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Appendix 1
10.1 Rebar fastening application 287
10.1.1 Post-fix system advantages 287
10.1.2 Application examples 287
10.2 Product Information Hilti HIT-HY150 Rebar 290
10.2.1 The injection system 290
10.2.2 Adhesive bond 290
10.2.3 Installation 291
10.3 Rebar Fastening Design Concept 293
10.3.1 Scope 293
10.3.2 Symbols 294
10.3.3 Fastening design 297
10.3.4 Detailing provisions 301
10.3.5 Transmissible forces 305
10.4 Examples of applications 306
10.4.1 Wall connection 306
10.4.2 Wall extension 307
10.4.3 Installation of an intermediate floor 308
10.4.4 Installation of steps between landings 310
10.5 Test reports, Supplementary information 311
10.5.1 Relevant reports 311
10.5.2 Test results: Pull-out tests on rebars 311
10.5.3 Test results: Full scale beam test 313
286
5
Rebar fastening design
287
10.1.1 Post-fix system advantages
With the use of the Hilti HIT-HY150 injection system it is
possible to connect new concrete to existing structures with maximum
confidence and flexibility.

design flexibility

formwork simplification

reliable like cast in

defined load characteristics

simple, high confidence application

horizontal, vertical and overhead applications


10.1.2 Application examples
Floor slab connection
Intermediate floor slabs
Structural alterations, renovation works
Reinstate temporary openings, e.g. tower cranes,
debris removal
simplification of wall formwork
flexibility of construction methods
unobstructed temporary openings
reduced risk of reinforcement damage
Wall and beam connections
Construction joints
Structural extension
Horizontal starter bars
reinforcement continuity
simplified fixing and stripping of formwork
unobstructed joint preparation
small drill hole dimensions
10 Appendix 1
10.1 Rebar fastening application
Rebar fastening design
288
5
Vertical connections
New columns, piers
Structural enhancement
Pile caps
accurate location
no complex reinforcement fixing
unobstructed site access
Major structural repair
Bridge parapet renovation
Structural upgrading
Concrete remedial works
reduced concrete removal
avoid reinforcement welding or similar connections
overhead installation
Structural connections
Staircases
Counterforts
Manholes
Corbels
accurate location of starter bars
allows for complex details
simplified wall formwork and joint
preparation
odour free for confined space working
Rebar fastening design
289
Retaining walls
Diaphragm walls
Contiguous walls
Curtain walls
easy application
small diameter drill holes
connection of deformed bars
moisture tolerant solution
Concrete overlay
Bridge deck renovation
Structural bonding across composite
interfaces
Structural upgrading of slabs and beams
rapid serial application
small hole dimensions
quick curing
Cantilever connections
Balcony
Access platforms
Landings
negligible displacement
deformed bar fixing
high confidence like cast in
short rebar exposure avoids rust staining
Rebar fastening design
290
5
10.2 Product Information Hilti HIT-HY150 Rebar
10.2.1 The injection system
The Hilti HIT-HY150 injection system is designed to be safe and simple in
application resulting in high quality reinforcement fixings.
Its components:
Dispenser MD2000:
Manual dispenser.
Ergonomic design.
Consistent performance.
Foil pack:
330ml of two-component adhesive.
Opens automatically.
Reliable mixing.
Cassette as refillable cartridge:
Stability in use.
Storage function.
Reduces waste.
10.2.2 Adhesive bond
Hilti HIT-HY 150 adhesive is a hybrid system consisting of
organic and inorganic binding agents.
The polymerisation reaction of the resin component ensures good bon-
ding and a rapid curing injection system with good handling characteri-
stics.
The cementitious reaction improves stiffness and bonding, especially at
higher temperatures.
The combined action of the two components results in negligible material
shrinkage.
The result is a very strong bond between rebar and concrete similar to
that of cast in situ reinforcement.
The hybrid mortar contains no styrene and is virtually odourless.
Organic
agents
Cementitous
agents
Strong
hybrid bond
+

