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4, JULY 1997

High-Frequency Power Transformer

Model for Circuit Simulation

Enrico Dallago, Member, IEEE, Gabriele Sassone, and Giuseppe Venchi

AbstractA model for circuit simulation of transformers used

in high-frequency power processing is proposed. Many important

transformer effects are combined in a single formulation. An

AthertonJiles model with improved minor-loop handling ability

is employed to simulate the hysteresis effect in the magnetic core.

Eddycurrents and skin and proximity effects are simulated by

dynamically approximating the eld and ux distributions in

the entire structure. Leakage uxes, capacitive couplings, and

the inuence of temperature on electric and magnetic materials

are also included. The parameters needed for simulation are

magnetic-material characteristics, available in data sheets, core

geometry, and winding geometry. The model was implemented

(built) in the source code of SPICE3.

Index TermsModeling, simulation, SPICE, transformer.

INTRODUCTION

T

RANSFORMERS and devices using ferromagnetic ma-

terials [1], [2] are widely employed in switched-mode

electronic systems for electric energy processing. The choice

of magnetic materials is wide, and the designer can choose

the most appropriate ones for the application. In the switching

power-supply eld [3], the operating frequency has been

increased toward the megahertz range to reduce weights and

dimensions of power-processing systems. Here, ferrites have

been almost exclusively used [4]. As a consequence, certain

phenomena usually not considered for low-frequency trans-

formers cannot be neglected any longer. Among these are skin

and proximity effects in the windings and eddycurrents in

the core, both of which contribute to power losses. A suitable

computer model to accurately simulate a high-frequency trans-

former should include the basic principle of operation, hystere-

sis, and high-frequency effects at the same time. Previously

presented models [5][9] only included a subset of all these

phenomena or dealt with the problem from a nonphysical point

of view. To gather the parameters required for simulation,

some kind of numerical tting or experimental results are

therefore needed.

The model presented was developed under a strictly physical

approach. This led to its two major characteristics: 1) the

model is composed of a magnetic circuit and an electric circuit

interacting with each other and 2) all the parameters needed

for the simulation are taken directly from the data sheets of the

magnetic core and from the winding geometry. It is evident

that the model will be valid if the physical dimensions are

Manuscript received February 19, 1996; revised November 14, 1996.

Recommended by Associate Editor, W. J. Sarjeant.

The authors are with the Power Electronics Laboratory, Department of

Electrical Engineering, University of Pavia, I 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Publisher Item Identier S 0885-8993(97)04977-6.

compatible with the hypothesis of lumped parameter systems.

In Section II, a general overview of the model is presented.

In Sections II-A and II-B, the magnetic circuit and electric

interface are described. Finally, in Section III, a validation of

the model is given.

MODEL DESCRIPTION

In a transformer, close interaction between magnetic and

electric quantities takes place. To model this interaction, the

proposed equivalent circuit is composed of a magnetic circuit

[Fig. 1(a)] and an electric interface [Fig. 1(b)]. The magnetic

circuit models the distribution of uxes in the core and in the

space occupied by the windings and is used by the simulator

to calculate the effective uxes that link with the windings.

The electric interface models the electric variables, currents,

and voltages in the transformer windings. The derivatives of

the effective linked uxes represent the induced electromotive

forces in the windings and are used by the electric interface to

calculate the voltages at the winding terminals. On the other

hand, the currents that ow in the electric interface inuence

the magnetic eld ( ) in the core because (1) holds

(1)

where is the magnetic eld, is any closed path in the

space, and represents the generic current linked with path

. In particular, if the path links completely with a winding,

we have

(2)

where is the current in the winding and is the number

of turns of the winding.

At each iteration, the simulator needs to solve both circuits

at the same time. The analogy between electric and magnetic

quantities was exploited to allow SPICE to handle the mag-

netic circuit without the further complication of converting it

to its electrical equivalent.

The parameters that are required by the model are:

1) shape of the core (E, U, and POT cores and toroid);

2) dimensions of the core;

3) winding characteristics (number of turns and layers,

space between the windings, and space between the

windings and core);

4) winding disposition (concentric or stacked windings);

5) dimensions of the wires;

08858993/97$10.00 1997 IEEE

DALLAGO et al.: HIGH-FREQUENCY POWER TRANSFORMER MODEL FOR CIRCUIT SIMULATION 665

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1. (a) Magnetic part of the model. Nonlinear and frequency-dependent components are, respectively, enclosed in a rectangle and in an ellipse.

