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Ch.

2
DOORS
1
A door is a movable barrier that separates internal and external spaces. It is usually attached to a frame on
one side by hinges. A door provides access, protection, security and privacy. This chapter describes how
doors are made and how to build them into wall openings.
Doors fall into two general categories, exterior and interior. Weather resistance is usually the most
important functional factor in choosing exterior doors, whereas resistance to the pas sage of sound or fire
and smoke are frequently important criteria in the selection of interior doors. Many different modes of
door operation are possible (Figure 18.23).
Performance standards
A door, depending on the type, should meet certain standards for:
" weather resistance;
"security;
o fire resistance;
o sound insulation;
o pnvacy;
o operation;
o durability.
Weather-resistance
External doors need a minimum gap of 2 mm for free movement. This gap should be sealed with suitable
draught and water excluders to make the doors weather-resistant. constructed to high specifications and
fitted with high-security locks.
Security
The security of a door depends on the materials used, the quality ofthe frame and the ironmongery.
Internal doors only need to provide minimal security. For example, a bathroom door might be fitted with
a simple lock. External doors need to be constructed to high specifications and fitted with high-security
locks.
Fire-resistance
Internal doors that separate spaces are usually made of materials that prevent the rapid spread of fire.
They are also heavy enough to be self-closing.
Sound insulation
Heavier doors provide better sound insulation.
Privacy
Solid doors are the most private. If some light is needed while retaining privacy, then obscure glass
should be fitted.
Operation
Doors can swing or slide open and closed. Most doors swing on hinges fixed to door frames. Spring-
loaded latches usually hold doors closed. You normally open doors with knobs or levers.
Door Terminology
Top rail of door
Door frame ---d.
Doorstop at top
and both vertical
edges of frame
Strike opening ---H:nl
Weatherstripping -f-Hl--.,.-
on exterior doors
Hanging --'---"-+
stile
Jamb
Butt hinge
+!-----Closing sti le
Weatherboard
Ci ll
Water bar
Y.-....----- Threshold
Fig ure 15: 7 Pa rts of a sta nda rd door.
Concealed closer. Closer may also be
exposed, i.e., mounted on the surface
of door. It may also be floor mounted.
Hinge
Hinge jamb
Stile (hinge stile of door)
Lock stile of door
Lock
Bottom rail of door
Frame (Jamb)
2 '
Head proj ects
1 00 mm as horn
Head or frame
(a) (b)
Head of
Frame rebated
13mm for door
Thickness of door
Figure 8.36 (a) Door frame. (b) Mortice and tenon joint.
Wall
partition
Door
Door frame
l oOmm X75 rnm
or 75 rnm X 50 rnrn
Door
Planted door stop
Door li ning
25 rnm or
32 mm thi ck
as wide as
wall and plaster
Figure 8.35 Door frame and door lining.
Si ngle
rebated l ini ng
Double
rebated lining
Lining fi xed to
rough grounds
Panell ed
lining
Figure 8.43 Door linings.
3
Durability
Doors are in constant use. Their construction should be strong enough to withstand considerable activity.
A door should not fall off the edge fixed to a frame under its own weight. External doors should be able
to resist climatic extremes, which can cause the shape to warp.
Technical words for parts of a door
This section defines the main parts of a door. So that you can see what they look like, the parts are also
labeled in Figure 15.1. and Fig. 15.2
em
A horizontal member at the base of an external door that separates the internal and external structure. It
should slope so that rainwater flows outside rather than inside.
Frame
A solid timber or metal structure fixed to a wall. It is constructed so that it forms a seal when the door
closes and supports the door's weight.
Head
The horizontal piece at the top of the frame.
Jamb
The vertical part of the frame that is fixed to the wall.
Lining
The timber framework inserted into an opening in an internal wall.
Rebate
A recess in the door frame that seals the edges of a door.
Stile
the outer vertical piece of the door frame. There are three types of stile:
o hanging stile that the door hangs on;
e closing stile that holds the lock or latch;
o meeting stile where a pair of doors meets in the middle.
Stop
A thin piece of timber fixed to the head and jambs of the lining to form a rebate.
Threshold
The surface of access point in the doorway where you enter or exit. The cill is part of the threshold.
Water bar
A metal bar fitted into the cill of an external door to prevent water flowing inside.
Weatherboard
A horizontal piece fixed to the external bottom edge of a door to push water away from the cill.
DooJr frame an.dlliniJIDgs
Door frames.
5
A door frame is made of timbers of sufficient cross section to support the weight of a door and to serve as
a surround to the door into which it closes. The majority of door frames are rebated to serve as a stop for
one way swing doors. The door frame is secured in the wall or partition opening to support external doors
and heavier internal doors. Choice of frame or lining is to an extent a matter of appearance and
convenience in fixing and the methods of masking the junction between plaster finishes and frames and
linings.
Door frames, commonly used for external doors and heavier internal doors, may not be as wide as the
thickness of the wall in which they are fixed as illustrated in-Figure 8.35. It is necessary, therefore, to run
plaster finishes around the angle of the wall, into the reveal and up to the door frame as shown in
Fig.8.35. In time the junction between the plaster and frame will open up as an unsightly crack. A wood
bead may be fixed to hide this potential crack. Wood door frames are used with wood ,fiberglass, and
metal doors in non-fire rated applications. Fig. 7.19 shows installing a door frame in a rough opening.
Metal door frames however are used with metal doors or fire-rated wood doors. Fig.31,20 shows
commonly used wood and metal door frame shapes and Figs 31.21 and 3122 show typical construction
details ofwood and metal door frames respectively.
Shingle wedges
and finish
nails attach the
door frame to the
studs----_,
ELEVATiON
FIGURE 7.19
Installing a door frame in a rough open-
ing. The wood shingle wedges at each
nailing point are paired in opposing
directions to create a flat, precisely
adj ustable shim to support the frame.

