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Title : - Strategies for enhancement in food production

Introduction :- Due to rapid increase in human population , more resources are
needed especially food . Traditional methods of food production can not
fulfill the requirement . To enhance food production , new strategies have
been adopted which include
Animal husandr! Dairy management , poultry management apiculture
and fisheries etc.
Plant reeding It involves production of new varieties for high yield , disease
resistance , pest resistance , stress resistance and improved food quality
Single Cell Protein " S C P # The protein rich food produced with the help of
microbes is called S C .
Plant Tissue Culture Technique to grow and maintain plant cells , tissues and
organs on a suitable culture medium ! in vitro".
$%ecti&es :- #fter studying this chapter , the student will be able to
$ understand role of various modern techniques of animal husbandry to
increase production from animals .
$ that plant breeding is sequential programme and it is used for specific
purposes li%e increase quantity and quality of yield , disease resistance
$ appreciate the use of tissue culture technique and alternate source of
protein for human consumption as Single Cell rotein ! S C " .
$ recogni&e various types of animal breeding techniques through
hybridi&ation .
$ differentiate between in'breeding and out'breeding , out'crossing and
cross'breeding .
$ %now about some more branches of biology li%e apiculture and fisheries
which are also related with enhancement in food production .
'e! (ords :-
Animal Husandr! : Science of rearing , feeding , caring and breeding of livestoc%s .
It also includes poultry , farming and fishery .
Artificial Insemination : Introduction of semen of good quality male in to vagina of
another female .
A)uaculture : It pertains to the production of useful aquatic plants and animals such
as fishes , prawns , crayfish , mussels , oysters and seaweeds by proper utili&ation
of available water .
*ermplasm Collection : The entire collection ! of plants ( seeds " having all the
diverse alleles for all the genes in a given crop .
H!ridi+ation : )ethod of producing new individuals by crossing parents with
different genetic constitution . It brings about variation .
Inreeding : *reeding by self pollination or selfing or between the members of same
population , variety or species .
Inreeding ,epression : Continued close inbreeding decreases the fertility and
-$ET : )ultiple +vulation ,mbryo Transfer Technique .
Pure line : It is a progeny of single self fertili&ed homo&ygous individuals .
Super $&ulation : Stimulation of good female animal to release more eggs .
-ain Concepts :-
!-" )eaning of management in Dairy and oultry .
!." Inbreeding as a source of accumulating superiority /s a source of
depression .
!0" Controlled breeding e1periments using artificial insemination and
)+,T .
!2" isciculture as a part of aquaculture and their role in 3*lue 4evolution5
!6" lant breeding is a sequential and systematic programme .
!7" lant breeding is used to develop resistance against disease and insect
pests .
!8" 9se of plant breeding technique for improved food quality .
!:" Concept of Single Cell rotein ! S C " .
!;" )ethod of Tissue Culture technology .
!-<" ,nrichment of food quality through biofortification .
-anagement of .arms and .arm animals :
=our main farming groups are
Dairy farm animals !livestoc%" include mil% giving animals. +ur
strategy for their improvement should be
Selection of breed
Disease resistant
,fficient in breeding
=arm management requires good housing !shelter" , adequate clean
water , balanced diet , hygiene and sanitation facilities , regular medical
care and mil%ing and storage and transport facilities .
oultry includes all types of birds which provide meat and eggs .
*esides above strategy, they require precautions against epidemics li%e
3*ird =lue5.
=ishery includes eatable fishes and other aquatic animals. They are the
main source of food and livelihood for coastal people . =ish farms
resulted in production boom of protein source.
#piculture provides benefits from honey bee honey , wa1 bee > crop
pollination .
Inreeding is ad&antageous as /ell as disad&antageous :
Inbreeding is the mating of animals of same variety for four to
si1 generations. Superior males and superior females are selected and
mated. rogeny are evaluated for desired characters. They are
homo&ygous for the trait. ?hen genes become stabili&ed in the variety,
they are called 3ure line5. They show 3@ybrid vigour5. Such pure lines
are obtained and they provide high yield. It removes harmful recessive
homo&ygote and superior genes are accumulated.