(b) Electric part of the model.

6) characteristics of the magnetic material (initial perme-

ability, saturation and residual ux density, saturation

and coercive eld, and core resistivity);

7) miscellaneous (copper conductivity and permittivity of

the dielectric).

Some of these parameters show a heavy dependence on

temperature, which needs to be included in the model. Wire

and core resistivity increase linearly with temperature over a

range that is wider than the main area of application of soft

ferrites (usually 25100 C). Initial permeability has a more

complex behavior, with a maximum near Curie temperature

and, sometimes, a second maximum in the range of 80100 C

[4]. In any case, the function can be linearized with good

approximation in the range of 2580 C. As far as saturation

ux density, residual ux density, and coercive eld are

concerned, the core manufacturer usually gives the values at

25 C and at 100 C. Even in this case, a linear variation with

temperature is assumed.

For a generic parameter , the value at temperature is

(3)

where is the value of at temperature and is the

linear temperature coefcient. A linear temperature coefcient

can be declared in the input le for any of the previously

described parameters.

All the data concerning the core and magnetic material can

be found in the manufacturers data sheets, while dimensions

of wire and windings are set by the designer. Every other

needed parameter is calculated by the simulator.

B. Description of the Magnetic Circuit

The equivalent magnetic circuit is built starting from the

plausible paths of magnetic uxes in the core, air, and space

occupied by the windings. Each path is analyzed in terms

of lumped parameters. To show how the magnetic circuit is

derived from the core geometry, let us consider, for instance,

the vertical section of a POT core with concentric windings

(Fig. 2). The symmetry of the core and position of the wind-

ings suggest that all the possible paths for the ux generated

by winding 1 are those shown in Fig. 2. Points AA and

BB can then be chosen as the magnetomotive-force reference

nodes of the structure. Fig. 2 also suggests that the effects of

the ux passing through different branches can be modeled

by assigning a proper reluctance to each branch. The nature

of each single lumped element is determined by the physical

phenomena that take place in each branch (eddycurrents in

the core, skin and proximity effects in the windings, etc.).

This leads to simple elements (i.e., frequency independent and

linear) and complex elements (i.e., frequency dependent and/or

nonlinear) [see Fig. 1(a)].

The magnetomotive-force source is represented by

the lumped generator placed near node A. This is, of

course, a strong approximation, since in the real case, the

magnetomotive-force source is completely distributed in

the space within the winding. A better approximation is

obtained if the winding leakage reluctances ( and

in Fig. 2) are divided in two parts placed on both sides of the

magnetomotive-force sources. Similar considerations apply

to the ux generated by the second winding and justify the

presence of a second generator.

The reluctances of the core ( ) are both nonlin-

ear (due to hysteresis) and frequency dependent (due to

eddycurrents). To model the eddycurrent effect, we need

to know the magnetic eld distribution in the core as a

function of frequency. The various core shapes can be divided

into ve elementary parts: 1) elements with a rectangular

section; 2) connection elements between rectangular sections;

3) elements with a circular section; 4) disc elements; and

5) connection elements between circular and disc elements.

The eld distribution is calculated for each of these parts

in an approximated way. Since the losses in the core due

to eddycurrents are smaller than those due to hysteresis,

a certain error can be tolerated. Furthermore, the magnetic-

666 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 12, NO. 4, JULY 1997

Fig. 2. Vertical section of a POT core and ux paths.

material permeability is assumed to be constant. Once the

eld is known, the ux and reluctance of the element can

be calculated. For instance, the expression of the complex

reluctance of an element with a rectangular section is [see

Appendix A for the derivation of (4)]

(4)

If , (4) can be further reduced to

where

(5)

Equation (5) shows that the frequency-dependent part of the

reluctance does not depend on the permeability of the material

(justifying the approximation of constant permeability), but

depends heavily on the geometry of the element.

The assumption does not seem to be consistent with

the goal of modeling a high-frequency transformer. However,

lies in the megahertz range for typical values of , ,

and . Fig. 3 shows that this approximation will hold, even up

to nearly three or four times .

Equation (5) can be implemented in the simulator by

introducing a new circuit component (in the following

component) in series to . From (5), its branch equation in

time domain is

(6)

From a formal point of view and keeping in mind the

magnetic-to-electric analogy, (6) is the same as the branch

equation of the linear inductor

(7)

The component is treated as an inductor by the simulator,

so that SPICE can handle the component branch equation.