fK+ typical
SINGLE-RABBET WOOD DOOR FRAME
1/2 in. WOOD DOOR WITH APPLIED STOP
__._--= ,71,....---<t-- FRAME (for interior doore
only)
til
3:
L 1-1/4 in. typical for
interior doore
1-1/ 2 in. typical for
exterior doore
DOUBLE-RABBET
WOOD DOOR FRAME
t:
tll.l:
.l:
"1:5
<:Sl ._
'3:
.!: <ll
t:
<u
._ til
t:L .!1 3:
c

til
C()
.l:

Ill
.l:
;::
s:
1- II q::
s::


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II
DOUBLE-RABBET METAL DOOR FRAME
(Standard gaugee14, 16, and 18)
FIGURE 31.20 Typi ca l wood and meta l door frame shapes.
Brick
veneer
Gypsum board
Steel
lintel
Flashing
Casing (profile
varies) Backer
Head Detail
Sill Detail
Interior
casing
Insulate
between
shims
Head Detail
Sill Detail
(a) Details of a typical interior wood door
(b) Detai ls of a typical exterior wood door
FIGURE 31 .21 Head and sill detail s of typi cal interior and exterior wood doors.
Gypsum board
(a) Jamb detail-wood stud
wall and metal door frame
(b) Jamb detail-metal stud
wall and metal door frame
The void between the jamb and metal
door frame in CMU walls is often grouted
for increased sound insulation and/or
fire resistance
(c) Jamb detaii-CMU wall
and metal door frame (butt
condition)
FIGURE 31 .22 Detai ls of the anchorage of a metal door frame to various types of wall s.
rod and
sealant
Exterior
casing
(profile
varies)
6

