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BRITISH HISTORY AND CULTURE

For Students of English


Universit of !is"ol#
$%&
BRITISH 'AINTERS
Fr(n#is H()(n (1708 2 February 1776) was an English painter and illustrator and who became
one o the ounding members o the !oyal "cademy in 1768 and later its irst librarian#
$orn in E%eter& 'e(on& )ayman begun his artistic career as a scene painter in *ondon+s 'rury *ane
theatres (where he also appeared in minor roles) beore establishing a studio in ,t# -artin+s *ane#
" (ersatile artist inluenced by the French !ococo style& he achie(ed some note during the 17.0s
through decorati(e paintings e%ecuted or /au%hall 0leasure 1ardens in *ondon& but could also turn
his hand to portraits& landscapes& and scenes rom history and literature#
2ombining some o these& he contributed 31 pictures to a 17.. edition o ,ha4espeare+s plays by ,ir
5homas )anmer& and later portrayed many leading contemporary actors in ,ha4espearean roles&
including 'a(id 1arric4 as !ichard 666 (1760)# )e also illustrated 0amlela& a no(el by ,amuel
!ichardson& -ilton+s 0aradise *ost and 0aradise !egained& ,mollet+s translation o 'on 7ui%ote&
and other well84nown wor4#
)e was an able teacher# )is pupils included -ason 2hamberlain& 9athaniel 'ance8)olland&
5homas ,eton and *emuel Francis "bbott and he was also a strong inluence on 5homas
1ainsborough#
:ith ,ir ;oshua !eynolds& )ayman was acti(ely in(ol(ed in the ormation o the ,ociety o "rtists&
a orerunner o the !oyal "cademy& during the early 1760s#
Sir *oshu( Renolds (16 ;uly 1723 23 February 17<2) was an inluential 18th8century English
painter& specialising in portraits and promoting the =1rand ,tyle= in painting which depended on
ideali>ation o the imperect# )e was one o the ounders and irst 0resident o the !oyal "cademy#
?ing 1eorge 666 appreciated his merits and 4nighted him in 176<#!eynolds was born in 0lympton&
'e(on& on 16 ;uly 1723# "s one o ten (maybe ele(en) children and the son o the (illage school8
master& !eynolds was restricted to a ormal education pro(ided by his ather# )e e%hibited a natural
curiosity and& as a boy& came under the inluence o @achariah -udge& whose 0latonistic philosophy
stayed with him all his lie# !eynolds made e%tracts into his rom 5heopharstus& 0lutarch& ,eneca& A
-arcus "ntonius& B(id& :illiam ,ha4espeare& ;ohn -ilton& "le%ander 0ope& ;ohn 'ryden& ;oseph
"ddison& !ichard ,teele& "phra $ehn and passages on art theory by *eonardo da /inci& 2harles
"lphonse 'u Fresnoy& and "ndrC FClibien# 5he wor4 that came to ha(e the most inluential impact
on !eynolds was ;onathan !ichardson+s An Essay on the Theory of Painting (171D)# !eynolds+
annotated copy was lost or nearly two hundred years when it appeared in a 2ambridge boo4shop&
inscribed with the signature E;# !eynolds 0ictor#+
,howing an early interest in art& !eynolds was apprenticed in 17.0 to the ashionable portrait
painter 5homas )udson& with whom he remained until 17.3# 6n 17.<& !eynolds became riend with
"ugustus ?eppel& a na(al oicer& and they both sailed on the Centurion to the -editerranean#
:hilst on board& !eynolds wrote later& F6 had the use o his cabin and his study o boo4s& as i they
had been my ownF# From 17.< to 17D2& he spent o(er two years in 6taly& where he studied the Bld
-asters and acGuired a taste or the F1rand ,tyleF# Hnortunately& whilst in !ome& !eynolds
suered a se(ere cold which let him partially dea& and& as a result& he began to carry a small ear
trumpet with which he is oten pictured# From 17D3 until the end o his lie& he li(ed in *ondon& his
talents gaining recognition soon ater his arri(al in France#
!eynolds wor4ed long hours in his studio& rarely ta4ing a holiday# )e was both gregarious and
4eenly intellectual& with a great number o riends rom *ondon+s intelligentsia& numbered amongst
whom were 'r# ,amuel ;ohnson& Bli(er 1oldsmith& Edmund $ur4e& 1iuseppe $aretti& )enry
5hrale& 'a(id 1arric4 and ellow artist "ngelica ?aumann# ;ohnson said in 1778I F!eynolds is too
much under Fo% and $ur4e at present# )e is under the Fox star and the Irish constellation Jmeaning
$ur4eK# )e is always under some planetF#
$ecause o his popularity as a portrait painter& !eynolds enLoyed constant interaction with the
wealthy and amous men and women o the day& and it was he who irst brought together the
amous igures o =5he 2lub=# $y 1761 !eynolds could command a ee o 80 1uineas or a ull8
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length portraitM in 176. he was paid 100 1uineas or a portrait o *ord $urghersh#
:ith his ri(al 5homas 1ainsborough& !eynolds was the dominant English portraitist o +the "ge o
;ohnson+# 6t is said that in his long lie he painted as many as three thousand portraits# "lthough not
principally 4nown or his landscapes& !eynolds did paint in this genre# )e had an e%cellent (antage
rom his house on !ichmond )ill& and painted the (iew in about 1780#
Bn 10 "ugust 178.& "llan !amsay died and the oice o 0rincipal 0ainter in Brdinary to the ?ing
thereore became (acant# 1ainsborough elt that he had a good chance o securing it but !eynolds
elt that he deser(ed it and threatened to resign the presidency o the !oyal "cademy i he did not
recei(e it# !eynolds noted in his poc4et boo4I F,ept# 1& 2N& to attend at the *ord 2hancellor+s Bice
to be sworn in painter to the ?ingF# )owe(er this did not ma4e !eynolds happy& as he wrote to
$oswellI F6 6 had 4nown what a shabby miserable place it is& 6 would not ha(e as4ed or itM besides
as things ha(e turned out 6 thin4 a certain person is not worth spea4ing to& nor spea4ing oF&
presumably meaning the ?ing# !eynolds wrote to ;onathan ,hipley& $ishop o ,t# "saph& a ew
wee4s laterI FOour *ordship congratulation on my succeeding -r# !amsay 6 ta4e (ery 4indly but it
is a most miserable oice& it is reduced rom two hundred to thirty8eight pounds per annum& the
?ings !at catcher 6 belie(e is a better place& and 6 am to be paid only a ourth part o what 6 ha(e
rom other people& so that the 0ortraits o their -aLesties are not li4ely to be better done now& than
they used to be& 6 should be ruined i 6 was to paint them myselF
6n 178< he lost the sight o his let eye& which inally orced him into retirement# 6n 17<1 ;ames
$oswell dedicated his Life of Samuel Johnson to !eynolds# !eynolds agreed with $ur4e+s
Reflections on the Revolution in France and& writing in early 17<1& e%pressed his belie that the
ancien rgime o France had allen due to spending too much time tending
Fto the splendor o the oliage& to the neglect o the stirring the earth about the roots#
5hey culti(ated only those arts which could add splendor to the nation& to the neglect o
those which supported it 5hey neglected 5rade P substantial -anuacture###but does it
ollow that a total re(olution is necessary that because we ha(e gi(en oursel(es up too
much to the ornaments o lie& we will now ha(e none at allF#
:hen attending a dinner at )olland )ouse& Fo%+s niece 2aroline was sat ne%t to !eynolds and
Fburst out into gloriication o the !e(olution and was grie(ously chilled and chec4ed by her
neighbour+s cautious and unsympathetic toneF#
Bn . ;une 17<1 at a dinner at the Freemasons+ 5a(ern to mar4 the ?ing+s birthday& !eynolds dran4
to the toasts F1B' save the ?691QF and F-ay our glorious 2onstitution under which the arts
lourish& be immortalQF& in what was reported by the Pulic A!vertiser as Fa er(our truly
patriotic4F# !eynolds Filled the chair with a most con(i(ial gleeF# )e returned to town rom
$ur4e+s house in $eaconsield and Edmond -alone wrote that Fwe let his carriage at the 6nn at
)ayes& and wal4ed i(e miles on the road& in a warm day& without his complaining o any atigueF#
*ater that month !eynolds suered rom a swelling o(er his let eye and had to be purged by a
surgeon# 6n Bctober he was too ill to ta4e the 0resident+s chair and in 9o(ember Fanny $urney
recorded that
F6 had long languished to see that 4indly >ealous riend& but his ill health had
intimidated me rom ma4ing the attemptFI F)e had a bandage o(er one eye& and the
other shaded with a green hal8bonnet# )e seemed serious e(en to sadness& though
e%tremely 4ind# E6 am (ery glad&R he said& in a mee4 (oice and deLected accent& Eto see
you again& and 6 wish 6 could see you betterQ but 6 ha(e only one ye now& and hardly
that#R 6 was really Guite touchedF#
Bn D 9o(ember !eynolds& earing he may not ha(e an opportunity to write a will& wrote a
memorandum intended to be his last will and testament& with Edmund $ur4e& Edmond -alone& and
0hilip -etcale named as e%ecutors# Bn 10 9o(ember !eynolds wrote to $enLamin :est to resign
the 0residency& but the 1eneral "ssembly agreed that !eynolds should be re8elected& with ,ir
:illiam 2hambers and :est to deputise or him#
5he doctors !ichard :arren and ,ir 1eorge $a4er belie(ed !eynolds+ illness to be psychological
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and they bled his nec4 Fwith a (iew o drawing the humour rom his eyesF but the eect o this in
the (iew o his niece was that it seemed Fas i the +principle o lie+ were goneF rom !eynolds# Bn
9ew Oear+s 'ay 17<2 !eynolds became Fsei>ed with sic4nessF and rom that point onwards could
not 4eep down ood# !eynolds died on 23 February 17<2 in his house in *ondon between eight and
nine in the e(ening#
$ur4e was present on the night !eynolds died& and he was mo(ed within hours to write a eulogy o
!eynoldsI
,ir ;oshua !eynolds was on (ery many accounts one o the most memorable men o his
5ime# )e was the irst Englishman who added the praise o the eligant "rts to the other
1lories o his 2ountry# 6n 5aste& in grace& in acility& in happy in(ention& and in the
richness and )armony o colouring& he was eGual to the great masters o the renowned
"ges# 6n 0ourtrait he went beyond themM or he communicated to that description o the
art& in which English artists are the most engaged a (ariety& a Fancy& and a dignity
deri(ed rom the higher $ranches& which e(en those who proessed them a superior
manner& did not always preser(e when they delineated indi(idual nature# )is 0urtraits
remind the ,pectator o the 6n(ention o )istory& and the amenity o *andscape# 6n
painting pourtraits& he appeard not to be raised upon that platormM but to descend to it
rom an higher sphere# his paintings illustrate his *essonsSand his *essons seem to be
deri(ed rom his 0aintings# )e possessed the 5heory as perectly as the 0ractice o his
"rt# 5o be such a painter& he was a proound and penetrating 0hilosopher#
6n ull aluence o oreign and domestic4 Fame& admired by the e%pert in art& and by the
learned in ,cience& courted by the great& caressed by ,o(ereign powers& and celebrated
by distinguished 0oets& his 9ati(e humility& modesty and 2andour ne(er orsoo4 him&
e(en on surprise or pro(ocation& nor was the least degree o arrogance or assumption
(isible to the most scrutini>ing eye& in any part o his 2onduct or discourse#
)is talents o e(ery 4ind powerul rom 9ature& and not meanly culti(ated by *etters&
his social /irtues in all the relations& and all the habitudes o *ie renderd him the center
o a (ery great and unparalleled /ariety o agreeable ,ocieties& which will be dissipated
by his 'eath# )e had too much merit not to e%cite some ;ealouslyM too much innocence
to pro(o4e any Enmity# 5he loss o no man o his 5ime can be elt with more sincere&
general& and unmi%ed ,orrow# )"6*Q "9' F"!E:E**Q
$ur4e+s tribute was well recei(ed and one Lournalist called it Fthe eulogium o "pelles pronounced
by 0ericlesF#
!eynolds was buried at ,t# 0aul+s 2athedral#
:illiam $la4e was born on 28 9o(ember& 17D7& in *ondon& England& the third son o 2atherine ne
:right (172317<2) and ;ames $la4e (c#1723178.) a hosier and haberdasher on $road ,treet in
1olden ,Guare& ,oho# Ooung :illiam was prone to antastic (isions& including seeing 1od& and
angels in a tree# )e would later claim that he had regular con(ersations with his deceased brother
!obert# 6t was soon apparent that $la4eRs internal world o imagination would be a prime moti(ator
throughout his lie# 9oting something special in their son the $la4es were highly supporti(e o and
encouraged his artistic creati(ity and thus began his education and de(elopment as an artist#
)e had early shown an interest in and aptitude or drawing& so& at the age o ten $la4e entered
)enry 0arsR drawing school# 5hen& at the age o ourteen $la4e started a se(en year apprenticeship
with engra(er ;ames $asire& the oicial engra(er to the ,ociety o "ntiGuaries# From his bustling
shop on 7ueen ,treet& $la4e learned all the tools o the trade that would become his main source o
income# )e was oten sent out on assignments to create s4etches and drawings o statues& paintings&
and monuments including those ound in churches li4e :estminster "bbey# 5he intense study o
1othic art and architecture appealed to $la4eRs aesthetic sensibility and brought out his penchant or
the medie(al# )e also met numerous igures rom *ondonRs intellectual circle during this period#
"ter attending the !oyal "cademy under ,ir ;oshua !eynolds or a time $la4e let because he
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ound the intellectual atmosphere there too restricti(e to his burgeoning artistic side# 6n 1780 he
obtained employment as an engra(er with publisher ;oseph ;ohnson#
6n 1782 $la4e married 2atherine ,ophia $oucher (176281831)# "lthough they had no children it
was mostly a happy marriage and $la4e taught 2atharine to read and write# 5hey were a de(oted
couple and wor4ed together on many o $la4eRs publications# )e had been writing poetry or Guite
some time and his irst collection& Poetical S"etches& appeared in 1783# :hile $la4e was busy with
commissions he also undertoo4 the tas4 o creating the engra(ings that would illustrate his own
poetry& and he also printed them himsel# )e e%perimented with an early method o creating images
and te%t on the same plate# )is highly detailed illustrations oten ocus on parts o the human
anatomy or antastically imaginati(e creatures surrounded by (arious natural orms# Bten tac4ling
diicult metaphorical themes& his characters embodying inspiration and creati(ity do battle with
oppressi(e orces li4e law and religion# )e employed techniGues or decorati(e margins and hand8
coloured the printed images& or printed with the colour already on the wood or copper plate& the
paint o which he mi%ed himsel# 5his attention to the crat and details o each (olume ma4e no two
o his wor4s ali4e# )e also illustrated wor4s or other writers and poets including -ary
:ollstonecrat ,helleyRs #riginal Stories from Real Life (1788)#
The $oo" of Thel (178<)& one o $la4eRs irst long narrati(e poems& was ollowed by the irst o his
prophetical wor4s& The %arriage of &eaven an! &ell (c#17<3)# Bther wor4s inished around this
time were America' A Pro(hesy (17<3)& Euro(e' A Pro(hesy (17<.)& )isions of the *aughters of
Alion (17<3)& and The $oo" of +ri,en (17<.)#
6n 1800& the $la4es mo(ed to Felpham in ,usse% where :illiam was commissioned to illustrate
wor4s by his then patron& poet :illiam )ayley# 6n 1803 $la4e was charged with sedition ater a
(iolent conrontation with soldier ;ohn ,colield in which $la4e uttered treasonable remar4s against
the ?ing# )e was later acGuitted# 6n 180D he started his series o illustrations or the $oo4 o
!e(elations and (arious other publications including 1eorey 2haucerRs 1.th 2entury Canterury
Tales& !obert ;ohn 5horntonRs )irgil and ;ohn -iltonRs Para!ise Lost# %ilton' A Poem was
published around 1811# Jerusalem' The Emanation of the -iant Alion (c#1820) is $la4eRs longest
illuminated wor4#
6n 1821 the $la4es mo(ed to lodgings in Fountain 2ourt& ,trand# 5here he inished his wor4 on the
$oo4 o ;ob in 182D& commissioned by his last patron ;ohn *innell# 5he ollowing year he started a
series o watercolours or 'ante "lighieriRs *ivine Come!y& which he wor4ed on up to the day o
his death# :illiam $la4e died at home on 12 "ugust& 1827# Hnable to pay or a uneral& *innell
loaned the money to 2atherine# $la4e was buried in an unmar4ed gra(e in the 9on82onormist
$unhill Fields in *ondon where 2atherine was buried our years later among other notable igures
o dissent li4e 'aniel 'eoe and ;ohn $unyan# " gra(e mar4er now stands near to where they were
buried# 6n 1<D7 a memorial to $la4e and his wie was erected in 0oetRs 2orner o :estminster
"bbey& *ondon#
I must create a system. or e enslav/! y another man/s0 I 1ill not reason an! com(are' my
usiness is to createSJerusalem
Tho)(s +(ins,orough (1727888)# English painter o portraits& landscapes& and ancy pictures& one
o the most indi(idual geniuses in $ritish art#
)e was born at ,udbury& ,ool4& and went to *ondon in about 17.0& probably studying with the
French engra(er 1ra(elot# )e returned to ,udbury in 17.8 and in 17D2 he set up as a portrait
painter at 6pswitch# )is wor4 at this time consisted mainly o heads and hal8length& but he also
painted some small portrait groups in landscape settings which are the most lyrical o all English
con(ersation pieces (&eneage Lloy! an! his Sister& Fit>william& 2ambridge)# )is patrons were the
merchants o the town and the neighboring sGuires& but when in 17D< he mo(ed to $ath& his new
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sitters were members o ,ociety& and he de(eloped a ree and elegant mode o painting seen at its
most characteristic in ull8length portraits (%ary. Countess &o1e& ?enwood )ouse& *ondon&
c#176386.)#
6n 1768 he was elected a oundation member o the !oyal "cademy& and in 177. he mo(ed
permanently to *ondon# )ere he urther de(eloped the personal style he had e(ol(ed at $ath&
wor4ing with light and rapid brush8stro4es and delicate and e(anescent colors# )e became a
a(orite painter o the !oyal Family& e(en though his ri(al !eynolds was appointed ?ing+s 0rincipal
0ainter#
1ainsborough sometimes said that while portraiture was his proession landscape painting was his
pleasure& and he continued to paint landscapes long ater he had let a country neighborhood# )e
produced many landscape drawings& some in pencil& some in charcoal and chal4& and he
occasionally made drawings which he (arnished# )e also& in later years& painted ancy pictures o
pastoral subLects (Peasant -irl -athering Stic"s& -anchester 2ity "rt 1allery& 1782)#
1ainsborough+s style had di(erse sources# )is early wor4s show the inluence o French engra(ing
and o 'utch landscape paintingM at $ath his change o portrait style owed much to a close study o
(an 'yc4 (his admiration is most clear in The $lue $oy& )untingdon "rt 1allery& ,an -arino&
1770)M and in his later landscapes (The 2atering Place& 9ational 1allery& *ondon& 1777) he is
sometimes inluenced by !ubens# $ut he was an independent and original genius& able to assimilate
to his own ends what he learnt rom others& and he relied always mainly on his own resources# :ith
the e%ception o his nephew 1ainsborough 'upont& he had no assistants and unli4e most o his
contemporaries he ne(er employed a drapery painter#
)e was in many ways the antithesis o !eynolds# :hereas !eynolds was sober8minded and the
complete proessional& 1ainsborough (e(en though his output was prodigious) was much more
easy8going and oten o(erdue with his commissions& writing that Tpainting and punctuality mi% li4e
oil and (inegar+# "lthough he was an entertaining letter8writer& 1ainsborough& unli4e !eynolds& had
no interest in literary or historical themes& his great passion outside painting being music (his riend
:illiam ;ac4son the composer wrote that he Ta(oided the company o literary men& who were his
a(ersion### he detested reading+)# 1ainsborough and !eynolds had great mutual respect& howe(erM
1ainsborough as4ed or !eynolds to (isit him on his deathbed& and !eynolds paid posthumous
tribute to his ri(al in his Fourteenth *iscourse# !ecogni>ing the luid brilliance o his brushwor4&
!eynolds praised This manner o orming all the parts o a picture together+& and wrote o Tall those
odd scratches and mar4s+ that Tby a 4ind o magic& at a certain distance### seem to drop into their
proper places+#
*ose-h !(llord .illi() Turner /%0012%31%4
*ondon8born ;oseph -allord :illiam 5urner was the most (ersatile& successul& and contro(ersial
landscape painter o nineteenth8century England# 'emonstrating mastery o watercolor& oil
painting& and etching& his (oluminous output ranges rom depictions o local topography to
atmospheric renderings o earsome storms and awe8inspiring terrain# 5hough prooundly
inluenced by landscapists and history painters o the si%teenth and se(enteenth centuries& 5urner
was an inno(ator who has been hailed as a orerunner o modernist abstraction#
Though (rofoun!ly influence! y lan!sca(ists an! history (ainters of the sixteenth an! seventeenth
centuries. Turner 1as an innovator 1ho has een haile! as a forerunner of mo!ernist astraction0
-ore
5urner proited rom e%tensi(e training both within and outside o the !oyal "cademy (!")
