VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
REVITALISATION PROJECTPHASE II
YEAR 2 SE MESTER 2
THEORY/PRACTICAL
Version 1: December 2008
NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
ENGINERING SURVEYING I
COURSE CODE: SUG 208
CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
ENGINEERING SURVEYING I (SUG 208)
THEORETICAL COURSE INDEX.
WEEK 1. 1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION....1
1.2 TYPES OF LAND SURVEY 1
WEEK 2.
2.1 SCALE...5
2.2 PREFERED SCALES 5
2.3 ACCURACY AND PRECISION7
2.4 ERRORS IN SURVEYING.8
WEEK 3. 3.1 GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF ROUTES.10
3.2 CURVES......10
3.3 CIRCULAR CURVES11
3.4 SETTING OUT HORIZONTAL CURVES..12
WEEK 4. 4.1 WORKED NUMERICAL EXAMPLE....16
WEEK 5. 5.1 COMPOUND CURVE..22
5.2 LOCATION OF THE INTERSECTION
AND TANGENT POINTS IN THE FIELD..26
WEEK 6. 6.1 LOCATION OF THE TANGENT
POINTS WHEN THE INTERSECTION
POINT IS INACCESSIBLE ...28
6.2 OBSTRUCTION IN THE LINE OF SIGHT..29
WEEK 7. 7.1 SETTING OUT.. 30
7.2 AIMS OF SETTING OUT 30
7.3 STAGES IN SETTING OUT ..31
WEEK 8. 8.1 EQUIPMENT FOR SETTING OUT
BUILDI33
WEEK 9. 9.1 SETTING OUT OF ABUILDING ..38
WEEK 10. 10.1 EARTH WORK QANTITIES....41
10.2 AREAS ENCLOSED BY STRAIGHT
LINES42
10.3 COMPUTATION OF AREAS
FROM PLOTTED PLAN 45
WEEK 11. 11.1 AREAS ENCLOSED BY IRREGULAR
LINE...46
WEEK 12. 12.1 THE PLANIMETER..50
12.2 MECHANICAL PLANIMETER50
WEEK 13. 13.1 VOLUME CALCULATIONS ...52
13.2 ESTIMATION OF VOLUMES
FROM CONTOUR LINES..52
13.3 THE END AREA FORMULA..53
WEEK 14. 14.1 PRISMODAL FORMULA.55
14.2 ESTIMATION OF VOLUMES FROM
SPOT LEVELS..55
WEEK 15. 15.1 WORKED EXAMPLES...58
15.2 ESTIMATION OF VOLUMES FROM
CROSS  SECTION....60
WEEK 1.
INTRODUCTION
Survey is the process of examining and recording data i.e. taking measurements of
lengths, height differences and angles on site for either the preparation of maps, large
scale plans or in order that engineering works can be located in their correct positions on
the ground. This process is termed engineering surveying and falls under the general title
of land surveying.
Basically, land surveying involves measuring land and its physical features accurately
and records of these presented in the form of a map or plan. Such information is used by
commerce and industry for planning new buildings and by local authorities in managing
facilities. Maps that are used to locate features and/or places are made possible by the
information gathered by land surveyors. Land surveying also undertakes the accurate
positioning and monitoring of Civil Engineering Construction Works on Sites.
TYPES OF LAND SURVEYING.
Land surveying can be broken down into the following sub sections:
Geodetic survey:
This covers such large areas that the curved shape of the earth is taken into consideration
on area greater than 250km
2
.
Topographical survey: This establishes the positions and shapes of natural and artificial
features found on a given area. Usually, for the purpose of producing a map of that area
or for establishing a geographic information system.
Hydrographic survey:
This sub section of land surveying is concerned with gathering information in the
marine environment and mapping coast lines and sea bed in order to produce navigation
charts. It is also found useful in offshore oil exploration and production. Hydrographic
surveys are also used in the design, construction and maintenance of harbours in land
water routes, river and sea defences, in control of pollution and in scientific studies of the
ocean.
Cadastral survey: This establishes and records the boundaries and ownership of land and
property. Cadastral surveys are based on the topographical detail appearing on ordnance
survey maps. This work is mainly limited to overseas countries where National Land
Registry Systems are under development.
Photogrammentry:
This land survey is basically topographic surveys taken by the aid of photographs using
special cameras mounted in an air craft viewed in pairs, the photographs produce three
dimensional images of ground features from which maps or numerical data can be
produced, usually with the aid of stereo plotting machines and computers. Close range
photogrammetry uses photographs taken with cameras on the ground and is used in many
applications.