Door linings are thin sections of wood or metal that are fixed securely in a doorway or opening as a lining
around the reveal (thickness) of the wall or partition. Wood door linings may be plain or rebated or plain
with planted stops ,double rebated for appearance sake or paneled as shown in Fig. 8.43. The linings are
fixed in position in the door opening before plastering so that the finished plaster level is flash with the
edges of the lining. See Fig. 8.44 A door lining which may not be substantial enough by itselfto support
the weight of a door will depend on its fixing to the wall or partition for support.
Door linings are generally used for internal doors in thin partitions where the width of the lining is the
same as the thickness of the partition and wall plaster both sides. In this way the junction of the plaster
and lining can be masked by an architrave and the door opening emphasised by the lining and architrave.
Figure 8.35 illustrates a ooor frame and a lining.
Ground
Rough ground
32 X 16mm
door stop
nail ed to
lini ng
Figure 8.44 Door linings.
Door sets
Panel
fi xed
here
Frame f ixed
to ceili ng
Frame reduced for
fi xing plaster f inish
Door /
opening
/
Posts of frame
act as linings
Cill fixed
to floor
Figure 8.45 Storey-height door frame.
Door sets are combinations of door with door frames or linings and hardware such as hinges and furniture
prepared as a package ready for use on site. See fig. 8.45
CLASSIFICATION OF DOORS
Classification based on door operation and styles
A helpful classification of doors based on their mode of operation is shown in Fig. 29.14. Of these the
single-l.eaf door is most. commonly used. Another classification is based on door style which are
shown m Ftg,31.13. Of the various styles shown in Fig.31.14 flush doors and panel doors are more
popular.
Classification based on door material
Wood doors
At one nearly all doors were made ofwood. In simple buildings, primitive doors made of planks
and Z-bracmg were once common. In more finished buildings, stile-and-rail doors (paneled doors ) gave a
more sophisticated appearance while avoiding the worst problems of moisture expansion and contraction
to which plank doors are subject (Figures 7.23 and 7.24). The panels are not glued to the stiles and rails, 8 .
but instead "float" in unglued grooves that allow them to move. The doors may be made of solid wood or
of wood composite materials with veneered faces and edges. In either case, they are available in many
different species of woods.
In recent decades, stile-and-rail doors have continued to be popular in higher-quality buildings. However,
flush doors have captured the majority of the market, chiefly because they are easier to manufacture and
there- fore less costly .
.-------------- ---- - --------- --------.. -------.... -
(a) Single-leaf
hinged door
(d) Bypass sliding door
Both leaves slide on each other
(b) Double-leaf
hinged door
(e) Side-hinged
folding door
(c) Sliding pocket
door
.. .
';. '
(f) Accordian door
FIGURE 31.13 Classifi cation of doors based on thei r mode of operati on.
(a) Flush
door
(b) Louvered
flush door
FIGURE 31.14 Common wood door styl es.
(c) Panel door,
also called (rail -
and-stile door)
(d) French
door
(e) Divided
french door
(f) Dutch door
Bolt allows top and
bottom halves of door
to operate together
Construction details of wood flush doors and panel doors are illustrated in Fig. 8.10, 8.11
Some of common wood doors are explained below.
Ledged, braced and battened door
This is a very simple door for external or internal use, which is cheap to make. For an illustration look at
fig.15.2.
Framed braced and battened door
This door is stronger than the ledged, braced and battened door because the battenes are set inside a
timber frame. See fig. 15.3
Rail
......-- -
t*
l6l
<IJ
'=== =
:-::::

