Anda di halaman 1dari 16

Edu 651-Group Report

2011631016-PPG UITM/SEM5


Statement of the problem-
Autism is a complex developmental disorder that has the following three defining
core features which are i) problems with social interactions ii) impaired verbal and
nonverbal communication and iii)a pattern of repetitive behavior with narrow,
restricted interests. A number of other associated symptoms frequently coexist with
autism. Most people with autism have problems using language, forming
relationships, and appropriately interpreting and responding to the external world
around them.
Autism is known as a spectrum disorder, because the severity of symptoms
ranges from a mild learning and social disability to a severe impairment, with
multiple problems and highly unusual behavior. The disorder may occur alone, or
with accompanying problems such as mental retardation or seizures. Autism is
not a rare disorder, being the third most common developmental disorder, more
common than Downs Syndrome. Typically, about 20 in a population of 10,000
people will be autistic or have autistic symptoms. 80% of those affected by
autism are boys. Autism is found throughout the world, in families of all
economic, social, and racial backgrounds. Doctors, politicians, and rickshaw
drivers alike all have autistic children.
Autism forms the core of the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Asperger syndrome
is closest to autism in signs and likely causes unlike autism, people with Asperger
syndrome have no significant delay in language development. PDD-NOS is diagnosed
when the criteria are not met for a more specific disorder. Some sources also include
Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder, which share several signs with
autism but may have unrelated causes; other sources differentiate them from ASD,
but group all of the above conditions into the pervasive developmental disorders.
Edu 651-Group Report
2011631016-PPG UITM/SEM5


i) Problems with social interaction.
Young children with Autism often find social interaction very difficult for a number of
They may not understand what is being said or what is going on around them
They may not know how to respond to you or others
They may find the sensory experience of someone looking and speaking at
them overwhelming.
ii) Impared verbal and nonverbal communication
The communication problems of autism vary, depending upon the
intellectual and social development of the individual. Some may be unable
to speak, whereas others may have rich vocabularies and are able to talk
about topics of interest in great depth. Despite this variation, the majority
of autistic individuals have little or no problem with pronunciation. Most
have difficulty effectively using language. Many also have problems with
word and sentence meaning, intonation, and rhythm.
Those who can speak often say things that have no content or
information. For example, an autistic individual may repeatedly count from
one to five. Others use echolalia, a repetition of something previously
heard. One form, immediate echolalia, may occur when the individual
repeats the question, "Do you want something to drink?" instead of
replying with a "yes" or "no." In another form called delayed echolalia, an
individual may say, "Do you want something to drink?" whenever he or
she is asking for a drink
iii) The Challenge of Parenting a Child with Autism
Parenting a child with autism is uniquely challenging and can be very demanding.
Recently, there are increasing efforts to involve parents of children with autism in
interventions. In comparison to parents of typically developing children, parents
raising children with disabilities experience more parenting stress and have higher
Edu 651-Group Report
2011631016-PPG UITM/SEM5


rates of anxiety. Even among parents raising children with disabilities, parents of
children with autism report significantly higher levels of stress and are more likely to
experience depression. The underlying cause of these findings may be that
parenting stress is associated with the frequency and extent of childs inflexible
behavior and children with autism often engage in unusual behaviors and have
heightened sensory sensitivity.

Edu 651-Group Report
2011631016-PPG UITM/SEM5


Purpose of the survey-
The purpose of this study is to prepare instruments for Autism Spectrum
Disorder (ASD), to collect clinical, neuropsychological, and genetic data of
ASD probands and their family. This longitudinal study focuses on the
development of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) through
adolescence and adulthood, and how family members adapt over time. Thus, the
primary purpose of our study is to examine the lives of adolescents and adults
with an ASD, the impact on the family, and the challenges of coping with a
family member with this diagnosis. In addition to examining the bi-directional
effects of the symptoms of the individuals with autism and the well-being of their
family members, our goals are to describe the quality of life of these families, assess
the extent to which their service needs are adequately met, and to examine the
plans they made and put into place for the future.
The ADS is an extension of a longitudinal study of children with autism and children
with developmental delay without autism. Children in the ADS study have previously
participated in the project at ages three-to-four, six, and nine years of age. For the
current phase of the project, children and their parents will visit the UW between 13-
15 years of age. The goal of the original study (the Early Development Study) was to
identify early behavioral and neuropsychological aspects of autism. The new phase
of this study will examine factors associated with the development of
associated psychological symptoms and seizures in young adolescents
with autism.

Edu 651-Group Report
2011631016-PPG UITM/SEM5


Significance of the survey-
There are many significance of the survey that has been carried out.