Engineering surveying:
This deals with any survey wok carried out in connection with the construction of Civil
Engineering and building projects. Engineers and surveyors involved in surveying site are
responsible for all aspects of dimensional control on such schemes. The main purposes of
engineering surveying are for design reasons, construction and monitoring of structures
e.g. Dam, roads, airports, bridges, e.t.c.
Engineering surveys are usually based on horizontal and vertical control frameworks
which consist of fixed points called control stations. Horizontal control, as its title
suggests defines points on an arbitrary two dimensional horizontal plane which covers
the area of interest. Vertical control, although usually treated separately from horizontal
control as far as field work and calculations are concerned, is the third dimension added
to the chosen horizontal Datum.
Horizontal and vertical controls are established by measuring angles, distances or a
combination of both in well established techniques such as traversing, triangulation,
intersection, resection and levelling.
On site, a wide variety of equipment is used for establishing control and for setting out.
These include theodolites for measuring angels, levels for measuring vertical distances
(heights) tapes and electronic instruments for measuring distances, computers for
applications such as network analysis, automated data processing for plan production and
computation of setting out data and quantities.
In order to ensure that reliable measurements are taken for engineering surveys,
equipment and techniques of sufficient precision should be used both before and during
construction. However, it is not always necessary to the highest possible precision; some
projects may only require angles and distances to be measured to 1 and 0.1m, whereas
others may require precisions of 1 and 0.001m. It is very important and necessary that
the engineer realises this and chooses equipment and techniques accordingly. This will
not only ensure qualify works but also meet set standards of engineering, design and
constructions.
City surveying: Conducted in order to locate streets water supply and sanitary systems
etc. of a city.
MAPS AND PLANS
Figure 1.1 :WORLD MAP.
The ordnance survey:
This is the principal surveying and mapping organisation in Great Britain. Its work
includes geodetic surveys and associated scientific studies. I t does Topographical
surveys and the production of maps of Great Britain at various scales.
Ordnance survey maps: The range of map production from the ordnance survey is
extremely wide and maps are available from the small scale route planner map, which
is revised every year and contains the whole of Great Britain on one sheet at a scale of
1:625000 to super plan products, some of which are available at 1:200 scale.
As far as engineering surveying is concerned, the ordnance surveying maps of particular
interest are those at the basic scale of 1:1250, 1:2500 and 1:10000.
Figure 1.2 :A MAP
WEEK 2.
SCALE :
A scale refers to the ratio of ground length to plan length. Thus, a scale of 1:1000
indicates that 1cm on the plan (paper) represents 1000cm on the ground. Scale can be
expressed in the following ways;
a. By statement such as 2cm to 5cm
b. By a representative function such as 1:
1
/
R
c. By a divided line which is usually open divided.
PREFERED SCALE
The preferred scales for use in metric system are as follows;
Small scale maps: 1:1000,000, 1:500,000
Large scale maps: 1:1250, 1:20,000
Site plans: 1:100 1:50, 1:200 etc.
Detail plan: 1:20, 1:10, 1:15, 1:5, 1:1 (full size)
The difference between maps and plans is that on maps, scale is too small to allow every
features to be properly represented to scale for this reason, conventional symbols are used
to represent features which would otherwise be too small to be recognised on the maps.
Basic scales can range from 1:100,000. The larger scales being used for detailed
drawings and plans while the smaller scales are used for mapping.
Basic works and their appropriate scales are summarised below;
Architectural works: components and assembly detail drawings etc:  1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20,
1:50, 1:100, 1:200
Civil engineering works: site plans, key plans survey and lay out:  1:5000, 1:1000, 1:250
Town surveys highways and route surveys; 1:2500, 1:5000
Maps: 1:2500, 1:5000, 1:10000, 1:20000, 1:30000
All engineering plans and drawings are produced at a particular scale for example;
1:5000, 1:200, 1:100 etc.
The scale value indicates the ratio of horizontal and/or vertical plan distance to horizontal
and/or vertical ground distance that was used when the drawing was produced, for
example, a horizontal plan having a scale of 1:100 indicates that for any line
AB = horizontal plan length AB = 1
Horizontal ground length AB 100
And if a line AB as measured on the plan is 13:50mm, then horizontal ground length AB
= 13.50 x 100 = 1350mm.
The term large scale indicates a small ratio e.g. 1:10 and 1:20, where as the term
small scale indicates large ratio e.g. 1:5000.
On engineering drawings, scales are usually chosen to be as large as possible to enable
features to be drawn as they actually appear on the ground. If too small a scale chosen,
then it may be impossible to draw the true representations of features and in such cases,
conventional symbols are used; this is a technique commonly adopted by the ordnance
survey.
It must be stressed that the scale value of any engineering drawing or plan must always
be indicated on the drawing or plan, without this, it is incomplete and its impossible to
scale dimensions from the plan with complete confidence.