,chools# )e was admitted to the !"+s 0laster "cademy at the age o ourteen& and to the *ie 2lass
6
three years later# )e gained additional e%perience coloring prints& wor4ing as an architectural
dratsman& and designing theatrical sets# 6n the 17<0s& he participated in an inormal F"cademy&F
where he Loined with 5homas 1irtin and other young men in copying rom prints& watercolors& and
topographical drawings at the home o the physician and alienist 'r# 5homas -onro#
5hese early lessons in topography (D<#23#23) stayed with 5urner throughout his lie# )is irst
e%hibited paintings were careully delineated watercolors o recogni>able English monuments and
landscapes# "lthough 5urner would later de(elop an e%tensi(e (isual (ocabulary that ranged ar
beyond precise renderings& irst8hand obser(ations remained crucial to his wor4ing method# B(er
the course o i(e decades& he illed hundreds o s4etchboo4s with (isual records o scores o tours
through England (8<#1D#<)& ,cotland& and :ales& and around the 2ontinent to $elgium& France&
)olland& 6taly& the !hineland& ,wit>erland (D<#120)& and elsewhere# 5urner relied on these on8site
s4etches to inorm e(en his most highly imaginati(e paintings# For instance& The -ran! Canal.
)enice (<<#31)& e%hibited at the !" in 183D& combines multiple (iewpoints to present an impossible
(iew o se(eral /enetian landmar4s# :atercolors inspired by these tours pro(ided ertile ground or
5urner+s technical e%perimentation and& when used as the bases o print series& helped 5urner to
disseminate his principles and earn a si>able income# 6n the 1810s and 1820s& he produced series o
small8scale topographical watercolors in which he e(o4ed orms by layering bloc4s o color
according to a classiication system o FlightF and Fdar4F colors that challenged many assumptions
o contemporary color theory# 5he watercolors+ light8illed& e%pressionistic appearance relects this
inno(ati(e techniGue# 5o create details& 5urner scraped& blotted& and wiped the paint while it was
still wet& and scratched into or drew on dry suraces# :atercolors o English ri(ers& ports& and
coastal scenes ser(ed as the basis or me>>otint and engra(ing series& including the Ports of
Englan! (182628)# 5urner adapted his watercolor methods to oil paintings& which he built up rom
oundations o color to create uniGuely e(ocati(e shapes and glowing orms# 5he se(enty prints o
his Lier Stu!iorum (18071<M see lin4 below to (iew image) e%press 5urner+s ele(ated ambitions
most clearly# 5hese atmospheric images& which combine his own etched outlines with me>>otints
applied by other artists& present si% categories o landscapeI 0astoral& -arine& -ountainous&
)istorical& "rchitectural& and Epic 0astoral# 5he title deliberately echoes the Lier )eritatis& a
compilation o prints by the esteemed se(enteenth8century painter o ideali>ed landscapes 2laude
*orrain# 5urner may ha(e produced another series o me>>otints singlehandedlyM these images&
ne(er published& are 4nown as the Little Lier (ca# 182.26)#
5urner belie(ed that landscapes could con(ey a ull range o artistic& historical& and emotional
meanings& and presented himsel as an heir to the great history painters o the past# "s a young man&
he learned to imbue his paintings with powerul e%pression by studying 0iranesi+s imposing
architectural antasies (06#10D1#3) and copying wor4s by !enaissance and $aroGue masters# 5he
legacies o 0oussin& !aphael& 5itian& and others are e(ident throughout his oeu(re# 5urner
speciically claimed !aphael and !ome as his inspirations in !ome& rom the /atican# !aaelle&
"ccompanied by *a Fornarina& 0reparing )is 0ictures or the 'ecoration o the *oggia (1820M 5ate&
*ondon)#
5urner+s orays into poetry complemented and enhanced the narrati(es o his landscape paintings# 6n
17<8& he began including Guotes rom poetsSor instance& -ilton and *ord $yronSas
accompaniments to his paintings in !" catalogue entries# )e irst used selections rom an original
poem& Fallacies of &o(e& when he e%hibited Sno1 Storm' &annial an! &is Army Crossing the
Al(s (1812M 5ate& *ondon)# E%cerpts rom Fallacies of &o(e would accompany many o 5urner+s
subseGuent paintings& though the te%t was ne(er completed or published#
6n addition to narrating tales rom the distant past& 5urner also ound subLects in the world around
him# 6nterested in e%pressing grand emotions& he was particularly attracted to sublime or awesome
aspects o contemporary lie# :hen& on Bctober 16& 183.& the )ouses o 0arliament were ra(aged
by ire& he obser(ed the conlagration rom a boat in the 5hames and recorded the scene in
watercolors and oil paintings (see lin4 below to (iew image)# )e memoriali>ed yet a greater tragedy
in Slavers Thro1ing #veroar! the *ea! an! *ying' Ty(hoon Coming #n (18.0M -useum o Fine
"rts& $ostonM see lin4 below to (iew image)& indicting the sla(e trade+s calculated horrors with
7
agitated brushstro4es congealing into (iolent wa(es beneath a blood8red s4y# 5he nearly abstract
!ain& ,team& and ,peedI 5he 1reat :estern !ailway (18..M 9ational 1allery& *ondon) e(o4es the
6ndustrial !e(olution+s rapid transormations through strong diagonals& bold contrasts o light and
dar4& and tumultuous handling#
5urner elicited strong responses rom riends and oes ali4e# Bn the one hand& he was respected by
many colleagues# )a(ing become a ull member o the !" at age twenty8si%& he was elected
0roessor o 0erspecti(e i(e years later# )e remained acti(e in the "cademy throughout his lie&
ser(ing in (arious go(erning roles which culminated in a brie tenure as acting president in 18.D#
Oet 5urner continually elicited disdain rom some conser(ati(e critics# 6n 1836& a (ituperati(e
re(iew lambasting his loose handling inspired ;ohn !us4in to ta4e up 5urner+s deense# !us4in+s
argument or 5urner+s genius ultimately grew into the i(e8(olume %o!ern Painters (published
18.360)# Hpon his death& 5urner Loined the notable $ritons buried in ,aint 0aul+s 2athedral# )is
beGuest o 300 oil paintings and more than 20&000 wor4s on paper soon entered the collection o
*ondon+s 5ate 1allery#
Const(,le5 *ohn (177681837)# English painter& ran4ed with 5urner as one o the greatest $ritish
landscape artists#
"lthough he showed an early talent or art and began painting his nati(e ,uol4 scenery beore he
let school& his great originality matured slowly# )e committed himsel to a career as an artist only
in 17<<& when he Loined the !oyal "cademy ,chools and it was not until 182< that he was
grudgingly made a ull "cademician& elected by a maLority o only one (ote# 6n 1816 he became
inancially secure on the death o his ather and married -aria $ic4nell ater a se(en8year courtship
and in the act o strong opposition rom her amily# 'uring the 1820s he began to win recognitionI
The &ay 2ain (9ational 1allery& *ondon& 1821) won a gold medal at the 0aris ,alon o 182. and
2onstable was admired by 'elacroi% and $onington among others# )is wie died in 1828& howe(er&
and the remaining years o his lie were clouded by despondency#
"ter spending some years wor4ing in the picturesGue tradition o landscape and the manner o
1ainsborough& 2onstable de(eloped his own original treatment rom the attempt to render scenery
more directly and realistically& carrying on but modiying in an indi(idual way the tradition
inherited rom !uisdael and the 'utch 17th8century landscape painters# ;ust as his contemporary
:illiam :ordsworth reLected what he called the Tpoetic diction+ o his predecessors& so 2onstable
turned away rom the pictorial con(entions o 18th8century landscape painters& who& he said& were
always Trunning ater pictures and see4ing the truth at second hand+# 2onstable thought that T9o two
days are ali4e& nor e(en two hoursM neither were there e(er two lea(es o a tree ali4e since the
creation o the world+& and in a then new way he represented in paint the atmospheric eects o
changing light in the open air& the mo(ement o clouds across the s4y& and his e%cited delight at
these phenomena& stemming rom a proound lo(e o the countryI T5he sound o water escaping
rom mill dams& willows& old rotten plan4s& slimy posts and bric4wor4& 6 lo(e such things# 5hese
scenes made me a painter#+
)e ne(er went abroad& and his inest wor4s are o the places he 4new and lo(ed best& particularly
,uol4 and )ampstead& where he li(ed rom 1821# 5o render the shiting lic4er o light and
weather he abandoned ine traditional inish& catching the sunlight in blobs o pure white or yellow&
and the drama o storms with a rapid brush# )enry Fuseli was among the contemporaries who
applauded the reshness o 2onstable+s approach& or 2# !# *eslie records him as sayingI T6 li4e de
landscapes o 2onstableM he is always picturesGue& o a ine color& and de lights always in de right
placesM but he ma4es me call or my great coat and umbrella#+
2onstable wor4ed e%tensi(ely in the open air& drawing and s4etching in oils& but his inished
pictures were produced in the studio# For his most ambitious wor4s88Tsi%8ooters+ as he called
them88he ollowed the unusual technical procedure o ma4ing a ull8si>e oil s4etch& and in the 20th
8
century there has been a tendancy to praise these e(en more highly than the inished wor4s because
o their reedom and reshness o brushwor4# (5he ull8si>e s4etch or The &ay 2ain is in the /P"&
*ondon& which has the inest collection o 2onstable+s wor4#)
6n England 2onstable had no real sucessor and the many imitators (who included his son Lionel&
182D887) turned rather to the ormal compositions than to the more direct s4etches# 6n France&
howe(er& he was a maLor inluence on !omantics such as 'elacroi%& on the painters o the $arbi>on
,chool& and ultimately on the 6mpressionists#
.ILLIA! !ORRIS AND THE BE+INNIN+S OF THE ARTS AND CRAFTS
!O6E!ENT
THE ARTS 7 CRAFTS !O6E!ENT
5he "rts and 2rats -o(ement was an artistic and social mo(ement which lourished in $ritain at
the end o the nineteenth and beginning o the twentieth century# 6t de(eloped in response to the
teachings o :illiam -orris and his circle& whose ollowers reLected the standards o much
industrial art and encouraged a return to the s4ills o indi(idual cratma4ers#
5he "rts and 2rats (ision o design reLected academic styles o ornament and turned to nature or
inspiration& see4ing a more realistic interpretation o orm# 6t also inspired the re(i(al o guilds&
such as the "rt :or4ers+ 1uild ormed in 1886 which were associations o cratspeople#
5he 2entral ,chool o "rt in -argaret ,treet& $irmingham& pro(ided a climate in which "rts and
2rats lourished# From 1<01 it also had Loint charge& with the $irmingham ;ewellers and
,il(ersmiths "ssociation o the /ictoria street ,chool or ;ewellers and ,il(ermiths# "rthur 1as4in&
headmaster rom 1<01 to 1<2. was an outstanding representati(e o "rts and 2rats in the Lewellery
trade#
5he $ritish nineteenth8century Lewellery also incorporates "rts and 2rats wor4 by :# 5#
$lac4band& and Edward ,pencer+s "riadne nec4lace made or the "rtiicers 1uild#
:illiam 'e -organRs ceramics relect his attempts to reproduce the metallic lustre declaration o
6slamic and )ispano8-oresGue earthenwares o the ourteenth and iteenth centuries# :or4ing
rom -erton "bbey in 1882 and rom Fulham in 1888& 'e -organ also produced a palette
consisting mainly o blue& turGuise& green and red& which he described as +0ersian+ colours# !us4inRs
ceramics illustrate the ,methwic48based pottery# Bther interesting e%amples were produced by the
-artin $rothers& 2# )# $rannam& 0il4ington+s 5ile and 0ottery 2ompany& 'oulton and 2o& $ernard
-oore and Edmund Elton+s ,unlower 0ottery#
6n terms o glass& the "rts and 2rats -o(ement+s ideals are e%pressed in the wor4s o ;ames 0owell
and ,ons o :hiteriars& the last sur(i(ing *ondon manuacturer o handmade glass by the latter
part o the nineteenth century#
,tained glass wor4 by $urne8;ones& !ossetti& -orris& later pieces by )enry 0ayne& Florence 2amm
and 2yril *a(enstein also deser(e mention#
.ILLIA! !ORRIS
:illiam -orris (183. 8 18<6) was a man o immense energy with a (ast range o acti(ities# )e
produced o(er 700 designs or wallpaper& abrics& embroideries& tapestries& carpets& tiles& stained
glass& complete decorati(e schemes& illuminated manuscripts and ine printed boo4s# )e was also a
practising cratsman s4illed at most types o wor4 or which he designed# -orris was a
manuacturer with his own company& and ran his own printing press# 6n his lietime he was best
4nown as a writer and poet#
-orris was also one o the irst conser(ationists# 6n 1877 he ounded the ,ociety or the 0rotection
o "ncient $uildings# )is ideas on the ill eects o growing industrialisation and mass production
and his principles o wor4& set out in a series o lectures& became the basis o the "rts and 2rats
-o(ementRs attempt to reorm art and design# 5hey also led -orris to become a leading member o
the ,ocialist mo(ement in $ritain in the 1880s#
9
From an early age -orris was deeply interested in art and architecture& especially o the -iddle
"ges# "t B%ord he met others with similar interests& including his lie8long riend& Edward $urne8
;ones# 6n 18D6 -orris was articled to the architect 1# E# ,treet# $ut he and $urne8;ones ell under
the spell o 'ante 1abriel !ossetti and decided to try to become painters# 6n 18D7 they too4 part in
!ossettiRs 0re8!aphaelite proLect o decorating the B%ord Hnion with murals o the "rthurian
legends#
6n B%ord !ossetti disco(ered ;ane $urden& whose stri4ing eatures were to dominate many o his
pictures# 6n 18D< -orris married her# 5hey commissioned 0hilip :ebb& another close riend& to
design !ed )ouse& $e%ley )eath or them# 5he house is a simple red bric4 1othic building in the
manner o ,treet or $utterield# 5he -orrises and their riends wor4ed together to urnish it&
designing and ma4ing tiles& stained glass& stencilled decoration& urniture and embroidered
hangings# From this de(eloped -orris and 2ompany#
6n "pril 1861 -orris& -arshall& Faul4ner and 2ompany& Fine "rt :or4men in 0ainting& 2ar(ing&
Furniture and the -etals& was established# 6ts aim was to produce all types o art wor4I mural
paintings and decoration& car(ings& stained glass& urniture& embroidery and metalwor4# Hnli4e
earlier (entures all its members were to be closely in(ol(ed in the production and sale o their wor4&
rather than simply supplying designs to outside manuacturers#
:illiam -orris was appointed manager& and was one o the chie designers# $urne8;ones& :ebb&
!ossetti& Ford -ado% $rown& ?ate Faul4ner and others also supplied designs# Early wor4 was
chiely commissions or churches and colleges& and occasional houses# 6n the early years the irm
had to be hea(ily subsidised rom -orrisRs large pri(ate income# 6n 187D he too4 sole control#
5he irmRs range was greatly e%panded in the 1870s& with many designs by -orris or wallpapers
and abrics# " distincti(e style de(eloped& due largely to his inluence# " showroom was opened in
B%ord ,treet in 1877# 6n 1882 -orris P 2o# mo(ed to spacious wor4shops at -erton "bbey in
,urrey& where a greatly increased (ariety o wor4 could be manuactured rather than contracted out#
$y the 1880s all types o urnishings and ittings could be bought rom the showroom& or later rom
a number o catalogues# -orris P 2o# also sold wor4 by associates& such as pottery and tiles by
:illiam 'e -organ and metalwor4 by :# "# ,# $enson# 2omplete interior schemes& reGuently
super(ised by -orris& were supplied#
-orrisR wor4 was o the highest Guality in both material and cratsmanship& and& conseGuently&
relati(ely e%pensi(e# 5he irm became increasingly successul& selling to (ery wealthy patrons and
artistic middle class clients o slightly more modest means#
6n the 1880s -orrisRs political acti(ities too4 up an increasing amount o his time# late in 188< he
began setting up the ?elmscott 0ress& or which he designed all type aces& illuminated initials and
borders# 0rinting began in 18<1& producing ine limited editions on hand8made paper# -orrisRs
in(ol(ement in the irm ine(itably lessened& though he continued to design or it# 6ts success
continued under other designers& including -ay -orris& -orrisRs younger daughter& who became
head o the embroidery department& ;# )# 'earle& 1eorge ;ac4 and :# "# ,# $enson
-orris P 2o# gradually became a general decorating irm# 6n the 18<0s it began selling
reproduction 1eorgian urniture# 5he company continued to trade successully until the 1<20s&
adding altered and adapted -orris designs and antiGue urniture to their range# $ut a gradual
decline set in& and it inally closed in 1<.0#
British Ar#hite#ts
Inigo *ones /%108 9 %:1$4
Jones 1as the first notale English architect. res(onsile for intro!ucing the classical architecture
of Rome an! the Italian Renaissance to $ritain0
;ones was born shortly beore 1< ;uly 1D73& the date o his baptism in ,mithield& *ondon& the son
o a cloth wor4er# "lmost nothing is 4nown about his early lie or education# )e certainly tra(elled
abroad at the end o the century& probably at the e%pense o a patron& and was (ery inluenced by the
wor4 o the 6talian architect "ndrea 0alladio# 6n the early 1600s& ;ones was employed by the wie o
10
;ames 6& 7ueen "nne& to pro(ide costumes and settings or a masGue at court& something he
continued to do e(en ater he started recei(ing architectural commissions# )is irst84nown building
was the 9ew E%change in the ,trand in *ondon& designed in 1608 or the Earl o ,alisbury# 6n 1611&
;ones was appointed sur(eyor o wor4s to )enry& 0rince o :ales but the young prince died in
1612# 6n 1613& ;ones let England to (isit 6taly again# " year ater his return& he was appointed
sur(eyor to the 4ing& a position he held until 16.3&
)is irst important tas4 as sur(eyor was to build a residence at 1reenwich or the Gueen 8 the
7ueen+s )ouse# 6t was begun in 1617& but wor4 was suspended at her death in 161< and only
completed in 163D# 6n 161<& the old $anGueting )ouse at :hitehall 0alace burned down and ;ones
began wor4 on a new one# 6t was completed in 1622 and in 163D& an allegorical painting or its
ceiling was commissioned rom !ubens# ;ones also wor4ed on the restoration o ,t 0aul+s
2athedral& adding a magniicent portico to the west end (the whole cathedral was lost in the 1reat
Fire o *ondon)# "t 2o(ent 1arden& ;ones created *ondon+s irst +sGuare+ (1630) on land de(eloped
by the ourth earl o $edord& and designed the church o ,t 0aul& inspired by 0alladio#
:ith the outbrea4 o the English 2i(il :ar and the sei>ure o the 4ing+s properties& ;ones+
employment as sur(eyor came to an end# 6n 16.D& he was at the siege and burning by
0arliamentarian orces o $asing )ouse in )ampshire# )e may ha(e been arrested and his property
was coniscated by parliament but restored a year later# ;ones died on 21 ;une 16D2#
Sir Christo-her .ren /%:8$ 9 %0$84
2ren 1as an English scientist an! mathematician an! one of $ritain3s most !istinguishe!