Rail
D
D
u
Rail
Z-BRACE
FOUR PANEL
FIGURE 7.24
Edge details of three types of wood
doors. The panel is loosely fitted to the
stiles and rails in a panel door to allow
for moisture expansion of the wood. The
spacers and edge strips in hollow-core
doors have_ ventilation boles to equalize
air pressures inside and outside the door.
(]j
:-::::
t::5
D D
D D
D D
SiX PANEL
, hctrR.E 723
. 'l'ypes of wood doors.
Panel
St.ile or rail
PANEL DOOR
FLUSH SOLlD
CORE
SOLID CORE
FLUSH DOOR
r-t-- ---l
strips
I I
I I
I I
I I
I rj
I I
I 'J
I i
I Jocksel I
I I
: I
I I
L _____ _l
FLUSH HOLLOW
CORE
Face veneers----..
Wood or
paperboard
spacers-----<
Wood block core
Edge strip----..__
HOLLOW CORE
FLUSH DOOR
Panel set
111 grooves
Moul di ng cut on
rai ls and stil es
Rail
Figure 8.10 Framing moulded around panels.
Strap hinges
Ledge
Brace
Rim lock
and knob
~ ~ ~ : ~ e ~ S d 2 An exampl e of a ledged, braced and
oor.
Panel f ixed by
beads nail ed to
stil es and rai ls
Panel
Beads
Ra i l
Figure 8.11 Planted moulding.
rail
Butt
hinge
Head
Jl.J
b
Fig ure 15.3 An example of a framed, br aced and
attened door.
to
'
Wood flush doors
i4
Flush doors have no projections or recesses on either surface of the door. These doors are usually made of
large sheets of plywood or hardboard. Flush doors may have glazed panels to allow in some light.: A core
is the inner part of the door. The external boards or sheets of plywood are fixed to it. The core can be
made from:
1. a softwood framework of horizontal and vertical pieces joined together in recessed joints;
2. a cellular centre of paper or cardboard strips glued together in a lattice pattern;
3. a solid centre of timber strips glued together. This type of core makes a very heavy door with good
sound insulation that can be used for external doors and fire doors.
Cellular core flush doors
Cellular core flush doors are made with a cellular, fibreboard or paper core in a light softwood frame with
lock and hinge blocks, covered with plywood or hardboard facings glued to the frame and core both sides
as illustrated in Figure 8.23. These lightweight doors are for light duty such as internal domestic doors.
They do not withstand rough usage and provide poor acoustic privacy, security and fire resistance. They
are mass-produced in a small range of standard sizes and are cheap.
Softwood fr ame
'Eggcrate'
cellul ar core
Lock bloc
Hinge block
35,40 & 44mm
thi ckness
Pl ywood or
hardboard
glued to
frame and core
Figure 8.23 Cellular core flush door.
Skeleton core flush doors
cut to suit
Stil e
75 mrn wide
Facing cut
to show core
Top rail 75 rnrn deep
Pl ywood or
hardboard fac ing
Middl e rail
Intermedi ate
rai Is
22 mm deep
Bottom ra i I
75 rnm deep
Figure 8.24 Skeleton core flush door.
Skeleton core flush doors are made with a core of small section timbers, as in Figure 8.24. The
main members of this structural core are the stiles and rails, with intermediate ratls as shown, as a base
for the facing of plywood or hardboard. The framing core members are with
groovedjoints. The door illustrated in Figure 8.24 has a skeleton occupym? 30Vo to 40Vo ofthe
core of the door. This is a light duty door suitable for internal domesttc use. A skel;ton
door with more substantial intermediate rails in the core, where the core occuptes from 50Vo to ts a
medium duty door suitable for use internally in domestic and public buildings and for m
sheltered positions. This somewhat more substantial door will withstand normal use and mamtam tts
shape stability better than a cellular core door.
Solid core flush doors
Solid core flush doors are made with a core of timber, chipboard, flaxboard or compressed fibreboard
strips. The solid core door illustrated in Figure 8.25 has a core oftimber strips glued together, with
plywood facings both sides glued to the solid core. The door is edged with vertical lipping to provide a
neat finish. Because of the solid core these doors have somewhat better shape and surface stability and
acoustic resistance than the cellular or skeleton core flush doors.
These solid core doors are more expensive than cellular core
A flush door other than core has the following elements.
A flush panel is 3 mm plywood or hardboard sheets which are fixed onto the core material.
A lipping is a thin wooden strip that protects the edges of a flush door panel.
A lock block is a piece fitted into the internal framework of the door to make the recess for the lock.
Flush doors are usually made in factories. This ensures a high-quality, durable product if the correct type
of door is put in the right location. The plywood facing and the frames for external flush doors should be
fixed with waterproof glue.
Finished
th ickness
40 or 44mm
rll'l'ib..t---Piy facing
Core str ips glued
together
Vertical edges
li pped
Facing cut
to show
cor-e
St il e
Glazi ng
38 X SOmm
Bottom rai l
200 X 50mm
Top ra il
100 X 50mm