ACCURACY AND PRECISION
Accuracy allows for a certain amount of tolerance of either plus or minus, in
measurements while precision demands exact measurement since there is no such things
as absolutely exact measurement.
Plane survey work is usually described as being to a certain standard of accuracy which
in turn is suited to the work at hand. Bearing in mind the basic aim of carrying out the
measurement, it is better to achieve a high level of accuracy than aim for precision
(exactness) which if it were to be altered would depend not only on the instrument used
but also on the care taken by the operator to ensure that his work (measurement) is free
from mistakes. Always remember however that the greater the effort and time needed
both in the field and in the office and of course the more expensive to survey will be for
the client. The standard accuracy attained in the field must be in keeping with the size of
the drawings.
ERRORS IN SURVEYING
In all surveying operations and indeed in any operation involving measurements, errors
are likely to occur and so far as is possible, such errors must be guarded against or their
effects corrected for.
There are three types of errors, which can occur in surveying measurements;
Mistakes (gross errors)
Systematic (cumulative errors)
Accidental (random errors)
GROSS ERRORS:
These are often called mistakes or blunders, and are usually much larger that the other
categories of errors.
On construction sites, inexperienced engineers and surveyors who are unfamiliar
with the equipment and/or methods that are being used or employed frequently make
mistakes. Gross errors are due then, to carelessness or incompetence and many examples
can be given of these common mistakes which include reading theodolite micrometer
scale or tape graduation incorrectly or wrong booking either by transposing numbers (e.g.
28.432mm instead of 28.342mm) or otherwise. Failure to detect a gross error in survey or
in setting out can lead to serious problems and for this reason, it is important that all
survey work has observational and computational procedures that can be checked so that
mistakes can be corrected and hence, eliminated.
SYSTEMATIC ERRORS.
These errors are those, which follow some mathematical law and will have the same
magnitude and sign in a series of measurements that are repeated under the same
conditions. If an appropriate mathematical model can be derived for a systematic error, it
can be eliminated from a measurement using corrections. For example, the effects of any
temperature and tension variations in steel taping can be eliminated from a measurement
by calculation using simple formulae. Another method of removing systemic errors is to
calibrate the observing equipment and to quantity the error allowing corrections to be
made to further observations.
RANDOM ERRORS.
When all gross and systemic errors have been removed, a series of repeated measurement
taken of the same quantity under the same conditions would still show some variation
beyond the control of the observer. These variations are inherent in all types of
measurements and are called random errors, the magnitude and sign of which are not
constant. Random errors cannot be removed from observations but methods can be
adopted to ensure that they are kept within acceptance limits. In this context, the use of
the word error does not always imply that something has gone wrong, it simply tells us
that a difference exist between the true value of a quantity and a measured value of that
quantity. It is imperative to realize that for surveying measurements, the true value of a
quantity is usually not known and therefore, the exact errors in a measurement or
observation can never be known.
In order to analyze random error or variables, statistical principles must be used and in
surveying, it is usual to assume that random variables are normally distributed.
WEEK 3.
GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF ROUTES.
Geometric design of route simply means the arrangement of the physical elements of the
route according to the design controls of traffic, topographic features, physical features,
capacity, safety and economy. The basic objective of the design is to provide
facility/facilities that will enable movement of vehicles at capacity level at the highest
possible speed within allowable limits and with maximum safety.
Geometric elements of routes include structures like bridges, drainages, cross drainages,
embankment, vertical and horizontal alignments, e.t.c.
CURVES .
In route design, as much as possible straight course are maintained, but where inevitable,
a change in direction may occur. Since it is not convenient for the intersection of to
straights to form part of our route, a smooth curve is used to connect any two intersecting
straights.
Generally, curves may be categorized into three classed, namely;
Circular curves: These include all simple curves, compound curves and reverse curves
Transition curves: These curves have continuous changing radii.
Vertical curves: These are of simple parabola used as either crest or sag.
These curves are carefully inserted at the appropriate places in the geometric design of
motor ways, rail ways, pipe lines etc.
In each case, the initial design is usually based on series of straight sections whose
positions are defined largely by the topography of the area.
In the case of vertical curves design intersecting gradients are connected by vertical
curves in the vertical plane.
Circular curve.
Simple curves: Two straights D
1
T
1
and D
1
T
2
as shown in figure 1 below are connected
by a simple curve of radius R
FIGURE 3.1 A Simple.
From the above figure, are essential elements of simple curve can be summarized as
follows
I: intersection point of the two straights
: Angle of intersection or deflection angle. This is equal to the angle subtended at
the centre of the curve
: Apex angle
The curve commences from T
1
and ends at T
2
. These points are called tangent
points.