1)Firstly, it questioned how do the symptoms of autism change over the life
course and how do these changing symptoms affect the well-being of
parents and siblings? The survey mentioned that there are some parents can and
willing to accept their autism child and some cannot accept at all. A range of studies
has shown that having a brother or sister with a developmental delay or disability
will have significance for the progress and well being of both the normally
developing child and the child with the disability. The presence of a child with a
condition such as autism carries potentially both positive and negative effects for the
sibling(s), but the outcomes will be influenced by other family factors notably the
management style of the parents.
2)What roles do mothers, fathers, and siblings take in the lives of individuals with
autism through adulthood? In general, parents of children with autism are very well
informed and actively involved in the diagnosis and treatment of their children.
Pediatricians have often felt bewildered or angry when parents challenge not only
their authority but the entire scientific process. Though this often happens with
childhood disorders, autism has become one of the most controversial and thus
salient examples. Parents have been essential to advancing research. They often
provide meticulous notes which have been used as primary sources for research. In
fact, parents often diagnosed their children themselves when professionals were
unfamiliar with the disorder.

3) What resources (social, familial, psychological) are most important in maintaining
parental and sibling well-being? Autism is a disorder in which kids have vastly
greater or more abilities in few or all areas. Parents of an autistic child need to take
special care for their child to build their abilities and make them lead as normal a life
Edu 651-Group Report
2011631016-PPG UITM/SEM5


as possible. In this article there is a brief discussion on the ways to take care of
children with autism which are listed below.
Consult a professional for an evaluation: You autistic childs professional
can help you better understand your childs needs. He/she will able to guide
and educate you about your kids requirements to lead them in a normal life.
Maintain a journal or notebook about your autistic child: A diagnosis
of autism requires a developmental history. Professionals may ask parents to
fill out questionnaires about development and behaviors of their autistic
child(ren). This will help you to remember things which you noticed and also
help with what works and what does not work with your autistic child. It also
comes in handy while trying to modify their behaviors and also helps to start
identifying the patterns during difficult times and triggers for problems.
Maintain the attitude that you will be there for the long haul: Autistic
kids show different behavioral patterns. There will be days where autistic kids
show progress while other days they may not or may show adverse (or go in
reverse) behaviors. Dont be discouraged. This will be beneficial for you in the
long run as you know what needs to be placed or avoided in the life of your
autistic kid.

Edu 651-Group Report
2011631016-PPG UITM/SEM5


The reviews briefly summarize the original papers as well as provide some indication
of how the papers fit into their broader context. As this section is meant to be useful
to readers, we welcome suggestions about style as well as papers worthy of
mention. Autism is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder that begins in
early childhood. Although the diagnosis of autism may not be made until a child
reaches preschool or school age, the signs and symptoms of autism may be
apparent by the time the child is aged 12-18 months, and the behavioral
characteristics of autism are almost always evident by the time the child is aged 3
Language delay in the preschool years (younger than 5 years) is typically the
presenting problem for more severely affected children with autism. Higher
functioning children with autism are generally identified with behavioral problems
when they are aged approximately 4-5 years or with social problems later in
childhood. Autism disorder persists throughout the person's lifetime, although many
people are able to learn to control and modify their behavior to some extent.

Edu 651-Group Report
2011631016-PPG UITM/SEM5


The method is carried out throughout interviews and surveys. Respondents
were parents of students and a teacher. Parents of student are teachers.
Normally they knew what happened to their child and always observe their
child progress.
Biodata of the respondents
Name : Ashraf Bin Ahmad Syukri
Age : 5 years old
Fathers name: En. Ahmad Syukri
Mothers name: Pn. Farah

This is Ashraf Bin Ahmad Syukri. He is an autism child. Initially his parents
identified he cannot speak even he is already 2 years old. They were worried
about their child and met doctor at a government hospital. After having a
treatment, the doctor told them that Ashraf was only two years old at that
time and they need to wait until Ashraf going to be 3 years old. The reason
was autism was only can be detected once the child three years old.
After a year waiting, Ashrafs parents brought him to see a doctor. After the
treatment, the doctor gave a conformation that Ashraf is an autisme child and
need a further treatment. From that day onwards, they always bring Ashraf
for his treatment for the better result.

Edu 651-Group Report
2011631016-PPG UITM/SEM5


I have tried to talk and communicate with him. But he was only can touch to
communicate with me. His mother told me that he can only communicate by
touching but can understand a little bit what other people talk to him. Ashraf
has a younger sister who aged 4. She is a normal child. As normal child, she
is very active and clever.
According to his mom, he was usually completely ignoring the sound, sight or
the things that happen within the confines them. If he react to things, usually,
his reaction did not touch on the matter, but sometimes they do not directly
give any reaction.
As for his teacher, Pn Zila,playa an important role in the
management of children with autism in schools like Ashraf. This is
because children with autism are difficult to identify in through
purely physical. They suffer from chronic communication problems
so they are not able to identify the ripple face, body language,
gestures or symbolism, and tone of voice to interpret different
What Are the Symptoms of Autism?
They say "if you've met one person with autism, you've met one person with
autism," and they are absolutely right! That's because the appearance of autism can
vary from person to person. One person with autism may be very verbal, bright and
engaged, while another is non-verbal, intellectually challenged and almost entirely
In addition, people with autism seem to be more prone to other problems not listed
in the diagnostic criteria. These problems include sensory dysfunction, sleep
disorders, self-abusive behavior and more. The only symptoms all people with
autism do have in common across the spectrum are challenges, disabilities, or delays
in the area of social communication.