architects. est "no1n for the !esign of many Lon!on churches. inclu!ing St Paul3s Cathe!ral0
2hristopher :ren was born on 20 Bctober 1632 in East ?noyle& :iltshire& where his ather was
rector# )is ather later mo(ed to :indsor and :ren was educated at :estminster ,chool and then
B%ord Hni(ersity# )e showed an early talent or mathematics and enLoyed in(enting things&
including an instrument or writing in the dar4 and a pneumatic machine# 6n 16D7& :ren was
appointed proessor o astronomy at 1resham 2ollege in *ondon and our years later& proessor o
astronomy at B%ord# 6n 1662& he was one o the ounding members o the !oyal ,ociety& along
with other mathematicians& scientists and scholars& many o whom were his riends#
:ren+s interest in architecture de(eloped rom his study o physics and engineering# 6n 166. and
166D& :ren was commissioned to design the ,heldonian 5heatre in B%ord and a chapel or
0embro4e 2ollege& 2ambridge and rom then on& architecture was his main ocus# 6n 166D& :ren
(isited 0aris& where he was strongly inluenced by French and 6talian baroGue styles#
6n 1666& the 1reat Fire o *ondon destroyed much o the medie(al city& pro(iding a huge
opportunity or :ren# )e produced ambitious plans or rebuilding the whole area but they were
reLected& partly because property owners insisted on 4eeping the sites o their destroyed buildings#
:ren did design D1 new city churches& as well as the new ,t 0aul+s 2athedral# 6n 166<& he was
appointed sur(eyor o the royal wor4s which eecti(ely ga(e him control o all go(ernment
building in the country# )e was 4nighted in 1673#
6n 167D& :ren was commissioned to design the !oyal Bbser(atory at 1reenwich# 6n 1682& he
recei(ed another royal commission& to design a hospital in 2helsea or retired soldiers& and in 16<6
a hospital or sailors in 1reenwich# Bther buildings include 5rinity 2ollege *ibrary in 2ambridge
(1677 8 16<2)& and the acade o )ampton 2ourt 0alace (168< 8 16<.)# :ren oten wor4ed with the
same team o cratsmen& including master plasterer ;ohn 1ro(es and wood car(er 1rinling 1ibbons
11
:ren died on 2D February 1723# )is gra(estone in ,t 0aul+s 2athedral eatures the *atin inscription
which translates asI +6 you see4 his memorial& loo4 about you#+
*ohn N(sh (18 ;anuary 17D2 13 -ay 183D)
$orn in *ambeth& *ondon& the son o a :elsh millwright& 9ash trained with the architect ,ir !obert
5aylor# )e established his own practice in 1777& but his career was initially unsuccessul and short8
li(ed# "ter inheriting U1000in 1778 rom his uncle 5homas& he in(ested the money in building his
irst 4nown independent wor4s& 1D817 $loomsbury ,Guare and 66871 1reat !ussell ,treet in
$loomsbury# $ut the property ailed to let and he was declared ban4rupt in 1783 and let *ondon in
178. to li(e in 2armarthen& where his mother had retired to& her amily being rom the area# )is
irst maLor wor4 in the area was the 1aol at 2armarthen 178<8<2# )e also designed a series o
medium si>ed country houses in south8west :ales including *lanerchaeron# )e met )umphry
!epton at )aod Hchtryd in 17<D and ormed a successul partnership with the landscape garden
designer# Bne o their early commissions was at 2orsham 2ourt# 5he pair would collaborate to
careully place the 9ash8designed building in grounds designed by !epton# E(entually&in 17<D&
9ash returned to wor4 in *ondon# 5he partnership ended in 1800 under recriminations& !epton
accusing 9ash o e%ploiting their partnership to his own ad(antage#
)is irst signiicant commission ater returning to *ondon was )ereord gaol# 6n ;une 17<7 he
mo(ed into 28 'o(er ,treet a building o his own design& he built an e(en bigger house ne%t door at
2< into which he mo(ed the ollowing year# 9ash married 2D8year8old -ary "nn $radley on the
17th 'ecember 17<8 at ,t 1eorge+s& )ano(er ,Guare# 6n 17<8 he purchased a plot o land o 30
acres (120&000 m
2
) at East 2owes on which he erected 17<881802 East 2owes 2astle as his
residence# 6t was the irst o a series o picturesGue 1othic castles that he would design#
6n 1806 9ash was appointed architect to the ,ur(eyor 1eneral o :oods& Forests& 0ar4s& and
2hases# From 1810 9ash would ta4e (ery ew pri(ate commissions# 9ash was a dedicated :hig
and was a riend o 2harles ;ames Fo% through whom 9ash probably came to the attention o the
0rince !egent (later ?ing 1eorge 6/) and or the rest o his career he would largely wor4 or the
0rince# )is irst maLor commissions in 1811 rom the 0rince was !egent ,treet and the de(elopment
o an area then 4nown as -arylebone 0ar4# :ith the !egent+s bac4ing (and maLor inputs rom
!epton)& 9ash created a master plan or the area& put into eect rom 1818 onwards& which
stretched rom ,t ;amesRs northwards and included !egent ,treet& !egent+s 0ar4 and its
neighbouring streets& terraces and crescents o elegant town houses and (illas# 9ash did not
complete all the detailed designs himselM in some instances& completion was let in the hands o
other architects such as ;ames 0ennethorne and the young 'ecimus $urton# 9ash was employed by
the 0rince to de(elop his -arine 0a(ilion in $righton& originally designed by )enry )olland# $y
1822 9ash had inished his wor4 on the -arine 0a(ilion& which was now transormed into the
!oyal 0a(ilion#
9ash was also a director o the !egent+s 2anal 2ompany set up in 1812 to pro(ide a canal lin4 rom
west *ondon to the !i(er 5hames in the east# 9ash+s masterplan pro(ided or the canal to run
around the northern edge o !egent+s 0ar4M as with other proLects& he let its e%ecution to one o his
assistants& in this case ;ames -organ# 5he irst phase o the !egent+s 2anal opened in 1816#
5ogether with !obert ,mir4e and ,ir ;ohn ,oane& he became an oicial architect to the Bice o
:or4s in 1813#
6n 1820 a scandal bro4e& when a cartoon was publishedshowing a hal dressed ?ing 1eorge 6/
embracing 9ash+s wie with a speech bubble coming rom the ?ing+s mouth containing the words F6
ha(e great pleasure in (isiting this part o my dominionsF# :hether this was based on Lust a rumour
put about by people who resented 9ash+s success or i there is substance behind is not 4nown#
Further *ondon commissions or 9ash ollowed& including the remodelling o $uc4ingham )ouse
to create $uc4ingham 0alace (182D1830)& and or the !oyal -ews and -arble "rch 5he arch was
12
originally designed as a triumphal arch to stand at the entrance to $uc4ingham 0alace# 6t was
mo(ed when the east wing o the palace designed by Edward $lore was built& at the reGuest o
7ueen /ictoria whose growing amily reGuired additional domestic space# -arble "rch became the
entrance to )yde 0ar4 and 5he 1reat E%hibition#
)e ad(ised on wor4 to the buildings o ;esus 2ollege& B%ord& or which he reGuired no ee but
as4ed that the college should commission a portrait o him rom ,ir 5homas *awrence to hang in
the college hall#
9ash+s career eecti(ely ended with the death o 1eorge 6/ in 1830# 5he ?ing+s notorious
e%tra(agance had generated much resentment and 9ash was now without a protector# 5he 5reasury
started to loo4 closely at the cost o $uc4ingham 0alace# 9ash+s original estimate o the building+s
cost had been U2D2&6<0& but this had risen to U.<6&16< in 182<the actual cost was U613&26< and the
building was still uninished# 5his contro(ersy ensured that 9ash would not recei(e any more
oicial commissions nor would he be awarded the ?nighthood that other contemporary architects
such as ;ery :yatt(ille& ;ohn ,oane and !obert ,mir4e recei(ed# 9ash retired to the 6sle o :ight
where he died on the 13th -ay 183D in his home& East 2owes 2astle& and is buried at ,t# ;ames+s
2hurch& East 2owes#
9ash had many pupils including )umphry !epton+s sons& ;ohn "dey !epton (177D1860) and
1eorge ,tanley !epton (178618D8)& as well as "nthony ,al(in& ;ohn Foulon (177218.2)&
"ugustus 2harles 0ugin& ;ames -organ and ;ames 0ennethorne#
British Cl(ssi#(l !usi#
Henr 'ur#ell #(; %:1< 9 %:<14
English composer# *ittle is 4nown o his lie& and his parentage remains unclear& although it is
certain that he had three brothersI Edward& 'aniel& and ;oseph# "s a boy )enry was a chorister in
the 2hapel !oyal& where he presumably studied with 2oo4e& )umrey& and $lowM at the age o
eight he contributed a three8part song to 0layord+s Catch That Catch Can0" second early wor4&
written in 1670 and now lost& was recorded as an F"ddress o the 2hildren o the 2hapel !oyal to
the ?ing& and their master& 2aptain 2oo4e ### composed by -aster 0urcell& one o the 2hildren o
the said 2hapel#F "ter his (oice bro4e in 1673 he became assistant to ;ohn )ingeston& who was in
charge o 4eeping the royal instruments in repair#
0urcell became the organ tuner at :estminster "bbey (167.878)& succeeded -atthew *oc4e as
composer8in8ordinary or the (iolins in 1677& and was appointed organist o :estminster "bbey in
167<# 6n 1682 0urcell succeeded Edward *owe as an organist at the 2hapel !oyal& and the
ollowing year& ater )ingeston+s death& was appointed organ ma4er and 4eeper o the 4ing+s
instruments# 0urcell+s uneral too4 place in :estminster "bbey on 9o(ember 26& 16<D#
0urcell is one o the greatest o all English composers and an outstanding igure o the $aroGue
period# )e irst became in(ol(ed with the theater in 1680& most o his dramatic music consisting o
o(ertures& entr+actes& dances& and songsM i(e wor4s constitute what ha(e been designated Fsemi8
operas&F with more substantial amounts o music# *i!o an! Aeneas is e%ceptional in that the libretto
is set to music throughoutM it was written or a boarding school 88 ;osias 0riest+s F,chool or Ooung
1entlewomenF 88 at 2helsea in 168<# 0urcell+s irst court odes and welcome songs also date rom
1680& and continue throughout his careerM best described as cantatas or solo (oices& chorus& and
orchestra& they represent some o his inest music# "s a chorister he was acGuainted with the
pre(ious generation o church music& as well as the modem anthem style with e%tensi(e solo (erses
and string accompanimentM he probably was writing anthems or the 2hapel !oyal as early as 167<&
and ater his 1682 appointment abandoned the ull anthem in a(or o the (erse orm# 0urcell+s
secular (ocal output is immense and includes& in addition to the nearly 1D0 songs rom dramatic
wor4s& an additional 100 wor4s (many published in contemporary songboo4s) as well as numerous
duets and catches# )is instrumental music includes wor4s or harpsichord and organ& as well as
chamber music or (iol consort or the more modem combination o two (iolins& bass (iol& and
13
4eyboard continuo# "side rom 0urcell+s contributions to anthologies and some popular songs rom
stage wor4s& ew o his compositions were published during his lietime# 5he most notable
e%ception is the Sonnata3s of III Parts' T1o )iollins an! $asse' to the #rgan or
&ar(secor!(*ondon& 1683M 2nd ed#& 168.)& which includes a portrait o the composer# 6n 16<7 his
widow published the Ten Sonata3s in Four Parts0
:or4sI
Bperas and semi8operasI *i!o an! Aeneas (*ondon& 168<)M The Pro(hetess. or The &istory of
*ioclesian(*ondon& 16<0)M 4ing Arthur. or The $ritish 2orthy(*ondon& 16<1)M The Fairy
5ueen(*ondon& 16<2)M The In!ian 5ueen(inal masGue by '# 0urcellM *ondon& 16<D)M The Tem(est.
or The Enchante! Islan!(*ondon& ca# 16<D)#
0lays with incidental music and songI B(er .0 wor4s& including Theo!osius. or The Force of
Love(1680)M The *oule %arriage(16828 8DA)M A Fool3s Preferment. or The Three *u"es of
*unstale(1688)M The -or!ian 4not +nty3!(16<1)M The 2ives3 Eycusc. or Cuc"ol!s %a"e
Themselves(16<1)M #e!i(us(16<2A)M Timon of Athens(16<.)M $on!uca. or The $ritish
&eroine(16<D)M The Rival Sisters. or The )iolence of Love(16<D)#
Bther secular music includes o(er 100 solo songs& o(er D0 songs or two or more (oices and
continuo& o(er D0 catches#
"nthems and ser(icesI B(er 60 wor4s& including F$ehold& 6 bring you glad tidingsF (1687)M
F$lessed are they that ear the *ordF (1688)M F)ear my prayer& B 1odF (beore 1683)M F6n thee& B
*ord& do 6 put my trustF (ca# 1682)M Fin the midst o lieF (two (ersions& beore 1682)M F6 will lo(e
thee& B *ordFM F-y belo(ed spa4eF (beore 1678)M F-y heart is inditingF (168D)M FB 1od& thou art
my 1odF (ca# 1680882)M FB sing unto the *ordF (1688)M F:ho hath belie(ed our reportAF (ca# 167<8
80)#
Bther sacred wor4sI "ppro%imately .0 wor4s or (arious (ocal combinations& including F"hQ ew
and ull o sorrowF (ca# 1680)M F"wa4e& ye deadF (16<3)M F1reat 1od and LustF (1688)M F*ord& what
is manAF (16<3)M F-iserere meiF (1687)M FB *ord our go(ernorF (ca# 1680)M F:ith sic4 and amish+d
eyesF (1688)#
9umerous odes and welcome songsI 6nstrumental music& including antasias& o(ertures& pa(ans&
harpsichord suites& airs& hornpipes& o(ertures#
Sir Ed=(rd .illi() Elg(r5 %st B(ronet B-& 12/B (2 ;une 18D7 23 February 1<3.) was an
English composer& many o whose wor4s ha(e entered the $ritish and international classical concert
repertoire# "mong his best84nown compositions are orchestral wor4s including the Enigma
/ariations& the 0omp and 2ircumstance -arches& concertos or (iolin and cello& and two
symphonies# )e also composed choral wor4s& including 5he 'ream o 1erontius& chamber music
and songs# )e was appointed -aster o the ?ing+s -usic4 in 1<2.#
"lthough Elgar is oten regarded as a typically English composer& most o his musical inluences
were not rom England but rom continental Europe# )e elt himsel to be an outsider& not only
musically& but socially# 6n musical circles dominated by academics& he was a sel8taught composerM
in 0rotestant $ritain& his !oman 2atholicism was regarded with suspicion in some GuartersM and in
the class8conscious society o /ictorian and Edwardian $ritain& he was acutely sensiti(e about his
humble origins e(en ater he achie(ed recognition# )e ne(ertheless married the daughter o a senior
$ritish army oicer# ,he inspired him both musically and socially& but he struggled to achie(e
success until his orties& when ater a series o moderately successul wor4s his Enigma )ariations
(18<<) became immediately popular in $ritain and o(erseas# )e ollowed the /ariations with a
choral wor4& The *ream of -erontius (1<00)& based on a !oman 2atholic te%t that caused some
disGuiet in the "nglican establishment in $ritain& but it became& and has remained& a core repertory
wor4 in $ritain and elsewhere# )is later ull8length religious choral wor4s were well recei(ed but
ha(e not entered the regular repertory# 5he irst o his Pom( an! Circumstance %arches (1<01) is
well 4nown in the English8spea4ing world#
14
6n his ities& Elgar composed a symphony and a (iolin concerto that were immensely successul#
)is second symphony and his cello concerto did not gain immediate public popularity and too4
many years to achie(e a regular place in the concert repertory o $ritish orchestras# Elgar+s music
came& in his later years& to be seen as appealing chiely to $ritish audiences# )is stoc4 remained low
or a generation ater his death# 6t began to re(i(e signiicantly in the 1<60s& helped by new
recordings o his wor4s# ,ome o his wor4s ha(e& in recent years& been ta4en up again
internationally& but the music remains more played in $ritain than elsewhere#
Elgar has been described as the irst composer to ta4e the gramophone seriously# $etween 1<1. and
1<2D& he conducted a series o acoustic recordings o his wor4s# 5he introduction o the microphone
in 1<2D made ar more accurate sound reproduction possible& and Elgar made new recordings o
most o his maLor orchestral wor4s and e%cerpts rom The *ream of -erontius# 5hese recordings
were reissued on *0 record in the 1<70s and on 2' in the 1<<0s#
Edward Elgar was born in the small (illage o *ower $roadheath& outside :orcester& England# )is
ather& :illiam )enry Elgar (18211<06)& was raised in 'o(er and had been apprenticed to a
*ondon music publisher# 6n 18.1 :illiam mo(ed to :orcester& where he wor4ed as a piano tuner
and set up a shop selling sheet music and musical instruments# 6n 18.8 he married "nn 1reening
(18221<02)& daughter o a arm wor4er# Edward was the ourth o their se(en children# "nn Elgar
had con(erted to !oman 2atholicism shortly beore Edward+s birth& and he was baptised and
brought up as a !oman 2atholic& to the disappro(al o his ather# :illiam Elgar was a (iolinist o
proessional standard and held the post o organist o ,t# 1eorge+s !oman 2atholic 2hurch&
:orcester& rom 18.6 to 188D# "t his instigation& masses by 2herubini and )ummel were irst heard
at the 5hree 2hoirs Festi(al by the orchestra in which he played the (iolin# "ll the Elgar children
recei(ed a musical upbringing# $y the age o eight& Elgar was ta4ing piano and (iolin lessons& and
his ather& who tuned the pianos at many grand houses in :orcestershire& would sometimes ta4e him
along& gi(ing him the chance to display his s4ill to important local igures#
Elgar+s mother was interested in the arts and encouraged his musical de(elopment# )e inherited
rom her a discerning taste or literature and a passionate lo(e o the countryside# )is riend and
biographer :# )# F$illyF !eed wrote that Elgar+s early surroundings had an inluence that
Fpermeated all his wor4 and ga(e to his whole lie that subtle but none the less true and sturdy
English Guality#F )e began composing at an early ageM or a play written and acted by the Elgar
children when he was about ten& he wrote music that orty years later he rearranged with only minor
changes and orchestrated as the suites titled 5he :and o Oouth#
Hntil he was iteen& Elgar recei(ed a general education at *ittleton (now *yttleton) )ouse school&
near :orcester# )owe(er& his only ormal musical training beyond piano and (iolin lessons rom
local teachers was more ad(anced (iolin studies with "dol 0ollit>er& during brie (isits to *ondon
in 187778# Elgar said Fmy irst music was learnt in the 2athedral ### rom boo4s borrowed rom the
music library& when 6 was eight& nine or ten#F )e wor4ed through manuals o instruction on organ
playing and read e(ery boo4 he could ind on the theory o music# )e later said that he had been
most helped by )ubert 0arry+s articles in the 1ro(e 'ictionary o -usic and -usicians# Elgar
began to learn 1erman& in the hope o going to the *eip>ig 2onser(atory or urther musical studies&
but his ather could not aord to send him# Oears later a proile in 5he -usical 5imes considered
that his ailure to get to *eip>ig was ortunate or Elgar+s musical de(elopmentI F5hus the budding
composer escaped the dogmatism o the schools#F )owe(er& it was a disappointment to Elgar that
on lea(ing school in 1872 he went not to *eip>ig but to the oice o a local solicitor as a cler4# )e
did not ind an oice career congenial& and or ulilment he turned not only to music but to
literature& becoming a (oracious reader# "round this time& he made his irst public appearances as a
(iolinist and organist#
"ter a ew months& Elgar let the solicitor to embar4 on a musical career& gi(ing piano and (iolin
lessons and wor4ing occasionally in his ather+s shop# )e was an acti(e member o the :orcester
1lee 2lub& along with his ather& and he accompanied singers& played the (iolin& composed and
arranged wor4s& and conducted or the irst time# 0ollit>er belie(ed that& as a (iolinist& Elgar had the
potential to be one o the leading soloists in the country& but Elgar himsel& ha(ing heard leading
15
(irtuosi at *ondon concerts& elt his own (iolin playing lac4ed a ull enough tone& and he abandoned
his ambitions to be a soloist# "t twenty8two he too4 up the post o conductor o the attendants+ band
at the :orcester and 2ounty *unatic "sylum in 0owic4& three miles (D 4m) rom :orcester# 5he
band consisted oI piccolo& lute& clarinet& two cornets& euphonium& three or our irst and a similar
number o second (iolins& occasional (iola& cello& double bass and piano# Elgar coached the players
and wrote and arranged their music& including Guadrilles and pol4as& or the unusual combination o
instruments# The %usical Times wrote& F5his practical e%perience pro(ed to be o the greatest (alue
to the young musician# ### )e acGuired a practical 4nowledge o the capabilities o these dierent
instruments# ### )e thereby got to 4now intimately the tone colour& the ins and outs o these and
many other instruments#F )e held the post or i(e years& rom 187<& tra(elling to 0owic4 once a
wee4# "nother post he held in his early days was proessor o the (iolin at the :orcester 2ollege or
the $lind ,ons o 1entlemen#
"lthough rather solitary and introspecti(e by nature& Elgar thri(ed in :orcester+s musical circles#
)e played in the (iolins at the :orcester and $irmingham Festi(als& and one great e%perience was
to play '(oVW4+s ,ymphony 9o# 6 and ,tabat -ater under the composer+s baton# Elgar regularly
played the bassoon in a wind Guintet& alongside his brother Fran4& an oboist (and conductor who ran
his own wind band)# Elgar arranged numerous pieces by -o>art& $eetho(en& )aydn& and others or
the Guintet& honing his arranging and compositional s4ills#
6n his irst trips abroad& Elgar (isited 0aris in 1880 and *eip>ig in 1882# )e heard ,aint8,aXns play
the organ at the -adeleine and attended concerts by irst8rate orchestras# 6n 1882 he wrote& F6 got
pretty well dosed with ,chumann (my idealQ)& $rahms& !ubinstein P :agner& so had no cause to
complain#F 6n *eip>ig he (isited a riend& )elen :ea(er& who was a student at the 2onser(atoire#
5hey became engaged in the summer o 1883& but or un4nown reasons the engagement was bro4en
o the ne%t year # Elgar was greatly distressed& and some o his later cryptic dedications o romantic
music may ha(e alluded to )elen and his eelings or her# 5hroughout his lie& Elgar was oten
inspired by close women riendsM )elen :ea(er was succeeded by -ary *ygon& 'ora 0enny& ;ulia
:orthington& "lice ,tuart :ortley and /era )oc4man& who enli(ened his old age#
6n 1883& while a regular member o the orchestra or :# 2# ,toc4ley+s winter concert seasons in
$irmingham& Elgar too4 part in a perormance o one o his irst wor4s or ull orchestra& the
Srna!e maures6ue# ,toc4ley had in(ited him to conduct the piece& but& as ,toc4ley later recalled&
Fhe declined& and& urther& insisted upon playing in his place in the orchestra# 5he conseGuence was
that he had to appear& iddle in hand& to ac4nowledge the genuine and hearty applause o the
audience#F )e oten went to *ondon in an attempt to get his wor4s published& but this period in his
lie ound him reGuently despondent and low on money# )e wrote to a riend in "pril 188.& F-y
prospects are about as hopeless as e(er ### 6 am not wanting in energy 6 thin4& so sometimes 6
conclude that +tis want o ability# ### 6 ha(e no money not a cent#F For a number o years he was
assistant to his ather& :illiam Elgar& as organist o ,t 1eorge+s !oman 2atholic 2hurch& :orcester&
and succeeded him or our years rom 188D# 'uring this period he wrote his irst liturgical wor4s in
the 2atholic tradition& beginning with his three motets Bp# 2 (1887) or our8part choir (Ave )erum
Cor(us& Ave %aria and Ave %aris Stella)& and ollowed by a setting o Ecce sacerdos magnus or
the entry o the $ishop on an oicial (isit to ,t# 1eorge+s in 1888& all our o which remain in the
repertoire o church choirs#
!(rri(ge
:hen Elgar was twenty8nine& he too4 on a new pupil& 2aroline "lice !oberts& daughter o the late
-aLor81eneral ,ir )enry !oberts& and a published author o (erse and prose iction# Eight years
older than Elgar& "lice became his wie three years later# Elgar+s biographer -ichael ?ennedy
writes& F"lice+s amily was horriied by her intention to marry an un4nown musician who wor4ed in
a shop and was a !oman 2atholic# ,he was disinherited#F 5hey were married on 8 -ay 188<& at
$rompton Bratory# From then until her death she acted as his business manager and social
secretary& dealt with his mood swings and was a percepti(e musical critic# ,he did her best to gain
him the attention o inluential society& though with limited success# 6n time he would learn to
accept the honours gi(en him& realising that they mattered more to her and her social class and
16
recognising what she had gi(en up to urther his career# 6n her diary she wrote& F5he care o a
genius is enough o a lie wor4 or any woman#F "s an engagement present& Elgar dedicated his
short (iolin and piano piece ,alut d+"mour to her# :ith "lice+s encouragement& the Elgars mo(ed to
*ondon to be closer to the centre o $ritish musical lie& and Elgar started de(oting his time to
composition# 5heir only child& 2arice 6rene& was born at their home in :est ?ensington on 1.