T
1
I and T
2
I are called tangent lengths. Each is equal to R tan
/
2
The curve length T
1
A T
2
is equal to R, where is expressed in radius. It is called
arc length.
D
1
T
1
/
2
/
2
T
2
D
2
O
I
R
B
A
The straight distance T
1
T
2
is called the main cord, denoted by C = 2R sin
/
2
Through drainage is the horizontal distance from the start of a construction scheme to any
point of interest.
SETTING OUT OF THE HORIZONTAL CURVES.
The process of route survey comprises of three stages;
Reconnaissance survey
Preliminary survey
Final survey
The reconnaissance survey is the practical visit to the construction site in order to acquire
the physical knowledge of the nature of the area as a whole. Station points are also
selected and indivisibility ensured. The survey method is strictly determined by the
topography of area.
The preliminary survey is the initial survey carried our in order to determine the actual
topography and details of the area concerned. At the end of this exercise, the physical
undulation and existing features on the ground are provided on the working plan. This
information helps the designer to plan and determine the course of the route, taking into
consideration, the purpose, safety and economy.
The final survey consists of the actual setting out exercise on the ground to locate the
course of the route including the course of designed curves.
Example 1:
The centre lines of two straights are projected forward to meet at I and the deflection
angle is measured to be 30
0
. If the straights are to be connected by a simple circular curve
of radius 200m, tabulate all the setting that data taking 20m chords on a through chainage
basis. The chainage of I is determined to be 2259.5m.
Solution:
Data: Chainage at I = 2259.59m
Radius curve = 200m
Deflection angle = 30
0
Standard chord length = 20m
O
Figure 3.2 A simple Curve.
Tangent length, T
1
,I = R tan
/
2
= 200 tan
30
/
2
= 200 tan 15
0
= 53.59m
Since the chainage of I is known, we can now determine the drainage at T
1
Chainage at T
1
= chainage I tangent length
= 2259.59 53.59
T
1
= 30
0
T
2
R = 200m
= 2206.00m
Length of arc= R (radius)
= 200 x 30
0
(radians) = 200 x 5.2359878 x 10
1
= 104.72m
For a standard chord length of 20.00m, the first sub chord is 14.00m. The second, third,
fourth and fifth chords (standard) = 20m each, total = 80.00m
The final sub chord = 10.72m
Check: 14.00 + 80.00 + 10.72 = 104.72m (ok)
Deflection angle,
mm
= chord length x 180 x 60
2pR
= 1718.9 x
chord length
/
R
Hence for the first sub chord,
Deflection angle
mm
= 1718.9 x
14.00
/
200
= 120.30min = 2
0
00
19
For standard chord,
mm
= 1718.9 x
20.00
/
200
= 171.90min = 2
0
51 53
For final sub chord
mm
= 1718.9 x
10.72
/
200
= 92.00min= 1
0
32
08
Sum of deflection angles = 14
0
59
59
The setting out table is presented as follows;
Figure 3.1 setting out data.
Chords
No.
Chord
length(m)
Chainage
(m)
Deflection angle
0
Setting out angle
0
Remarks
1 14.00 2220.00 2 00 19 2 00 19 Peg 1
2 20.00 2240.00 2 51 53 4 52 12 Peg 2
3 20.00 2260.00 2 51 53 7 44 05 Peg 3
4 20.00 2280.00 2 51 53 10 51 58 Peg 4
5 20.00 2300.00 2 51 53 13 27 51 Peg 5
6 10.72 2310.72 1 32 08 14 59 59 Peg 6 (T
2
)
Assignment 1
Solve example No. 1 (above), taking a standard chord length of 10.00m instead of the
20.00m used.
WEEK 4.
Example 2.
Produce a setting out table for a horizontal curve having a radius of 350m and chainage
of intersection point set at 6527.42m. The deflection angle is set at 72.59
0
. Take standard
chord length of 100.00m
Solution:
Data: chainage at I = 6527.42m
Radius of curve = 350.00m
Deflection angle = 72.59
0
Standard chord length = 100.00m
0
Figure 4.1 A SIMPLE CURVE.