tenon
) Glaz ing bars
t hrough
tenoned
Stil e
100 X SOmm
Mortice
and
tenon
Figure 8.25 Solid core (laminate) flush door.
Figure 8.22 Casement door (French casement).
Panelled doors
Panelled doors are suitable for internal and external use. They are made from solid timber frames with
solid or glazed panels.
This list describes the main parts of a panelled door.
Intermediate rails are cross pieces that divide the door into panels horizontally.
Muntins are the central vertical pieces.
Bottom rail is the bottom horizontal framing piece.
Panels are the filling between the framing pieces. They can be:
thin, solid timber;
6 mm plywood;
clear or obscure glass.
You can see what the parts ofthe door look like in Figure7.23.
The panels are usually fitted into rebates in the frames and screwed or nailed into place. This method
allows you to remove and replace panels, including glass panels, easily when required.
(rail at
bottom also)
Standard hollow-
core door
Hollow-core tloor
with cross rail
(a) Hollow-core flush tloors
WOOD FLUSH DOOR ANATOMY
Flush doors consist of
(a) Face material
(b) Core
HOLLOW-CORE FLUSH DOORS
Cross
rail
Lock
block
Face materials generally wood veneer or hardboard.
Core is usually hollow but can also be of honeycomb
or cellular fiberboard.
Hollow-core flush doors are generally used in
residential interiors.
Staggered anti bonded
staves of lumber
Two crose;-
grained
5-ply e;olid-core flue;h door with
glued lumber e;tripe; (e;tavee;)
(b) Solid-core flue;h doore; with
staved lumber core
SOLID-CORE FLUSH DOORS
Three
croe;e;-
grained
hardwood
7-ply e;olid core flue;h
door with glued lumber
stavee; or mineral board
(required for fire-rated
doore;)
Face material consists of hardwood veneers, high-density
plastic laminate (HDPL), or sheet metal.
Core may consist of (a) staved lumber, (b) particle board,
(c) mineral board, or (d) structural composite lumber.
Solid-core flush doors are more durable, secure, and provide
greater sound insulation and fire resistance than hollow-core
flush doors. They are commonly used as interior doors in public
buildings. The facing on staved lumber doors must be thick enough
so that the staves do not telegraph through.
WOOD FLUSH DOOR GRADES
According to the Architectural Woodworking Institute (AWl), wood
flush doors are available in the following grades:
" Premium
" Custom
Economy
FIGURE 31.15 Anatomi es of wood (holl ow- core and solid-core) flush doors.
FIGURE 31. 16 Detail s of a typi -
cal wood panel door. Panel doors
are also imitated using other
material s.
Veneered
panel,
beveled and
raised
Veneered ---!+--<>
panel or
glass panel
Rail and stile
made of solid
lumber or
veneer lumber
Steel Flush Doors
Flush doors with faces of painted sheet steel are the most common type of door in nonresidential
buildings. For economy, interior steel doors in many situations have hollow cores. Solid-core doors are
required for exterior use and in situations that demand increased fire resistance, more rugged
construction, or better acoustical privacy between rooms.
The construction of metal hollow core flush doors is shown in Figures 31.18 and 31.19.
Flush (F)
Narrow lite
(NL)
D
Vision (V)
Narrow lite and
louvered (NL)
D
Narrow
vision (NV)
D
Glazed (G)
Louvered (L)
D
D
Vision lite arid
louvered (VL)
Glazed and Full glass (FG)
louvered (GL)
D
Narrow vision and
louvered (NVL)
Full louvered
(FL)
FIGURE 31 .18 Commonl y used hollow metal flush door styles.
Core (polystyrene
foam, polyurethane
foam or mineral core)
Steel face ply
Z- or C-shaped steel
stiffners with
fiberglass or other
insulating fill ---+l+-d
Louvered t op
and bott om (LL)
Dut ch (D)
(a) insulat ing core (b) Honeycomb core (c) St eel-stiffened core
FIGURE 31.1 9 Anatomi es of holl ow metal flush doors.
Classification of doors according to location
Exterior doors
t 5
There are numerous types of exterior doors: solid entrance doors, entrance doors that contain glass, store
do?rs that are mos_tly or made of glass, storm doors, screen doors, vehicular doors for
garages I_ndustnal use, revolving doors, and cellar doors, to name just a few. Interior doors
come m dozens of additiOnal types.
use in small buildings, and for both exterior and interior use in institutional and commercial
bu_Ildmgs, flush doors are constructed with a solid core of wood blocks or wood composite material
(Figure31.15).
Interior doors
Interior doors in residences often have a hollow core. These consist of two veneered wood faces that are
bonded to a concealed of spacers made of paperboard or wood. The perimeters of the faces
glued to wood stnps. See Fig.31.15 Flush doors with wood faces are also available with a solid
mmeral core that qualifies them as fire doors.
A relatively is a door made of wood fiber composite material that is pressed into the
shape of a _stile-and-rail door. Usually, the faces ofthe door may be given an artificial wood grain texture
or faced with real wood veneer.
Entrance doors
Entrance doors must be well constructed and tightly weather stripped if they are not to leak air and water.
Properly installed and finished wood panel or solid-core doors are excellent for exterior residential use.
Pressed sheet metal doors, usually embossed to resemble wood stile-and-rail doors, are popular
alternatives to wood exterior residential doors. Their cores are filled with insulating plastic foam, making
their thermal performance superior to that of wood doors. They do not suffer from moisture expansion .
and contraction, as wood doors do. They are often furnished prehung, meaning that they are already
mounted on hinges in a surrounding frame, complete with weather stripping, ready to install by merely
nailing the frame into the wall.
The major disadvantage of metal and plastic exterior doors is that they do not have the satisfying
appearance, feel, or sound of a wood door.
Residential entrance doors almost always swing inward and are mounted on the interior side of the door
frame. This makes them less vulnerable to thieves who would remove hinge pins or use a thin blade to
push back the latch to gain entrance. In cold climates, it also prevents snow that may accumulate against
the door from preventing the door from opening. For improved wintertime thermal performance ofthe
entrance, a storm door may be mounted on the outside of the same frame, swinging outward. The storm
door usually includes at least one large panel of tempered glass. (Fig. 6.14 and 6.15).
HEAD
SILL
jAMB
Siding--..._
Wood shingle
Door frame