"ugust 18<0# )er name& re(ealed in Elgar+s dedication o Salut !3Amour& was a contraction o her
mother+s names 2aroline and "lice#
Elgar too4 ull ad(antage o the opportunity to hear unamiliar music# 6n the days beore miniature
scores and recordings were a(ailable& it was not easy or young composers to get to 4now new
music# Elgar too4 e(ery chance to do so at the 2rystal 0alace concerts# )e and "lice attended day
ater day& hearing music by a wide range o composers# "mong these were masters o orchestration
rom whom he learned much& such as $erlio> and :agner# )is own compositions& howe(er& made
little impact on *ondon+s musical scene# "ugust -anns conducted Elgar+s orchestral (ersion o
Salut !3amour and the ,uite in ' at the 2rystal 0alace& and two publishers accepted some o Elgar+s
(iolin pieces& organ (oluntaries& and partsongs# ,ome tantalising opportunities seemed to be within
reach but (anished une%pectedly# For e%ample& an oer rom the !oyal Bpera )ouse& 2o(ent
1arden& to run through some o his wor4s was withdrawn at the last second when ,ir "rthur
,ulli(an arri(ed unannounced to rehearse some o his own music# ,ulli(an was horriied when
Elgar later told him what had happened# Elgar+s only important commission while in *ondon came
rom his home cityI the :orcester Festi(al 2ommittee in(ited him to compose a short orchestral
wor4 or the 18<0 5hree 2hoirs Festi(al# 5he result is described by 'iana -c/eagh in the -rove
*ictionary of %usic an! %usicians& as Fhis irst maLor wor4& the assured and uninhibited Froissart#F
Elgar conducted the irst perormance in :orcester in ,eptember 18<0# For lac4 o other wor4& he
was obliged to lea(e *ondon in 18<1 and return with his wie and child to :orcestershire& where he
could earn a li(ing conducting local musical ensembles and teaching# 5hey settled in "lice+s ormer
home town& 1reat -al(ern#
'uring the 18<0s& Elgar gradually built up a reputation as a composer& chiely o wor4s or the great
choral esti(als o the English -idlands# The $lac" 4night (18<2) and 4ing #laf (18<6)& both
inspired by *ongellow& The Light of Life (18<6) and Caractacus (18<8) were all modestly
successul& and he obtained a long8standing publisher in 9o(ello and 2o# Bther wor4s o this
decade included the ,erenade or ,trings (18<2) and 5hree $a(arian 'ances (18<7)# Elgar was o
enough conseGuence locally to recommend the young composer ,amuel 2oleridge85aylor to the
5hree 2hoirs Festi(al or a concert piece& which helped establish the younger man+s career# Elgar
was catching the attention o prominent critics& but their re(iews were polite rather than
enthusiastic# "lthough he was in demand as a esti(al composer& he was only Lust getting by
inancially and elt unappreciated# 6n 18<8& he said he was F(ery sic4 at heart o(er musicF and
hoped to ind a way to succeed with a larger wor4# )is riend "ugust ;aeger tried to lit his spiritsI
F" day+s attac4 o the blues ### will not dri(e away your desire& your necessity& which is to e%ercise
those creati(e aculties which a 4ind pro(idence has gi(en you# Oour time o uni(ersal recognition
will come#F
6n 18<<& that prediction suddenly came true# "t the age o orty8two& Elgar produced the Enigma
/ariations& which were premiered in *ondon under the baton o the eminent 1erman conductor
)ans !ichter# 6n Elgar+s own words& F6 ha(e s4etched a set o /ariations on an original theme# 5he
/ariations ha(e amused me because 6+(e labelled them with the nic4names o my particular
riends ### that is to say 6+(e written the (ariations each one to represent the mood o the +party+ (the
person) ### and ha(e written what 6 thin4 they would ha(e written i they were asses enough to
composeF#)e dedicated the wor4 F5o my riends pictured withinF# 0robably the best 4nown
(ariation is F9imrodF& depicting ;aeger# 0urely musical considerations led Elgar to omit (ariations
depicting "rthur ,ulli(an and )ubert 0arry& whose styles he tried but ailed to incorporate in the
(ariations#
17
5he large8scale wor4 was recei(ed with general acclaim or its originality& charm and
cratsmanship& and it established Elgar as the pre8eminent $ritish composer o his generation#
5he wor4 is ormally titled )ariations on an #riginal ThemeM the word FEnigmaF appears o(er the
irst si% bars o music& which led to the amiliar (ersion o the title# 5he enigma is that& although
there are ourteen (ariations on the Foriginal themeF& there is another o(erarching theme& ne(er
identiied by Elgar& which he said Fruns through and o(er the whole setF but is ne(er heard# *ater
commentators ha(e obser(ed that although Elgar is today regarded as a characteristically English
composer& his orchestral music and this wor4 in particular share much with the 2entral European
tradition typiied at the time by the wor4 o !ichard ,trauss# 5he Enigma )ariations were well8
recei(ed in 1ermany and 6taly& and remain to the present day a worldwide concert staple#
N(tion(l (nd intern(tion(l f()e
Elgar+s biographer $asil -aine commented& F:hen ,ir "rthur ,ulli(an died in 1<00 it became
apparent to many that Elgar& although a composer o another build& was his true successor as irst
musician o the land#F Elgar+s ne%t maLor wor4 was eagerly awaited# For the $irmingham 5riennial
-usic Festi(al o 1<00& he set 2ardinal ;ohn )enry 9ewman+s poem 5he 'ream o 1erontius or
soloists& chorus and orchestra# !ichter conducted the premiere& which was marred by a poorly
prepared chorus& which sang badly# Elgar was deeply depressed& but the critics recognised the
mastery o the piece despite the deects in perormance# 6t was perormed in 'Ysseldor& 1ermany&
in 1<01 and again in 1<02& conducted by ;ulius $uths& who also conducted the European premiere
o the Enigma /ariations in 1<01# 5he 1erman press was enthusiastic# The Cologne -a,ette said&
F6n both parts we meet with beauties o imperishable (alue# ### Elgar stands on the shoulders o
$erlio>& :agner& and *is>t& rom whose inluences he has reed himsel until he has become an
important indi(iduality# )e is one o the leaders o musical art o modern times#F The *7ssel!orfer
)ol"slatt wrote& F" memorable and epoch8ma4ing irst perormanceQ ,ince the days o *is>t
nothing has been produced in the way o oratorio ### which reaches the greatness and importance o
this sacred cantata#F !ichard ,trauss& then widely (iewed as the leading composer o his day& was so
impressed that in Elgar+s presence he proposed a toast to the success o Fthe irst English
progressi(e musician& -eister Elgar#F 0erormances in /ienna& 0aris and 9ew Oor4 ollowed& and
The *ream of -erontius soon became eGually admired in $ritain# "ccording to ?ennedy& F6t is
unGuestionably the greatest $ritish wor4 in the oratorio orm ### JitK opened a new chapter in the
English choral tradition and liberated it rom its )andelian preoccupation#F Elgar& as a !oman
2atholic& was much mo(ed by 9ewman+s poem about the death and redemption o a sinner& but
some inluential members o the "nglican establishment disagreed# )is colleague& 2harles /illiers
,tanord complained that the wor4 Fstin4s o incenseF# 5he 'ean o 1loucester banned -erontius
rom his cathedral in 1<01& and at :orcester the ollowing year& the 'ean insisted on e%purgations
beore allowing a perormance#
Elgar is probably best 4nown or the irst o the i(e 0omp and 2ircumstance -arches& which were
composed between 1<01 and 1<30# 6t is amiliar to millions o tele(ision (iewers all o(er the world
e(ery year who watch the *ast 9ight o the 0roms& where it is traditionally perormed# :hen the
theme o the slower middle section (technically called the FtrioF) o the irst march came into his
head& he told his riend 'ora 0enny& F6+(e got a tune that will 4noc4 +em will 4noc4 +em latF#:hen
the irst march was played in 1<01 at a *ondon 0romenade 2oncert& it was conducted by )enry ;#
:ood& who later wrote that the audience Frose and yelled ### the one and only time in the history o
the 0romenade concerts that an orchestral item was accorded a double encore#F 5o mar4 the
coronation o Edward /66& Elgar was commissioned to set "# 2# $enson+s Coronation #!e or a
gala concert at the !oyal Bpera )ouse in ;une 1<01# 5he appro(al o the 4ing was conirmed& and
Elgar began wor4# 5he contralto 2lara $utt had persuaded him that the trio o the irst Pom( an!
Circumstance march could ha(e words itted to it& and Elgar in(ited $enson to do so# Elgar
incorporated the new (ocal (ersion into the Bde# 5he publishers o the score recognised the
potential o the (ocal piece& F*and o )ope and 1loryF& and as4ed $enson and Elgar to ma4e a
18
urther re(ision or publication as a separate song# 6t was immensely popular and is now considered
an unoicial $ritish national anthem# 6n the Hnited ,tates& the trio& 4nown simply as F0omp and
2ircumstanceF or F5he 1raduation -archF& has been adopted since 1<0D or (irtually all high
school and uni(ersity graduations#
6n -arch 1<0. a three8day esti(al o Elgar+s wor4s was presented at 2o(ent 1arden& an honour
ne(er beore gi(en to any English composer# 5he 5imes commented& FFour or i(e years ago i any
one had predicted that the Bpera8house would be ull rom loor to ceiling or the perormance o an
oratorio by an English composer he would probably ha(e been supposed to be out o his mind#F 5he
4ing and Gueen attended the irst concert& at which !ichter conducted The *ream of -erontius&JD1K
and returned the ne%t e(ening or the second& the *ondon premiere o 5he "postles (irst heard the
pre(ious year at the $irmingham Festi(al)# 5he inal concert o the esti(al& conducted by Elgar&
was primarily orchestral& apart or an e%cerpt rom Caractacus and the complete ,ea 0ictures (sung
by 2lara $utt)# 5he orchestral items were Froissart& the Enigma )ariations& 2oc4aigne& the irst two
(at that time the only two) Pom( an! Circumstance marches& and the premiere o a new orchestral
wor4& 6n the ,outh ("lassio)& inspired by a holiday in 6taly#
Elgar was 4nighted at $uc4ingham 0alace on D ;uly 1<0.# 5he ollowing month& he and his amily
mo(ed to 0lZs 1wyn& a large house on the outs4irts o )ereord& o(erloo4ing the !i(er :ye& where
they li(ed until 1<11# $etween 1<02 and 1<1.& Elgar was& in ?ennedy+s words& at the >enith o
popularity# )e made our (isits to the H#,#& including one conducting tour& and earned considerable
ees rom the perormance o his music# $etween 1<0D and 1<08& he held the post o 0eyton
0roessor o -usic at the Hni(ersity o $irmingham# )e had accepted the post reluctantly& eeling
that a composer should not head a school o music# )e was not at ease in the role& and his lectures
caused contro(ersy& with his attac4s on the criticsand on English music in generalI F/ulgarity in the
course o time may be reined# /ulgarity oten goes with in(enti(eness ### but the commonplace
mind can ne(er be anything but commonplace# "n Englishman will ta4e you into a large room&
beautiully proportioned& and will point out to you that it is white all o(er white and somebody
will say& +:hat e%Guisite taste+# Oou 4now in your own mind& in your own soul& that it is not taste at
all& that it is the want o taste& that is mere e(asion# English music is white& and e(ades e(erything#F
)e regretted the contro(ersy and was glad to hand on the post to his riend 1ran(ille $antoc4 in
1<08# )is new lie as a celebrity was a mi%ed blessing to the highly8strung Elgar& as it interrupted
his pri(acy& and he oten was in ill8health# )e complained to ;aeger in 1<03& F-y lie is one
continual gi(ing up o little things which 6 lo(e#F $oth :# ,# 1ilbert and 5homas )ardy sought to
collaborate with Elgar in this decade# Elgar reused& but would ha(e collaborated with 1eorge
$ernard ,haw had ,haw been willing#
Elgar+s principal composition in 1<0D was the 6ntroduction and "llegro or ,trings& dedicated to
,amuel ,anord& proessor at Oale Hni(ersity# Elgar (isited "merica in that year to conduct his
music and to accept a doctorate rom Oale# )is ne%t large8scale wor4 was the seGuel to The A(ostles
the oratorio 5he ?ingdom (1<06)# 6t was well8recei(ed but did not catch the public imagination as
The *ream of -erontius had done and continued to do# "mong 4een Elgarians& howe(er& The
4ing!om was sometimes preerred to the earlier wor4I Elgar+s riend Fran4 ,chuster told the young
"drian $oultI Fcompared with The 4ing!om& -erontius is the wor4 o a raw amateur#F "s Elgar
approached his itieth birthday& he began wor4 on his irst symphony& a proLect that had been in his
mind in (arious orms or nearly ten years# )is First ,ymphony (1<08) was a national and
international triumph# :ithin wee4s o the premiere it was perormed in 9ew Oor4 under :alter
'amrosch& /ienna under Ferdinand *[we& ,t# 0etersburg under "le%ander ,iloti& and *eip>ig under
"rthur 9i4isch# 5here were perormances in !ome& 2hicago& $oston& 5oronto and iteen $ritish
towns and cities# 6n Lust o(er a year& it recei(ed a hundred perormances in $ritain& "merica and
continental Europe#
5he /iolin 2oncerto (1<10) was commissioned by Frit> ?reisler& one o the leading international
(iolinists o the time# Elgar wrote it during the summer o 1<10& with occasional help rom the
(iolinist :# )# !eed& the leader o the *ondon ,ymphony Brchestra& who helped the composer with
19
ad(ice on technical points# Elgar and !eed ormed a irm riendship& which lasted or the rest o
Elgar+s lie# !eed+s biography& Elgar As I 4ne1 &im (1<36)& records many details o Elgar+s
methods o composition# 5he wor4 was presented by the !oyal 0hilharmonic ,ociety& with ?reisler
and the *ondon ,ymphony Brchestra (*,B)& conducted by the composer# !eed recalled& Fthe
2oncerto pro(ed to be a complete triumph& the concert a brilliant and unorgettable occasionF# ,o
great was the impact o the concerto that ?reisler+s ri(al Eug\ne Osa]e spent much time with Elgar
going through the wor4# 5here was great disappointment when contractual diiculties pre(ented
Osa]e rom playing it in *ondon#
5he /iolin 2oncerto was Elgar+s last popular triumph# 5he ollowing year he presented his ,econd
,ymphony in *ondon& but was disappointed at its reception# Hnli4e the First ,ymphony& it ends not
in a bla>e o orchestral splendour but Guietly and contemplati(ely# !eed& who played at the
premiere& later wrote that Elgar was recalled to the platorm se(eral times to ac4nowledge the
applause& Fbut missed that unmista4able note percei(ed when an audience& e(en an English
audience& is thoroughly roused or wor4ed up& as it was ater the /iolin 2oncerto or the First
,ymphony#F Elgar as4ed !eed& F:hat is the matter with them& $illyA 5hey sit there li4e a lot o
stued pigs#F 5he wor4 was& by normal standards& a success& with twenty8se(en perormances
within three years o its premiere& but it did not achie(e the international furore o the First
,ymphony#
L(st )(>or =or"s
6n ;une 1<11& as part o the celebrations surrounding the coronation o ?ing 1eorge /& Elgar was
appointed to the Brder o -erit& an e%clusi(e honour limited to twenty8our holders at any time# 5he
ollowing year& the Elgars mo(ed bac4 to *ondon& to a large house in 9etherhall 1ardens&
)ampstead& designed by 9orman ,haw# 5here Elgar composed his last two large8scale wor4s o the
pre8war era& the choral ode& The %usic %a"ers (or the $irmingham Festi(al& 1<12) and the
symphonic study Falstaff (or the *eeds Festi(al& 1<13)# $oth were recei(ed politely but without
enthusiasm# E(en the dedicatee o Falstaff& the conductor *andon !onald& conessed pri(ately that
he could not Fma4e head or tail o the piece&F while the musical scholar 0ercy ,choles wrote o
Falstaff that it was a Fgreat wor4F but& Fso ar as public appreciation goes& a comparati(e ailure#F
:hen :orld :ar 6 bro4e out& Elgar was horriied at the prospect o the carnage& but his patriotic
eelings were nonetheless aroused# )e composed F" ,ong or ,oldiersF& which he later withdrew#
)e signed up as a special constable in the local police and later Loined the )ampstead /olunteer
!eser(e o the army# )e composed patriotic wor4s& 2arillon& a recitation or spea4er and orchestra
in honour o $elgium& and 0olonia& an orchestral piece in honour o 0oland# Lan! of &o(e an!
