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Urban Public Transport

in Cambodia






A Presentation by Iv LIM (Dr. Eng.)
Deputy Director General, General Department of Land Management and Urban Planning,
Ministry of Land Management, Urban Planning and Construction of Cambodia


Malang, Aug. 5, 2014
Seminar on Urban Public Transport Performance in Asian Countries

Contents:

1.Urban Public Transport
2.City Bus Service
3.Problems and Solutions of Urban Public Transport

in Cambodia
Location of CAMBODIA







Population (2013 est.): 15.2 m
Land Area: 181, 035 km
2

Density: 84 person/km
2

Capital: Phnom Penh (1.5 m)

Neighboring Population:
Vietnam: 90.8 m
Thailand: 66.8 m
Lao PDR: 6.6 m
I ndonesia: 247.0 m
(Source: UNdata, 2012)
Background: Political and Economic Development






Over 30 years of civil war, with six distinct periods of political regimes since
independence from France in 1953, the countrys social and economic
infrastructure could not be properly developed and modernized, but in contrast
they were devastated and lay in ruins.
During the communist Khmer Rouge regime, most of the competitive and
excellent human resources are destroyed. Consequently, Cambodia today lacks
of skilled human capital in both public and private sector necessary for the
efficient functioning and development of the nation.
1953-1970: Kingdom of Cambodia
1970-1975: Khmer Republic
1975-1979: Democratic Kampuchea
1979-1989: Peoples Republic of Kampuchea
1989-1991: State of Cambodia
1991-1993: Cambodia (under UNTAC)
1993-Today: Kingdom of Cambodia
Background: Political and Economic Development (cont.)
Over the last two decades after the general election in 1993, along
with the effort to restore peace and social order, the Royal
Government of Cambodia has focused on the rehabilitation and
reconstruction of basic infrastructure (roads, water, and electricity,
etc.) for economic development and poverty reduction.
Since then with the inflows of FDI and ODA, Cambodia can
experienced an average growth rate of 7.7% from 1994 to 2011. GDP
per capita increased from $251 in 1993 to $1,008 in 2013. The
proportion of poor people has been reduced from 47% in 1992 to
20.5% in 2011, and will be further reduced to 19% by 2015.
The length of paved roads doubled between 2005 and 2010. One
thousand kilometers of road were constructed between 2009 and 2011.
Real GDP Growth in Cambodia












GDP growth averaged at 7.7% per annum between 1994 and 2011.
(Source: Ministry of Economy and Finance of Cambodia)
0%
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GDP per Capita (current US$)












GDP per capita is rapidly increasing since 1993 but is still low.
(Source: The World Bank)
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Thailand
Indonesia
Vietnam
Cambodia
National Road Rehabilitation with Foreign Aid


1. Urban Public Transport
With rapid motorization and urbanization, major cities in Cambodia
especially the capital city are now facing serious problems with traffic
congestion and traffic accident.

In Phnom Penh from 2000 to 2012, the number of registered vehicles
increased 3.7 times, the traffic volume along the major roads
increased about 1.7 times. The average peak-hour speeds on the
arterial roads have reduced to less than 10 km/h in the central areas.
The traffic accidents caused major impacts to both socio economy and
welfare of Cambodia. Economic cost of road traffic accidents is
estimated to be about 3.5% of the Cambodian GDP.
Evolution of road fatalities, population and vehicles
2005 2011 (base 100 = 2005)














(Source: RCVIS)
The number of fatalities increase from year to year.
Nearly 90% of road traffic victims are motorcyclists, pedestrians and cyclists.
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Population Registerred vehicls Fatalities
1. Urban Public Transport (cont)
There is no common (/formal) urban public transport modes in the
major cities of Cambodia, except for Phnom Penh which just
introduced the city bus service in Feb 2014.
The intercity bus operated by the private sector is well developed
(except for the bus terminal) and competitive.

A large number of private and para-transit modes are used. Para-transit
modes are used as public transport modes.

Motorcycle taxi is the most common and fasted form of public
transport. It can be found virtually everywhere in town.

The introduction of affordable and sustainable public transport is
essential for many core cities such as Phnom Penh and Siemreap.

Para-Transit and Public Transport in Phnom Penh

Cyclo Motodop ( Motorcycle taxi)
Moto-remorque
-Taxi-meter
- Single Unit Truck (at factory streets)
- City Bus Service (from Feb 2014)



2. City Bus Service
Under the Project for Comprehensive Urban Transport Plan in Phnom
Penh, on Feb 5, 2014, Phnom Penh City Hall and JICA had launched
the one month/one line city bus operation along a major central road
as the public experiment.

The service will be extended to more lines in the future. Phnom Penh
citizens now can enjoy this kind of formal public transport and can
compare with the existing para-transit modes.

Most news printed that Phnom Penh residents are really interesting
and strongly support the public transportation plan, and they hope that
the project will be successful execution, that would reduce traffic jams
and traffic accident in the city.
2. City Bus Service (cont)
Outline of the City Bus Operation:
Operating hours: 5:30 20:30
Operating interval: every 10 minutes for peak hour and 15 minutes for
others.
Number of bus stop: 36
Bus fleet: 10 buses (35 passenger capacity, one-door and air-
conditioned)
Bus fare: flat fare of 1,500 Riels (0.37 USD)
Bus route (see Figure)

Bus
A Bus Stop Bus Route and Bus Stops

Results of the Public Experiments of City Bus
More than 40,000 people had taken the bus in 4 weeks and bus
capacity averaged between 60 and 70 percent.

User feedback was overwhelmingly positive. More than 90% of bus
passenger highly appreciated the city bus service.

Many young passengers use the city bus because it is environment-
friendly. This is an indication that young generations are aware of
environmental issues. (opinions results, Phnom Penh City Hall)

Monthly bus passenger
Feb: 43,278 Apr: 27,264
May: 35,699 Jun: 36,717
3. Problems and Solutions
Currently, this bus service faces many challenges:
Narrow street and congested networks
Disordered and mixed traffic flow
Unpredictable waiting times
On-street (and on-sidewalk) parking
Lack of facilities at bus stops
Lack of accessible sidewalk facilities to bus stops
Long tradition of on-street/on-sidewalk parking
Long tradition of not like to walk
Lack of traffic management
Poor environmental condition for walking and waiting: hot, dusty, etc.
Strong competition with para-transit (route and time flexible, demand
responsive, door-to-door)
3. Problems and Solutions (cont)
Insufficient financial resources: Cambodia needs more than an
estimated US$13 billion in infrastructure works by 2020 (1.2 billion
per year, half for new projects and half for maintenance).
Lack of policy and legal framework
Lack of integrated and sustainable planning for transportation system
Lack of maintenance: during the rainy season road conditions
deteriorate considerably.
Poor management and lack of management techniques
Lack of human capital and research institutions
3. Problems and Solutions (cont)
Solutions:
Countermeasures for bus service should be:
1.Demand side management measures
Management of private vehicle demand: congestion charging, parking
fee, etc.
Management of para-transit modes with the enforcement of green
policy for green growth: moto-remorque should be banned, etc.

2.Supply side management measures (efficient bus service)
Bus priority lane and integrated facilities (facilities for efficient non-
motorized transport)
Exclusive bus lane (in the long-term can be convert into a higher
system)
3. Problems and Solutions (cont)
Science, technology and innovation

Strong political will and commitment

Participation