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Why is AR needed?

Technological change
Advances in industrialisation
Growth in the number and complexity of governmental activities
Changes in social, political and economic spheres of life
All above have created extraordinary strains on the traditional machinery of the government
Obsolescence of institutions, roles, procedures and processes in the government
What are ways through which AR are done?
There are three forms
Traditional Approach: let the problem arise and then place a competent person to solve it.
Aka Management process
Committee Process: appoint ad hoc committee. Like the Hoover Commission in US and ARC
in India
Setting up O&M units
What are the types of reforms?
Macro or micro (affecting the entire administration or a part of it)
Procedural reform
Behavioural reform
Functions of O&M office
To assist line officials to improve management
Help reduce costs, save manpower, simplify procedures, save materials, speed operations,
improve organisation
Chief functions are
o Comprehensive reviews of departments
o Planning new activities
o Research in O&M techniques
o Training O&M officials and employees
o Co-ordinating the work of different O&M units in government
o Undertaking ad hoc assignments to investigate and help solve particular problems
o Analysing organisation methods and procedures
o Developing management policies, handbook and other guidelines
o Research and Development
o Training
o Investigation
o Co-ordination of management improvement programme
o Information
o Publication
Nature of O&M
O&M unit alone should not be responsible for effecting improvements in administration. It
cannot be a substitute for management improvement. Efficiency specialists have an
important place in government, but not efficiency engineer will ever solve the principal
problems of government
O&M is primarily a service function
The role of O&M units is essentially advisory. It has therefore a line and staff function.
Decisions should not be forced upon the department
O&M should be recognized as a work improvement study and not a fault-finding mission.
O&M man should not assume a superior position of a fault-finder or a critic
It should not be presented as something too mysterious and technical
Advantages of O&M
It provides a machinery for a constant attempt to improve the public administration
It helps keep both the structure of government offices and the procedure adopted by them
up-to-date in tune with the changing circumstances. Reduce time lag.
Help to accumulate a wealth of experience which can be drawn upon whenever required
A separate O&M department is needed because
o Time: Senior officials of an agency of government often have little time to examine
the problems of organisation and methods
o Independence: Line officials lack the necessary perspective to look at problems of
organisation and of office procedure
o Experience: The fact that the O&M work is undertaken by a body of officials, who
specialize in this work, is the essence of this system.
O&M Techniques
Management or Organisation Survey
Work Measurement
Work Simplification
Forms Control
Filing System

The use of IT in governance is aimed at having SMART Simple, Moral, Accountable,
Responsive and Transparent government.

Arora and Goyal
Involves enhancement in the capacity of an administrative system to achieve its assigned
Why AR
Only an administrative system that revitalises itself constantly can respond to the changing
socio-economic environment
Some important committees on AR
US: Haldane, Brownlow, First Hoover, Second Hoover, Fulton
India: ARC 1 (1966-70), ARC 2 (2007-)
o 1947: Secretariat Reorganisation Committee (GS Bajapai)
o 1948: Economy Committee (Kasturbhai Lalbhai)
o 1949: N Gopalswamy Ayyangar Committee (recommended O&M)
o 1951: Planning Commission Report
o 1953: Appleby Report (Public Administration in India: Report of a Survey). Based on
his report
Indian Institute of Public Administration was set up
O&M Division was set up in the Cabinet Secretariat
o 1954: Ashok Chanda (recommended more AI services)
o 1956: Second Appleby Report ( Re-examination of Indias Administrative System
with Special Reference to Administration of Government Industrial and Commercial
o 1957: Balwant Rai Mehta Coommittee Report (introduction of the Panchayati Raj
o 1964: Santhanam Committee Report
Strengthen vigilance organisations
Adoption of a code of conduct for civil servants
o 1966: ARC 1 (Morarji Desai/K Hanumanthaiya) < Presented 20 reports between
1966-1970> Major recommendations
Appointment of Lokpal and Lok Ayuktas
Creation of full fledged department of personnel
Performance budgeting
Unified grading pay structure
Introduction of specialists into senior and middle management positions
o 1973: 3
Pay Commission
o 1975: Kothari Committee on Recruitment Policy and Selection Methods
System of single examination for All-India Services was introduced
o 1978: Committee on Panchayati Raj Institutions (Ashok Mehta)
Recommended setting up of Mandal Panchayats
o 1977-80: National Police Commission
o 1988: Sarkaria Commission
Creation of inter-state councils
o 1989: Satish Chandra Committee on the Recruitment Policy and Selection Methods
for All-India and Central Services

AR in India
Ancient Times: Mauryas and Guptas. Dharmashastra, Arthashastra and Thirukkural
Medieval Times: Mughals
o Creation of Civil Services (Cornwallis)
o Creation of Supreme Court and reforms in judiciary
o Creation of central secretariat
o Departmentalisation and consolidation of district administration under the Collector
o Urban local govt
o Rule of Law
o Institutionalisation of impersonal government
o Police system
o Establishment of Public Service Commission
o Personnel Administration
Committees during British
o Committee on ICS (1854)
o Public Service Commission (1886-87)
o Royal Commission on Decentralisation (1907-09)
o Royal Commission on Public Service in India (1912-15)
o Tottenham Committee (1945)
o First Pay Commission (1946)
After Independence
o More than 600 committees (Centre + State)
o Kerala ARC (1958), Andhra Pradesh Reforms Enquiry Committee (1960), Rajasthan
ARC (1963), WB ARC (1963)
o Experts like Paul Appleby and Nicholas Kaldor have also written about AR in India
Major Concerns in Administration
Criticisms of ARC 1
Virtual absence of any strategy of selecting key or nodal
points by the commission
Inadequate attention to improving field agencies
Ignored the behavioural aspects of administration
Not futuristic in orientation
Unplanned winding up
Efficiency and Economy
o Role of the specialist has been increasing slowly
Effective Coordination
Administration and development of public personnel
Integrity in public service
Responsiveness and Public Accountability
Decentralisation and Democratisation
Updating administrative technology

Political resistance. Measures involving devolution of power face a lot of resistance
At times, the govt that passed the reforms is different from the one implementing it. This
may lead to improper implementation
Vested interests
Public apathy or antipathy
Administrative inexperience
Imposition from above
Ambiguity about implications
Individualisation in place of institutionalisation

Success of AR will depend on
Need of the system and its beneficiaries
Public support and a feeling of sharing of reform-goals
Effective source of initiation
Political will
Administrative entrepreneurship
Participation of key actors in the strategies for implementation
Pragmatism and flexibility
Effective reward and punishment system
Continuing evaluation and appraisal
Institutionalisation of reforms