-lory& already popular& became still more so& and Elgar wished in (ain to ha(e new& less
nationalistic& words sung to the tune#
Elgar+s other compositions during the war included incidental music or a children+s play& 5he
,tarlight E%press (1<1D)M a ballet& 5he ,anguine Fan (1<17)M and The S(irit of Englan! (1<1D17& to
poems by *aurence $inyon)& three choral settings (ery dierent in character rom the romantic
patriotism o his earlier years# )is last large8scale composition o the war years was 5he Fringes o
the Fleet& settings o (erses by !udyard ?ipling& perormed with great popular success around the
country& until ?ipling or une%plained reasons obLected to their perormance in theatres# Elgar
conducted a recording o the wor4 or the 1ramophone 2ompany#
5owards the end o the war& Elgar was in poor health# )is wie thought it best or him to mo(e to
the countryside& and she rented +$rin4wells+& a house near Fittleworth in ,usse%& rom the painter
!e% /icat 2ole# 5here Elgar reco(ered his strength and& in 1<18 and 1<1<& he produced our large8
scale wor4s# 5he irst three o these were chamber piecesI the /iolin ,onata in E minor& the 0iano
7uintet in " minor& and the ,tring 7uartet in E minor# Bn hearing the wor4 in progress& "lice Elgar
wrote in her diary& FE# writing wonderul new musicF#"ll three wor4s were well recei(ed# The
Times wrote& FElgar+s sonata contains much that we ha(e heard beore in other orms& but as we do
not at all want him to change and be somebody else& that is as it should be#F 5he Guartet and Guintet
were premiered at the :igmore )all on 21 -ay 1<1<# 5he -anchester 1uardian wrote& F5his
20
Guartet& with its tremendous clima%es& curious reinements o dance8rhythms& and its perect
symmetry& and the Guintet& more lyrical and passionate& are as perect e%amples o chamber music
as the great oratorios were o their type#F
$y contrast& the remaining wor4& the 2ello 2oncerto in E minor& had a disastrous premiere& at the
opening concert o the *ondon ,ymphony Brchestra+s 1<1<20 season in Bctober 1<1<# "part rom
the Elgar wor4& which the composer conducted& the rest o the programme was conducted by "lbert
2oates& who o(erran his rehearsal time at the e%pense o Elgar+s# *ady Elgar wrote& Fthat brutal
selish ill8mannered bounder ### that brute 2oates went on rehearsing#F 5he critic o 5he Bbser(er&
Ernest 9ewman& wrote& F5here ha(e been rumours about during the wee4 o inadeGuate rehearsal#
:hate(er the e%planation& the sad act remains that ne(er& in all probability& has so great an
orchestra made so lamentable an e%hibition o itsel# ### 5he wor4 itsel is lo(ely stu& (ery simple
that pregnant simplicity that has come upon Elgar+s music in the last couple o years but with a
proound wisdom and beauty underlying its simplicity#F Elgar attached no blame to his soloist& Feli%
,almond& who played or him again later# 6n contrast with the First ,ymphony and its hundred
perormances in Lust o(er a year& the 2ello 2oncerto did not ha(e a second perormance in *ondon
or more than a year#J
L(st e(rs
"lthough in the 1<20s Elgar+s music was no longer in ashion& his admirers continued to present his
wor4s when possible# !eed singles out a perormance o the ,econd ,ymphony in -arch
1<20 conducted by Fa young man almost un4nown to the publicF& & or bringing Fthe
grandeur and nobility o the wor4F to a wider public# "lso in 1<20& *andon !onald
presented an all8Elgar concert at the ?ueen@s H(ll# "lice Elgar wrote with enthusiasm about
the reception o the symphony& but this was one o the last times she heard Elgar+s music
played in public# "ter a short illness& she died o lung cancer on 7 "pril 1<20& at the age o
se(enty8two#
Elgar was de(astated by the loss o his wie# :ith no public demand or new wor4s& and depri(ed o
"lice+s constant support and inspiration& he allowed himsel to be delected rom composition# )is
daughter later wrote that Elgar inherited rom his ather a reluctance to Fsettle down to wor4 on
hand but could cheerully spend hours o(er some perectly unnecessary and entirely unremunerati(e
underta4ingF& a trait that became stronger ater "lice+s death# For much o the rest o his lie& Elgar
indulged himsel in his se(eral hobbies# 5hroughout his lie he was a 4een amateur chemist&
sometimes using a laboratory in his bac4 garden# )e enLoyed ootball& supporting :ol(erhampton
:anderers F#2#& or whom he composed an anthem& F)e $anged the *eather or 1oalF& and in his
later years he reGuently attended horseraces# )is protCgCs& the conductor -alcolm ,argent and
(iolinist Oehudi -enuhin& both recalled rehearsals with Elgar at which he switly satisied himsel
that all was well and then went o to the races# 6n his younger days& Elgar had been an enthusiastic
bicyclist& buying !oyal ,unbeam bicycles or himsel and his wie in 1<03 (he named his F-r#
0hoebus)F "s an elderly widower& he enLoyed being dri(en about the countryside by his chaueur#
6n 1<23& he too4 a (oyage to ,outh "merica& Lourneying up the "ma>on# "lmost nothing is
recorded about the e(ents that Elgar encountered during the trip& which ga(e the historical no(elist
;ames )amilton80aterson considerable latitude when writing -erontius& a ictional account o the
Lourney#
"ter "lice+s death& Elgar sold the )ampstead house& and ater li(ing or a short time in a lat in ,t
;ames+s in the heart o *ondon& he mo(ed bac4 to :orcestershire& to the (illage o ?empsey& where
he li(ed rom 1<23 to 1<27# )e did not wholly abandon composition in these years# )e made large8
scale symphonic arrangements o wor4s by $ach and )andel and wrote his Em(ire %arch and eight
songs 0ageant o Empire or the 1<2. $ritish Empire E%hibition# ,hortly ater these were published&
he was appointed -aster o the ?ing+s -usic4 on 13 -ay 1<2.& ollowing the death o ,ir :alter
0arratt#
From 1<26 onwards& Elgar made a series o recordings o his own wor4s# Elgar& described by the
music writer !obert 0hilip as Fthe irst composer to ta4e the gramophone seriouslyF&had already
recorded much o his music by the early acoustic8recording process or )is -aster+s /oice ()-/)
21
rom 1<1. onwards& but the introduction o electrical microphones in 1<2D transormed the
gramophone rom a no(elty into a realistic medium or reproducing orchestral and choral music#
Elgar was the irst composer to ta4e ull ad(antage o this technological ad(ance# Fred 1aisberg o
)-/& who produced Elgar+s recordings& set up a series o sessions to capture on disc the composer+s
interpretations o his maLor orchestral wor4s& including the Enigma )ariations& Falstaff& the irst and
second symphonies& and the cello and (iolin concertos# For most o these& the orchestra was the
*,B& but the )ariations were played by the !oyal "lbert )all Brchestra# *ater in the series o
recordings& Elgar also conducted two newly ounded orchestras& $oult+s $$2 ,ymphony Brchestra
and ,ir 5homas $eecham+s *ondon 0hilharmonic Brchestra#
Elgar+s recordings were released on 788rpm discs by both )-/ and !2" /ictor# "ter :orld :ar
66& the 1<32 recording o the /iolin 2oncerto with the teenage -enuhin as soloist remained
a(ailable on 78 and later on *0& but the other recordings were out o the catalogues or some years#
:hen they were reissued by E-6 on *0 in the 1<70s& they caused surprise to many by their ast
tempi& in contrast to the slower speeds adopted by many conductors in the years since Elgar+s death#
5he recordings ha(e subseGuently been issued on compact disc# 5hese were reissued on 2' in the
1<<0s#
6n 9o(ember 1<31& Elgar was ilmed by 0athC or a newsreel depicting a recording session o
Pom( an! Circumstance %arch 8o0 9 at the opening o E-6+s "bbey !oad ,tudios in *ondon# 6t is
belie(ed to be the only sur(i(ing sound ilm o Elgar& who ma4es a brie remar4 beore conducting
the *ondon ,ymphony Brchestra& as4ing the musicians to Fplay this tune as though you+(e ne(er
heard it beore#F " late piece o Elgar+s& 5he 9ursery ,uite& was an early e%ample o a studio
premiereM its irst perormance was in the "bbey !oad studios# For this wor4& dedicated to the wie
and daughters o the 'u4e o Oor4& Elgar once again drew on his youthul s4etch8boo4s#
6n his inal years& Elgar e%perienced a musical re(i(al# 5he $$2 organised a esti(al o his wor4s to
celebrate his se(enty8ith birthday& in 1<32# )e lew to 0aris in 1<33 to conduct the /iolin
2oncerto or -enuhin# :hile in France& he (isited his ellow composer Frederic4 'elius at his
house at 1re>8sur8*oing# )e was sought out by younger musicians such as "drian $oult& -alcolm
,argent and ;ohn $arbirolli& who championed his music when it was out o ashion# )e began wor4
on an opera& The S(anish La!y& and accepted a commission rom the $$2 to compose a 5hird
,ymphony# )is inal illness& howe(er& pre(ented their completion# )e retted about the uninished
wor4s# )e as4ed !eed to ensure that nobody would Ftin4erF with the s4etches and attempt a
completion o the symphony& but at other times he said& F6 6 can+t complete the 5hird ,ymphony&
somebody will complete it or write a better one#F "ter Elgar+s death& 0ercy -# Ooung& in
cooperation with the $$2 and Elgar+s daughter 2arice& produced a (ersion o The S(anish La!y&
which was issued on 2'# 5he 5hird ,ymphony s4etches were elaborated by the composer "nthony
0ayne into a complete score in 1<<8#
6noperable intestinal cancer was disco(ered during an operation on 8 Bctober 1<33# Elgar died on
23 February 1<3. at the age o se(enty8si% and was buried ne%t to his wie at ,t# :ulstan+s 2hurch
in *ittle -al(ern#
Elgar was contemptuous o ol4 music and had little interest in or respect or the early English
composers& calling :illiam $yrd and his contemporaries Fmuseum piecesF# B later English
composers& he regarded )enry 0urcell as the greatest& and he said that he had learned much o his
own techniGue rom studying )ubert 0arry+s writings# 5he continental composers who most
inluenced Elgar were )andel& '(oVW4 and& to some degree& $rahms# 6n Elgar+s chromaticism& the
inluence o :agner is apparent& but Elgar+s indi(idual style o orchestration owes much to the
clarity o nineteenth century French composers& $erlio>& -assenet& ,aint8,aXns and& particularly&
'elibes& whose music Elgar played and conducted at :orcester and greatly admired#
Elgar began composing when still a child& and all his lie he drew on his early s4etchboo4s or
themes and inspiration# 5he habit o assembling his compositions& e(en large8scale ones& rom
scraps o themes Lotted down randomly remained throughout his lie# )is early adult wor4s included
(iolin and piano pieces& music or the wind Guintet in which he and his brother played between
187881& and music o many types or the 0owic4 "sylum band# 'iana -c/eagh in -rove3s
22
*ictionary inds many embryonic Elgarian touches in these pieces& but ew o them are regularly
played& e%cept ,alut d+"mour and (as arranged decades later into 5he :and o Oouth ,uites) some
o the childhood s4etches# Elgar+s sole wor4 o note during his irst spell in *ondon in 188<<1& the
o(erture Froissart& was a romantic8bra(ura piece& inluenced by -endelssohn and :agner& but also
showing urther Elgarian characteristics# Brchestral wor4s composed during the subseGuent years in
:orcestershire include the ,erenade or ,trings and 5hree $a(arian 'ances# 6n this period and later&
Elgar wrote songs and partsongs# :# )# !eed e%pressed reser(ations about these pieces& but praised
the partsong The Sno1& or emale (oices& and ,ea 0ictures& a cycle o i(e songs or contralto and
orchestra which remains in the repertory#
Elgar+s principal large8scale early wor4s were or chorus and orchestra or the 5hree 2hoirs and
other esti(als# 5hese were The $lac" 4night& 4ing #laf& The Light of Life& The $anner of St
-eorge and Caractacus# )e also wrote a Te *eum and $ene!ictus or the )ereord Festi(al# B
these& -c/eagh comments a(ourably on his la(ish orchestration and inno(ati(e use o leitmotis&
but less a(ourably on the Gualities o his chosen te%ts and the patchiness o his inspiration#
-c/eagh ma4es the point that& because these wor4s o the 18<0s were or many years little 4nown
(and perormances remain rare)& the mastery o his irst great success& the Enigma /ariations&
appeared to be a sudden transormation rom mediocrity to genius& but in act his orchestral s4ills
had been building up throughout the decade#
'e(" #re(tive e(rs
Elgar+s best84nown wor4s were composed within the twenty8one years between 18<< and 1<20#
-ost o them are orchestral# !eed wrote& FElgar+s genius rose to its greatest height in his
orchestral wor4sF and Guoted the composer as saying that& e(en in his oratorios& the
orchestral part is the most important# 5he Enigma )ariations made Elgar+s name nationally#
5he (ariation orm was ideal or him at this stage o his career& when his comprehensi(e
mastery o orchestration was still in contrast to his tendency to write his melodies in short&
sometimes rigid& phrases# )is ne%t orchestral wor4s& Co#"(igne /In London To=n4& a
concert8o(erture (1<001<01)& the irst two 'o)- (nd Cir#u)st(n#e marches (1<01)& and
the gentle Dre() Children (1<02)& are all shortI the longest o them& Coc"aigne& lasting
less than iteen minutes# In the South /Al(ssio4 (1<031<0.)& although designated by Elgar
as a concert8o(erture& is& according to ?ennedy& really a tone -oe) and the longest
continuous piece o purely orchestral writing Elgar had essayed# )e wrote it ater setting
aside an early attempt to compose a symphony# 5he wor4 re(eals his continuing progress in
writing sustained themes and orchestral lines& although some critics& including ?ennedy&
ind that in the middle part FElgar+s inspiration burns at less than its brightest#F 6n 1<0D Elgar
completed the Introdu#tion (nd Allegro for Strings# 5his wor4 is based& unli4e much o
Elgar+s earlier writing& not on a prousion o themes but on only three# ?ennedy called it a
Fmasterly composition& eGualled among English wor4s or strings only by 6(ugh(n
.illi()s+s Tallis Fantasia#F 9e(ertheless& at less than a Guarter o an hour& it was not by
contemporary standards a lengthy composition# +ust(v !(hler+s Seventh Symphony&
composed at the same time& runs or well o(er an hour#
'uring the ne%t our years& howe(er& Elgar composed three maLor concert pieces& which& though
shorter than comparable wor4s by some o his European contemporaries& are among the most
substantial such wor4s by an English composer# 5hese were his First ,ymphony& /iolin 2oncerto&
and ,econd ,ymphony& which all play or between orty8i(e minutes and an hour# -c/eagh says
o the symphonies that they Fran4 high not only in Elgar+s output but in English musical history#
$oth are long and powerul& without published programmes& only hints and Guotations to indicate
some inward drama rom which they deri(e their (itality and eloGuence# $oth are based on classical
orm but dier rom it to the e%tent that ### they were considered proli% and slac4ly constructed by
some critics# 2ertainly the in(ention in them is copiousM each symphony would need se(eral do>en
music e%amples to chart its progress#F
Elgar+s /iolin 2oncerto and 2ello 2oncerto& in the (iew o ?ennedy& Fran4 not only among his
inest wor4s& but among the greatest o their 4indF#5hey are& howe(er& (ery dierent rom each
23
other# 5he /iolin 2oncerto& composed in 1<0< as Elgar reached the height o his popularity& and
written or the instrument dearest to his heart& is lyrical throughout and rhapsodical and brilliant by
turns# 5he 2ello 2oncerto& composed a decade later& immediately ater :orld :ar 6& seems& in
?ennedy+s words& Fto belong to another age& another world ### the simplest o all Elgar+s maLor
wor4s ### also the least grandiloGuent#F $etween the two concertos came Elgar+s symphonic study
Falsta& which has di(ided opinion e(en among Elgar+s strongest admirers# 'onald 5o(ey (iewed it
as Fone o the immeasurably great things in musicF& with power Fidentical with
,ha4espeare+sF&while ?ennedy criticises the wor4 or Ftoo reGuent reliance on seGuencesF and an
o(er8idealised depiction o the emale characters# !eed thought that the principal themes show less
distinction than some o Elgar+s earlier wor4s# Elgar himsel thought Falstaff the highest point o his
purely orchestral wor4#
5he maLor wor4s or (oices and orchestra o the twenty8one years o Elgar+s middle period are three
large8scale wor4s or soloists& chorus and orchestraI 5he 'ream o 1erontius (1<00)& and the
oratorios 5he "postles (1<03) and 5he ?ingdom (1<06)M and two shorter odes& the 2oronation Bde
(1<02) and 5he -usic -a4ers (1<12)# 5he irst o the odes& as a (i:ce !3occasion& has rarely been
re(i(ed ater its initial success& with the culminating F*and o )ope and 1loryF# 5he second is& or
Elgar& unusual in that it contains se(eral Guotations rom his earlier wor4s& as !ichard ,trauss
Guoted himsel in " )ero+s *ie# 5he choral wor4s were all successul& although the irst& -erontius&
was and remains the best8lo(ed and most perormed# Bn the manuscript Elgar wrote& Guoting ;ohn
!us4in& F5his is the best o meM or the rest& 6 ate& and dran4& and slept& lo(ed and hated& li4e
another# -y lie was as the (apour& and is notM but this 6 saw& and 4newM this& i anything o mine& is
worth your memory#F "ll three o the large8scale wor4s ollow the traditional model with sections
or soloists& chorus and both together# Elgar+s distincti(e orchestration& as well as his melodic
inspiration& lits them to a higher le(el than most o their $ritish predecessors#
Elgar+s other wor4s o his middle period include incidental music or 1rania and 'iarmid& a play by
1eorge -oore and :# $# Oeats (1<01)& and or 5he ,tarlight E%press& a play based on a story by
"lgernon $lac4wood (1<16)# B the ormer& Oeats called Elgar+s music Fwonderul in its heroic
melancholyF# Elgar also wrote a number o songs during his pea4 period& o which !eed obser(es&
Fit cannot be said that he enriched the (ocal repertory to the same e%tent as he did that o the
orchestra#F

/Ed=(rd4 Ben>()in Britten $$ Nove),er %<%8 9 A De#e),er %<0:
$ritten was born& by happy coincidence& on ,t# 2ecilia+s 'ay& at the amily home in *owestot&
,uol4& England# )is ather was a dentist# )e was the youngest o our children& with a brother&
!obert (1<07)& and two sisters& $arbara (1<02) and $eth (1<0<)# )e was educated locally& and
studied& irst& piano& and then& later& (iola& rom pri(ate teachers#
)e began to compose as early as 1<1<& and ater about 1<22& composed steadily until his death# "t a
concert in 1<27& conducted by composer Fran4 $ridge& he met $ridge& later showed him se(eral o
his compositions& and ultimately $ridge too4 him on as a pri(ate pupil# "ter two years at
1resham+s ,chool in )olt& 9orol4& he entered the !oyal 2ollege o -usic in *ondon (1<30) where
he studied composition with ;ohn 6reland and piano with "rthur $enLamin# 'uring his stay at the
!2- he won se(eral pri>es or his compositions#
)e completed a choral wor4& " $oy was $orn& in 1<33M at a rehearsal or a broadcast perormance
o the wor4 by the $$2 ,ingers& he met tenor 0eter 0ears& the beginning o a lielong personal and
proessional relationship# (-any o $ritten+s solo songs& choral and operatic wor4s eature the tenor
(oice& and 0ears was the designated soloist at many o their premieres#)
From about 1<3D until the beginning o :orld :ar 66& $ritten did a great deal o composing or the
10B Film Hnit& or $$2 !adio& and or small& usually let8wing& theater groups in *ondon# 'uring
this period he met and wor4ed reGuently with the poet :# )# "uden who pro(ided te%ts or
numerous songs as well as complete scripts or which $ritten pro(ided incidental music#
6n the spring o 1<3<& $ritten and 0ears sailed or 9orth "merica& e(entually settling in "mity(ille&
*ong 6sland& 9O& where they li(ed with 'r# and -rs# :m# -ayer and their amily# 6n 1<.0 he
24
wor4ed with "uden on what would become his irst opera& actually an operetta or high schools
called 0aul $unyan& based on traditional "merican ol4 characters# )owe(er& on a trip to 2aliornia
in 1<.1& he read an article by E# -# Forster on the English poet 1eorge 2rabbe& planting the seed
or what would e(entually be $ritten+s irst opera& 0eter 1rimes# 6n 1<.2& ,erge ?ousse(it>4y
became interested in $ritten+s music and perormed the ,inonia da !eGuiem with the $oston
,ymphony Brchestra# But o this association came the commission rom the ?ousse(it>4y
Foundation (in memory o ?ousse(it>4y+s late wie 9atalie) or the new opera& based on 2rabbe+s
wor4 5he $orough# $ritten and 0ears wor4ed on the scenario during their return (oyage to England
in -arch& 1<.2#
'uring the early .0s& $ritten produced a number o wor4s& outstanding among them the )ymn to
,t# 2ecilia& " 2eremony o 2arols& ,e(en ,onnets o -ichelangelo& ,erenade (or tenor& horn& and
strings)& !eLoice in the *amb& and the Festi(al 5e 'eum# 0eter 1rimes& with a libretto by -ontagu
,later& was complete in 1<.D and had its premiere on ;une 7 o that year by the ,adler+s :ells Bpera
2ompany# (,lightly o(er a year later& the wor4 had its "merican premiere at the $oston ,ymphony+s
summer home at 5anglewood& under the baton o *eonard $ernstein#)
Bther operas appeared regularly in the ensuing yearsI 5he !ape o *ucretia (1<.6)& "lbert )erring
(1<.7)& 5he *ittle ,weep (1<.<)& $illy $udd (1<D1) 1loriana (1<D3)& 5he 5urn o the ,crew (1<D.)&
9oye+s Fludde ((1<D7)& " -idsummer 9ight+s 'ream (1<60) 2urlew !i(er (1<6.)& 5he $urning
Fiery Furnace (1<66)& 5he 0rodigal ,on (1<68) Bwen :ingra(e (1<70) Jor tele(isionK& and inally
'eath in /enice (1<73)#
"mongst these wor4s& the $ritten catalog contains numerous other important compositions in other
orms# 9otable among them areI
Ooung 0erson+s 1uide to the Brchestra Bp 3.
5he )oly ,onnets o ;ohn 'onne& Bp 3D
Fi(e 2anticles (based on te%ts by (arious poets)
5he $eggar+s Bpera Bp .3 (being $$+s reali>ation o the 1ay^0epusch wor4)
,t# 9icolas Bp .2
,pring ,ymphony Bp ..
:inter :ords Bp D2
)ymn to ,t# 0eter Bp D6a
5he 0rince o the 0agodas Bp D7 ($ritten+s only ballet)
9octurne Bp 60
,echs )olderlin8Fragmente Bp 61
2antata "cademica Bp 62
-issa $re(is in ' Bp 63
:ar !eGuiem Bp 66 or the consecration o ,t# -ichael+s 2athedral& 2o(entry
,ymphony or 2ello and Brchestra& Bp 68
2antata -isericordium Bp 6<
5he 1olden /anity Bp 78
5he $uilding o the )ouse Bp 7<
" $irthday )ansel Bp <2
0haedra Bp <3
5here are numerous other wor4s including chamber music& songs& ol4 song arrangements& and
choral wor4s#
$ritten was awarded the Brder o -erit in -arch 1<6DM he was created a *ie 0eer& $aron $ritten o
"ldeburgh in the 2ounty o ,uol4& in the 7ueen+s $irthday )onours *ist& ;une& 1<76# 5hree years
earlier& in -ay& 1<73& he had undergone open heart surgery which let him an in(alid or the
remainder o his lie# )e was ne(ertheless able to attend the *ondon premiere o 'eath in /enice at
2o(ent 1arden& Bctober& 1<73& and was able to tra(el to 1ermany and 6taly# )e died at his home in
"ldeburgh& ,uol4& on . 'ecember 1<76 and is buried in the churchyard o the "ldeburgh 0arish
2hurch# )is colleagues 0eter 0ears and 6mogene )olst& co8ounders with $$ o the "ldeburgh
Festi(al& lie in adLacent gra(es#
25
'O'ULAR !USIC IN BRITAIN
Songs fro) the 6i#tori(n Dr(=ing Roo) to the 6ern(#ul(r !ilieu
5he purpose o this lecture is pro(iding a (iew into the de(elopment o popular song8writing in
England rom the days o the Fsinging bourgeoisF to present8day popular music# 5he topic itsel raises
se(eral Guestions# :hat is $ritish popular musicA
'oes such a thing e%istA "nd who made the musical culture o the islandA :hat did ,cots& :elsh& 6rish
and 9orth8"merican people ha(e to do with the processA :hat did people in the English regions play
8 the 1eordies& 2oc4neys& -idlanders and all the restA )ow did European +high+ culture aect what
most people played and sangA
6t seems reasonable to begin our obser(ations in /ictorian England& where the conditions or +large8
scale consumption+ 8 that is& a wider audience or popular music appeared& and also the technical
conditions o music industry 8 printing musical notes& manuacturing gramophones etc# 8 were created#
5here was a wide (ariety o music listened to and enLoyed in middle class /ictorian homes& certainly a
much wider (ariety than suggested by some o the irst authors who wrote about this topic# 5he 9ew
1ro(e 'ictionary o -usic and -usicians says the ollowing about /ictorian middle class musicI F5he
te%ts were sentimental (erses about lo(e& gardens and birds& the music simple strophic settings mar4ed
by easy melody& stereotyped accompaniments& and maudlin harmonic progression#F (,cott 1<8<I i%)
5his (iew is passionately challenged by 'ere4 ,cott who points out that not all the te%ts were silly
little pieces on lo(e and birds in the garden and not all the melodies were primiti(e stereotyped
compositions#
,cott preers to use the term +drawing8room ballad+ to /ictorian popular songs& as this term Fhelps to
locate a cohesi(e body o song o a class8aligned nature#F 5hese ballads& with their strictly regulated
orm& were perect relections o the indi(idualistic bourgeois ideology# 5his way and philosophy o
song writing ma4es the perormer o the song a mere interpretati(e ser(ant o the songwriter# 5he act
that the drawing8room ballads were a certain 4ind o artistic proLection o bourgeois ideology does not
mean that other classes 8 primarily the wor4ing class 8 were e%cluded rom it# :or4ing class people
soon came to be important +consumers+ o bourgeois music& and bourgeoisie assimilated a lot rom
wor4ing class musical practices# 5his interaction was one o the motors o the de(elopment o popular
music in England#
,ome o the many roots o English popular music go bac4 to 6talian opera in 9aples& to the music o
)andel& to ol4 music 8 which was not called ol4 music at all in those days 8 and to the musical taste
o the 18th century town dwellers& who were merchants& shop4eepers& and cratsmen#
Bne o the irst maLor musical achie(ements ater these preliminaries was " $eggar+s Bpera by ;ohn
1ay (168D 8 1732)# 6t was ollowed by se(eral light& sentimental comedies towards the end o the 18th
century# 2harles 'ibdin and :illiam ,hield are Lust two o the composers o this age#
Fol4 music or ol4 art were not terms used in the early nineteenth century# 6t was +old airs+ or
+minstrelsy+ people preerred to tal4 about# 5he +national airs+ o ,cotland and 6reland greatly inluenced
public interest in 2eltic past# 0eople li4e "llan !amsay& author o +"uld *ang ,yne+ and ;ames
-acpherson& author o the notorious Bssian8songs did a lot to draw people+s interest to 2eltic ol4 arts&
or +airs+ as it was called in those days#
5hese are the roots rom which drawing room ballads sprung up# $eore the 1870s these ballads had a
great (ariety o orms& and also a (ariety o subLect matter# +5he *ast !ose o ,ummer+ by -oore is
close to the strophic air described in 5he 9ew 1ro(e 'ictionary o -usic and -usicians# 5he te%t o
$ishop+s +)ome& ,weet )ome+ has (erse and rerain# 5he +2herry !ipe+ by )orn is a roundelay (rondo)&
whereas +5he -aniac+ by !ussell is +an operatic mad scene+ (,cott 1<8< I 13.)#
From the 1870s onward& a process o simpliication too4 place& both in terms o orm and subLect
matter# 0atriotic songs continued to be (ery popular& ater all middle class and upper middle class
constituted the bac4bone o the Empire& and $ritain conGuered a large part o the globe# 0atriotic songs
26
can be subdi(ided into nationalistic and imperialistic songs# " good illustration or the latter might be a
ew lines rom + 5he 'eathless "rmy+ (:eatherly 8 5rotere 18<1)I
F5heir bones may bleach +neath an alien s4y&
$ut their souls& 6 4now& will ne(er die&
5hey march in a deathless army#F
(,cott 1<8<I17.)