Once the component is known for each of the ve basic

elements, the component of a path in the core is simply

a combination of basic components in series or in parallel

according to whether the basic elements that constitute the

path are in series or in parallel. The components and

(a)

(b)

Fig. 3. Plots of (4) (normal line) and (5) (bold line).

calculated in this way model the frequency dependence of

and .

DALLAGO et al.: HIGH-FREQUENCY POWER TRANSFORMER MODEL FOR CIRCUIT SIMULATION 667

Fig. 4. Complete magnetic circuit. Nonlinear components are enclosed in a rectangle.

The dc reluctance of a core path is calculated in a similar

fashion by combining the dc reluctances of the basic parts.

At this point, the nonlinearities of the magnetic material are

inserted in the frequency-independent part of and . To

model hysteresis, the Atherton and Jiles approach is followed

[10]. This model has a differential equation formulation that

makes it suitable for implementation in a simulator designed

to work with arbitrary waveforms. However, if the equation is

directly solved, the minor loops obtained may have negative

slopes, which is a nonphysical behavior. The Atherton and

Jiles proposal [11] for calculating minor loops does not use

a differential equation and requires a priori knowledge of

the minor-loop turning points, hence, this method cannot be

applied to this case. The solution proposed in the present work

uses the equation reported in [10], even for minor loops as

well, but it does so by setting the derivative of the irreversible

part of the magnetization to zero when it would otherwise be

negative.

The reluctance of the core and its ux are recalculated at

each iteration of a transient analysis, while a small-signal

differential reluctance is calculated for ac analysis. As far

as ac analysis is concerned, it is important to note that with

the SPICE approach, the calculated frequency response is not

reliable. This is because the nonlinearities of the core manifest

themselves not only when the signals grow in amplitude, but

also when the operating frequency changes.

Skin and proximity effects are two aspects of the same

phenomenon, that is, the interaction between conductors and

varying magnetic elds. The skin effect takes place when the

current distribution in a conductor is modied by the magnetic

eld generated by the current owing in the conductor itself.

The proximity effect, on the other hand, is caused by elds

generated by the currents that ow into other conductors.

A winding with many turns usually needs to be wound in

multiple layers to t the core. These layers interact, producing

a mix of skin and proximity effect. By exploiting the previous

considerations, these two phenomena are modeled together,

calculating the eld distribution in a series of conductor

layers placed side by side. A strategy similar to that used

with eddycurrents is followed, but simplied because the

properties of copper are linear. Again, the winding complex

reluctance (for ) can be split into the series

of a frequency-independent reluctance (now linear) and

a component , which depends on the geometry of the

windings and number of layers.

Flux paths in the air between the windings and between

the windings and core are modeled using the three reluctances

, , and .

The presence of gaps is modeled with a reluctance in series

to the core reluctances ( and ). When all these

analyses are applied to the circuit in Fig. 1(a), the circuit

of Fig. 4 is obtained. If the windings are placed above each

other, the magnetic circuit varies slightly ( and are

placed differently), but the basic principle remains the same.

It can be shown that the magnetic circuit is the same for E,

U, and POT cores, while it can be simplied for toroids.

B. Description of the Electric Interface

The electric interface is shown in Fig. 1(b), and its analysis

is quite straightforward. The interactions with magnetic phe-

nomena are modeled via two voltage sources controlled by the

derivatives of the uxes linked by each winding [

and (see Appendix B for the denition of

and )]. Using the magnetic-to-electric analogy, these two

generators become current-controlled voltage sources. The

dc conductances of the wires are modeled with resistors

and in series with the ideal windings represented

by the voltage sources. The parasitic capacitances between

turns of the windings are modeled with and .

and model the coupling between the two windings. In

particular, the values of and are calculated by evaluating

the equivalent capacitance of the capacitive-ladder network

associated with each winding.

VALIDATION OF THE MODEL AND DISCUSSION

The model has been extensively tested. Some transformers,

built with different core shapes and magnetic materials, were

used to compare experiments and simulations. The experi-

mental results reported here regard a transformer employing a

Siemens/Matsushita N67 soft-ferrite E 13/4 core, with staked

windings composed of four turns each. A 100-kHz sinusoidal

voltage was applied to the primary winding, and the primary

current was measured with a current probe. The secondary

voltage was elaborated with an active integrator to obtain

a quantity proportional to the ux in the core. Since the

668 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 12, NO. 4, JULY 1997

Fig. 5. Comparison of experimental (normal line) and simulated (bold line)

magnetizing current waveforms at 200 mT.