Weatherstrip
Door ------'
FIGURE 6.15
Details of an exterior wood door installation. The door opens toward the of
building. The flashing in the bead intercepts water runni.n.g down the wall and directs.lt
away from the door and frame. The sill fl ashing prevents water that seeps past the sill
from leaking into the floor structure.
'

I
i
I
I
I
, .. ... _...i
FIGURE 6. 14
A six-panel wood entrance do
flanking sidelights and a fanli;
A number of elaborate traditi.
entrance designs such as this,
available from stock for use iJ
frame buildings . (Courtesy of fl,
Products Ltd.)
Fire doors have a noncombustible mineral core and are rated according to the period of time for which
they are able to resist specified time and temperature conditions, as defined by Standard Methods ofFire
Tests ofDoor Assemblies, ..
In general, doors within fire- resistance-rated walls must themselves also be fire rated. However, because
doors constitute only a limited area of most walls, and because combustible furnishings or materials are
not normally located directly in front of door openings, the required fire resistance rating for fire doors is
often less than that required for the walls in which they are located.
For example, a door in a 2-hour rated exit stairway enclosure must be 1 lh-hour rated, a door in a 1-hour
rated exit stairway enclosure must be 1-hour rated, and a door in a 1-hour rated exit corridor must be 20-
minute.
A standardized label is permanently affixed to the edge of each fire door at the time of manufacture to
designate its degree of fire resistance. (The building code requires that these labels not be painted over
during construction so that the fire rating of the door can always be verified during subsequent building
inspections.)
Glass used in fire doors must it selfbe fire rated so that it will not break and fall out of the opening for a
specified length of time when exposed to the heat of fire. The maximum size of glass may also be
restricted, depending on the fire classification of the door and the properties of the particular type of glass
used.
Like glass in any door, glass in fire doors must also meet the requirements of safety glazing so that if
broken, it does not create life-threatening shards.
Fire doors serve to protect escape routes and the contents and structure of buildings by limiting the spread
of smoke and fire. Fire doors that are fixed for smoke control are only capable of withstanding smoke at
ambient (surrounding) temperatures and limited smoke at medium temperatures by self closing devices
and flexible seals.
\1
Wood
Pl aste1board strips
Hi gh density
chipboard
FO
30
Rebates for
plasterboard
44 mm 44mm
45 mm
thi ck
thi ck thi ck
165 X 38 mm
Hardboard or plywood facings
Compressed High density Compressed
mineral wool chipboard mineral wool
.. :.
FO
FO
....
Steel
FO stiffener
44mm
thi ck
60
60 . .
60
ss mm
54mm
thick
thick
Hardboard or ply facings
48 mm
th ick
Pressed steel
facings
Figure 8.26 Fire doors.
Fire resistance integrity
Figure 8 ~ 7 Standard half-hour f ire door.
The notation for fire doors is FD followed by the figure in minutes for integrity, as for example FD 20 or
FD 30, and doors that serve for smoke control as for example FD 20S.
The performance test for fire doors that serve as barriers to the spread of fire is determined from the
integrity of a door assembly or door set in its resistance to penetration by flame and hot gases. The test is
carried out on a door assembly that includes all hardware, supports, fixings, door leaf and frame,
representative of a door assembly that will be used in practice. Each face of the door assembly is exposed
separately to prescribed heating conditions from a furnace, on a temperature--time relationship, to
determine the time to failure of integrity. Failure of integrity occurs when flame or hot gases penetrate
gaps or cracks in the door assembly and cause flaming of a cotton wool pad on the side of the assembly
opposite to the furnace.
The door leafs illustrated in Figure 8.26 are constructed and faced to provide 30 and 60 minutes for
integrity. The 30 minute skeleton core flush door is protected with plasterboard panels fixed to the
skeleton core under the plywood or hardboard facings as illustrated in Figure 8.27.
The 30 minute, solid core fire doors are protected with wood strips or high density chipboard covered
with plywood or hardboard facings.
The 60 minute, solid core fire doors are protected with compressed mineral wool or high density
chipboard and hardboard or plywood facings.
T h ~ flush, steel fire door to provide 60 minutes protection, shown in Figure 8.26 and illustrated in Figure
8.28, has welded sheet steel facings. The casing is pressed around steel stiffeners and a core of
compressed mineral wool. The door is provided with intumescent seals and is hung on a pressed steel
frame.
f
18
Ironmongery is an important patt of door furniture. You can also read about the main types of
ironmongery and how to fix them to doors and their frames in manufacturer's handbooks.
Basic door ironmongery consists of hinges, locks and latches, which are illustrated in Figures 15.6 and
15.7.
Doors swing open and shut on their hinges, which are the points on which doors move.
Strap hinges are mainly used with ledged, braced and battened doors. These 150-600 mm hinges are
made from wrought iron or pressed steel.
(a) (b)
Counter-sunk hole
b]_j
Leaf
Hinge pin
_j
.
.
Coccwt I
screw
(d )
(e)
(f )
Operating handle
Bolt
Locki ng button
1
Cylinder
Key
Door
Figure 15.6 Simpl e door ironmo ngery (a) stra hn (
l atch; (d) deadl ock operat ed by a key .(e) lock ~ n d l gth b) part s of a butt hinge; (c) spring-operat ed
a c 1n one unit; (f ) cylinder ni ght latch.
Butt hinges are found on most internal and external doors. They come in a variety of materials and sizes t 9
including:
1. steel, which is used for all internal fl ush doors. A steel butt hinge is pressed and bent to form a knuckle
for a pin to pass through;
2. brass, which is used on external doors if mst is likely to be a problem. Brass hinges look like steel
hinges, but brass is more attractive on polished hardwood doors;
3. wrought iron, which is usually specially de signed for external doors.
Locks and latches
A latch, which is a door catch lifted by a lever, is fitted to a recess in a door. When you release the handle
to close a door, then a spring pushes the latch bolt out so that it projects from the edge. The end of the
latch bolt, which is curved on the surface, rides over a metal plate and springs back into the recess in the
door frame.
A door lock secures a room or building. Once the lock is engaged in the recess of the frame you can only
open it with a key. The bolt of a lock is square and not spring-loaded.
Lock and latch combination are often inserted into one case to put in the recess in a door. A night latch
combines a lock and latch into one unit with one bolt. The bolt is curved so that you can shut the door by
pushing or pulling it closed. When the door is closed, then you must have a key to open it from the
outside. You can just turn the handle to open it from the inside.
AMorticed lock for an external door is set inside a mortice cut in the stile and middle rail of the door.
Latches are set in a recess, called a mortice, that is cut into the edge of the door.. All that you .can see is
the faceplate of the lock and latch assembly on the edge of the door.
A mortice dead lock consists of a single bolt that is operated by a loose key. There is no latch bolt.
(a)
(o)
. (d)
Morti ce
recess
in the
edge of
the door
(b)