T
1
= 72.59
0
T
2
R = 350m
Tangent length = R tan
/
2
= 350 tan
72.59
/
2
= 350 tan 36.29
0
= 257.04m
Chainage at T
1
= drainage at I T
1
I
= 6527.42 257.04
= 6270.35m
Length of circular arc = R (radians)
= 350.00 x 72.59
0
(radius)
= 350.00 1.266934504
= 443.43m
Chainage at T
2
= drainage at T
1
+ length of arc
= 6270.38 + 443.43
= 6713.81m
For standard chord of 100.00m, the first sub chord is 29.62m Standard chords = 100m x 4
= 400.00m
The last sub chord = 13.81m
Check: 29.62 + 400.00 + 13.81 = 443.43m (O.K)
Deflection angle: chord length x 180
0
x 60
2p R
The deflection angle for the first sub chord = 171.81 x
29.62
/
350
= 145.47
= 2
0
25
28
The deflection for the standard chord = 171.81 x
100
/
350
= 491.11
= 5
0
11
07
The deflection angle for the last sub chord = 171.81 x
13.81
/
350
= 67.82
= 1
0
07
49
The setting out table is presented as follows;
Chords
No.
Chord
length(m)
chainage
(m)
Deflection angle
0
Setting out angle
0
Remarks
1 29.62 6300.00 2 25 28 2 25 28 Peg 1
2 100.00 6400.00 8 11 07 10 36 35
Peg 2
3 100.00 6500.00 8 11 07 18 47 42
Peg 3
4 100.00 6600.00 8 11 07 26 58 49
Peg 4
5 100.00 6700.00 8 11 07 35 09 56
Peg 5
6 13.81 6713.81 1 07 49 36 17 45
Peg 6 (T
2
)
Example 3:
It is required to connect two straights whose deflection angle 13
0
16
00
by a simple
curve of radius 600m. Prepare a detailed setting out table if the through drainage of the
intersection point is 2745.72m.Adopt a chord length of 25m and sub chords at the
beginning and end of the curve.
Solution:
Data: Chainage at I = 2745.72m
Radius of curve = 600m
Deflection angle = 13
0
16 00
Standard chord length = 25m
Tangent length = R tan
/
2
= 600 tan 13
0
16
00
2
= 600 x 1.162935523 x 10
1
= 69.76m
Chainage at T
1
= 2745.72 69.78
= 2675.94m
Length of arc = R (radians)
= 600 x 13
0
16
00
= 600 x 2.315470141 x 10
1
= 138.93m
Chainage at T
2
= chainage at T
1
+ length of arc
T
1
= 30
0
16
00
T
2
R = 600m
O
= 2675.94 + 138.93
= 2814.87m
First sub chord = 2700.00 2675.94
= 24.06m
Standard chord = 25.00m (x 4)
Final sub chord = 14.87m
Check: 24.06 + (25.00 x 4) + 14.87 = 138.93m (O.K)
First deflection angle = 1718.9 x 24.06
600
= 68.93
= 1
0
08
56
Standard deflection angle = 1718.9 x 25.00
600
= 71.62
= 1
0
11
37
Final deflection angle = 1718.9 x 14.87
600
= 42.60 = 00
0
42
36
Chords
No.
Chord
length(m)
chainage
(m)
Deflection angle
0
Setting out
0
Remarks
1 24.06 2700.00 01 08 56 01 08 56 Peg 1
2 25.00 2725.00 01 11 37 02 20 33 Peg 2
3 25.00 2750.00 01 11 37 03 32 10 Peg 3
4 25.00 2775.00 01 11 37 04 43 47 Peg 4
5 25.00 2800.00 01 11 37 05 55 24 Peg 5
6 14.87 2814.87 00 42 36 06 38 10 Peg 6 (T
2
)
WEEK 5.
COMPOUND CURVE.
Figure 5.1 : Compound Curve.
It is advisable to treat compound curve in each case as two simple curves with common
tangent point t. The total tangent lengths T
1
I and T
2
I are found as follows;
R
1
tan
1
/
2
= T
1
t
1
= t
1
t
R
2
tan
2
/
2
= T
2
t
2
= t
2
t
Then tangent t
1
I t
2
may be solved from length t
1
I and t
2
I if added to the known lengths
T
1
t
1 and
T
2
t
2
respectively. The first curve R
1
is set out in the usual back sighted to T
1
with
the horizontal circle reading (180
1
/
2
). Turn the instrument to read zero and it will then
be pointing to t
2
. Hence, curve R
2
can now be set out. In case of reverse curve, both axes
can be set out from the common tangent point t.
A
T
1
1
=
1
+
2
T
2
B
O
I
R
2
1
R
1
t
2
t
2
t
1
Example:
The centre line of a road way is to be set out along a valley. The first straight, A I bears
75
0
whilst the connecting straight, IB bears 120
0
. Due to the site condition, it has been
decided to join the straights with a compound curve. The first curve of 500.00m radius
commences at T
1
, situated at 300.00m from I on straight AI, and deflects through angle
25
0
before joining the second curve.
Required: Calculate the radius of the second curve and the distance of the tangent point
T
2
from I on the straight IB.