5he words o this song show stri4ing resemblance with +;ohn $rown+s $ody+ o "merica# "nother
similarity between $ritish and "merican popular music is that in England they re8disco(ered popular
outlaws li4e !obin )ood# 6t was Guite li4ely inluenced by the way "mericans treated their ;esse ;ames
and also by the act that people 8 in spite o the thousand traditions o royalty and Empire 8 more and
more consciously recogni>ed that eudal system had been replaced by an entirely dierent societyI
capitalism# !obin )ood might ha(e been a rebel against the social order 8 a maLor crime in $ritish
society 8 but he was a rebel against e%cessi(ely unlawul acts o local power in a eudal society 8 and
this was something /ictorian public was ready to accept#
5he patriotic and imperialistic songs were 4ept ali(e during the First :orld :ar& and together with all
the other /ictorian genres they laid the oundations o a modern 20th century popular culture& in which
England seems to be able to retain its leading position in the world all through our century#
!usi#(l
+il,ert (nd Sulliv(n reers to the /ictorian8era theatrical partnership o the librettist :illiam ,#
1ilbert (18361<11) and the composer ,ir "rthur ,ulli(an (18.21<00)# 5he two men collaborated
on ourteen comic operas between 1871 and 18<6& o which )#-#,# Pinafore& The Pirates of
Pen,ance and The %i"a!o are among the best 4nown#
Gilbert, who wrote the words, created fanciful "tops!tur"" worlds for these operas where each
absurdit is ta#en to its lo$ical conclusion%fairies rub elbows with &ritish lords, flirtin$ is a capital
offence, $ondoliers ascend to the 'onarch, and pirates turn out to be noble'en who ha"e $one
wron$( )ulli"an, si* ears Gilbert+s ,unior, co'posed the 'usic, contributin$ 'e'orable 'elodies
that could con"e both hu'our and pathos(
-heir operas ha"e en,oed broad and endurin$ international success and are still perfor'ed
fre.uentl throu$hout the /n$lish!spea#in$ world( Gilbert and )ulli"an introduced inno"ations in
content and for' that directl influenced the de"elop'ent of 'usical theatre throu$h the 20th
centur( -he operas ha"e also influenced political discourse, literature, fil' and tele"ision and ha"e
been widel parodied and pastiched b hu'orists( 0roducer 1ichard 2+3l 4arte brou$ht Gilbert
and )ulli"an to$ether and nurtured their collaboration( 5e built the )a"o -heatre in 1881 to
present their ,oint wor#s 6which ca'e to be #nown as the )a"o 3peras 7 and founded the 2+3l
4arte 3pera 4o'pan, which perfor'ed and pro'oted Gilbert and )ulli"an+s wor#s for o"er a
centur(
Chu Chin Chow is a musical comedy written& produced and directed by Bscar "sche& with music
by Frederic 9orton& based (with minor embellishments) on the story o "li $aba and the .0
5hie(es# 5he piece premi\red at )is -aLesty+s 5heatre in *ondon on 3 "ugust 1<16 and ran or i(e
years and a total o 2&238 perormances (more than twice as many as any pre(ious musical)& an
astonishing record that stood or nearly orty years until ,alad 'ays# 5he show+s irst "merican
production in 9ew Oor4& with additional lyrics by "rthur "nderson& played or 208 perormances in
1<171<18# 6t subseGuently had successul seasons elsewhere in "merica and "ustralia& including
in 1<20& 1<21 and 1<22#
" silent ilm o the musical was produced in 1<2D using some o the music# "nother ilm& with the
27
score intact& was made by the 1ainsborough ,tudios in 1<3.& with 1eorge !obey playing the part o
"li $aba& Frit> ?ortner as "bu )assan& "nna -ay :ong as @ahrat "l8?ulub and *aurence )anray
as ?asim# 5he show toured the $ritish pro(inces or many years# 6t returned to *ondon in 1<.0 or
80 perormances& when it was interrupted by the *ondon bombing but then returned in 1<.1 or
another 1D8 nights# 6n 1<D3& an ice (ersion was produced at *ondonRs Empire 0ool& :embley&
which also toured the pro(inces# Bccasional productions are still mounted& including one in ;uly
2008 by the Finborough 5heatre in *ondon& England#
The N(tion(l Trust
%33A
5he property that led to the idea o the 9ational 5rust was not a great house& or mountain& or stretch
o coast# 6t was a garden& ,ayes 2ourt& created by the se(enteenth century diarist ;ohn E(elyn& in the
heart o 'eptord& in east *ondon#
Bcta(ia )ill was approached by a descendent o E(elyn+s& but ound there was no organisation with
the necessary legal powers or holding the property or permanent preser(ation# ,he turned or
ad(ice to !obert )unter& who proposed the establishment o a land company or Fthe protection o
the public interests in the open spaces o the country#F Bcta(ia )ill wanted a short& e%pressi(e name
or the new company& and suggested +the 2ommons and 1ardens 5rust+ prompting )unter to pencil
in the suggestion +A 9ational 5rust+# 9e(ertheless& it too4 ten years and a succession o
disappointments and obstructions beore the 5rust was properly launched#
%3<:
5he irst building purchased by the 5rust was "lriston 2lergy )ouse in ,usse%& bought or U10 in
18<6# 5he 5rust+s commitment to great buildings was conirmed in 1<00 when !obert )unter
negotiated the git o ?antur4 2astle& in what was to become the !epublic o 6reland# 9o less
ambitious was the acGuisition in 1<07 o $arrington 2ourt& a si%teenth8century country house in
,omerset#
%3<<
:ith the purchase o two acres o :ic4en Fen& near 2ambridge& the 5rust acGuired its irst nature
reser(e# ,ince then the 5rust has purchased o(er .0 additional areas o adLoining land& to ensure the
continuing sustainability o the Fen#
%<&$
" brilliant propagandist& !awnsley led the campaign to raise unds or the purchase o $randelhow
on 'erwentwater& which recei(ed nation8wide support# 5he daughter o 7ueen /ictoria& 0rincess
*ouise& and actory wor4ers in the industrial -idlands contributed to the appeal# Bne donor wrote
rom ,heield that F"ll my lie 6 ha(e longed to see the *a4esFM and added& with his contribution o
2s 6d& F6 shall ne(er see them now& but 6 should li4e to help 4eep them or others#F
%<&0
,ir !obert )unter had personally drated o(er .0 successul $ills or the 0ost Bice# )e brought to
the 9ational 5rust "ct o 1<07 this e%ceptional drating e%perience& as well as unri(alled 4nowledge
o legislation aecting ancient monuments#
%<%$
$la4eney 0oint& in 9orol4& was acGuired or its (alue as a coastal nature reser(e& and because it
was already being used as an open8air laboratory or students rom Hni(ersity 2ollege& *ondon#
$la4eney and many other coastal properties continue to welcome parties rom schools and
uni(ersities# 5oday the 5rust welcomes o(er 600&000 school children to its properties each year#
The -resent
28
9ational 5rust wor4s to preser(e and protect the buildings& countryside and coastline o England&
:ales and 9orthern 6reland& in a range o ways& through practical conser(ation& learning and
disco(ery& and encouraging e(eryone to (isit and enLoy their national heritage#
$ut it doesn+t stop there#
5he 5rust also educates people about the importance o the en(ironment and o preser(ing $ritainRs
heritage or uture generations& we contribute to important debates o(er the uture o the economy&
the de(elopment o peopleRs s4ills and sense o community& and the Guality o the local en(ironment
in both town and country#
O#t(vi( Hill (3 'ecember 1838 13 "ugust 1<12) was an English social reormer& whose main
concern was the welare o the inhabitants o cities& especially *ondon& in the second hal o the
nineteenth century# $orn into a amily with a strong commitment to alle(iating po(erty& she hersel
grew up in straitened circumstances owing to the inancial ailure o her ather# :ith no ormal
schooling& she wor4ed rom the age o 1. or the welare o wor4ing people#
)ill was a mo(ing orce behind the de(elopment o social housing& and her early riendship with
;ohn !us4in enabled her to put her theories into practice with the aid o his initial in(estment# ,he
belie(ed in sel8reliance& and made it a 4ey part o her housing system that she and her assistants
4new their tenants personally and encouraged them to better themsel(es# ,he was opposed to
municipal pro(ision o housing& belie(ing it to be bureaucratic and impersonal#
"nother o )ill+s concerns was the a(ailability o open spaces or poor people# ,he campaigned
against de(elopment on e%isting suburban woodlands& and helped to sa(e *ondon+s )ampstead
)eath and 0arliament )ill Fields rom being built on# ,he was one o the three ounders o the
9ational 5rust& set up to preser(e places o historic interest or natural beauty or the enLoyment o
the $ritish public# ,he was a ounder member o the 2harity Brganisation ,ociety (now the charity
Family "ction) which organised charitable grants and pioneered a home8(isiting ser(ice that ormed
the basis or modern social wor4# ,he was a member o the !oyal 2ommission on the 0oor *aws in
1<0D#
)ill+s legacy includes the large holdings o the modern 9ational 5rust& se(eral housing proLects still
run on her lines& a tradition o training or housing managers& and the museum established by the
Bcta(ia )ill ,ociety at her birthplace#
)ill was the daughter o ;ames )ill& corn merchant and ban4er& and his third wie& 2aroline
,outhwood ,mith# )e had been widowed twice& and had si% children (i(e daughters and a son)
rom his pre(ious marriages# )e had been impressed by the writings on education o 2aroline
,outhwood ,mith& the daughter o 'r 5homas ,outhwood ,mith& a pioneer o sanitary reorm# )e
had engaged 2aroline as a go(erness or his children in 1832& and they were married in 183D& three
years beore Bcta(ia was born in :isbech& 2ambridgeshire& her ather+s eighth daughter and ninth
child# 5he amily+s comortably prosperous lie was disrupted by ;ames )ill+s inancial problems
and his mental collapse# 6n 18.0 he was declared ban4rupt# 2aroline )ill+s ather ga(e the amily
inancial support& and too4 on some o )ill+s paternal role# ,outhwood ,mith was a health and
welare reormer concerned with a range o social issues including child labour in mines and the
housing o the urban poor# 2aroline )ill held similar (iews on social reorm& and her interest in
progressi(e education& inluenced by ;ohann )einrich 0estalo>>i& and ,outhwood ,mith+s daily
e%perience in his wor4 at the *ondon )ospital in the East End inspired Bcta(ia )ill+s concern or
the poorest in early /ictorian *ondon# ,he recei(ed no ormal schoolingI her mother educated the
amily at home#
5he amily settled in a small cottage in Finchley& now a north *ondon suburb& but then a (illage#
Bcta(ia )ill was impressed and mo(ed by )enry -ayhew+s *ondon *abour and the *ondon 0oor& a
boo4 that portrayed the daily li(es o slum dwellers# ,he was also strongly inluenced by the
theologian& "nglican priest and social reormer F# '# -aurice& who was a amily riend# ,he began
her wor4 on behal o *ondon+s poor by helping to ma4e toys or !agged school children& and
29
ser(ing as secretary o the women+s classes at the :or4ing -en+s 2ollege in $loomsbury in central
*ondon#
" co8operati(e guild pro(iding employment or Fdistressed gentlewomenF accepted )ill or training
in glass8painting when she was 13# :hen the wor4 o the guild was e%panded to pro(ide wor4 in
toy8ma4ing or !agged school children& she was in(ited& at the age o 1.& to ta4e charge o the
wor4room# 5he ollowing year she began wor4ing in her spare time rom the guild as a copyist or
;ohn !us4in in 'ulwich "rt 1allery and the 9ational 1allery# ,he was deeply aware o the dreadul
li(ing conditions o the children in her charge at the guild# )er (iews on encouraging sel8reliance
led to her association with the 2harity Brganisation ,ociety (2B,)& described by )ill+s biographer
1illian 'arley as Fa contentious body which deplored dependence ostered by 4indly but unrigorous
philanthropy _ support to the poor had to be careully targeted and eiciently super(ised# *ater in
lie& howe(er& she began to thin4 the 2B, line _ was o(er8harsh#F
)ill was short& li4e all her amily& and indierent to ashion# )er riend )enrietta $arnett wroteI
F,he was small in stature with long body and short legs# ,he did not dress& she only wore clothes&
which were oten unnecessarily unbecomingM she had sot and abundant hair and regular eatures&
but the beauty o her ace lay in brown and (ery luminous eyes& which Guite unconsciously she
lited upwards as she spo4e on any matter or which she cared# )er mouth was large and mobile&
but not impro(ed by laughter# 6ndeed& -iss Bcta(ia was nicest when she was made passionate by
her earnestness#F $arnett also spo4e o )ill+s strea4 o ruthlessness# 1ertrude $ell called )ill
despotic# *ater in )ill+s lie& the $ishop o *ondon& Frederic4 5emple& encountered her at a meeting
o the Ecclesiastical 2ommissioners& and wrote& F,he spo4e or hal an hour _ 6 ne(er had such a
beating in all my lie#F
Housing for the -oor
0arliament and many concerned reormers had been attempting to impro(e the housing o the
wor4ing classes since the early 1830s# :hen )ill began her wor4& the model dwelling mo(ement
had been in e%istence or twenty years& royal and select committees had sat to e%amine the problems
o urban well8being& and the irst o many tranches o legislation aimed at impro(ing wor4ing class
housing had been passed# From )ill+s point o (iew these had all ailed the poorest members o the
wor4ing class& the uns4illed labourers# ,he ound that their landlords routinely ignored their
obligations towards their tenants& and that the tenants were too ignorant and oppressed to better
themsel(es# ,he tried to ind new homes or her charges& but there was a se(ere shortage o
a(ailable property& and )ill decided that her only solution was to become a landlord hersel# ;ohn
!us4in& who was interested in the co8operati(e guild& 4new )ill rom her wor4 as his copyist and
was impressed by her# "s an aesthete and a humanitarian he was aronted by the brutal ugliness o
the slums# 6n 186D& ha(ing inherited a substantial sum o money rom his ather& he acGuired or
U7D0 the leases o three cottages o si% rooms each in 0aradise 0lace& -arylebone#
!us4in placed these houses& which were Fin a dreadul state o dirt and neglectF& under )ill+s
management# )e told her that in(estors might be attracted to such schemes i a i(e per cent annual
return could be secured# 6n 1866 !us4in acGuired the reehold o i(e more houses or )ill to
manage in Freshwater 0lace& -arylebone#
J
5he 5imes recorded& F5he houses aced a bit o desolate
ground occupied by dilapidated cowsheds and manure heaps# 5he needul repairs and cleaning were
carried out& the waste land was turned into a playground where -r# !us4in had some trees planted#F
"ter being impro(ed the properties were let to those on intermittent and low incomes# " return o
i(e per cent on capital was obtained as promised to !us4inM any e%cess o(er the i(e per cent was
rein(ested within the properties or the beneit o the tenants# !ent arrears were not tolerated& and
bad debts were minimal# "s )ill said& FE%treme punctuality& and diligence in collecting rents& and a
strict determination that they shall be paid regularly& ha(e accomplished this#F 6n conseGuence o
her prudent management& )ill was able to attract new bac4ers& and by 187. she had 1D housing
schemes with around 3&000 tenants#
)ill+s system was based on closely managing not only the buildings but the tenantsM she insisted&
Fyou cannot deal with the people and their houses separately#F ,he maintained close personal
30
contact with all her tenants& and was strongly opposed to impersonal bureaucratic organisations and
to go(ernmental inter(ention in housing# 6n her (iew& Fmunicipal socialism and subsidi>ed housingF
led to indiscriminate demolition& re8housing schemes& and the destruction o communities#
J

Housing )(n(ge)ent
"t the heart o the Bcta(ia )ill system was the wee4ly (isit to collect rent# From the outset& )ill
concei(ed this as a Lob or women only# ,he and her assistants& including Emma 2ons combined the
wee4ly rent collection with chec4ing e(ery detail o the premises and getting to 4now the tenants
personally& acting as early social wor4ers# "t irst )ill belie(ed& F/oluntary wor4ers are a necessity#
5hey are better than paid wor4ers& and can be had in suicient numbers#F *ater& she ound it
e%pedient to maintain a paid wor4orce# )er system reGuired a large sta# !ent was collected on
-onday& 5uesday and :ednesday mornings# !ent accounts were balanced in the aternoons and
arrangements were made with contractors or repairs# Bn 5hursdays and Fridays arrears were
pursued& contractors+ in(oices paid& new tenancy lettings and tenants+ mo(es organised#
6 any o )ill+s assistants had spare time& whether during normal wor4ing hours or in reGuent
(oluntary ater8hours wor4ing& it was used to promote tenants+ associations and ater8wor4 and
children+s ater8school clubs and societies# 6n 18D<& )ill created the ,outhwar4 detachment o the
"rmy 2adet Force& its irst independent unit& which ga(e training along military lines or local boys#
)ill considered that such an organisation would be more li4e the Freal thingF than such e%isting
outits as the 2hurch *ads+ $rigade and thereore more attracti(e to young men Fwho had passed the
age o ma4e8belie(eF# ,he in(ited a ser(ing oicer o the 'erbyshire !egiment to set up the
company& and such was its popularity that its numbers had to be capped at 160 cadets#
6t would be wrong to assume that Bcta(ia+s principle o housing management was guided simply on
the Guestion o the payment o rent# 'espite being up to date with his rent& a tenant was surprised to
recei(e 9otice to 7uit& because he would not send his children to school and had o(ercrowded his
rooms# Bcta(ia+s response to his complaint that he didn+t owe any rent was that it was not the only
thing she insisted upon# 6n her (iew& she could not allow anything so wrong as the neglect o
children and o(ercrowding to continue where she had the power to pre(ent itQ
)ill+s principles were summed up in an article o 186<I F:here a man persistently reuses to e%ert
himsel& e%ternal help is worse than useless#F ,he was an outspo4en critic o the principles o
Foutdoor relieF or the ,peenhamland system o poor relie as operated by (arious 0oor *aw
$oards# $ecause these systems did not encourage recipients to wor4& she regarded them as Fa
proligate use o public unds#F Hnder her methods& personal responsibility was encouraged# ,he
insisted on dealing with arrears promptlyM she appointed reliable careta4ersM she too4 up o
reerences on prospecti(e tenants& and (isited them in their homesM she paid careul attention to
allocations and the placing o tenants& with regard to si>e o amilies and the si>e and location o the
accommodation to be oeredM and she made no rules that could not be properly enorced#
"n "merican admirer described her as Fruling o(er a little 4ingdom o three thousand lo(ing
subLects with an iron scepter twined with roses#F "lthough )ill dro(e her associates hard& she dro(e
hersel harder# 6n 1877& she collapsed and had to ta4e a brea4 o se(eral months rom her wor4#
'arley ascribes a number o contributory causesI Fchronic o(erwor4& a lac4 o delegation& the death
o her close riend ;ane ,enior& the ailure o a brie engagementF as well as an attac4 on her by
;ohn !us4in# 5he )ill amily ound a companion or her& )arriot Oor4e (18.31<30)# Oor4e too4 on
a great amount o the e(eryday wor4 that had caused )ill+s collapse# ,he remained her companion
until )ill+s death# " urther palliati(e was the building o a cottage& at 2roc4ham )ill in ?ent& where
they could ta4e brea4s rom their wor4 in *ondon#
"mong )ill+s concerns was that her tenants& and all urban wor4ers& should ha(e access to open
spaces# ,he belie(ed in Fthe lie8enhancing (irtues o pure earth& clean air and blue s4y#F 6n 1883&
she wroteI
5here is perhaps no need o the poor o *ondon which more prominently orces itsel on the notice
o anyone wor4ing among them than that o space# ### )ow can it best be gi(enA "nd what is it
