Anda di halaman 1dari 3

Organic Reactions Summary

Substitution
An atom/group in the chain is replaced by another
Family Reacts with Catalyst Products
Alkanes Halogens UV ight Haloalkane !
hydrogen halide
Aromatics Halogens Fe"r# or AlCl# Haloben$ene !
hydrogen halide
Aromatics Alkyl Halides AlCl# Alkylben$ene !
hydrogen halide
Aromatics %itric Acid Sulphuric Acid %itroben$ene !
water
Alcohols Hydrogen halide &nCl' (ucas
Reagent)
Alkyl Halide !
*ater
+thers ' binary acids Heat ' alkyl halides !
water
Ammonia Alkyl Halide %A Amine !
Hydrogenhalide
Addition
Adding groups (or atoms) to a chain by breaking a C,C bond
Family Reacts with Catalyst Products
Alkenes Hydrogen Platinum (Pt) Alkane
Alkenes Halogens CCl- Haloalkane ('
halogen atoms)
Alkenes Hydrogen
Halide
%/A Haloalkene (.
halogen atom)
Alkenes *ater H'S/- ! .00 C Alcohol
Alkynes1 Same as alkenes, but require 2 moles of the 2
nd
column to
fully saturate the triple bond.
+limination
Remo2al o3 ' atoms/groups to 3orm a double bond
Family Reacts *ith Catalyst Products
Alcohols H'S/-4 .00 C Alkene ! water
Alkyl halides Hydro5ide ion n/a Alkene ! water
! halide ion
/5idation
loss o3 electrons by the carbon atom (o5 6 goes down)
Reactions1
Alkenes are o5idi$ed by either 78n/- or 7'Cr'/9 to produce an
alkane with two alcohol groups (:diols;)
+ach C in the C,C bond gets an </H group
Alcohols are o5idi$ed by the same as abo2e to produce1
o Primary alcohol aldehyde carbo5ylic acid
o Secondary alcohol ketone
o =ertiary alcohol won>t react
Aldehydes are o5idi$ed by the same as abo2e to produce a
carbo5ylic acid?
7etones can>t be o5idi$ed? =hese properties can be a @ualitati2e
test to distinguish between an aldehyde and a ketone
/5idi$ing Agents1
78n/- turns 3rom purple to brown in an aldehyde4 and stays
purple in a ketone?
7'Cr'/9 turns 3rom orange to green in aldehyde4 stays orange in
ketone
Fehling>s Solution1 Copper (AA) solution? "lue to orangish brown
precipitate in aldehyde4 stays blue in ketone
=ollen>s Reagent (sil2er ions in ammonia) clear B colourless
black precipitate with sil2er mirrored coating in aldehyde4 stays
colourless in ketone
Condensation Reactions
inking ' molecules together by linking an H and an /H to
produce water
Family Reacts *ith Catalyst Products
Alcohols +ach other H'S/- ! heat +ther ! water
Alcohols Carbo5ylic Acid H'S/- ! heat +ster ! water
Amines Carbo5ylic acid H'S/- ! heat Amide ! water
Hydrolysis Reactions
splitting apart o3 a molecule by adding water
Family Reacts *ith Catalyst Products
+sters <
Re2ersible
*ater H'S/- ! heat Alcohol !
carbo5ylic acid
+sters <
Arre2ersible
*ater ! "ase Alcohol !
carbo5ylate ion
! metal ion
Amides *ater H'S/- ! heat Amine !
Carbo5ylic Acid