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Chapter 2.

3: Eukaryotic cells
(Taken from the assessment statements)

2. 3. 1. Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of a liver cell as an

example of an animal cell.
2. 3. 2. Annotate the diagram with the functions of each named structure
Liver cells have a lot of smooth endoplasmic reticula.
(photo taken from textbook, page 20)

cytoplasm - consists of cytosol (gooey water-based solute) and everything between

the nuclear envelope/membrane and plasma membrane
endoplasmic reticulum network of tubes and channels, always connected to the
nucleus and may extend over all of the cell. Generally used for manufacture, storage
and partially for transport of cellular products.
o smooth produces phospholipids, hormones, detoxifies, allows transport of
lipid-based compounds, aids the release of glucose into the bloodstream by the
sarcoplasmic in muscles, stores and releases K+ used in muscle

rough has ribozomes on its surface that produce proteins, inside the RER the
proteins are folded and further put together (basically the ribosomes produce a
polypeptide, which the RER makes into a proper protein). Also involved in
transport of proteins. Closer to nucleus than SER.
ribosomes involved in translation, a process in which a polypeptide chain is
synthesized based on a mRNA blueprint. Made up of rRNA and protein.
lysozomes vacuoles filled with digestive enzymes, acidic content. Involved in
Golgi apparatus consists of flat sacs called cisternae. Involved in modification,
transport and distribution of materials inside the cell. Material enters from the ER onto
its cis side, then migrates between cisternae and then leaves in a vacuole from the
trans side. Theres a lot of Golgi apparatuses in cells which secrete a lot (such as in
cells of the pancreas).
mitochondria The endosymbiotic theory states that they have probably come from
phagocyted bacteria that have proven to be beneficial for the cell and it therefore did
not digest the bacterium. One proof for this is that mitochondria have their own
prokaryotic DNA, 70S ribosomes and that there is a double membrane between the
cytosol and mitochondrion (one from the mitochondrion, one from the cell), theyre also
capable of binary fission independently of the cell. Mitochondria allow aerobic
respiration, which provides the cell with multiple times more ATP than anaerobic
respiration. The space inside the mitochondrion is called the matrix, the creases are
called cristae.
nucleus is enclosed by a porous nucleus envelope/membrane. This is porous so that
mRNA and rRNA can leave the nucleus. The nucleus contains nucleoplasm, which is
composed of a cytosol-like substance and chromatin. Chromatin is uncoiled DNA (DNA
only takes the form of visible chromosomes during cell division) and the associated
nucleosomes (which consist of 8 histones). DNA is wrapped around 8 histone proteins
and secured by a 9th histone protein like strand would be around a spool. Animal cells
tend to have a central nucleus, while plant cells have it pushed to the side by the
vacuole. Most cells have a nucleus, but for example human erythrocytes lack it, while in
the fungal reproductive cycle, some cells have 2 nuclei. Without a nucleus, cells cannot
reproduce. A nucleolus is a densely packed area inside the nucleus (without a
membrane) which produces rRNA.
chloroplasts plastids. The endosymbiotic theory applies. Contains grana, which are
stacks of disk-like thylakoid. The light reactions of photosynthesis occur on the
thylakoid membrane. The dark reactions occur in the stroma, the cytosol of the
chloroplast, which contains the necessary enzymes.
centrosomes a pair of centrioles at right angles to each other. Involved in
assembling microtubules for the cytoskeleton. Involved greatly in cell division
vacuole membrane bounds sacks
o plant central vacuoles contain water, wastes and regulate the turgor
(cellular pressure)
o endocytosis/exocytosis vacuoles contain material taken in (ie. by
phagocytosis) or out of the cell (via Golgi)

2. 3. 3. Identify structures from 2. 3. 1. in electron micrographs of liver cells.

lysozomes take up a lot of dye => very dark blobts

mitochondria have strongly pronounced cristae
the nucleus is a circular, quite large and darker region roughly in the middle
the nucleolus is a darker, round region within the nucleus
golgi apparatuses are oblong blobts bent away from the nucleus

endoplasmic reticula are similar to golgi, but not bent uniformly. Rough ER have
dots (ribozomes) on them
vacuoles look like lysozomes, but lighter
centrioles are made up of microtubules and look like a circular tube made up of
circular tubes. Theres 2 of them, perpendicular to each other

2. 3 .4. Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

no membrane-enclosed nucleus
no membrane-bound organelles
DNA circular
1 circular chromosome
no histones (archaea have histone-like
proteins, but still not histones)
no introns in DNA
no cytoskeleton
70S ribozomes
reproduce through binary fission and
horizontal gene transfer (conjugation)
~1 m in size

membrane-enclosed nucleus
membrane-bound organelles
DNA linear
many rod-like chromosomes
introns in DNA
no plasmids
80S ribozomes
reproduce through mitosis and meiosis
~100 m in size

2. 3. 5. State three diff erences between plant and animal cells.

cell wall
plastids (chloroplasts, chromoplasts,
lytic vacuoles
no centrosomes
store starch
permanent water vacuole
no centrioles in centrosome area

no cell wall, but extracellular matrix
no plastids
dont store starch
no permanent vacuoles
centrioles in centrosome area

2. 3. 6. Outline two roles of extracellular components.

bacteria cell wall of peptideglycan murein, flagella, pili and capsule

fungi chitinous cell wall
plants cellulose primary cell wall, may have secondary cell wall of lignin
yeast glucan and mannan cell wall
animal extracellular matrix made up of collagen and glycoproteins