Dispensers MD 2000 for foil pack P 5000 HY for jumbo cartridges


Foil pack: Jumbo cartridge:
(330 ml) (1100 ml)
BD 2000 for foil pack
Rebar fastening design
291
10.2.3 Installation
The holes shall be drilled with a
rotary percussive drill to ensure
adequate hole surface roughn-
ess. Diamond core drills shall
not be used without subse-
quent surface roughening. Ho-
les shall be dry at the time of
anchor installation.
Used foil packs can be stored in
the cassette for up to four
weeks. To restart, just change
the mixer nozzle.
Reject material from first trigger
pull.
Start injecting from the bottom
of the hole to ensure complete
filling. Some mortar should
overflow upon inserting the reb-
ar to show complete filling.
Allow for complete curing befo-
re applying any load.
To transfer shear loads the surfa-
ce of the existing concrete
should be roughened.
Prepare hole
Prepare HIT system
Injecte
and insert rebar
Allow to cure
Roughen surface
for shear loading
3 2
3x
3x
1
1
2
MD 2000
3
4 5 6
8
MD 2000
MD 2000
7 9
12 11 10
Drill hole Brush out hole Blow out hole
Put foil pack Screw mixer Put this
into holder onto foil pack assembly into
MD 2000
dispenser.
Inject into hole Unlock Insert rebar
dispenser
Straighten rebar Allow to cure Concrete.
Rebar fastening design
292
5
The curing time is dependent on temperature:
Foil pack temperature between 5 C and 40 C!
The correct drill diameter is important for the perfomance of the adhesive
bond as well as for the economy of the application.
The necessary injection volume can be calculated to fill the space bet-
ween rebar and hole wall plus enough safety measure to allow for too
deep drilling, cavities in the base material, overflow etc.
Rule of thumb: fill hole 2/3 full
Calculated Volume [ml]: V
[ml]
= l
b,inst
(D
2
-
2
)/1000
volume:
Volume [trigger V
[MD]
= l
b,inst
(D
2
-
2
)/8000
pulls MD2000]:
Curing time
Drill diameter
Injection volume
Base material Gelling time Curing time
temperature t
gel
t
cure
-5 C 90 min 6 h
0 C 45 min 3 h
5 C 25 min 1,5 h
20 C 6 min 50 min
30 C 4 min 40 min
40 C 2 min 30 min
Nominal Maximum
rebar diameter recommended hole
diameter
D
8 mm 12 mm
10 mm 14 mm
12 mm 16 mm
14 mm 18 mm
16 mm 22 mm
20 mm 28 mm
25 mm 32 mm
Rebar fastening design
293
10.3 Rebar Fastening Design Concept
10.3.1 Scope
The design method presented here is based on Eurocode 2: ENV 1992-1-
1 Design of concrete structures, Part1, General rules and rules for buil-
dings [5]
Consequently, it only applies to reinforced concrete. In the case of non-
reinforced concrete, or if the reinforcement is not known the anchor
theory in the fastening technology manual must be used.
Rebar connections in reinforced and non-reinforced concrete set up a dif-
ferent flow of forces:
In non-reinforced concrete, the tensile
force, N, is transmitted to the concrete
by the connection rebar. The force
which can be transmitted depends on
the size of the cone of concrete which
would break away with the rebar and
which is influenced by the effective
anchorage length, edge distance and
spacing.
In the case of reinforced concrete, the
edge distance and spacing are not of
primary importance because the ten-
sile force is transmitted by the
connection rebars to the cast-in reb-
ars via the concrete bond between
them.
General rule:
The performance characteristics of rebar fastenings with Hilti HIT-HY150
correspond to those of cast-in rebars. All construction rules set up in Eu-
rocode 2 apply; in particular, the transmission of the anchoring forces
into the connecting building components must be ensured in accor-
dance with the principles of reinforced concrete construction (e.g.
transverse reinforcement, concrete cover etc.).
Design concept
based on Eurocode 2
Anchor design
Rebar fastening
design
Spacing
Z Z
A
n
c
h
o
r
a
g
e
l
e
n
g
t
h
Edge
distance
Z Z
Z Z
N N
N N
N N
Rebar fastening design
294
5
10.3.2 Symbols
The following symbols are used in this manual in accordance with Euro-
code 2:
[mm] Nominal diameter of
ribbed rebar
D [mm] Hole diameter
l
b
[mm] Basic anchorage length
l
b, inst
[mm] Installed anchorage length
l
b, min
[mm] Minimum anchorage length
e [mm] Distance between reinforcing
bar and connection rebar
f
yk
[N/mm
2
] Characteristic yield stress of rebar
This is the stress below which 5% of the strength rea-
dings obtained for the rebar at 2 permanent defor-
mation fall.
Typical stress-strain
diagram of reinforcing
steel (EC2: ENV 1992-
1-1, Fig. 3.2)
Typical distribution of
strength readings with
5%-fractile as charac-
teristic value.
designation
steel strength
yield strength
characteristic value
ft
u
0.2%
fy

95% 5%
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

r
e
a
d
i
n
g
s
f
yk
f
y
lb, inst
e

D
Rebar fastening design
295
(EC2: ENV 1992-1-1,
Table 3.1) cylinder cube
Concrete classification as
per Eurocode
Concrete strength f
ck
f
ck,cube
classes [N/mm
2
] [N/mm
2
]
C 16/20 16 20
C 20/25 20 25
C 25/30 25 30
C 30/37 30 37
C 35/45 35 45

S
Partial safety factor for rebar
This takes account of the difference between the
strength of the test specimens and that of rebars in-
stalled with the usual care.
(EC2: ENV 1992-1-1 Table 2.3)
f
ck
[N/mm
2
] Characteristic compressive cylinder strength of con-
crete at 28 days.
f
ck
is the cylinder compres-
sive strength below which
5% of all strength readings
obtained with the given
concrete fall.
The classification of concrete e.g. C 20/25, refers to
the characteristic cylinder/cube compressive strength
of concrete as defined in section 7.3.1.1 of ENV 206.
Safety factor steel
Concrete strength
Characteristic value
Fundamental combination