Inbreeding also results accumulation of harmful , deleterious
recessive alleles. It reduces fertility and called 3Inbreeding
depression5. These animals are prone to disaster situation when faced
with changed environmental conditions. Cross breeding at regular
intervals restore their fertility and yield.
Controlled reeding e0periment :
It is an artificial cross breeding method to procure quality and
quantity of products in animals. It is achieved by
Artificial Insemination It is process of collecting semen of desired
male into the reproductive canal of desired female to get progeny of
good characters. Its advantages are
Semen of one male can fertili&e many females.
,asy to transport the semen as compared to male animal.
Semen can be free&ed and stored for long duration.
Ao direct mating is required during heat period.
-ultiple $&ulation Emr!o Transfer Technolog! "-$ET# This
technique is used to improve herd population. =emale animal !cow" is
administered hormone with =S@ li%e activity. It accelerates many
follicle maturation simultaneously !7 : eggs per cycle or super
ovulation". # superior male !bull" is mated with, resulting many &ygotes.
#t : 0. celled stage, embryos are non'surgically e1tracted and
transferred to surrogate mothers. Benetic mother is used again for ne1t
round of super ovulation and surrogate mothers give birth to young
ones. Technique resulted in high yielding herd si&e in short time.
A)uaculture as part of 12lue Re&olution3 :
Ci%e 3Breen 4evolution5 of cereals, 3*lue 4evolution5 is
symboli&ed to blue water with the products. )anagement of any
eatable product from water area !aquatic" comes under aquaculture , be
it animal or plant product. Thus pisces !fish", prawn, crab, lobster,
edible oyster and plant products come under aquaculture. =ishery is the
chief industry and lifeline of coastal people. *lue 4evolution is meant
for their economic growth and high nutritional supplement for all. Aow
a days, fresh water aquaculture is getting popular besides marine one.
Steps of Plant reeding Programme :
lant breeding is a systematic and sequencial process !scientific".
Traditional farming can increase cultivation of biomass up to limited
e1tent of area. lant breeding includes manipulation of plant species
characters for better plant yield and disease resistance. It gives us
plants with
-" high yield !quantity"
." quality of yield !si&e , colour , nutrients , flavour"
0" stress tolerance !against e1treme temperature , drought , flood
and salinity"
2" resistance to pathogens
6" resistance to pests
lant breeding e1periment follows the following steps
Collection of &ariations In this step , variants of the species are
collected and stored to be used as parents. Their genomes are preserved .
These variants may be wild ancestors with desired characters. The entire
collection of genes and alleles is called as germplasm .
E&aluation and selection of parents The collected variants are
evaluated and tested for desirable characters. They are then multiplied.
Cross h!ridi+ation of selected parents Desired character parents
are then cross bred with different combinations . They may or may not
be successful during hybridi&ation because success rate is very low.
Selection and e&aluation of superior h!rid progen! @ybrid
progeny should be superior to both parents , only then they are selected.
Selection basis is stable homo&ygosity of desired characters. It is
achieved by self pollination.
Testing and release of selected &ariet! #fter series of evaluation
tests at different climatic locations , different times !seasons" and
quality test, plant variety becomes ready for commerciali&ation.
,isease and Pest resistance through Plant reeding :
Crop pathogens li%e virus , bacteria and fungus damage it but their
resistance can be generated through plant breeding e1periments. lants
also show similar resistance against pests. This resistance or immunity
lies in their modified ( recombinant genotype. It reduces dependence on
fungicides and bacteriocides and their harmful effects. To obtain disease
resistance plant, we should %now
Type of pathogen
Benotype of host and pathogen
)ode of transmission of pathogen
)ain methods followed are '
"4# Selection reeding
Selection of parent from variants .
Selection of progeny !hybrid" by evaluation and testing
4elease of variety
"5# -utation reeding - Create by inducing mutation through radiation
or chemical effects and then selection of mutants through evaluation
and testing and then release of variety.
"6# *enetic Engineering 4ecombinant DA# technology is a new
method, in which a desirable !resistant" gene from wild relative is
isolated and transferred into cultivated crop plant cell with the help of
carriers !bacteria(virus" under laboratory conditions ! in
vitro".4esultant recombinant is evaluated and tested for the trait and
then release of variety.