Edu 651-Group Report
2011631016-PPG UITM/SEM5


Autism Questionnaire.
Name of autistic child:
Age: 5 years old
Address: No 5/25 A, Taman TTDI 2
Name of guardian stating relationship to the child:
Fathers name: Ahmad Syukri Ahmad Sabri
Mothers name: Farah Nabila Aziz
1-Did the child face any difficult during birth or pregnancy of the mother?
No, he delivered as a normal child.
2-Does the child suffer from any frequent illness, infections or such? If so mention
the medications taken?
Yes, he has asthma.
3-Is the child allergic to any substance or food?
4-Does the child respond abnormally to light, sound or touch? If so then please list
them down and elaborate on his reaction.
5-Does anyone in your family have a history of autism or any other psychological,
nervous or physical disorder? Mention their relationship to the child.
Edu 651-Group Report
2011631016-PPG UITM/SEM5


6-Does the child react in a different way on being physically hurt? If yes, cite
7-Does the child play simple games and mingle with other children?
No, but he just look and happy looking others playing.
8-Any behavioral pattern that particularly bothers you the most, like pointing fingers
to others?
He just crying and pointing fingers.
9-Does the child enjoy climbing over stair cases and furniture?
10-Can he use the toilet the same way as children of his age?
No, he still wearing pampers.
11-Does he bring small things to you and show? Does he ever tend to draw
attention towards him?
Yes, when he wants something for example eat or play. He knew how to draw
attention in class.
12-Do you or others face any difficulty while communicating to the child or does he
make any unusual gestures? Kindly explain
Yes, because he does not know how to express his feeling but he knows to attract
attention like pointing or touching.

Edu 651-Group Report
2011631016-PPG UITM/SEM5


1. An Effective Classroom Set Up/Engineered Environment for Students with Autism-
An engineered environment created specifically to meet the needs of students with
Autism is critical to the success of your classroom program. These items, such as
visual supports, creating boundaries, individualization and organization should be
seen, utilized and programmed into the daily operations of your class.
2. Written Plan for Classroom Roles and Responsibilities- Your classroom should
have a posted written plan that designates the major responsibilities each staff
member assumes. This plan should also include the areas of the classroom each
staff member is responsible for during the instructional parts of the day. For
example, running the art lesson, recording attendance, preparing the snack time
lesson, supporting the language lesson, preparing the daily calendar, may be the
types of responsibilities noted. (Please understand that sometimes responsibilities
overlap or change). Classrooms serving students with autism require a great deal of
teamwork; a plan in which responsibilities are clarified will positively contribute to
the productivity of your team.
3. Our child's teacher (whether a special ed teacher or a typical classroom teacher)
should have both training and experience in working with autistic children.
4. Your child's teacher should have both implicit and explicit support from the
school administration. She should be able to access resources, training and materials
as needed.
5. Your child's teacher should be able (based on her abilities and resources, and on
the school's policies) to modify program and curriculum to your child's needs and
strengths based on your child's IEP (Individualized Educational Program).
6. You should be able to see evidence of various different teaching styles in use in
your child's classroom.
Edu 651-Group Report
2011631016-PPG UITM/SEM5


7. Other teachers, including gym, library and other specials teachers, should be able
to access resources and supports as they work with your child.
8. You should see evidence that learners are challenged and supported both
academically and socially.
9. Supportive therapies, such as speech, physical and occupational therapy, should
all be available on site and free of additional charge.


Autism is a developmental disorder that results in a cluster of abnormal behaviours.
Evidence shows that early intervention improves long-term function for the child. It
can lead to help and support for parents in caring for their child. Recognition of
autism is still occurring later than experts would ideally like. Health visitors and
nurses who specialise in child health are in a key position to observe characteristics
in young children that could be suggestive of autism.

Edu 651-Group Report
2011631016-PPG UITM/SEM5



1. Cohen, H., Amerine-Dickens, M., &Smith, T. (2006). Early intensive Behavioral
Treatment: Replication of theUCLA Model in a community setting.
Developmental and BehavioralPediatrics, 27, 145-155.
2. Eldevik, S., Eikeseth, S., Jahr, E.,& Smith, T. (2006). Effects of low intensity
behavioral treatment forchildren with autism and mental retardation. Journal
of Autism andDevelopmental Disorders, 36, 211-224.
3. Humphrey N. and Parkinson G. (2006).Research on interventions for children
and young people on the autisticspectrum: a critical perspective. Journal of
Research in SpecialEducational Needs, 6(2), pp. 76-86.

Edu 651-Group Report
2011631016-PPG UITM/SEM5


Edu 651-Group Report
2011631016-PPG UITM/SEM5