S
= 1.15
Accidental combination

S
= 1.00
(except earthquakes)
fc fck
95% 5%
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

r
e
a
d
i
n
g
s
Rebar designations used in various countries are ba-
sed on national standards:
Other steel
classifications
Country Standard Designation f
yk
=
Europe EC2
A N BSt 550 550
CH SIA S 500 500
D DIN BSt 500 500
F NFP FE 500 500
GB BS FY460 460
Rebar fastening design
296
5

c
Partial safety factor for concrete
This takes account of the difference between the
strength of test cylinders and that of concrete placed
on site with the usual care.
(EC2: ENV 1992-1-1, Table 2.3)

b
Partial safety factor for Hilti HIT-HY 150 adhesive
This takes account of the difference between the
strength of the test specimens and that of adhesive
placed on site with the usual care.

b
is taken equal to

c
. Additional partial safety factors
are included in the characteristic value.
(EC2: ENV 1992-1-1, Table 2.3)

Q
,

G
Partial safety factor for actions (loads)
This allows for uncertainties in loads and load combi-
nations.
ENV 1992-1-1, Table 2.2
Safety factor concrete
Safety factor adhesive
bond
Safety factor load
Fundamental combination

c
= 1.5
Accidental combination

c
= 1.3
(except earthquakes)
Fundamental combination

b
= 1.5
Accidental combination

b
= 1.3
(except earthquakes)
Permanent Variable
actions actions
Favourable effect

G
= 1.00

Q
= 0.00
Unfavourable effect

G
= 1.35

Q
= 1.50
There are other concrete classifications according to
national standards. Some other designations for a
C20/25 concrete include:
Other concrete
classifications
Country Standard Designation
Europe EC2 C20/25
A N B4200 B300
CH SIA 162 B30/20
D DIN 1045 B25
F NFP 18400 B250
GB BS1881 C25P
Rebar fastening design
297
10.3.3 Fastening design
The working principle of a design is best understood by reviewing the
possible failure modes and setting down corresponding limits to
utilisation.
The design load of a connection rebar is:
10.3.3.1 Limit to Rebar Utilisation R
yd
The design tensile force, R
yd
, at which the
rebar steel is fully utilised, results from the
product of the steel cross-sectional area ti-
mes the characteristic strength of the steel
divided by the partial safety factor.
Design value of rebar strength:
This value is crucial when the installed anchorage length is greater than
the basic anchorage length. (See 3.3.4)
10.3.3.2 Limit to Adhesive Bond Utilisation R
bd
The force which can be taken up in the sur-
face of the bond between rebar and adhesi-
ve increases linearly with the anchorage
length, but only with the square root of the
rebar diameter.
Design value of adhesive strength:
Doubling the diameter only results in a 40%
increase of the bond strength.
Failure modes
Design load
Steel failure
Adhesive bond failure
R
y
R
yd
=
1
/4
2
f
yk
/
s
[N] [mm] [N/mm
2
]
R
d
= MIN {R
yd
; R
bd
; R
cd
} > S
d
R
bd
= 25 l
b,inst

/
b
[N] [mm] [mm]
R
b
Rebar fastening design
298
The equation allows for the
performance of the adhesive.
It was determined by Profes-
sor Marti of the Swiss Fe-
deral Institute of Technology
(ETH), Zurich based on a re-
view of comprehensive test
data [1].
This value is crucial when the installed anchorage length is smaller than
the basic anchorage length (see 10.3.3.4) and the class of concrete is hig-
her than C 25/30.
10.3.3.3 Limit to Concrete Bond Utilisation R
cd
The force which can be taken up in the bond
interface between mortar and hole wall in-
creases linearly with anchorage depth, but
only with the square root of the characteri-
stic concrete strength times the hole dia-
meter.
Design value of bond between
Hilti HIT-HY 150 and concrete
Maximum hole diameter D, see Appendix 3
Concrete failure
R
cd
= 4.5 l
b,inst
f
ck
D/
c
[N] [mm] [N/mm
2
] [mm]
R
c
l
b
= 3d
d = 12mm
d = 16mm
d = 20mm
d = 25mm

b
m

d
0
1 0 2
25
50
75


[mm]
Maximum hole diameter D, see Appendix 2
5
Rebar fastening design
299
1
/4
2
f
yk
/
s
<_ 4.5 l
b,inst

f
ck
D/
c
l
b,inst
> _
2
f
yk

c
/(18f
ck
D
s
)
The equation allows for the performance
of the bond interface.
It was determined by Professor Marti of
the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
(ETH), Zurich, based on a review of com-
prehensive test data [1].
On principle, the partial safety factor
would have to be

c
.
Since, how-
ever,
b
=
c
, the formula can be simplified.
Test arrangement
This value is crucial when the installed anchorage length is smaller than
the basic anchorage length (see 10.3.3.4) and the class of concrete does
not exceed C 25/30.
10.3.3.4 Basic anchorage length
If this length is exceeded, the steel is fully utilised.
The basic anchorage length is derived by setting
R
yd
<_ R
bd
(rebar strength <_ adhesive
bond strength)
and
R
yd
<_ R
cd
(rebar strength <_
concrete bond strength)
As a result, the basic anchorage length is obtained as the maximum value
of the two limiting anchorage lengths:
l
b
= MAX
3/2
f
yk

b
/(100
s
);
2
f
yk

c
/(18 f
ck
D
s
)
[mm] [mm] [N/mm
2
] [mm] [N/mm
2
] [N/mm
2
] [mm]
Basic anchorage
length
1
/4
2
f
yk
/
s
<_ 25 l
b,inst