Fig. 6. Comparison of experimental (normal line) and simulated (bold line)

hysteresis loops at 200 mT.

secondary winding can be considered open in rst approxima-

tion, the primary current may be assumed as the magnetizing

current. All the quantities of interest were sampled with a

digital-storage oscilloscope. The core is of the ungapped type,

but since the mechanical coupling of the two halves is not

ideal, a small gap of about 8 m was adopted in the simulation.

This value has the same order of magnitude as the one

reported on core data sheets [4]. Furthermore, a temperature

of 60 C was declared in the simulation to account for the

rise in temperature of the core due to the high levels of

ux density. Experimental results and simulations for two

different values of ux density are presented. Fig. 5 shows

the magnetizing current when the voltage applied produces a

maximum magnetic ux density of 200 mT, while in Fig. 6 the

hysteresis-loop shape under the same conditions is reported.

Fig. 7. Comparison of experimental (normal line) and simulated (bold line)

magnetizing current waveforms at 300 mT.

Fig. 8. Comparison of experimental (normal line) and simulated (bold line)

hysteresis loops at 300 mT.

Fig. 7 shows the magnetizing current when the applied voltage

produces a maximum magnetic ux density of 300 mT, while

in Fig. 8, the pertinent hysteresis-loop shape is given. These

results show that the simulated magnetizing current is in good

agreement with the measured current, while the hysteresis-

loop shape is affected by greater deviation. In particular, the

simulated loop tends to be squared at the tips, while the

measured loop has a tapered shape. This behavior is due to the

solution adopted to evaluate minor loops. In [12], one possible

solution to this problem has been proposed.

CONCLUSIONS

A novel model for transformers used in high-frequency

power applications has been presented. The model reproduces

the interaction between electric and magnetic quantities that

DALLAGO et al.: HIGH-FREQUENCY POWER TRANSFORMER MODEL FOR CIRCUIT SIMULATION 669

Fig. 9. Magnetic element with square section.

takes place in a real transformer with good accuracy. A

comprehensive selection of important transformer effects is

covered. In particular, a sound, albeit complex, model of

hysteresis is included, and the problems ensuing from its

implementation are solved. Eddycurrents and proximity effect

are modeled by starting from the physics of the problem.

The numerical simulation can be carried out with an arbitrary

waveform. These properties make it suitable for simulating

high-frequency power-processing systems. Besides this, the

required parameters can easily be obtained from data sheets

and winding geometry. Hence, the designer can rapidly check

how different cores and winding congurations inuence the

operation of the system without wasting time tting the model

and without assembling prototypes. Comparison between sim-

ulations and experimental results with different core materials

shows that the model is reliable and quite accurate.

APPENDIX A

In Appendix A, the derivation of (4) is presented. Let us

consider an element with a square section with the surrounding

variable eld directed as the axis of the element (Fig. 9). Since

we assume that the current paths have an almost cylindrical

symmetry and the following equation holds

(A1)

we can approximate the eld distribution for the square-section

element to that of a cylinder whose diameter equals the length

of the side of the square. The eld distribution in the cylinder

can be further approximated inside an innite plate of width

by turning it around the axis.

The following formula is obtained:

(A2)

Fig. 10. Schematic used to study proximity effect.

where is the permeability of the

magnetic material, is its conductivity, and is .

At this point, the ux through the section can be calculated

(A3)

Since , we have

(A4)

where is the dc reluctance of the element and

is a characteristic angular frequency of the

phenomenon.

If the section is rectangular, and will have different

values, but here we assume that (A4) is still valid.

APPENDIX B

In this Appendix, the proof of the formula used to calculate

the ux that effectively links with the windings is presented.

For instance, let us consider the single-layer inner winding

of a transformer with concentric windings. The equivalent

magnetic circuit is still the one shown in Fig. 1(a). From

Fig. 2, it can be noted that the uxes in the paths associated

with and are certainly linked with the winding since

they are completely internal to the coil. On the other hand, the

contribution of the ux in the copper layer ( in Fig. 2) to

the effective linked ux is not straightforward. If were

linked completely by the winding, then the effective linked

ux would be

(B1)

To study the problem with greater accuracy, let us imagine

cutting the shape of the winding (a hollow cylinder) along its

height and straightening it until it assumes the parallel-piped

shape like the one in Fig. 10 ( equals the length of a turn). It

670 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 12, NO. 4, JULY 1997

is assumed that the magnetic eld distribution in both shapes

will be the same under the same boundary conditions. At low

frequency, the eld distribution is

(B2)

The ux linked by copper is

(B3)

where gives the number of turns per

unit length in the -turn winding as a function of .

