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Anchor Design

28
1
1)
k, depends on the number of tests,
v, coefficient of variation.
M
1

F
1

6. Anchor design
6.1 Safety concept
This Fastening Technology Manual uses two different safety concepts:
Partial safety factor concept,
M
,
F
The partial safety factor concept is valid for all
versions of the following anchors:
HDA, HSC, HSL-3, HST, HSA, HKD, HLC,
HHD-S, DBZ, HA 8, HUS, HRD, HPS-1, HUD-1,
HUD-L, HGN, HLD, HSP, HVZ, HVA, HVA-UW,
HIT-HY 150,HIT-ICE, HIT-HY 50, HIT-HY 20,
Global safety factor concept,
The global safety factor concept is valid for the
following anchors:
IDP, IZ, IN, IDMS, IDMR, HRA, HRC, HRT, HWB
HIT-RE 500
The safety concept, which uses the global safety factor, is being increasingly replaced by the partial safety factor
concept. One important feature of this partial safety factor concept is the strict separation of the
partial safety factors for the applied loads
and the
partial safety factors for the resistance of the fastening to these loads
Partial safety factors for loads are intended to cover uncertainties and scatter where loads are concerned. Partial
safety factors for resistance covers uncertainties and the scatter pertaining to the resistance, i.e. the load
bearing capacity of the fastening.
m , u
R mean ultimate Resistance
k
R characteristic Resistance
d
R design Resistance
rec
R Recommended load
v k 1
1)
d F
R
S actual load

rec
R Recommended load
k
R characteristic Resistance
m , u
R mean ultimate Resistance
v k 1
1)
Anchor Design
29
6.2 Design methods
When top-quality medium and heavy-duty fastenings have to be made in concrete, it is often necessary
for them to be sized in accordance with standard engineering practice to make sure that not only the
anchor fastening design is optimally utilised, but also that the required level of safety is guaranteed.
The current international state of the art regarding the design of fastenings [1], the so called concrete
capacity method (CC-Method) was used as the basis for this product information. This design method was
simplified to retain as much as possible of the previous design method, while including as much of the
latest approach as possible.
The main features of the new design method are:
Differentiation between failure modes: pull-out/concrete or steel failure.
The different failure modes, which occur when the anchor is loaded to failure are treated separately.
Differentiation of the safety factors based on different failure modes.
How these features are used in the actual fastening design is shown on page 30 and 31.
The benefits of this approach are:
The new method reflects the actual anchor behaviour in a more accurate fashion. Thus leading to
higher loads in certain applications.
The differentiation between failure modes allows more flexibility with regard to the steel elements
without having to perform a new design calculation.
The data given are in conformance with upcoming design codes such as the design method according
to ETAG Annex C or ACI 318 chapter 22 (or see Ref. [1]).
The anchors for which this design method is used are:
HDA, HSL-3, HSC, HKD, HST, HSA, HVZ, HIT-TZ, HVA, HVA-UW, HIT-HY 150, HIT-ICE, HIT-RE 500
The anchors for light-duty (HLC, DBZ, HA8, HHD, HLD, HPS-1, HRD, HUD, HGN, HUS-S, HSP, IN, IDP,
IDMS, IDMR, IZ, HIT-HY 50, HIT-HY 20) as well as the anchors for special applications (HRC, HRT, HRA,
HWB) are used with the anchor fastening being designed, only on a very simple basis. The load values
are based on test results, made in mainly inhomogeneous base materials and under special conditions.
[1] Comit Euro-International du Bton, Design of Fastenings in concrete: Design Guide - Parts 1 to 3,
Bulletin 233, Thomas Telford Publishing, January 1997.
Anchor Design
30
1
Pull-out failure
0
p , Rd
N basic value of design
resistance
N , B
f concrete strength
influencing factor
Concrete failure
0
c , Rd
N basic value of design
resistance
N , B
f concrete strength
influencing factor
Steel failure
T
f anchorage depth
influencing factor
N , A
f anchor spacing
influencing factor
N , R
f edge distance
influencing factor
Final design resistance against
concrete failure:
N , R N , A T N , B
0
c , Rd c , Rd
f f f f N N
Final design resistance
against pull-out failure:
T N , B
0
p , Rd p , Rd
f f N N
Final design tensile resistance:

s , Rd c , Rd p , Rd Rd
N ; N ; N min N
Safety check:
Rd Sd
N N
Sd
N design value of applied
tensile loads
T
f anchorage depth
influencing factor
s , Rd
N , design tensile
resistance of steel
6.2.1 New design method
Tensile resistance:
Three failure modes can appear in this load direction, namely pull-out failure, concrete failure and failure
of the steel element. The following chart shows the flow of required calculations:
Anchor Design
31
Shear resistance:
A distinction is made between two failure modes with this type (direction) of loading, namely concrete
edge failure, i. e. breaking away of the concrete component edge and the shear failure of the steel
element. The following chart shows the flow of required calculations:
Concrete edge failure
0
c , Rd
V basic value of design resistance
V , B
f concrete strength influencing
factor
Steel failure
s , Rd
V , design tensile resistance of steel
V , AR
f anchor spacing and edge
distance influence factor
V ,
f

influencing factor for direction of


loading
Final design resistance to concrete
failure:
V , V , AR V , B
0
c , Rd c , Rd
f f f V V


Rec. load:

s , Rd c , Rd Rd
V ; V min V
Safety check:
Rd Sd
V V
Sd
V design value of applied shear
loads
Anchor Design
32
Combined load:
If there are combinations of tensile and shear loads, i. e. loads under an angle o with respect to the
anchor axis, the design check is given by:
( ) ( ) o s o
Rd Sd
F F
The design action, F
Sd,
at an angle o is given by:
2
Sd
2
Sd Sd
V N F + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= o
Sd
Sd
N
V
arctan
Where
N
Sd
= tensile component
V
Sd
= shear component
The design resistance (loading capacity), F
Rd
,at an angle o is given by:
3
2
5 . 1
Rd
5 . 1
Rd
Rd
V
sin
N
cos
F

|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| o
+
|
|
.
|

\
| o
=
Where
N
Rd
= design resistance for pure tension
V
Rd
= design resistance for pure shear
as calculated previously
Sd
Sd
Sd
1