/
b
l
b,inst
> _
3/2
f
yk

b
/(100
s
)
Rebar fastening design
300
5
If it is assumed that D = 1.2
the limit results at f
ck
= 26 N/mm
2
Consequently, up to and including C 25/30, it is the grade of concrete
which is crucial, but from C 30/37 it is the grade of Hilti HIT-HY 150 adhe-
sive that is decisive.
Schematic presentation of limits to utilisation:
Limits for fastening
loads
l
b, min
Basic anchorage
length l
b
Concrete class
f
ck
, f
ck,cube
Anchorage
length l
b,inst
C 45/55
C 40/50
C 35/45
C 30/37
C 25/30
C 20/25
C 16/20
C 12/15
R
b
R
y
R
yd
=
1
/
4
x
2
x x f
yk
/
s
[N] [mm] [N/mm
2
]
R
bd
= 25 x x l
b, inst
x /
b
[N] [mm] [mm]
R
cd
= 4.5 x x l
b, inst
x f
ck
x D /
c
[N] [mm] [N/mm
2
] [mm]
Rebar crucial Concrete crucial
Hilti HIT-HY 150 crucial
R
c
Basic anchorage length for various rebar diameters, classes of concrete
and grades of steel:

s
= 1.15;

c
=

b
= 1.5
The limit at which the grade of adhesive or grade of concrete is crucial, is
obtained from
R
bd
= R
cd
25 l
b

/
b
= 4.5 l
b

f
ck
D/
c
f
ck
= (25/4.5)
2
/D
Concrete Rebar [mm]: 8 10 12 14 16 20 25
class f
yk
= D [mm]: 12 14 16 18 22 28 32
Influence of steel:
C20/25 450 Ib [cm]: 14 20 27 34 40 56 81
C20/25 500 Ib [cm]: 15 22 30 38 45 62 90
C20/25 550 Ib [cm]: 17 24 33 42 49 68 99
Influence of concrete:
C16/20 500 Ib [cm]: 17 25 33 42 50 69 101
C20/25 500 Ib [cm]: 15 22 30 38 45 62 90
C25/30 500 Ib [cm]: 15 21 28 35 42 59 82
Influence of
. . . steel grade
. . . concrete class
Rebar fastening design
301
10.3.4 Detailing Provisions
Basically, a rebar set with HIT HY150 can be considered like a cast-in reb-
ar. The basic anchorage length of section 10.3.3.4 corresponds to the ba-
sic anchorage length of Eurocode 2. The detailing provisions of Euroco-
de 2, some of which are quoted in the following paragraphs, shall be ap-
plied to the basic anchorage length of section 10.3.3.4. The rebars set
with HIT HY150 shall be disposed according to the same rules as cast-in
rebars would.
10.3.4.1 Minimum Anchorage Length
To ensure that the force acting on the connection rebar is transmitted to
the cast-in rebar, the following lengths must exceed those given in Euro-
code 2:
For anchorages in tension:
EC2: ENV 1992-1-1 formula (5.5):
l
b,min
= MAX (0.3 lb[mm]; 10 [mm]; 100 [mm])
For anchorages in compression:
EC2: ENV 1992-1-1 formula (5.6)
l
b,min
= MAX (0.6 lb[mm]; 10 [mm]; 100 [mm])
Column connection
10.3.4.2 Splice Length
(EC2: ENV 1992-1-1 formula 5.7 and 5.8)
When rebars in tension or compression are lapped, increased splitting
forces occur. In order to take up these splitting forces, the anchorage
length l
b,inst
, defined by sections 10.3.3.1 to 10.3.3.3, must be multiplied
by a factor , which is given in the following table.
l
splice
= *l
b,inst
The splice length must exceed the minimum lengths given in the same ta-
ble.
Minimum anchorage
length
Anchorages in
tension
Anchorages in
compression
Deckenanschluss
Floor connection
Rebar fastening design
302
5
10.3.4.3 Distance between cast-in rebars and new rebars
Cast-in rebars and the nearest rebars may touch at length of overlap
(EC2: ENV 1992-1-1, 5.2.1.1 (5)).
If the clear space between the connection rebars and the nearest cast-in
rebar is . . .
e > 4
the overlap must be increased by an amount
e - 4 (cf. example 4.2)
The minimum distance between cast-in rebars and farther away connec-
tion rebars should be:
a >_ MAX (2 [mm] ; 20 [mm])
Splices
Rebar spacing
. . . to nearest rebar
. . . to farther away
rebar
l
b
,

