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Main Project Synopsis

Static Handwritten Signature Using Discrete Randon Transform
and Combined Projection Technique
Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology
Electronics and Communication Engg.
Submitted to
Electronics and Communication Department
Submitted by
AYUSHI TIARI !""#$%&"%%'(
)A*+ARI SI*HA !""#$%&"%",(
PA-A. PATHA. !""#$%&"%/%(
SA.SHI 0AH-AUT !""#$%&"%&1(
Shri Ram )urti Smara2 omen3s Co44ege 5f 6ngineering 7 Techno4og8
9arei448 !U:P:(
e would li!e to than! the faculty members of Electronics " Communication department#
for pro$iding such a platform to enhance our !nowledge through this mini project.
e would li!e to e%tend our gratitude towards the Project &n charge )s: *eha Tha2ur; )r:
Surrendra 0angwar and )r: )ohit .umar 'ssistant Professor# Electronics "
Communication# who managed the functioning and details of the project $ery smoothly.
e will be completing the project under the guidance of 'ssistant Professors# Electronics "
Communication# who pro$ided the $aluable contribution for this project.
e than! all the people who contributed during the progressed wor! of this project.
'd$antages " Salient (eatures
'pplication " (uture scope
The basic goal of the handwritten signatures is to pro$ide an accurate method in order to
$erify a person)s identity based on the way in which he*she signs his*her name. +ence for this
reason# the handwritten signatures are widely accepted# socially and legally throughout the
world. There are basically two types of systems , online and offline. The hand-written
signature $erification uses the features con$eyed by e$ery signatory such that the features
considered ha$e a uni.ue understanding and the way of signing presents the beha$ioural
biostatistics. Some researchers considered common issues with the e%traction of
identification data from different biometric types# and protection of such data against
concei$able attac!s. +andwritten signatures are $ery much dependant on the user)psychology
and has great difference in different surroundings and time.
+and written signature $erification is the most easy-to-use . 's signatures continue to play an
important role in financial# commercial and legal transactions# truly secured authentication
becomes more and more crucial. (or instance# financial institutions relay on them for account
openings# withdrawals and transaction payments. ' signature by an authori/ed person is
considered to be the 0seal of appro$al0 and remains the most preferred means of
authentication. 1n the other hand# the threats and monetary losses continue to rise
dramatically. &n particular chec! fraud has reached epidemical scope. hile static signature
$erification is the most suited techni.ue for reducing fraud thru payment forms 2chec!s# fa%
money transactions# remote payment orders#.. 3 at the bac!-office operations # the recently
introduced technology of dynamic signature $erification $ia online capturing using pressure-
sensiti$e pen-pads# tac!les ideally the threats at the teller front-end.
The signature $erification algorithms analy/es the shape# speed# stro!e order# off-tablet
motion# pen pressure and timing information captured during the act of signing. 4nli!e a
password# P&5# P6& or !eycards - identification data that can be forgotten# lost# stolen or
shared - the captured $alues of the handwritten signature are uni.ue to an indi$idual and
$irtually impossible to duplicate. Signature $erification is natural and intuiti$e. The
technology is easy to e%plain and trust. The primary ad$antage that signature $erification
systems ha$e o$er other types of Saista Sarl technologies is that signatures are already
accepted as the common method of identity $erification. This history of trust means that
people are $ery willing to accept a signature based $erification system.
M'T7'B Software
'utomatic Cropping System
1ptical Scanner
Two main algorithm that are being used for data processing are8
Discrete 9andon Transform
Dynamic Time rapping
The Radon transform in two dimensions# named after the 'ustrian mathematician :ohann
9adon# is the integral transform consisting of the integral of a function o$er straight lines.
The transform was introduced in ;<;= by 9adon#
who also pro$ided a formula for the
in$erse transform. 9adon further included formulas for the transform in three-dimensions# in
which the integral is ta!en o$er planes. &t was later generalised to higher-
dimensional Euclidean spaces# and more broadly in the conte%t of integral geometry.
The comple% analog of the 9adon transform is !nown as the Penrose transform.
&n time series analysis# d8namic time war<ing 2DT3 is an algorithm for measuring
similarity between two temporal se.uences which may $ary in time or speed. (or instance#
similarities in wal!ing patterns could be detected using DT# e$en if one person was wal!ing
faster than the other# or if there were accelerations and decelerations during the course of an
obser$ation. DT has been applied to temporal se.uences of $ideo# audio# and graphics data
@ indeed# any data which can be turned into a linear se.uence can be analy/ed with DT.