Solution:
Figure 5.2 : Compound Curve.
=120
O
75
O
=45
0
The total angle in a triangle = 180
0
=
2
= (135 + 25) out of 180
0
= 20
0
A
T
1
1
= 25
0
= 120
0
75
0
= 45
0
T
2
B
O
2
I
R
2
= ?
1
R
1
= 500m
t
t
2
t
1
2
= 20
0
O
1
135
0
t
Tangent length T
1
t
1
= R
1
tan
1
/
2
= 500 tan 12
0
30
I
00
II
= 110.85m
Length It
1
= T
1
I T
1
t
1
= 300 110.85 = 189.15m
By sine rule:
t
1
t
2
= (300 110.85)
Sin 135
O
sin 20
0
t
1
t
2
= sin135
0
x 189.15 = 319.06m
Sin 20
0
Similarly, It
2
= 391.06
Sin 25
O
sin 135
O
It
2
= 391.06 x sin 25
O
= 233.73m
Sin 135
0
T
1
t
2
= t
1
t
2
T
1
t
1
or t
1
t
= 391.06 110.85
= 280.21m = (tangent length for second curve)
Tangent length for second curve is given by
R
2
tan
2
/
2
= R
2
tan 10
0
= 280.31m
= R
2
= 280.21
tan 10
= 1589.15m
Distance IT
2
= It
2
+ t
2
T
2
= 233.73 + 280.21
= 513.94m
Questions.
(1) Prepare a setting out table for horizontal curve on a roadway having a radius of
350.00m to accommodate two straights meeting at an intersection point whose drainage
is 8526.80m with a deflection angle of 22
0
33
00
20
O
T
1
T
2
R
C
L
I
Chainage of I = 1330.00m
Required: Construct a setting out table showing all your calculations
LOCATION OF THE INTERSECTION AND TANGENT POINTS IN
THE FIELD
It is not sufficient to scale the positions of the tangent points from a plan; they must be
accurately set out on the site. The procedure is as follows; with consideration to the figure
below;
T
Figure 3.4: location of intersection and tangent points.
Locate the two tangents lines AC and BD and define them by means of a suitable target.
Set a theodolite up on one of the lines (say AC) and sight towards the intersection of the
two tangents at I
Drive in two pegs x and y on the line AC such that BD will intersect the line xy. Nails in
the top of the pegs should mark the exact position of the tangent line.
/
2
U
I
C
D
A
B
x
y
Join pegs x and y by means of a string line
Set up the theodolite on BD pointing towards I and fix the position of I by driving a peg
where the line of sight from BD intersects the string line.
Set up the theodolite over I and measure angle AIB, hence angle
Calculate tangent lengths IT and IU using R tan
/
2
Measure back from I to T and U, drive in pegs and mark the exact points by nails in the
tops of the pegs.
Check the setting out by measuring angle ITU, which should be equal to
/
2
.
However, the use of two theodolites simplifies the procedure by eliminating steps (3) and
(4).
WEEK 6.
LOCATION OF THE TANGENT POINTS WHEN THE
INTERSECTION POINT IS INACCESSIBLE.
Due to site conditions e.g. marshy ground, river, hill etc. obstructing the accessibility of
the intersection point on site, the following steps should be adopted to determine and
locate the tangent points T and U as shown in figure below
Figure 6.1 : Location of tangent points when intersection point is inaccessible.
PROCEDURE.
Choose points A and B somewhere on the tangents such that it is possible to sight A from
B and vice versa.
Measure distance AB.
Measure angle and , deduce & and hence .
Use the sine rule to calculate IA and IB
T
U
I
A
B
Calculate IT and IU from R tan
/
2
AT = IA IT and BU = IB IU, hence set out T and U. If A and B are chosen to be on
the other side of T and U, AT and BU will have negative values
If possible, sight from T to U as a check, measure angle ITU which should be equal to
/
2
Figure 6.2 :OBSTRUCTION IN THE LINE OF SIGHT
OBSTRUCTION IN THE LINE OF SIGHT.
If peg 4 for example can not be set out due to obstruction in the line of sight shown in
the figure above, after setting out pegs 1, 2, and 3 ,move the instrument to peg 3 and sight
back to T
1
at a zero setting. Turn off an angle equal to 180
0
+ (4 1) i.e. must be
multiplied by the number of standard chord lengths between the two points being sighted
to and if there is a sub chord at the beginning of the curve, the deflection angle must be
added.
T
1
T
2
1
2
3
4
5
5
WEEK 8.
EQUIPMENT FOR SETTING OUT OF BUILDING.