m
i
n
e a b
% of spliced bars < 30 % > 30 %
bar spacing a 10 10 < 10 < 10
edge distance b 5 < 5 5 < 5
= 1.0 1.4 2.0
0.3 l
b
0.42l
b
0.6 l
b
l
b,min,sp
= MAX 15 MAX 15 MAX 15
200mm 200mm 200mm
{ {
( )
{
application:
typical typical
slab beam
Rebar fastening design
303
10.3.4.4 Poor Bond Conditions
All previously given values apply to good bond conditions.
Poor bond conditions may for exam-
ple occur because the concrete be-
neath the cast-in rebar sinks.
Rebars fastened with Hilti HIT-HY150
always have good bond conditions.
An increase in anchorage length by a
factor 1.4 can be necessary to ensure
the transfer of the load to other (possi-
bly poorly bonded) cast in rebars.
Bond conditions according to EC2: ENV 1992-1-1, Fig. 5.1:
Bond conditions are also considered as good if rebars are embedded ver-
tically or at an angle of max. 45 to the vertical.
10.3.4.5 Limit State of Cracking
According to EC2: ENV 1992-1-1:4.4.2.1 (6), the maximum design crack
width must be limited to 0.3 mm for exposure classes 24:
Class 2: humid environment with or without frost
Class 3: additionally with de-icing salts
Class 4: and sea water environment.
Bond conditions
Crack width limits
Surface of concrete
Rebar
Sinking
of concrete
h 250mm h 250mm
Direction of concreting
h 600mm
h Good bond h/2 Good bond
Poor bond
Good bond
300mm Poor bond
Rebar fastening design
304
5
According to EC2: ENV 1992-1-1: 5.2.4 P(1), the crack width must be ve-
rified at the end of the splice of the rebars. Cracks hardly occur in the spli-
ce zone itself because of the greater amount of reinforcement i.e. cast-in
rebars plus connection rebars.
Pull out tests show
that at the level of
the recommended
values (Fs) the dis-
placement is typical-
ly below 0.1mm [1].
From this observa-
tion and other ex-
perimental eviden-
ce it can be con-
cluded that crack
width limits are met.
10.3.4.6 Green Concrete
If the rebar connection is to be loaded before the concrete
reaches its 28-days compressive strength, the actual strength readings
should be used with the given formulae. However, special attention
should be given to concrete creep.
3.4. Transmissible forces
According to the given formulae and good bond conditions, the following
values result depending on the load level and the installed anchorage
length
Displacement clearly below
0.3 mm
0 0.4 0.8 1.2
Slip at loaded end of rebar [mm]
Rm (Short term)
Rk (Short term)
Rk (Long term)
Rd
Fsd
Fs
Recommended
load range
T
e
n
s
i
l
e

l
o
a
d

[
k
N
]
Experiment
Theory
Displacement at loaded end of rebar [mm]
Rebar fastening design
305
10.3.5.2 Level of Recommended Loads
If the design values are divided by the partial safety factor for actions (lo-
ads), the recommended loads are obtained. For the sake of simplicity,
G
=
Q
= 1.5 in this table.
Rebar dia. Hole dia. Design value of connection force Basic
D R
d
length
Ib
[mm] [mm] [kN] [mm]
8 12 14.6 17.5 20.4 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 150
10 14 15.8 18.9 22.1 25.2 28.4 31.5 34.1 34.1 34.1 34.1 34.1 34.1 34.1 34.1 217
12 16 20.2 23.6 27.0 30.3 33.7 37.1 40.5 43.8 47.2 49.2 49.2 49.2 49.2 292
14 18 25.0 28.6 32.2 35.8 39.3 42.9 46.5 50.1 53.6 66.9 66.9 66.9 374
16 22 31.6 35.6 39.5 43.5 47.4 51.4 55.4 59.3 79.1 87.4 87.4 442
20 28 minimum 44.6 49.1 53.5 58.0 62.4 66.9 89.2 112 134 612
25 32 anchorage length 62.0 66.8 71.5 95.4 119 143 895
Anchorage length [mm]: 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 400 500 600
Concrete C20/25: f
ck
= 20 N/mm
2
; minimum anchorage length for lapped rebars (see 10.3.3.5)
Steel: f
yk
= 500 N/mm
2
minimum anchorage length for connection
Rebar dia. Hole dia. Recommended value of connection force Basic
D F
rec
length
Ib
[mm] [mm] [kN] [mm]
8 12 9.7 11.7 13.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 150
10 14 10.5 12.6 14.7 16.8 18.9 21.0 22.8 22.8 22.8 22.8 22.8 22.8 22.8 22.8 217
12 16 13.5 15.7 18.0 20.2 22.5 24.7 27.0 29.2 31.5 32.8 32.8 32.8 32.8 292
14 18 16.7 19.1 21.5 23.8 26.2 28.6 31.0 33.4 35.8 44.6 44.6 44.6 374
16 22 21.1 23.7 26.4 29.0 31.6 34.3 36.9 39.5 52.7 58.3 58.3 442
20 28 minimum 29.7 32.7 35.7 38.7 41.6 44.6 59.5 74.3 89.2 612
25 32 anchorage length 41.3 44.5 47.7 63.6 79.5 95.4 895
Anchorage length [mm]: 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 400 500 600
Concrete C20/25: f
ck
= 20 N/mm
2
; minimum anchorage length for lapped rebars (see 10.3.3.5)
Steel: f
yk
= 500 N/mm
2
minimum anchorage length for connection
10.3.5.1 Level of Design Value
10.3.5 Transmissible Forces
According to the given formulae and good bond conditions, the following
values result depending on the load level and the installed anchorage
length.
Rebar fastening design
306
5
10.4 Examples of applications
The following examples show the large variety of possibilities to solve problems by making rebar connections
with Hilti HIT HY-150 adhesive.
10.4.1 Wall connection
According to the design calculation, the verti-
cally compressed new wall is dimensioned
as follows:
Concrete class C 20/25
f
ck
= 20 N/mm
2
Steel grade f
yk
= 500 N/mm
2
Wall thickness: 18 cm
Vertical: 10/20 cm both
sides
Horizontal: 8/25 cm both
sides
Floor connection: 10 mm/20 cm both sides
table 10.3.4.1 hole depth = lb = 217 mm
D = 14 mm
Alternative 1: 12 mm /20 cm both sides
as per 10.3.5.1 R
d
= R
d ( 10)
= 34.1 kN
at l
b,inst
= 20 cm
R
d (12)
= 33.7 kN

