s t ng pht hin v loi b cc bt chn.
Hai giao thc h-ng bit ph bin nht l:
- SDLC: iu khin lin kt s liu ng b (Synchronous
Data Link Control)
- HDLC: iu khin lin kt s liu mc cao (High Level
Data Link Control)
Cu trc khung ca HDLC ch ra trn hnh 3.21. C chim
mt Octet. Tr-ng a ch v tr-ng iu khin c th l 1
hay 2 Octet. di ca tr-ng d liu thay i, ti thiu
l 0. Bn tin -c bo v bng m iu khin li CRC cha 2
(hoc 4) octet. Thi gian gia cc ln truyn ca cc khung
thc t trn knh -c gi l thi gian lp y gia
khung. Thi gian lp y ny -c thc hin bng cch
truyn lin tc cc c gia cc khung.

C
Tr-
ng
a
ch
Tr-n
g
iu
khin

D liu ng-i dng


CRC

CRC

C
Hnh 3.23 Cu trc khung HDLC.
HDCL l giao thc trong sut vi cc m, ngha l n
khng nhy cm vi cc h thng m -c p dng cho d liu
ng-i dng. Giao thc ny s -c chng ta nghin cu k
trong phn sau.