The nature and complexity of the building or any engineering work like; bridges, dams,
roads etc. determine the accuracy that need to be achieved, which in turns, defines or
determines which types of equipment will be selected for the task e.g. dumpy level or
theodolite, fibre glass tape or steel tape, plumb bob and line or optical plummet etc.
Figure 8.1 :Digital Tape.
Figure 8.2 : Steel Tape.
Figure 8.3: Measuring Tape.
1. PEGS:
Figure 8.4 : Wooden Pegs.
These are usually made of two materials;
i. Timber pegs 50mm section of variable length but having a pointed end to facilitated
driving into the ground by hammering. A timber peg may have a nail fixed to its top at
the centre to locate exactly the station point. All setting out pegs should be clearly
marked with a 50mm deep and red paint and should have a board of blue paint.
ii. Steel pegs they are usually formed from lengths of steel reinforcement rods, cut to a
suitable lengths and may have one edge sharpened to facilitate careful driving positions
have been checked, they are normally surrounded by concrete. Identification works may
be made into the surface of the concrete before it sets hard
2. LINES:
They are strings, wire, nylon etc. the weather condition plays a very vital role in selecting
which material to be used so that the line is safe from damage, stretch, sag in prevailing
working conditions of the weather. The lines provides straight out lines from a peg to
another. They define straight lines from points or stations.
3. PROFILE BOARDS:
Figure 8.5 : Profile board
These are used in conjunction with pegs so that extended lines positions may be marked
by using profile boards, the string or wire lines can be removed in the knowledge that
when they are required again, they can be positioned exactly as they were originally.
Normally, a profile boards is erected near each off set peg and used in exactly the same
way as a sight rail, a traveler are being used between profile boards to monitor
excavation.
4. SITE SQUARE:
This is an optical device used for setting out right angles whereby unskilled labour can
attain an accuracy of 5mm in 30m.
The instrument is basically of two telescopes mounted one above the other and with their
lines of sight set at 90
0
to each other. The site square is supported on a tripod stand,
which can be set over a fixed mark on the ground. The lower telescope is aimed along the
line from which the right angle is to be established being brought to bear on any site mark
in the line by moving the telescope:
In the vertical plane
Laterally by means of a fine turning screw. Once the adjustment of the lower telescope
is complete, the upper telescope will trace out a line at right angles to the original line and
a further site mark can be positioned as required by moving this telescope in the vertical
plane only.
Fifure 8.6: peg.
Figure8.7 :TRAVELLERS USED IN SETTING OUT SLOPING GROUNDS
WEEK 9.
SETTING OUT OF BUILDING .
Setting out the base line: The base line adopted in setting out a building is usually the
building line, although on extensive factory layouts are centre lines of buildings are
sometimes runs of machinery. In either case, the location of such lines is reacted to the
physical features of the site. The building line is the line of the front face of the building
as indicated in figure below (line AB).
Figure 9.1 Plan of a simple building for setting out.
The position of the building line may be defined on the working plan by measurements
from any of the following;
The property boundary
The edge of the road kerb
The centre line of the road.
Proposed building (structure)
EXISTING
BUILDING
EXISTING
BUILDING
It is important to note that
Where there is no indication of the building line, its position must be agreed on site with
the local authoritybuilding inspectors.
Where there is an obvious line of existing building frontages, this line is usually adopted
as the building line.
The building line is first ranged by eye and pegs are placed at the two front corners of the
outer face of the proposed building. Critical measurements are made from the boundary
to the building corners as shown in figure above or defined by local regulations and along
the face of the proposed building by nails hammed into the pegs.
B. Setting out the subsidiary lines: From the two front pegs, A and B, angles are set
out in accordance with the building plan to follow the outer face of the flank walls. This
could be done with a theodolite, setting up over each peg in turn and turning off the
required angle from the building line in each case. As the angle of the flank wall is most
often 90
0
this could be set out without a theodolite using the following;
a. A 3:4:5 taped triangle
b. A builders square, which is a 3:4:5ratio triangle made out of timber
c. An optical square
d. A site square, which is a proprietary instrument consisting of two small telescopes
fixed rigidly at right angles on a small stand.
e. A level incorporating a horizontal circle like a theodolite, but reading by vernier
to about 5only. When the two rear pegs; C and D are placed and nail marked, they are
checked by measuring between them and by measuring the diagonals.
In a rectangle building, the two diagonals must be equal to prove the positioning
of the pegs.
After the main outline has been pegged ,any minor extensions or returns from the
main figure are pegged and checked, such as the pegs at e, f, g, h, j and k, when the
complete outline of the outer face of the building has been pegged and checked.
Setting out the reference marks: The pegs now placed will be destroyed as the
foundations are excavated and the reference system must be adopted. This can be
achieved by the use of profile boards, illustrated in the above figure.