34.1 kN
l
b,inst
> l
b,min
= MAX (0.6292; 1012; 100)
= 175 mm
Alternative 2: 14 mm/20 cm both sides
as per 10.3.5.1 R
d
= R
d ( 10)
= 34.1 kN
at l
b,inst
= 19 cm
R
d(14)
= 34.0 kN ~ 34.1 kN
but l
b,inst
< l
b,min
= MAX (0.6374; 1014; 100)
= 224 mm
If compressive forces are being transmitted, a reduction of the hole depth when using
rebars of larger diameter can only be achieved to a moderate extent due to the limitations of the minimum an-
chorage length.
Existing wall
2 x 8/25cm
2 x 10/20cm
Existing floor
New wall
18cm
Rebar fastening design
307
Side wall connection: 8mm/25 cm both sides
table 10.3.5.1 hole depth =l
b
= 15 cm
D = 12 mm
Alternative 1: 10 mm /25 cm both sides
table 10.3.5.1 R
d
= R
d ( 8)
= 21.9 kN
at l
b,inst
= 14 cm
R
d ( 10)
= 22.1 kN > 21.9 kN
l
b,inst
> l
b,min
= MAX (0.3217; 1010;100)
= 100 mm
Alternative 2: 12 mm/25 cm both sides
as per 10.4.1 R
d
= R
d ( 8)
= 21.9 kN
at l
b,inst
= 13 cm
10.3.5.1 interpolated R
d ( 12)
= 21.9 kN = 21.9 kN
l
b,inst
> l
b,min
= MAX (0.3*292; 1012; 100)
= 120
It is simple to vary the hole depth by using the tables.
10.4.2 Wall extension
The existing wall is reinforced by
8mm/25cm rebars and shall be exten-
ded by a new wall with the following
characteristics:
Concrete class C 20/25
f
ck
= 20 N/mm
2
Steel grade f
yk
= 500 N/mm
2
Wall thickness: 20 cm
Horizontal rebars: 8/25 cm
both sides
Lap connection: 8mm /25 cm both sides
table 10.5.1 hole depth = l
b
= 15 cm
D = 12 mm
Owing to the 8mm/25 cm rebars already cast in the wall to be connected, nothing is
gained by rebars of larger diameter because the force acting on the connection must be transmitted to the
cast-in reinforcement via the overlap.
Existing wall
8/25cm
New wall
Rebar fastening design
308
5
If the position of the existing reinforcement is not known it is advisable to assume the worst case regarding
the proximity of the nearest cast-in rebar. If this can be e > 4 = 32mm, the anchorage length must be ac-
cordingly increased.
max e = 250/2 =125 mm
extension as per 10.3.4.3
l
b,inst
= 150+(125-32) = 243 mm
Instead of a hole depth of 15 cm, it must be 24 cm to ensure that the forces are transmitted from the connec-
tion rebar to the cast-in rebar. It is therefore recommended that the rebar position is measured using the Fer-
roscan instrument.
Connections to and extensions of columns etc. can also be designed in the same way as wall connections
and wall extensions.
10.4.3 Installation of an intermediate floor
Details:
Span length L = 4.3 m
Slab thickness h = 16 cm
Concrete cover c = 2 cm
Effective depth d = 13 cm
Concrete class
C 20/25 f
ck
= 20 N/mm
2
Grade of steel f
yk
= 500 N/mm
2
Loading:
Live load Q = 2.00 kN/m
2
Partial safety factor for variable actions
Q
= 1.50
Q
Q
= 3.00 kN/m
2
Dead weight = 4.00 kN/m
2
Intermediate walls = 1.00 kN/m
2
Floor build-up = 1.50 kN/m
2
Permanent loads G = 6.50 kN/m
2
Partial safety factor for permanent actions
G
= 1.35
G
G
= 8.78 kN/m
2
10/14cm
d
h
2d d
L
M M
d
Rebar fastening design
309
Bending moment M at mid-span
M = (Q
Q
+ G
G
) L
2
/8 = 27.2 kNm/m
Required cross-sectional area of reinforcement from the design programme
A
s,requ
= 5.31 cm
2
/m
implemented 10 mm/14 cm (A
s,provided
= 5.61cm
2
/m)
This mid-span reinforcement determined by the design calculation and shown in the reinforcement drawing
is anchored in the walls using connection rebars having the same diameter and spacing.
Therefore, only the minimum anchorage depth is required according to the rules for rebars at supports.
Connection: 10mm/14 cm located below
from 10.3.4.1 l
b,min
= MAX {0.3217; 1010; 100}
= 100mm
hole depth = l
b,min
= 10 cm
D = 14 mm
The connection surfaces must be roughened to take up the shear force.
Alternative: Instead of extending the mid-span reinforcement, the minimum
required connection force in the support area is determined and