This project is di$ided into A modules i.e
Data Collection
Data Storage
Signal Processing 2 Berification stages3
The data is collected i.e samples of signatures of C people are ta!en then scanned through
optical scanner and then stored in a database . by using automatic cropping system the
dimensions of the ststic signatures are defined. 5ow the input signature is ta!en . &t is
compared with the stored signature on the basis of different parameters li!e ('92false
acceptance ratio3 # (992false rejection ratio3# inclination angle# a/imuthal angle# pressure and
stro!es .&f all these parameters matches the signature is accepted otherwise rejected.
The finger print of those people wor!ing in Chemical industries are often affected.
Therefore these companies should not use the finger print mode of authentication.
&t is found that with age# the $oice of a person differs. 'lso when the person has flu or
throat infection the $oice changes or if there there are too much noise in the
en$ironment this method maynot authenticate correctly. Therefore this method of
$erification is not wor!able all the time
(or people affected with diabetes# the eyes get affected resulting in differences.
To o$ercome all the issues signature of people were considered as a way to identify their
uni.ueness. E$ery single indi$idual has a different way of writing each words . +ence# this
techni.ues is more beneficial in comparison to other biometric.
+andwritten signature is the most widely used method of authentication and
authori/ation worldwide.
+andwritten signature is legally $alid and indicates intent and agreement.
+andwritten signature is language and font independent.
&t is on-intrusi$e8 4sers do not percei$e it as a pri$acy encroachment method.
5o one forgets his*her signature 2as usually happens with P&5s and passwords3.
hile other biometric parameters# P&5s and passwords can be obtained without
the !nowledge and*or consent of their owners# handwritten signature has to be
done by the user in the $ery moment it is re.uired.
The dynamic parameters of a biometric signature are $ery uni.ue to e$ery person#
so there is no chance of imitating or copying such user specific characteristics.
' person)s signature often changes during their life due to age# illness and up to some e%tent
the emotional state of the person. Thus there is a need of research in feature e%traction and
classification techni.ues based on dynamic methods that e%tract dynamic information from
static images.
Pa<er4ess offices- Biometric signature speeds up document appro$al processes#
authori/ations# etc. and allows to sign from anywhere at any time. &t eliminates
misuse of employee passwords or &D cards and &T department)s time associated
with password management and &D cards lost. &t impro$es legibility of documents
since all of them are filled in using the !eyboard. &t also produces important
sa$ings in paper and printer tonner usage# paper documentation archi$e and
>raud <rotection in credit card and <ri?ate 4abe4 credit card use- hile other
biometric parameters# P&5s and passwords can be obtained without the !nowledge
and*or consent of their owners# handwritten signature has to be done by the user in
the $ery moment it is re.uired. Then# biometric signature is the safest alternati$e
to reduce credit card theft use and charge bac!s from stolen or forged cards at the
point of sale# ban!s or in e-commerce applications.
Cash management contro4 for financia4 de<artments and cash registers@Paper
based transactions and handwritten documents or forms can be manipulated by
changing numbers once they ha$e been appro$ed and signed or by forging the
initials and*or signatures. &dentification numbers and*or passwords to log on cash
registers can also be obtained without the owner)s consent. Biometric signature
can be easily used to reduce or eliminate chances of theft and*or fraud.
Time attendance s8stems to 2ee< trac2 of em<4o8ee attendance@ Biometric
signature has to be made by the employee at the time he*she is entering or lea$ing
the company premises. Therefore# biometric signature based attendance systems
help companies to monitor compliance with wor!ing hours Sigma Technologies#
S.7. hite Paper on Biometric Signature C pre$enting employees from bad
practices li!e supplanting the identity of others 2in card# P&5# password# employee
&D based systems3# delays# etc.
There are time attendance systems based on other biometric information li!e
fingerprints. +owe$er# most people do not li!e to pro$ide biometric data li!e
fingerprints# iris or face images# etc. since it is e%perienced as a pri$acy
encroachment# but feel comfortable with signatures# which is the most widely
used method to indicate intent and agreement.
The project has not been implemented till now so it will be a great achie$ement in securing
the data which are being used for official puposes. Each person has its own way of written
and ma!ing characters so it will help to distinguish indi$iduals . &t will be help full in
ba!ing # paper wor! and other security purposes.
'bhay Bansal# Bharat Jupta# Jaura$ 6handelwal# and Shampa
Cha!ra$erty K1ffline Signature Berification 4sing Critical 9egion
MatchingL# &nternational :ournal of Signal Processing# &mage
Processing and Pattern# DEE<.