I 1
I I
I 1 S
.;,--r p1ndle
0' i hole
U
I 1
I I
i
: :
- ---- --:::.J
-- -----
Key hole
(e)
Door
-::::::::::::::;
I
I
I

hole.l Spindl e hole
_J
Burtd hinge are found on most internal and external doors. They come in a variety of materials and sizes l 9
including:
1. steel, which is used for all internal flush doors. A steel butt hinge is pressed and bent to form a knuckle
for a pin to pass through;
2. brass, which is used on external doors if lUSt is likely to be a problem. Brass hinges look like steel
hinges, but brass is more attractive on polished hardwood doors;
3. wrought iron, which is usually specially de signed for external doors.
Locks and latches
A latch, which is a door catch lifted by a lever, is fitted to a recess in a door. When you release the handle
to close a door, then a spring pushes the latch bolt out so that it projects from the edge. The end of the
latch bolt, which is curved on the surface, rides over a metal plate and springs back into the recess in the
door frame.
A door lock secures a room or building. Once the lock is engaged in the recess of the frame you can only
open it with a key. The bolt of a lock is square and not spring-loaded.
Lock and latch combination are often inserted into one case to put in the recess in a door. A night latch
combines a lock and latch into one unit with one bolt. The bolt is curved so that you can shut the door by
pushing or pulling it closed. When the door is closed, then you must have a key to open it from the
outside. You can just turn the handle to open it from the inside.
AMorticed lock for an external door is set inside a mortice cut in the stile and middle rail of the door.
Latches are set in a recess, called a mortice, that is cut into the edge of the door .. All that you .can see is
the faceplate ofthe lock and latch assembly on the edge of the door.
A mortice dead lock consists of a single bolt that is operated by a loose key. There is no latch bolt.
(a)
(:J) .
. (d)
Mortice
recess
in the
edge of
the door
(b)
- - - - - = = ~ - - .
-- I J
I 1
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~
I 1
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-----
f
I I
(e)
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--:::::::::;
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3600 3600
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SCALE 1:100
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3400x5000
3600
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SCHEDULE OF
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OS 1200 X 2100


'
D4 1200 X2100



05 900 X 2100
..