anchored. A truss model with an inclination of 45 is assumed
Loading: 3 d away from the support because the tensile force set up before
the rebar lap has to be transmitted
M
d
= (Q
Q
+ G
G
)(L3 d) 3d/2
= 11.78(4.30.39) 0.39 / 2
= 9.0 kNm/m
V
d
= (Q
Q
+ G
G
)L/2 (13d / (0,5 L)) = 20.7 kN
Z
requ
= M
d
/ (0.9 d) + V
d
/ 2 = 97.6 kN/m
selected: same rebar spacing as for large-area reinforcement
e = 14 cm
Z
requ/rebar
= Z
requ
e = 97.6 0.14 = 13.7 kN
as per 3.4.1: 8mm /14 cm located below
l
b,inst
= 10 cm
R
d,inst
= 14.6 kN > Z
requ/rebar
= 13.7 kN
Using detailed calculation, 8 mm rebars instead of 10mm can be used for anchoring. This demontrates
that it is worthwhile to perform a design calculation.
Rebar fastening design
310
5
Loading at mid-span
M = (Q
Q
+ G
G
) x L
2
/8 = 43.9 kNm/m
Required cross-sectional area of reinforcement from the design programme
A
s,requ
= 8.20 cm
2
/m
implemented 12 mm/13 cm (A
s,provided
= 8.70 cm
2
/m)
In the landings, rebars 12 mm/13 cm are cast in as well.
Step connection: 12mm/13 cm located below
table 10.3.5.1 Basic anchorage length l
b
= 29 cm
splice factor: = 1.4 (a > 10 )
Hole depth = l
b, inst
= 29 1.4 = 40 cm
D = 16 mm
The connection surfaces must be roughened to take up the shear force.
10.4.4 Installation of steps between landings
Details:
Step height h
(ST)
= 18 cm
Step width w
(ST)
= 28 cm
Gradient
= arctan (h
(ST)
/b
(ST)
) = 32.74
Distance between
supports L = 4.88 m
Slab thickness h = 18 cm
Concrete cover c = 2 cm
Effective depth d = 15 cm
Concrete class
C 20/25 f
ck
= 20 N/mm
2
Grade of steel f
yk
= 500 N/mm
2
Loading:
Live load Q = 3.00 kN/m
2
Partial safety factor for variable actions
Q
= 1.50
Q
Q
= 4.50 kN/m
2
Dead weight of steps
= 25(h
(ST)
/2 + h/cos ) / 100 = 7.60 kN/m
2
Dead weight of landing
= 25h / 100 +1.5 = 6.00 kN/m
2
The dead weight of the steps
is used throughout the entire
length, i.e. G = 7.60 kN/m
2
Partial safety factor for
permanent actions
G
= 1.35
G
G
= 10.26 kN/m
2
h(ST)
120 12 120 12 8 x 28 = 224
L = 488
12/13
h = 18
12/13
Rebar fastening design
311
10.5 Test reports, Supplementary information
10.5.1 Relevant reports
[1] Marti, P., Verankerung von Betonstahl mit Hilti HIT-HY150 (Anchoring Concrete Reinforcement using
Hilti HIT-HY150), Report no. 93.327-1, December 17th., 1993, 13pp.
[2] Hhere Technische Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt Rankweil (Higher Technical Teaching and Testing Institu-
te, Rankweil, Austria), Tragverhalten bei zentrischem Zug: Bewehrung BSt 500 mit Hilti HIT-HY150 in
Beton eingemrtelt (Loadbearing behaviour under tensile load: Rebars BSt 500 anchored in concrete
using Hilti HIT-HY150 adhesive), Report no. 311/94, September 1994.
[3] SOCOTEC, Cahier des charges demploi et de mise en uvre du systme de scellement base de
rsine; HIT HY 150 pour lancrage darmatures pour bton arm
Cahier des charges accept par SOCOTEC sous le n: BX 1032 (Juin 1994).
[4] Hilti AG, Fastening Technology Manual, 1993.
[5] CEN: European Committee for Standardization, ENV 1992-1-1 Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Struc-
tures Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings, 1991
For national application refer to the national standard adopting the above European standard and to
the relevant National Application Document.
10.5.2 Test results: Pull-out tests on rebars
As described in the test report from HTL Rankweil [2], pull out tests have been made with the following setup
and results:
Test setup:
Concrete: f
ck
= 35,40,20 N/mm
2
Rebars: f
yk
= 500 N/mm
2
Drilling: Hammer drill
Cleaning: Brushing and Blowing
Spacing: Sufficient spacing and edge distance
Loading: Tensile loading to failure
Sample: Diameters 8,10,12,14,16,20,25
Embedment 5, 10, 15, l
b
Three samples each
Rebar fastening design
312
5
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Displacement [mm\
T
e
n
s
i
l
e

