Anda di halaman 1dari 19

CHAPTER 2

STATIC PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTIC


OF INSTRUMENT


Objective
Be able to quantify the positive and the
negative points of various commercially
available instruments
Be able to select the optimum type of
instrument for a given application


INSTRUMENT PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTIC

1. Static the desired input to the
instrument is constant or varying slowly with
respect to time
2. Dynamic the desired input is not
constant but varies rapidly with the time



ERRORS AND UNCERTAINTIES IN
PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS
Type of errors and uncertainties associated
with measurement system
Systematic or cumulative errors
Instrument error
Environmental errors
Loading errors

Accidential or random error
Inconsistencies associated with accurate
measurement of small quantities
Presence of certain system defects
Effect of unrestrained and randomly varying
parameter
Miscellaneous Type of Gross Errors
Personal or human errors
Error due to faulty components/adjustment
Improper application of the instrument.
TYPES OF UNCERTAINTIES
External estimate of uncertainty, U
E
The resolution of the instrument which is the
smallest confidently measurable input
Internal estimate uncertainty, U
I
Is inherent in the data itself
PROPAGATION OF UNCERTAINTIES IN
COMPOUND QUANTITIES
To compute the overall uncertainty due to the
combined effect of the uncertainties of
different variables.

STATIC PERFORMANCE PARAMETER
Static performance parameters of the
instruments are:-
1. Accuracy- the closeness of the instrument
output to the true value of the measured
quantity.
2. Precision- the ability of the instrument to
produce a certain set of reading within a given
accuracy.
ACCURACY VS PRECISION
RESOLUTION (DISCRIMINATION)
The smallest increment in the measured value
that can be detected with certainty by the
instrument.

THRESHOLD
The minimum value of input below which no
output can be detected.

STATIC SENSITIVITY
The ratio of the magnitude of response(output
signal) to the magnitude of the quantity being
measured (input signal).

Static sensitivity, K=



=


Example,

The sensitivity of a typical linear spring, whose
extension is directly proportional to the applied
force can be defined as, 450N/mm
LINEARITY
The output is a linear function of the input
Never completely achieved
Linearity specification:-
i. Independent of the input
ii. Proportional of input
iii. Combined independent and proportional to
the input
RANGE AND SPAN
The range of the instrument is specified by the
lower and upper limits in which it is designed to
operate for measuring.
HYSTERESIS
The magnitude of error caused in the output for given value of
input, when this value approached from opposite direction, i.e
from ascending order and then descending order.
Arithmetic mean ,

=
(
0
)
1
+(
0
)
2
2

DEAD BAND
The largest change of the measurand to which
the instrument does not response.
BACKLASH
The maximum distance or angle through which
any part of the mechanical system may be
moved in one direction without causing motion
of the next part.
DRIFT
The variation of output for a given input caused
due to change in the sensitivity of the
instrument due to certain interfering inputs like
temperature change, component instabilities,
etc.