Acti&ities :-
,ifficult Areas :-
D Inbreeding depression
D Closely related terms +ut'breeding , out'crossing > cross'breeding
D )ultiple +vulation ,mbryo transfer Technology ! ) + , T " )ethod
and advantage
D Steps of plant breeding programme
/isit a fish mar%et and identify various types of fishes . Classify them
into fresh water fishes and marine fishes . ?hat are the other aquatic animals
included in fisheries but not belonging to the class isces .
D *iofortification
D Single Cell rotein ! S C "
D Somatic hybridi&ation
H$TS 7uestions : " Self Assessment 7uestions #

-. ?hat is biofortification E
.. Define an inbred line .
0. During meristem culture , some e1plants were %ept in culture medium
containing more au1ins than cyto%inins . ?hich organ of the plant is
e1pected to differentiate from the callus E
2. ?hat is meant by disease resistance E )ention two factors on which a
successful breeding for disease resistance depend .
6. Distinguish between somatic embryo and somatic hybrid .
7. Cist various steps involved in breeding a new genetic variety of crop .
8. In a )+,T programme of herd improvement , a cow was
administered female se1 hormone using following steps . #rrange them
in proper sequence'
!#" #rtificial insemination with semen of an elite bull
!*" Transfer of embryo to a surrogate mother
!C" roduction of multiple eggs instead of single
!D" ,mbryos at 0. celled stage recovered from female non'
:. ?hat is meant by out'breeding E Describe various methods of out'
breeding in animals .
;. Describe meristem culture technique . ?rite its method and advantages
References :-
*I+C+BF T,GT *++H =+4 CC#SS GII *F A.C.,.4.T.
3 To The oint *iology 5 for class GII by Trueman5s Specific Series
radeep5s 3 # Te1t *oo% of *iology 5 for class GII
Iuestion *an% Class GII ! .<<8 " *iology by Dte. of ,ducation ,
T49,)#A5S ,ICTI$8AR9 $. 2I$:$*9 With Blossary of *iological
CHAPTER 5; " Class <I #
Title :- 8eural Control and Coordination
$&er&ie/ of the chapter :-
@uman body is made up of large number of organs which wor% as
a well %nit unit . This harmony is achieved by neural and hormonal
control and coordination systems . *rain is the master controller along
with spinal cord . 4eceptors and nerves are associated with neural
system . Aeuron cells are basic unit of neural system . Transmission of
information occurs through nerves which may be of sensory or motor in
nature . Change in polarity of ions causes action potential which travels
as impulse .
There are five sense organs , out of which eye and ear are
important ones and responsible for perceiving light and sound signals
respectively .
$%ecti&es :- #fter studying this chapter , the student will be able to
$ #ppreciate that the whole body wor%s as a cohesive unit and it is
achieved by neural control .
$ understand that human neural system is composed of Central Aervous
System ! CAS " and eripheral Aervous System ! AS " .
$ %now about the structure of brain and its main parts .
$ ac%nowledge that all sense organs are connected with CAS by sensory
nerves and voluntary muscles receive stimuli from CAS through motor
nerves .
$ that neurons get e1cited and conduct the nerve impulse .
$ that sense organs are responsible for getting input of
environmental change and transmit them to CAS through sensory
nerves .
$ the structure and functioning of eye and ear .
'e! (ords :-
S!napse : # region of contact between a1on end of a neuron and one of
the dendrites of another neuron through which nerve impulse transmits in
one direction only .
8ode of Ran&ier : # gap between two of the Schwann cells that ma%e up
an a1on5s myelin sheath J it serves as a point of generating a nerve
impulse .
8er&e Impulse : Beneration and transmission of action potential along the
neurons using ions and neurotransmitters .
Cranial meninges : Three membranes which cover the brain i.e. dura
mater , arachnoid and pia mater .
Cereral corte0 : The outer layer of cells which cover the cerebral
hemisphere . It is grayish in colour due to absence of non'myelinated grey
matter .
Refle0 Action : The spontaneous unconscious response of CAS to any
peripheral nervous stimulation .
Cornea : The frontal transparent part of e1ternal coat i.e. continuation of
sclera and covering the iris and pupil of eye .