D6 800 x2100

07 1000 x21oo



08 800 X 2100

.
'


..

. .
..

NOTE:
1. ALL DOORS &: WINDOWS OPENING, SIZE, DIMENSiONS, LOCATION
AND MATERIALS AS PER SITE AND ARCHITECT /CLI I:NTAPPROVAL
FINISH
~
:Z:
0 ~
~ ~
I i
;
~
~
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.









2. PROVIDE SHOP DRAWINGS FOR APPROVAL BY.CLI ENT/ARCHI TECT
BEFORE FABRICATION
ALUMINIUM
OPERATION 6mmGLAZING
SCHEDULE OF
. WINDOWS ul
ill
~
~
~ ~
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m
~
WINDOW SIZE
I
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0
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W1 2000 k 1700.
.


REFER TO
W2 1600 X 1200
.

..

ELEVATIONS
W3 aoox 800

..

W4 600 X 1200

ws. 1000 X 1200
.

..
we 1800 X 1200
..

.

WT 2000 x2100
...
.


8 60 . 1700 860

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=

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1700 550
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22.
1150 1700 1150
0 11
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NOTES:-
L ,ijj_ OtWfHSIOM AR IN lotio! (MlWMffiRS).
2. WIIIIXJWS ElfVATK>N SHOWN
AR w:wED FROW OVfSID
3. fOO AND SUB REFER TO
AACHrTECiUIW../STRUCT\JR.6.L PlANS.SECTlONS & ELEYAT10NS..
4. .,ijj_ DIUEHSK>IIS GMJ.I AA. GO-OROtAAllNG SlZES
5. WINDOWS Fltl.IIEs SIZES TO BE ADJUSTED
iCCQROOjclY AT sm:.
6. All SECllONS FOR ()()OR'S NlD
WNilCJWS SIWJl Bf NEW BEl.DCO 1 00/45
Srnt:S AND n WI Dlli TO 8 100Mid.
7. ,ijj_ AllMNIUIII SfCTioNS TO BE POWDER
OOl.lUl fW.. 8080.
6.. }il GLASS SHOUlll BE. 161.11.1 OOU8lf GAUED
6Wid REJ1.LT1YE + Wll a.EAil
9. }U G1.AZIG WITHil 600111.1 FROO F .F.L WIU. REO\J!RE
lHE IIIHER PANE TO BE FULLY TAlolPRED.
I 0. AU. B.t.lli ROOI.I VENTU.AIJJH S SH<XJlD BE liWY OBSClJ Rfll
+6MW NRSPN:E + 6lollol .AIRSPK. +61.41.<1 REfl.CTM
11 . .AJJJUIIW!ot FOR M SI<YlJGI rr SHOULD II PROPRITERY
APPRO't{D S'f'S1B.I WITH WHITE . f'{MOER co.t. TID. .
12. Til GUS$ FOR 11 S1<YUGHT SHOLUJ BE 41Al THICK.
61dM BU lli!TID TO.CPERD +i21.t.4 +
ctfAA l)ijtfATED.
13. M 5I()' lJQfr SHOULD 9E PROPERLY SfALED wm-l PROPER
. DRAW.G S'lSlBI.
14 .AU. GlASS FOR 'THE DOORS SHOULD OC 61d ld ClEAR
+ 61.1M +fiMM a..EAR TAMPERED.
1 5. AD 1.AD2.ft3 A: AI){ TO fW(E FLOOR SPRJHG.
16. ADS <>. ,I.D6 TO W. Y'E HEAVY DUTY 2 LEG HINGES.
8
F.F.L


j

Wl
W3
t
2800


I
1 l 550 t
F F F
I I U-
J
W6
W9

F
N
W7
1600
F
F
W10
W4
AWING
F.f.L
W2
ws
WS
. ALUMINIUM
8 WJriDOWS