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Group No : 45
Topic : The Prevalence of Anemia Among Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM)
Medical Students
Year : 2 (2!"#2!4)
Group Members:
Mohd $a%%afri &in Mohd $a%ani 2!2'("4
)ad%lin *a+,a &inti Anuar 2!2(-(54(
*or S.amira *adia &inti /osdi 2!22'!05'
)arhah &inti /ahiman 2!24""-"'
$a1d%ah &inti 2iak Udin 2!2'4"'''
Supervisor : Dr Fatmawati binti Kamal
Exeu!ive Su""#r$
Anemia is defined as a reduction of the total circulating red cell mass below normal limits. [1]
Anemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries with
major conseuences for human health as well as social and economic development. !t occurs at all
stages of the life c"cle. #loball"$ anaemia affects 1.%& billion people '()* +!: 1.),-1../ billion0$
which corresponds to &/.1* of the population '()* +!: &&.(-&%..*0. 2he highest prevalence is in
preschool3age children '/../*$ ()* +!: /)..-/(.10$ and the lowest prevalence is in men '1&..*$ ()*
+!: 1.%-1%.(*0. 4owever$ the population group with the greatest number of individuals affected is
non3pregnant women '/%1./ million$ ()* +!: //%.&-/(,.%0. [&]
Anemia is the result of a wide variet" of causes that can be isolated$ but more often coe5ist.
2he major broad causes of anemia are blood loss$ lac6 of red blood cell '78+0 production and high
rates of 78+ destruction in which blood loss is the major contributor especiall" iron deficienc"
anemia [9] that can be due to heav" menstrual c"cle$ bleeding in digestive or urinar" tract$ trauma and
surger". :n the other hand$ inadeuate production of 78+ is associated with chronic diseases such as
malignanc"$ rheumatologic disease and serious infection. [/] ;5amples of conditions that can cause
high rates of 78+ destruction include hemoglobinopathies$ 78+ membrane defects and 78+ en<"me
!t is important to recognise anemia because anemia is an indicator of poor health. =suall"$
anemic person often presented with wea6ness$ fatigue$ shortness of breath$ headache$ chest pain$
palpitations and also pale or "ellow s6in.
1,, subjects will be recruited from the =i2> medical student . 8lood samples will be sent for
complete blood count '+8+0 to assess the presence of anemia. As we get the +8+ the hemoglobin
level is observe and screening is done. 2he 1,, =i2> students are also given a uestionnaire to
provide information about their dail" routine such as their meal$ occupation and some of their
personal information.
1. 2o stud" the prevalence of anaemia among =i2> medical students
&. 2o investigate the causes of anaemia among =i2> medical students
?tud" design : +ross3sectional stud" using
?tud" site : =i2> ?g 8uloh
?ample si<e : 1,, undergraduate medical students
7ecruitment: >edical students who participated in the @2halassaemia Awareness Da"A will be traced
bac6 and contacted to participate in the uestionnaire
?ample collection method: Data are e5tracted from the complete blood count '+8+0 results of the
samples ta6en during the @2halassaemia Awareness Da"A
Data tools B 2echniues :
o 2he subject will have to answer a semi structured uestionnaire
Data anal"sis :
o Data will be anal"sed using statistical pac6age for social science'?C??0 to calculate
mean and standard deviation for hemoglobin '4b0$ mean corpuscular volume '>+D0
and mean corpuscular hemoglobin '>+40. +hi sure test and binar" logistic
regression with categorical variable will be used.
+ee,)$ S'e(u)e
wee6 B &
wee6 : Fiterature search about anemia and sample collection.
wee6 B /
wee6 : Data anal"sis and reporting.
!3 4umar5 63 (2!)3 Pathologic Basis of Disease. Philade7lhia5 USA: Saunders
23 9orld $ealth :rganisation3 (2')3 ;lo<al anaemia 7revalence and
num<er of individuals a=ected3 Worldwide Prevalence of Anemia 1993-
20055 !03
"3 What a!ses Anemia" (2!25 Ma. !')3 /etrieved A7ril !05 2!45 from
*ational $eart5 >ung and &lood ?nstitute ,e<site:
43 Schmaier5 A3 $3 (2!2)3 oncise #!ide to $ematolog%. :Aford: &lack,ell
Pu<lishing >td3
(2r )atma,ati <inti 4amal)
P#r! I 0 De"o*r#p'i i.-or"#!io.
Age : "ears
#ender : ' 0 >ale ' 0 Female
>arital ?tatus : ' 0 >arried ' 0 =nmarried
P#r! II 0
Do "ou have an" histor" of chronic diseasesG ' 0H;? ' 0E:
'eg Diabetes >ellitus0
Do "ou have an" histor" of hemorrhoidG ' 0H;? ' 0E:
Do "ou have an" histor" of gastrititisG ' 0H;? ' 0E:
Do "ou have famil" histor" of 2halassemiaG ' 0H;? ' 0E:
!s "our menstrual c"cle normalG ' 0H;? ' 0E:
Do "ou perform an" e5erciseG ' 0H;? ' 0E:
Age : IIIII "ears
#ender : ' 0 >ale ' 0 Female
>arital ?tatus : ' 0 >arried ' 0 =nmarried
Do "ou often feel tiredG ' 0H;? ' 0E:
Do "ou have an" histor" of gastrititisG ' 0H;? ' 0E:
Do "ou use E?A!Ds regularl"G ' 0H;? ' 0E:
Do "ou have an" histor" of bleedingG ' 0H;? ' 0E:
'eg 4emorrhoid$ >enorrhagia0
Do "ou have an" famil" histor" of bleeding problemG ' 0H;? ' 0E:
'eg 2halassemia$ 8leeding Disorder0
Do "ou e5ercise regularl"G ' 0H;? ' 0E:
!f "es please state freuenc" IIIIIIIIIIIIII
Do "ou have an" histor" of chronic diseasesG ' 0H;? ' 0E:
'eg Diabetes >ellitus$ 7heumatoid Arthritis$
?"stemic Fupus ;r"thematosus0