l
o
a
d

[
k
N
\
}
l
b,inst
= l
b
= 612mm }
l
b,inst
=15 = 300mm
l
b,inst
=10 = 200mm
l
b,inst
= 5 = 100mm
Load/displacement curves for 20 mm rebars
Test results:
Rebar dia. Drill dia. Anchorage length
[mm] D [mm] 5 10 15 I
b
8 12 8.9 17.8 25.1 25.1
14.2 P 16.3 P 31.1 P 31.9 S
16.5 P 31.0 P 31.2 P 26.7 P
8.7 P 29.8 P 31.8 S 30.0 P
10 14 12.4 24.8 37.3 39.3
21.0 P 40.0 P 47.1 S 47.3 S
21.9 P 38.6 P 47.0 S 48.1 S
24.7 P 46.6 P 50.0 S 48.7 S
12 16 16.3 32.6 49.0 56.5
29.5 P 56.9 P 69.7 S 72.5 S
29.2 P 65.5 P 69.9 S 69.8 S
24.5 P 60.7 P 71.2 S 69.7 S
14 18 20.6 41.1 61.7 77.0
37.8 P 90.6 P 97.8 S 97.1 S
39.6 P 87.2 P 98.3 S 97.7 S
38.5 P 92.3 P 98.2 S 97.4 S
16 22 25.1 50.3 75.4 100.5
58.7 P 109.1 S 138.1 S 138.8 S
47.5 P 83.4 S 136.6 S 139.2 S
49.7 S 106.5 S 138.7 S 142.2 S
20 28 35.1 70.2 105.4 157.1
65.7 C 116.6 P 202.0 P 211.1 P
78.9 P 160.8 P 208.6 P 211.5 S
67.7 C 135.5 P 205.0 P 205.2 P
25 32 49.1 98.2 134.1 245.4
138.7 P 276.0 P 275.3 C 341.8 P
123.7 P 217.6 C 300.1 C 328.2 C
119.4 P 285.7 P 257.0 C 312.0 P
R
k
F
ult,
Mode
F
ult,
Mode
F
ult,
Mode
R
k
: Theoretical ultimate load (characteristic load with = 1.0)
F
ult
: Actual ultimate load Mode: failure mode, where P = pull out
S = steel failure
C = concrete failure
f
ult
, Mode
f
ult
, Mode
f
ult
, Mode
Rebar fastening design
313
10.5.3 Test results: Full scale beam test
In order to demonstrate that the characteristics of Hilti HIT-HY150 rebar
fastenings are similar to cast-in solutions the following test was underta-
ken [2]:
A concrete beam (40cmx25cmx475cm) is cut through at one third of its
length. Reinforcement bars of equivalent dimensions (twice 22 mm be-
low and twice 14 mm on top) are installed alongside the original rein-
forcement using Hilti HIT; thus the beam is rejoined.
The beam is then supported at the end points while a test load is applied
at the two third-points (the re-fastened and the original one). Bending of
the beam is measured below these two points to compare the performan-
ce of the reattached side to the original side.
As can be seen on the diagram the
reattached side bends in about the
same way as the original side.
The performance of the
Hilti HIT fastening indeed con-
forms to a cast-in rebar.
The measured bending moment at
failure of this beam (69.18 kNm)
corresponds well to the calculated
moment (68.10 kNm)
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Bending [mm]
L
o
a
d

F

[
k
N
]
original
reattached
1.5 m 1.5 m 1.5 m
25 cm
40 cm
2 rebars 22 mm, lb = 68 cm
2 rebars 14 mm, lb = 35 cm
F
/
2
F
/
2