Retina : The inner light sensitive layer of eye and made up of rod and cone
cells .
.o&ea : # small pit or depression at the bac% of retina having large
concentration of cone cells and forming the point of sharpest vision .
Ear ossicles : Three small bones of middle ear ! malleus hammer
shaped , incus anvil shaped and stapes stirrup shaped "
Eustachian tue : # tube connecting middle ear to pharyn1 . It maintains
air pressure on inner side of ear drum .
$rgan of Corti : Structure on the basilar membrane of cochlea in
mammals consisting of hair cells which serve as receptors of auditory
stimuli .
-ain Concepts :-
!-" @uman neural system consists of Central Aeural System ! CAS " and
eripheral Aeural System ! AS " .
!." Aerve fibres are of two types afferent or sensory and efferent or
motor nerve fibres .
!0" Aeuron is the unit cell which ma%es all organs of neural system .
!2" # concentration gradient is maintained across the semi'permeable
neuron membrane using HK , AaK and negatively charged proteins .
!6" Disturbance in concentration gradient creates action potential which is
transmitted as nerve impulse .
!7" lasma membrane of neuron passes through three phases i.e. resting
potential ! polari&ed state " , action potential ! depolari&ed state " and
repolarised state .
!8" Impulse is transmitted from one neuron to the other ar synapse Lunction
. It may be electrical synapse or chemical synapse .
!:" The brain is made up of three main parts '
fore brain , mid brain and hind brain
!;" 4efle1 action follows a refle1 path or arc .
!-<" Structure and function of eye .
!--" Structure and function of ear .
!-." ,ar as a body balancing organ .
Acti&ities :-
To observe change in si&e of pupil . +bserve circular iris ! blac% ( brown "
and pupil space at its centre in the mirror . Bo to a dar% room and remain
there for -6 minutes . Come bac% and observe pupil si&e loo%ing in the
mirror . Aow go outside in bright daylight and remain there for -6 minutes .
Come bac% and again loo% pupil si&e in the mirror . Do you find changes in
pupil si&e .
,ifficult Areas :-
D Difference between somatic neural system and autonomic neural system .
D Beneration and conduction of nerve impulse .
D Structure of chemical synapse .
D =unction of hind brain
D )echanism of vision by retina cells .
D Structure of internal ear .
D )echanism of hearing and balancing in internal ear .
H$TS 7uestions :- " Self Assessment 7uestions #
-. Aame the system of inter'connection between visceral organs and CAS .
.. ?hat is the function of Aissl5s granules E
0. Aame the pathway in AS that transmit information to the central nervous system .
2. Aame the bundles of densely pac%ed nerve fibres that connect two cerebral
hemispheres with each other .
6. ?hich part of brain is vital to control the rapid muscular activities of the body E
7. ?hy has plasma membrane of neuron negatively charged from inside E
8. Aame the fluid that fills the chamber between cornea and lens of eye .
:. ?rite the two types of photosensitive cells present in the retina of eye .
;. ?hy has electrical synapse very short gap at the Lunction E
-<. )ention two functions of cerebrospinal fluid . =rom which part of the brain this fluid
is produced E
--. Differentiate multipolar and bipolar nerve cells with the help of one e1ample of
each . ?here are they located E
-.. ?here is the vestibular system present in human ear E Aame its different parts and
their role in balancing .
-0. Draw a diagram of a typical refle1 arc . Cabel any si1 important parts .
-2. Draw a diagram of human brain showing maLor cerebral lobes
-6. Aame the bony soc%et of s%ull in which eyes are held . Aame the three layers of eye
ball . ?hat role the following parts of eye play in vision ' !a" Cornea !b"
Choroid !c" Cens
References :-
*I+C+BF T,GT *++H =+4 CC#SS GI *F A.C.,.4.T.
3 To The oint *iology 5 for class GI by Trueman5s Specific Series
radeep5s 3 # Te1t *oo% of *iology 5 for class GI
Iuestion *an% Class GII *iology ! .<<6 " by Dte. of ,ducation , Delhi
T49,)#A5S ,ICTI$8AR9 $. 2I$:$*9 With Blossary of *iological Terms