Equation (B3) leads to

(B4)

Observe the following.

1) The reluctance of the winding in the magnetic cir-

cuit was divided into two parts on both sides of the

magnetomotive-force generator.

2) is the reluctance of each of these

branches.

3) and are the magnetomotive

forces of these branches, and we have

(B5)

Finally, the expression for and is

for (B6)

This procedure can be repeated with the following eld-

distribution expression, which is valid at any frequency and,

in the case of multiple layers, is

(B7)

The resulting formula for and can be approximated

to (B6) with an acceptable error.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors wish to thank Dr. A. Brigati for suggestions

and support in the initial phase of this work.

REFERENCES

[1] R. M. Bozorth, Ferromagnetism. New York: Van Nostrand, 1951.

[2] C. H. Carter, R. Lee, and L. Wilson, Electronic Transformers And

Circuits. New York: Wiley, 1988.

[3] G. Chryssis, High-Frequency Switching Power Supplies. New York:

McGraw-Hill, 1989.

[4] Ferrites and Accessories. Siemens/Matsushita Components GmbH,

1994.

[5] E. Tatakis, A Spice2 high-frequency transformer model for dcdc

converters, in Proc. IEEE 2nd European Conf. Power Electronics and

Applications, 1987, pp. 413418.

[6] S.-A. El-Hamamsy and E. I. Chang, Magnetic modeling for computer-

aided design of power electronic circuits, in IEEE Power Electron.

Spec. Conf. Rec., 1989, pp. 635645.

[7] J. H. Chang, A. Vladimirescu, X. C. Gao, P. Liebmann, and J. Valainis,

Nonlinear transformer model for circuit simulation, IEEE Trans.

Computer-Aided Design, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 476482, 1991.

[8] V. A. Niemela, H. A. Owen, and T. G. Wilson, Cross-coupled-

secondaries model for multiwinding transformers with parameter values

calculated from short-circuit impedances, in Proc. IEEE Power Elec-

tron. Spec. Conf. Rec., 1990, pp. 822830.

[9] D. Pei and P. O. Lauritzen, A computer model of saturatiuon and

hysteresis for use on Spice2, in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec.

Conf. Rec., 1984, pp. 247255.

[10] D. C. Jiles and D. L. Atherton, Theory of ferromagnetic hysteresis, J.

Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 61, pp. 4860, 1986.

[11] , Theory of ferromagnetic hysteresis, J. Appl. Phys., vol. 55,

no. 6, pp. 21152120, Mar. 1984.

[12] K. H. Carpenter, A differential equation approach to minor loops in

the JilesAtherton hysteresis model, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 27, no.

6, pp. 44044406, 1991.

Enrico Dallago (M87) was born in 1949 in

Bolzano, Italy. He received the Dr. Ing. degree

in electrical engineering from the University of

Pavia, Pavia, Italy, in 1974.

Since 1975, he has been with the Department of

Electrical Engineering, University of Pavia, where

he is a Professor of Power Electronics. His research

interests include industrial and power electronics.

He is currently involved in circuit simulation,

high-frequency switching power conversion, power-

factor correction, and electronic-package thermal

analysis.

Dr. Dallago is a Member of the Italian Electrical and Electronic Association

(AEI).

Gabriele Sassone was born in 1962 in Casale

Monferrato, Italy. He received the Dr. Ing. degree

in electronics engineering from the University of

Pavia, Pavia, Italy, in 1988.

In 1989, he joined the Department of Electrical

Engineering, University of Pavia, as a Dottorato di

Ricerca student, working on electrical drives and

switching power supplies. He has been an Assis-

tant Professor at the same University since 1992.

His research interests include the power electronics

eld and, particularly, the study of high-frequency-

switched power converters, semiconductor thermal analysis, electronic equip-

ment control, and signal processing.

Giuseppe Venchi was born in 1970 in Pavia, Italy.

He received the Dr. Ing. degree in electronics en-

gineering (Summa Cum Laude) from the University

of Pavia, Pavia, in 1996.

He is currently with the Department of Electrical

Engineering, University of Pavia.

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