precisely which should be gi(enA 6 thin4 we want our things# 0laces to sit in& places to play in&
31
places to stroll in& and places to spend a day in# 5he preser(ation o :imbledon and Epping shows
that the need is increasingly recognised# $ut a (isit to :imbledon& Epping& or :indsor means or
the wor4man not only the cost o the Lourney but the loss o a whole dayRs wagesM we want& besides&
places where the long summer e(enings or the ,aturday aternoon may be enLoyed without eort or
e%pense#
,he campaigned hard against building on e%isting suburban woodlands& and helped to sa(e
)ampstead )eath and 0arliament )ill Fields rom de(elopment# ,he was the irst to use the term
F1reen $eltF or the protected rural areas surrounding *ondon# 5hree hills in ?ent (-ariners )ill&
5oys )ill and 6de )ill) which she helped to protect rom de(elopment orm part o the belt#
6n 1876 )ill became the treasurer o the ?yrle ,ociety& ounded in that year by her eldest sister&
-iranda& as a F,ociety or the 'iusion o $eautyF# Hnder the slogan F$ring $eauty )ome to the
0oorF it aimed to bring art& boo4s& music and open spaces into the li(es o the urban poor# For a
short period it lourished and e%panded& and although it declined ater a ew years& it was a template
or the 9ational 5rust& 20 years later#
$eore that& howe(er& )ill was engaged in a campaign in 1883 to stop the construction o railways
rom the Guarries in the ells o(erloo4ing $uttermere& in the English *a4e 'istrict& with damaging
eect on the unspoilt scenery# 5he campaign was led by 2anon )ardwic4e !awnsley& who secured
the support o !us4in& )ill& and ,ir !obert )unter& solicitor to the 2ommons 0reser(ation ,ociety#
From 187D onwards& )unter had been )ill+s legal ad(iser on the protection o open spaces in
*ondon# $oth he and !awnsley& building on an idea put orward by !us4in& concei(ed o a trust that
could buy and preser(e places o natural beauty and historic interest or the nation#
Bn 16 9o(ember 18<3& )ill& )unter and !awnsley met in the oices o the 2ommons 0reser(ation
,ociety and agreed to launch such a trust# )ill suggested that it should be called F5he 2ommons
and 1ardens 5rustF& but the three agreed to adopt )unter+s suggested title& the F9ational 5rustF#
Hnder its ull ormal title& the 9ational 5rust or 0laces o )istoric 6nterest or 9atural $eauty was
inaugurated the ollowing year# 5he trust was concerned primarily with protecting open spaces and
endangered buildings o historic interestM its irst property was "lriston 2lergy )ouse and its irst
nature reser(e was :ic4en Fen#
I#oni# British InstitutionsB
The S#otl(nd Y(rd
S#otl(nd Y(rd is a metonym or the headGuarters o the -etropolitan 0olice ,er(ice o *ondon&
H?# 6t deri(es rom the location o the original -etropolitan 0olice headGuarters at . :hitehall
0lace& which had a rear entrance on a street called 1reat ,cotland Oard# 5he ,cotland Oard entrance
became the public entrance to the police station# B(er time& the street and the -etropolitan 0olice
became synonymous# 5he 8e1 ;or" Times wrote in 1<6. that& Lust as :all ,treet ga(e its name to
the 9ew Oor4 inancial world& ,cotland Oard did the same or police acti(ity in *ondon# 5he
-etropolitan 0olice mo(ed away rom ,cotland Oard in 18<0& and the name F9ew ,cotland OardF
was adopted or the new headGuarters#
The !etro-olit(n 'oli#e
2ommonly 4nown as the F-etF& the -etropolitan 0olice ,er(ice is responsible or law enorcement
within 1reater *ondon& e%cluding the sGuare mile o the 2ity o *ondon& which is co(ered by the
2ity o *ondon 0olice# 5he *ondon Hnderground and national rail networ4 are the responsibility o
the $ritish 5ransport 0olice# 5he -etropolitan 0olice was ormed by )ome ,ecretary ,ir !obert
0eel with the implementation o the -etropolitan 0olice "ct& passed by 0arliament in 182<# 0eel&
with the help o Eug\ne8Fran`ois /idocG& selected the original site at . :hitehall 0lace or the new
police headGuarters# 5he irst two 2ommissioners& 2harles !owan and !ichard -ayne& along with
(arious police oicers and sta& occupied the building# 0re(iously a pri(ate house& . :hitehall
0lace bac4ed onto a street called 1reat ,cotland Oard#

$y 1887& 5he -et headGuarters had e%panded rom . :hitehall 0lace into se(eral neighbouring
32
addresses& including 3& D& 21 and 22 :hitehall 0laceM 8 and < 1reat ,cotland Oard& and se(eral
stables# E(entually& the ser(ice outgrew its original site& and new headGuarters were built on the
/ictoria Emban4ment& o(erloo4ing the !i(er 5hames& south o what is now 4nown as the -inistry
o 'eence )7# 6n 18<0& police headGuarters mo(ed to the new location& which was named 8e1
Scotlan! ;ar!# $y this time& the -etropolitan 0olice had grown rom its initial 1&000 oicers to
about 13&000 and needed more administrati(e sta and a bigger headGuarters# Further increases in
the si>e and responsibilities o the orce reGuired e(en more administrators& and in 1<07 and 1<.0&
9ew ,cotland Oard was e%tended urther# 5his comple% is now grade 6 listed and 4nown as the
9orman ,haw $uildings# 6n 1888& during the construction o 9ew ,cotland Oard& wor4ers
disco(ered the dismembered torso o a emaleM the case& 4nown as the F:hitehall -ysteryF& has
ne(er been sol(ed#
5he original building at . :hitehall 0lace still has a rear entrance on 1reat ,cotland Oard# ,tables
or some o the -etropolitan 0olice -ounted $ranch are still located at 7 1reat ,cotland Oard&
across the street rom the irst headGuarters#
$y the 1<60s the reGuirements o modern technology and urther increases in the si>e o the orce
meant that it had outgrown its /ictoria Emban4ment headGuarters# 6n 1<67 9ew ,cotland Oard
mo(ed to the present building at 10 $roadway& still within :estminster& which was an e%isting
oice bloc4 acGuired under a long8term leaseM the irst 9ew ,cotland Oard is now called the
9orman ,haw (9orth) building& part o which is used as the headGuarters or the -etropolitan
0olice+s 5erritorial 0olicing department#
5he -etropolitan 0olice senior management team& who o(ersee the ser(ice& is based at 9ew
,cotland Oard& along with the -et+s crime database# 5his uses a national 65 system de(eloped or
maLor crime enGuiries by all H? orces& called &ome #ffice Large %a<or En6uiry System& more
commonly reerred to by its acronym& )B*-E, (which recognises the great ictional detecti(e
,herloc4 )olmes)# 5he training program is called FElementaryF& ater )olmes+s well84nown& yet
apocryphal& phrase Felementary& my dear :atsonF# "dministrati(e unctions are based at the
Empress ,tate $uilding& and communication handling at the three -etcall comple%es& rather than at
,cotland Oard#
" number o security measures were added to the e%terior o 9ew ,cotland Oard during the 2000s&
including concrete barriers in ront o ground8le(el windows as a countermeasure against car
bombing& a concrete wall around the entrance to the building& and a co(ered wal4way rom the
street to the entrance into the building# "rmed oicers rom the 'iplomatic 0rotection 1roup patrol
the e%terior o the building along with security sta#
Bn 30 -ay 188.& during the Fenian bombing campaign o 1883 to 188D& an anonymous letter was
sent threatening to bomb ,cotland Oard and all other go(ernment buildings in 2entral *ondon# Bn
the night o 30 -ay an e%plosi(e de(ice was placed on a urinal outside ,cotland Oard& and later
detonated causing se(ere damage to the 26' and ,pecial 6rish $ranch oices# *ater the same night
another bomb e%ploded outside a club in what used to be ,ir :at4in :ynn+s house& and another was
ound placed at 9elson+s 2olumn#
,cotland Oard has become internationally amous as a symbol o policing& and detecti(es rom
,cotland Oard eature in many wor4s o crime iction# 5hey were reGuent allies& and sometimes
antagonists& o ,herloc4 )olmes in ,ir "rthur 2onan 'oyle+s amous stories (or instance& 6nspector
*estrade)# 6t is also reerred to in "round the :orld in Eighty 'ays#
-any no(elists ha(e adopted ictional ,cotland Oard detecti(es as the heroes or heroines o their
stories# ;ohn 2reasey+s stories eaturing 1eorge 1ideon are amongst the earliest police procedurals#
2ommander "dam 'algliesh& created by 0# '# ;ames& and 6nspector !ichard ;ury& created by
-artha 1rimes are notable recent e%amples# " somewhat more improbable e%ample is $aroness
Brc>y+s aristocratic emale ,cotland Oard detecti(e -olly !obertson8?ir4& 4nown as *ady -olly o
,cotland Oard# "gatha 2hristie+s numerous mystery no(els oten reerenced ,cotland Oard& most
notably in her )ercule 0oirot series#
'uring the 1<30s& there was a short8li(ed pulp maga>ine called (ariously Scotlan! ;ar!& Scotlan!
;ar! *etective Stories or Scotlan! ;ar! International *etective& which& despite the name&
33
concentrated more on lurid crime stories set in the Hnited ,tates than anything to do with the
-etropolitan 0olice#
*eslie 2harteris eatures 'etecti(e 6nspector (later '26) 2laud Eustace 5eal o ,cotland Oard in
se(eral o his ,aint no(els& a character who reappeared in (arious dramatic incarnations o the
series& notably on tele(ision by 6(or 'ean# 6n the boo4s 5eal is presented somewhat more
sympathetically than in many o the adaptationsI in the 1<60s tele(ision series he is depicted as
borderline incompetent& always being bested by ,imon 5emplar#
Scotlan! ;ar! was the name o a series o cinema second eatures made between 1<D3 and 1<61#
6ntroduced by Edgar *ustgarten& each episode eatured a dramatised reconstruction o a Ftrue crimeF
story# Filmed at -erton 0ar4 ,tudios& many o the episodes eatured !ussell 9apier as 6nspector
'uggan# 5he series was succeeded by 5he ,cales o ;ustice& which dealt with a similar theme# 6n
the comedy series $atman& the caped crusaders in England meet members o F6reland OardFM clearly
a spoo o ,cotland Oard# ,cotland Oard is briely mentioned in the opening o the second act o the
$roadway musical ;e4yll P )yde in the song entitled F-urder& -urderF& about the catching o a
murderer#
6n the ;ames $ond no(els and short stories by 6an Fleming and others& "ssistant 2ommissioner ,ir
!onald /allance is a recurring ictional character who wor4s or ,cotland Oard# 1ala $rand& who
wor4s or !onnie /allance at ,cotland Oard& is eatured in the 1<DD no(el -oonra4er# ,cotland
Oard was also briely mentioned in the 1<6. 5he $eatles mo(ie &el(=# :hen !ingo reGuires
protection& he and his ellow $eatles head to ,cotland Oard or assistance#
Fabian o the Oard was a tele(ision series ilmed and transmitted by the $$2 between 1<D. and
1<D6& based upon the career o the by then retired 'etecti(e 6nspector !obert Fabian# 6t ocused on
the subLect o orensic science& which at the time was in its inancy# Fabian usually appeared in a
cameo shot towards the end o each episode#
" long running gag to end s4its in -onty 0ython+s Flying 2ircus is a policeman in a tan raincoat
and a edora bursting in& and announcing himsel as so8and8so Fo the OardF#
" s4etch in the $$2 comedy series 9ot the 9ine B+2loc4 9ews showed ,cotland Oard+s rotating
sign being hand8cran4ed by the 2hie 2ommissioner#
The BBC
The British Bro(d#(sting Co)-(n st(rted life in %<$$5 =hen the govern)ent li#ensed the
UC@s siD )(>or r(dio )(nuf(#turers to for) the ne= outfit;
6t had a sta o our& and was inanced by a 0ost Bice licence ee o 10 shillings& payable by
anyone owning a recei(er& and supplemented by royalties on radio sales#
5he irst broadcast came rom *ondon on 1. 9o(ember& and Flistening8inF Guic4ly became a
popular pastime#
;ohn !eith became general manager a month later& and ater the baptism o ire o co(ering the
1<26 1eneral ,tri4e 8 the company was dissol(ed and the $ritish $roadcasting 2orporation ormed
with a royal charter#
!adio listening spread widely during the 1<30s& with people gathering together to listen to national
and sporting e(ents& while the $$2 also became a maLor patron o the arts& commissioning music
and drama#
6t also too4 up home at $roadcasting )ouse in *ondon in 1<32& the same year as the Empire
,er(ice 8 precursor o the :orld ,er(ice& began broadcasting#
T6 #o)es
5he $$2 5ele(ision ,er(ice arri(ed on 2 9o(ember 1<36 8 but was suspended at the outbrea4 o
war in 1<3<#
:artime brought huge challenges or the corporation 8 ha(ing to deal with the go(ernment+s
-inistry o 6normation while inding itsel a target or 1erman bombs#
9ewsreader $ruce $elrage was on air when D00lbs o e%plosi(es hit $roadcasting )ouse in
Bctober 1<.0# )e paused as he heard the bomb go o during his nine o+cloc4 bulletin 8 but
34
continued as normal& as he was not allowed to react on air because o security reasons# ,e(en
people were 4illed#
Entertainment and drama on the )ome ,er(ice 4ept up morale 8 particularly 6t+s 5hat -an "gain&
eaturing comedian 5ommy )andley# -eanwhile& the Empire ,er(ice 8 settling into new
headGuarters at $ush )ouse 8 broadcast to occupied Europe#
0eacetime saw the resumption o the tele(ision ser(ice and a reorganisation o radio 8 which now
boasted the )ome ,er(ice& the *ight 0rogramme and rom 1<.6& the 5hird 0rogramme eatured
music& drama and the arts#
5he Empire ,er(ice continued as the E%ternal ,er(ice& now recei(ing Fgrant8in8aidF rom the
go(ernment& a situation which continues today with the :orld ,er(ice#
Coron(tion ,oost
5ele(ision made steady progress rom its base at "le%andra 0alace& north *ondon 8 broadcasting or
30 hours each wee4 by 1<D0& and D0 by 1<DD# Families rushed to buy sets to watch the 7ueen+s
coronation in 1<D3#
$ut 1<DD saw competition in the orm o 65/ 8 $$2 !adio responding on launch night by 4illing
o 1race "rcher in the i(e8year8old radio drama 5he "rchers#
2ompetition pro(ed diicult 8 as many $$2 sta let to Loin the new 65/ companies 8 but
conidence grew with the beginning o many programmes still amiliar todayI 1randstand& 5he ,4y
"t 9ight and 5his 6s Oour *ie#
5he opening o 5ele(ision 2entre in ,hepherd+s $ush& west *ondon came in 1<60& playing host to
groundbrea4ing satire 5hat :as 5he :ee4 5hat :as two years later#
"ter careul planning& $$2 5wo was launched in 1<6. 8 but a power cut disrupted transmissions
on the irst night#
0opular 5/ dramas li4e 2athy 2ome )ome and Hp 5he ;unction captured the nation+s attention&
while playwrights )arold 0inter and 5om ,toppard were getting their brea4s on radio#
5he success o pirate pop stations prompted the launch o !adio 1 in 1<67& and the re8organisation
o the *ight& 5hird and )ome networ4s into !adios 2& 3 and .# 5he same year saw colour tele(ision
come to $$2 5wo#
!ore #o)-etition
5he 1<70s saw Bpen Hni(ersity programmes come to the $$2& and the end o the 0ost Bice+s
control o broadcasting hours# 5elete%t arri(ed in 1<7. with early 2eea% transmissions 8 subtitling
or the dea 8 coming i(e years later#
5he decade was also a strong one or $$2 programmes& with Fawlty 5owers& 5he 1eneration
1ame& "ntiGues !oadshow& 7uestion 5ime& 5op 1ear and 9ot 5he 9ine B+2loc4 9ews#
-ore competition came in the shape o commercial radio in 1<73& ollowed by 2hannel . tele(ision
in 1<82#
5he Fal4lands :ar saw reporter $rian )anrahan tell audiencesI F6 counted them all out and 6
counted them all bac4 in&F as he watched )arrier Lump Lets return to their aircrat carrier ater a raid#
$ut -argaret 5hatcher+s go(ernment complained the $$2+s reports were biased towards the
"rgentine point o (iew#
5he 1<8. miners+ stri4e saw similar complaints o bias 8 this time rom the let# Further clashes with
politicians too4 place throughout the 1<80s#
-ichael $uer4+s reports rom Ethopia inspired the $and "id and *i(e "id undraising eorts& while
EastEnders was the $$2+s answer to 2oronation ,treet#
5he 1<<0s saw urther change& as new director8general ;ohn $irt reorganised much o the $$2+s
internal wor4ings& amid tremendous contro(ersy#
ED-(nsion
5he $$2 e%panded with new channels 8 :orld ,er(ice radio being complemented by a $$2 :orld
tele(ision ser(ice& and satellite channel H? 1old helped it e%ploit its (aluable archi(es#
35
" new !adio D was launched in 1<<0& becoming news and sport networ4 !adio D *i(e in 1<<.#
5he late 1<<0s saw the $$2 in(est in new internet ser(ices 8 such as $$2 9ews Bnline 8 and
prepare or the launch o digital tele(ision by introducing new channels#
9ow& under 1reg 'y4e& it has launched new childrens+ 5/ ser(ices 2$eebies and 2$$2& a cultural
networ4& $$2 Four& as well as a collection o digital radio ser(ices#
6ndeed& -r 'y4e+s appointment was conirmed by $$2 chairman ,ir 2hristopher $land in a $$2
Bnline chat orum 8 demonstrating Lust how wide the $$2 now considers its remit to be#
The Histor of the .orld Servi#e
$$2Rs :oirld ,er(ice has been or decades a source o reliable inormation or generations o
people all o(er the world& especially or those who ha(e diiculty in accessing other sources o
news or li(e in countries where the press is not ree# $$2 :orld ,er(ice is particularly important at
times o war& when the ighting parties oten suppress ree inormation in their own territory# 6n
:orld :ar 66& the $$2 was one o the most important sources o news or people in the occupied
parts o Europe and ,outheast "sia# ,imilarly& during the 2old :ar $$2 supplied inormation or
the peoples behind the =6ron 2urtain= in their own nati(e languages# :hen the 2old :ar was o(er&
the studios broadcasting in the national languages o 2entral and Eastern Europe closed down# 5he
last )ungarian editor& $Cla 'aL4a& also returned to )ungary& and brought a lot o (aluable
documents and recordings or researchers to study#
O-ening d(
5he $$2+s Empire ,er(ice launched in 'ecember 1<32& helped by new short8wa(e radio
technology that allowed signals to be broadcast o(er (ast distances# 'espite gloomy predictions
rom the $$2+s director8general ;ohn !eith F5he programmes will neither be (ery interesting nor
(ery goodF& the broadcasts rom $roadcasting )ouse in *ondon recei(ed praise# !eith had to
deli(er a 128minute address li(e i(e times on opening day o(er 1D8and8a8hal hours to reach time
>ones in "ustralia& 6ndia& ,outh "rica& :est "rica and 2anada#
Cing +eorge 6 (ddresses the E)-ire
,i% days ater the opening o the Empire ,er(ice& a broadcasting tradition was bornI the !oyal
2hristmas message# 5he address was deli(ered by ?ing 1eorge / li(e rom the !oyal amily+s
9orol4 retreat in ,andringham# 5he words were written by the poet and author& !udyard ?ipling&
and beganI F6 spea4 now rom my home and rom my heart to you all#F $$2 director general ;ohn
!eith wrote in his diaryI F6t was the most spectacular success in $$2 history so ar# 5he ?ing had
been heard all o(er the world with surprising clarity#F
Ch(rles de +(ulle ,ro(d#(sts to o##u-ied Fr(n#e
5he French go(ernment surrendered to 9a>i 1ermany in ;une 1<.0# 5he leader o the +Free French+&
1eneral 2harles 'e 1aulle& broadcast to France& rom studio $2 at $roadcasting )ouse# ,ta were
told that an unnamed 1eneral would arri(e# 5he speech was not recorded and had to be repeated&
much to the annoyance o the 1eneral# )e carried on broadcasting or i(e minutes a night& e(ery
night& or our years# " member o the $$2+s French ,er(ice recalled laterI F6 do not remember e(er
hearing him lu# )e was courteous and always ound time to than4 the recording engineer ater he
had inished#F
The Overse(s Servi#e
:orld :ar 66 brought a change o name or the Empire ,er(ice 8 it became the B(erseas ,er(ice in
9o(ember 1<3< along with a big e%pansion in o(erseas output including broadcasts in "rabic&
,panish or *atin "merica& 1erman& 6talian& French& "ri4aans& ,panish or Europe and 0ortuguese
or Europe# $y the end o 1<.0& the $$2 was broadcasting in 3. languages# Each day 78 news
36
bulletins were broadcast& amounting to 2D0&000 words# Bther new ser(ices included 6celandic&
"lbanian& )indi& $urmese and the dialect spo4en in *u%embourg#
.(r of =ords
"lthough dispersed physically $$2 oices could be ound in $roadcasting )ouse& B%ord ,treet
and ,enate )ouse 8 the spirit o the newly8named B(erseas ,er(ice was strengthened as the $ritish
go(ernment realised the importance o broadcasting# $y 1<.1 there were more than 1.00 sta# 5hat
year the -ember o 0arliament or 'erby& 0hilip 9oel8$a4er& in a debate at the )ouse o 2ommons
saidI F6 do not thin4 the -inister will disagree when 6 say that o all the means he has o reaching
the people inside Europe& broadcasting is by ar the best#F
The ,irth of Bush
,pace or the B(erseas ,er(ice at $roadcasting )ouse was becoming limited# :hen a 1erman
landmine e%ploded outside $roadcasting )ouse in 'ecember 1<.0& it caused a ire that lasted
se(eral hours and the building was badly damaged# 5he European ser(ices mo(ed hastily to -aida
/ale in north8west *ondon where they broadcast rom a disused s4ating rin4# 6n 1<.1 they mo(ed
again to $ush )ouse& an imposing building at one end o Fleet ,treet then the heart o the $ritish
newspaper industry 8 or a wee4ly rent o U30#
@6@ for vi#tor
6n ;anuary& 1<.1& the director o the $elgian French ,er(ice& /ictor de *a(eleye& encouraged
$elgian listeners to use a E/ or /ictoryR sign as gesture o deiance against the occupying orces#
,oon +/s+ are seen chal4ed up on walls in $elgium& the 9etherlands and France# 5he morse code or
+/+ is broadcast as a call sign in all $$2 European ser(ices (rhythmically similar to the opening o
$eetho(anRs Fith ,ymphony)# *ater that year& 2hurchill uses the sign in his +/ or /ictory+ speech
o 1< ;uly& 1<.1& or the irst time#
Hel-ing the resist(n#e
"s resistance ighters in Europe tried to stri4e bac4 against their occupiers& the $$2+s European
,er(ices broadcast secret messages to them# 5he messages were amously bi>arreI F*e lapin a bu un
apCritiF (5he rabbit dran4 an aperiti)& or F-ademoiselle caresse le ne> de son chienF
((-ademoiselle stro4es her dog+s nose)# 5hese words would tell the resistance ighters i an
operation was to go ahead& or cancelledM or i people or documents had arri(ed saely#

+eorge Or=ell
From 1<.1 to 1<.3& 1eorge Brwell wor4ed as a 5al4s 0roducer or the Eastern ,er(ice# )e did not
enLoy the wor4# F$y some time in 1<..F he wrote& F6 might be near8human again& and able to write
something serious# "t present 6+m Lust an orange that+s been trodden on& by a (ery dirty boot#F $ut
his time at the $$2 helped him orm his (ision o the -inistry o 5ruth in his no(el 1<8.# 5he
-inistry+s canteen& described as +low ceilinged deep underground+ is said to be based on the one at
$ush )ouse#
Bro(d#(sting for the E(stern Blo#"
"ter :orld :ar 66& relationships with ,talin+s regime began to decline& and an +6ron 2urtain+
descended across Europe# 6n February 1<.6& the $ritish Foreign Bice ormally as4ed the $$2 to
begin a !ussian ,er(ice and a month later it went on air# "t irst !ussian listeners were able to listen
reely to the transmissions& but as the 2old :ar de(eloped& the ?remlin began crac4ing down#
5ransmissions were regularly Lammed by the 2ommunist bloc and in response& the :orld ,er(ice
increased transmitter power#
The SueE Crisis
37
'uring the reporting o the ,ue> 2risis in 1<D6& the $ritish 0rime -inister "nthony Eden belie(ed
the "rabic ser(ice should broadcast reports in a(our o $ritish troops# 5he ser(ice remained
impartial with the support o director8general 6an ;acob& e(en though the Foreign Bice was told
that ministers planned to cut the $$2+s grant by a million pounds# B(er the ollowing wee4s& under
regular attac4s rom the Foreign Bice and 2onser(ati(e -0s& the $$2 stuc4 to its principle and
did not broadcast one story to $ritain and a dierent one to the rest o the world#
The Hung(ri(n U-rising
"ter the ,o(iet "rmy put down the )ungarian uprising in 1<D6& the $$2+s )ungarian ,er(ice
broadcast personal messages rom reugees that had let )ungary or $ritain# 5he reugees used
code names to ensure the )ungarian authorities would not be able to identiy their amilies# :hile
some :estern stations might ha(e hinted that help was on the way& the $$2 was more bluntI the
:est would gi(e only moral& not military& support#
6(#l(v H(vel
5he problems o reporting rom behind the 6ron 2urtain during the 2old :ar are illustrated by the
treatment o /acla( )a(el& the 2>ech playwright who became his country+s president ater ,o(iet
rule# 6n an eort to silence him& the authorities banned him rom ha(ing a telephone# )e was also
watched by the secret police# $ut the $$2+s 2>ech ,er(ice managed to get round the restrictions by
phoning his local post oice to arrange inter(iews# )a(el would ring rom the post oice at the
appointed time#
BBC (s ( le(rning resour#e
$$2 has an immense data base or learning purposes& assisting learners o English& students and
researchers wishing to ind out about a wide range o things& history& art& music& etc# /isitors o
$$$ online will ind portal lin4ing websites or teachers and learners o English as a Foreign
*anguage and pro(iding un language practice through themes and s4ill based English language
acti(ities& as well as ree online resources supporting learners interested in how to learn EnglishI
classic literature& drama and poetry plus detailed literature study guides& reerence boo4s&
dictionaries& biographies and religious te%ts# Bther subLects where $$2 oers inormation include
"rt and 'esign& $asic ,4ills $uilding ,4ills $usiness ,tudies& cars& childrenRs learning&
En(ironmental studies& ood and catering& gardening& health and nursing& history& homes&
inormation technology& languages& legal and consumer issues& maths& media studies& music&
perorming arts& personal de(elopment& religious studies& science& and sports and itness#
!org(n(ti# =eddings (nd (,di#ition
Ed=(rd 6IIIB A,di#(tor "ing @,e)used , love@
5he 7ueen -other thought Edward /666 was Fbemused with lo(eF and Fcouldn+t be reasoned withF
at the time o his abdication& a biography says#
5he boo4 throws light on the 1<36 abdication crisis& when Edward ga(e up the throne in order to
marry "merican di(orcee :allis ,impson#
5he oicial biography Guotes rom a pre(iously unseen 1<<0s inter(iew#
FOou couldn+t reason with him& nobody could# 5he whole go(ernment tried& e(erybody tried&F she
said#
F5he only good thing is& 6 thin4 he was Guite happy with her#F
@Terri,le tr(ged@
,pea4ing to then Eton headmaster Eric "nderson& she saidI F6t was a terrible surprise to e(erybody
when he decided that he had to lea(e#
38
F6t was the whole 2ommonwealth who said no no& we don+t want you to marry this lady#
F"nd it was Lust a terrible tragedy& it really was#F
,he addedI F6 wonder# 6 don+t thin4 he e(er wanted to be 4ing# 6 don+t thin4 he thought o it as
something he ought to do# /ery odd#F
5he 1&0008page biography& by :illiam ,hawcross& also ta4es e%tracts rom a letter the 'u4e o Oor4
8 later 1eorge /6 8 wrote to his mother& 7ueen -ary& re(ealing his ears#
F6t has been awul or all o us& but much more so or you& when 'a(id (the 4ing) has been trained
or the great position he holds and now wants to chuc4 away&F he said#
F6 am eeling (ery o(erwrought as to what may beall me& but with your help 6 4now 6 shall be able
to carry on###F
Edward /666 had proposed a solution to the problem 8 a morganatic marriage where his wie would
not become Gueen but ta4e a lesser title#
5he 7ueen -other did not regard this as the answer#
6n a letter to her sister -ay& she wroteI F6 eel so sad& and yet there is only a (ery straightorward
case 8 i -rs ,impson is not it to be 7ueen& she is not it to be the ?ing+s morganatic wie#F
5he boo4 also re(eals that the 7ueen -other hated the oicial title 8 7ueen Eli>abeth& the 7ueen
-other 8 that she adopted ollowing the death o her husband 1eorge /6 in 1<D2#
6n correspondence with her daughter 7ueen Eli>abeth& she described it as a Fhorrible nameF#
'rin#e Ch(rles (nd C()ill( '(r"er Bo=les
5he wedding o 2harles& 0rince o :ales& and 2amilla 0ar4er $owles too4 place in a ci(il
ceremony at :indsor 1uildhall& on < "pril 200D# 5he ceremony& conducted in the presence o the
couples+ amilies& was ollowed by a 2hurch o England ser(ice o blessing at ,t 1eorge+s 2hapel#
5he groom+s parents& 7ueen Eli>abeth 66 and 0rince 0hilip& 'u4e o Edinburgh& did not attend the
ci(il wedding ceremony but were present at the ser(ice o blessing and held a reception or the
couple in :indsor 2astle aterwards#
5he marriage culminated the contro(ersial romantic relationship between 0rince 2harles and
2amilla 0ar4er $owles& who has since been styled& &R& 5he 'uchess o 2ornwall# 2harles& D6&
and 2amilla& D7& were both married once beore their union& raising memories o the Edward /666
abdication crisis o 1<36& which was spar4ed by the then84ing+s desire to marry a di(orcee# 5he
proceedings o the ,er(ice o 0rayer and 'edication were co(ered by the $$2 networ4# 9otable
igures in attendance included international political& religious& and royal igures& and (arious
celebrities#
Bn 10 February 200D& it was announced that 2amilla 0ar4er $owles and the 0rince o :ales would
marry on 8 "pril 200D& at :indsor 2astle with a ci(il ser(ice ollowed by religious prayer# -rs
0ar4er $owles+ engagement ring is a :indsor amily heirloom that belonged to the 7ueen
Eli>abeth& the 7ueen -other# :ith a 1<20s platinum setting& it is composed o a sGuare8cut central
diamond lan4ed by si% diamond baguettes# "ter the engagement announcement& the couple were
congratulated by 7ueen Eli>abeth 66 and her husband& the 'u4e o Edinburgh& indicating that
consent had been granted under the !oyal -arriages "ct 1772# 5he "rchbishop o 2anterbury& 'r
!owan :illiamsM the 0rime -inister& 5ony $lairM the *eader o the Bpposition& -ichael )owardM
the *eader o the *iberal 'emocrats& 2harles ?ennedyM the *eader o the )ouse o 2ommons& 0eter
)ainM and the 0rime -inisters o the other 2ommonwealth !ealms also added their congratulations#
?uestioning ( ro(l #ivil =edding
5he 0rince was the irst member o the royal amily to marry in a ci(il ceremony in England# 'r#
,tephen 2hetney& a Fellow at "ll ,ouls 2ollege& B%ord Guestioned whether 2harles and 2amilla
could marry in a ci(il ceremony& as the !oyal Family was speciically e%cluded rom the law which
instituted ci(il marriages in England (-arriage "ct 1836)# Bn 1. February the $$2+s Panorama
unco(ered documents o oicial legislati(e research ad(ice dating rom 1<D6 and 1<6.& which
39
stated that it was not lawul or members o the royal amily to marry in a ci(il ceremony in
England and :ales& though it would be lawul in ,cotland# 5hese documents+ statements were
dismissed by 2larence )ouse on the ad(ice o our unnamed legal e%perts# 5hese e%perts+ (iews that
the 1836 "ct had been repealed by the -arriage "ct 1<.< were upheld by the $ritish 1o(ernment#
"cting through *ord Falconer o 5horoton& ,ecretary o ,tate or 2onstitutional "airs and *ord
2hancellor& the sitting go(ernment issued a written statement published by the )ouse o *ords in
their debate recordI
5uote from >Royal %arriage>. Lor!s &ansar!. ?@ Fe ?AABI F5he 1o(ernment are satisied that it is
lawul or the 0rince o :ales and -rs 0ar4er $owles& li4e anyone else& to marry by a ci(il ceremony in
accordance with 0art 666 o the -arriage "ct 1<.<# a 2i(il marriages were introduced in England& by the
-arriage "ct 1836# ,ection .D said that the "ct F### shall not e%tend to the marriage o any o the !oyal
FamilyF# a $ut the pro(isions on ci(il marriage in the 1836 "ct were repealed by the -arriage "ct
1<.<# "ll remaining parts o the 1836 "ct& including ,ection .D& were repealed by the !egistration
,er(ice "ct 1<D3# 9o part o the 1836 "ct thereore remains on the statute boo4# a### :e are aware that
dierent (iews ha(e been ta4en in the pastM but we consider that these were o(ercautious& and we are
clear that the interpretation 6 ha(e set out in this ,tatement is correct# :e also note that the )uman
!ights "ct has since 2000 reGuired legislation to be interpreted where(er possible in a way that is
compatible with the right to marry ("rticle 12) and with the right to enLoy that right without
discrimination ("rticle 1.)# 5his& in our (iew& puts the modern meaning o the 1<.< "ct beyond doubt#F
Ele(en obLections were recei(ed by the 2irencester and 2hippenham register oices but were all
reLected by the !egistrar 1eneral (and 9ational ,tatistician) *en 2oo4 who determined that a ci(il
marriage would in act be (alid& the )uman !ights "ct 1<<8 apparently superseding any pre(iously
enacted legislation barring members o the royal amily rom ci(il marriages# 5here were calls or a
short piece o legislation to remo(e all doubt& but no legislation was in act introduced# 6n act the
matter was ne(er seriously in issue& howe(er& as it is a truism o English law that a statute is (ro
tanto repealed by a subseGuent statute to the e%tent o any inconsistency& whether or not the prior
inconsistent statute is e%pressly repealed or that or any purpose# (5o what e%tent such an
inconsistency e%ists howe(er was itsel a point o contention#)
Bn 17 February& 2larence )ouse announced the marriage+s change o (enue rom :indsor 2astle to
the :indsor 1uildhall& immediately outside the walls o the castle# 5his substitution came about
when it was disco(ered that the legal reGuirements or licensing the royal castle or ci(il weddings
would reGuire opening it up to other prospecti(e couples or at least three years# Bn 22 February&
$uc4ingham 0alace announced that the 7ueen would not attend the wedding ceremony& but would
attend the church blessing and host the reception aterwards# 5he reason stated by the palace was
the couple wanted to 4eep the occasion low 4ey# Bn . "pril& it was announced that the wedding
would be postponed 2. hours until < "pril& so that the 0rince o :ales could attend the uneral o
0ope ;ohn 0aul 66 as the representati(e o the 7ueen# 5he postponement also allowed some o the
dignitaries that were in(ited to the uneral to attend the wedding# 6n 4eeping with tradition& the
0rince o :ales spent the night apart rom his bride8to8be at )ighgro(e )ouse& his country mansion
in 1loucestershire& with his sons 0rinces :illiam and )arry#
5he wedding too4 place at the :indsor 1uildhall at 12#30 pm on < "pril 200D# 2rowds had
gathered on the streets since dawn ahead o the ser(ice# " ci(il ceremony was planned because o
contro(ersy within the 2hurch o England regarding the remarriage o di(orcees (see& or e%ample&
Edward /666 abdication crisis)# 6t should be noted that there would ha(e been no impediment to
2harles re8marrying in the 2hurch o England to a non8di(orcee since his e%8wie+s death bac4 in
1<<7 had made him a widower according to 2hurch law# 5he problem was that his bride+s e%8
husband was still ali(e#
5he ceremony was attended by all the senior royals apart rom the 7ueen and 0rince 0hilip& 'u4e
o Edinburgh# :hen 0rincess "nne married 5imothy *aurence ater ha(ing di(orced -ar4 0hillips&
she chose to do so in the 2hurch o ,cotland# !emarriage o di(orcees is less contro(ersial in the
40
2hurch o ,cotland& and the so(ereign has no constitutional role in the go(ernance o the 2hurch#
5he 0rince o :ales and his bride did not elect this course o action#
5he arri(al o the !oyal guests in a locally8hired mini8bus& was uprecendented# "ter the wedding&
the couple+s witnesses were 0rince :illiam o :ales and the bride+s son& 5om 0ar4er $owles# 6n
4eeping with tradition& the couple+s wedding rings are crated rom 22 carat :elsh gold rom the
2logau ,t 'a(id+s mine in $ontddu# 5he tradition o using 2logau 1old within the wedding rings o
5he !oyal Family dates bac4 to 1<23# 5he design o the wedding rings is by :arts4i& a *ondon
Leweller that has held the !oyal :arrant to 5he 0rince o :ales since 1<7<# 5he 0rince wears his on
the small inger o his let hand# For the wedding& the duchess wore a cream8coloured dress and coat
with a wide8brimmed cream8coloured hat# For the blessing aterward& she wore a loor8length
embroidered pale blue and gold coat o(er a matching chion gown and a dramatic spray o golden
eathers in her hair# $oth ensembles were by "ntonia !obinson and "nna /alentine& *ondon
designers who wor4 under the name Roinson )alentineM both hats were made by the 6rish milliner
0hilip 5reacy#
5he wedding was ollowed by a tele(ised blessing at ,t 1eorge+s 2hapel at :indsor 2astle& led by
5he "rchbishop o 2anterbury#
5he wedding ca4e was made by -rs $lunden& owner o the F,ophistica4eF ca4e shop in :oodhall
,pa& *incolnshire# 6n "pril 200D a hotelier paid U21D in an internet auction or a slice o ca4e#
-anuacturers o pottery and other commemorati(e items aced a late rush to change the dates on
their products ater the delayed wedding date became 4nown# )owe(er& sales o those with the
incorrect date soared when people began to thin4 that they would become collectors items# For the
wedding day& the theme par4 "lton 5owers changed the name o their rollercoaster F!itaI 7ueen o
,peedF to F2amillaI 7ueen o ,peedF# 5ele(ision commercials and signs around the par4 were all
updated to relect this change#
5he $$2 gained the rights to broadcast the e(ent where there was li(e co(erage o the ,er(ice o
0rayer and 'edication rom ,t 1eorge+s 2hapel# Bn $$2 Bne )uw Edwards and ,ophie !aworth
presented the li(e co(erage o the e(ent and ashion ad(isors 5rinny :oodall and ,usannah
2onstantine contributed as the contemporary social commentators# 5he $$2 had around thirty
cameras at the e(ent and shared ootage with broadcasters throughout the world# $$2 9ews 2. also
had co(erage during the day with ;ane )ill and ,imon -c2oy reporting li(e rom :indsor#
.h(t the -(-ers s(
*ourn(list Fionol( !eredith t("es ( loo" (t =h(t is )("ing the he(dlines in Tuesd(@s
)orning ne=s-(-ers;
5he hate mail sent to the -c2artney sisters tops the Irish Inde-endent on 5ueday#
5he letter threatened the sisters with the same ate as their murdered brother !obert#
5he Irish Ti)es pictures 0aula -c2artney holding up the Fbadly spelt& childishly scrawledF letter&
which was opened on -onday ater the amily returned rom the Hnited ,tates#
@Irish unit@
D(il Irel(nd reports that the 6rish go(ernment has ruled out producing a green paper on 6rish
unity#
6rish -inister or Foreign "airs 'ermot "hern& who attended the 9ewry launch o the ,'*0+s
policy document on a united 6reland& said it was out o the Guestion#
,pea4ing to the paper& -r "hern said a green paper would be a Fred herringF& a distraction rom
getting the institutions o the 1ood Friday "greement up and running again#
5he same story tops the Ne=s Letter and the Irish Ne=s 8 proposals or the biggest e(er sha4e8up
in 9orthern 6reland+s notoriously top8hea(y administration system#
41
5he Irish Ne=s says the plans would change the ace o local go(ernment& slashing the number o
health and education bodies# )undreds o Lobs would be lost#
5he Ne=s Letter reports that it could ree up as much as U1D0 million or the deli(ery o Frontline
ser(icesF#
@BBC >o, #uts@
"nother new paper on the stands on 5uesday is the Belf(st Telegr(-h@s compact morning edition#
6t leads with a report on the sta cuts at the $$2& ater it was announced that nearly 100 Lobs are to
go as part o a H? cost8cutting dri(e#
5he paper+s editorial blows its own trumpet& claiming to bring a paper with an uneGualled record o
appealing across the community to the Fbrea4ast mar4etplaceF#
@?ueen C()ill(@
:ill sheA won+t sheA 5he messy legal tangling o(er whether -rs 0ar4er8$owles will become 7ueen
ater her marriage to 0rince 2harles ne%t month has been apparently resol(ed#
" chorus o headlines in the cross8channel papers announce that F7ueen 2amilla it isF#
5he +u(rdi(n reports go(ernment ministers+ oicial (iew that the marriage won+t be morganatic 8 a
union where the partner o the so(ereign does not ha(e royal status#
5he !irror says that only new laws in the H? and in 16 other countries where the $ritish monarch
is head o state would stop it happening#
5he ED-ress is ar rom pleased# 6n a leader& it claims that 0rince 2harles is going to create the most
unpopular monarchy since the early 1<th century#
Finally& the Ti)es reports that hamsters ha(e burrowed their way into the nation+s shopping bas4ets&
ta4ing their place or the irst time in an oicial list o widely bought products#
42