Profile boards are constructed of 150 or 200mm by 25mm, boards supported on
50mm square posts hammered firmly into the ground, well clear of the working area. On
well organized sites, the boards are placed at one level, usually finished floor level or
dam proof course level. The advantages of these are as follows;
They help to keep the tape horizontal when making measurements.
They provide a level datum around the site so that less check leveling is needed
subsequently.
Disturbance of the boards can easily be noted visually.
Levels of work below ground can be controlled by travelers using the profile boards as
sight rails.
Approximate levels can be obtained by direct vertical measurements up or down from
lines strung between the profile boards.
Once all boards have been placed in position, all at one level, lines are strung
between them and positioned vertically above the nail markers defining the building
outline. If the line is some distance above the peg, the peg position must be plumbed
upward, using plumb line in reference to the less accurate bricklayers spirit level. When
the lines have been accurately strung across the profile boards, positions are marked with
a nail or saw cut so that they may be replaced at any time. The intersections of the
various strung lines will then define the peg positions when they are removed for
excavations. Profile boards for minor buildings or projections are not always erected or
needed. Full foundation width is marked on the boards and two lines strung between
these points to define the width of the foundation trench to be dug. Once the trench has
been started, the lines are removed.
Alternatively, the lines may be temporarily defined along the ground by means of
strips of lime or sand to guide excavation of the trench.
WEEK 10.
EARTHWORK QUANTITIES.
In many engineering projects, large parcels of land are required for the site and huge
amounts of construction materials have to be moved ignored to form the necessary
embankments, cuttings, foundations, basements, lakes and so on, that have been specified
in the design. Suitable land and construction materials can be very expensive and if a
project is to be profitable to the contractor or the construction company, it must involve
accurate measurements as possible of any areas and volumes in order that appropriate
estimates for such earthwork quantities can be included in the tender documents.
Also, for certain projects, such as the construction of a new highway, where large amount
of material have to be excavated and moved around the site, careful planning of this
movement is essential since charges may be levied not only on the volumes involved but
also on the haulage distances.
UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS.
Although systeme International (SI) units are widely used, there are times where other
acceptable units are equally appropriate. Area calculation represents one such occasion
since the SI unit of area is square meter (m
2
), the figure involved sometimes may be very
big for large areas. To overcome this, the following units system is often adopted;
100 m
2
=1 are
100ares =1hectrare (10000m
2
)
100hectares = 1 square kilometer (10
6
m
2
)
For volumes, the SI unit is the cubic meter (m
3
) and this is used through out most civil
engineering works for all volumes of materials, no matter how large or small.
AREAS ENCLOSED BY STRAIHGT LINES.
This category of areas form all areas enclosed by transverse, triangulation, trilateration or
detail survey lines. The results obtained for such areas will be exact since correct
geometric equations and theorems can be applied directly.
i. AREAS ENCLOSED BY STRAIGHT LINES.
The straightsided figre can be divided into wellconditioned triangles, the areas of which
can be calculated using one of the following formulae;
(a) Area = [S(Sa) (Sb) (Sc)]
(b) Are = (Base of triangle x Height)
Area = ab sin C where C is the angle contained between sides lengths a and b.
AREAS FROM COORDINATES.
In traverse and triangulation calculations, the coordinate of the junctions of the sides of
a straight sided figure are calculated and it is possible to use them to calculated area
enclosed by the control network lines. This is achieved using the cross coordinate
method.
Consider the figure below;
The threesided clockwise control network lines shown above; ABC has an area =
ABC.
The area of ABC has = Area of ABQP + Area of BCRQ Area of ACRP
Note that ABQP, BCRQ and ACRP are all Trapeziums for which areas can be
calculated from the relation;
Area of Trapezium = (mean height) x (width) or
Area of Trapezium = (sum of parallel sides) x height.
Therefore,
Area of ABQP = (N
1
+N
2
) (E
2
E
1
)
Area of ACRQ = (N
2
+ N
3
) (E
3
E
2
)
Area of ACRP = (N
1
+N
3
) (E
3
E
2
)
Hence, Area of ABC = N
1
+N
2
E
2
E
1
+ N
2
+ N
3
E
3
E
2
 N
1
+N
3
1
E 
3
E
Area of ABC =[N
1
+N
2
E
2
E
1
+ N
2
+ N
3
E
3
E
2
 N
1
+N
3
1
E 
3
E ]
2XArea of ABC = (N
1
+N
2
)(E
2
E
1
)+(N
2
+N
3
)(E
3
E
2
)(N
1
+N
3
)(E
3
E
1
)
Opening the brackets,
2xAreaofABC=N
1
E
2
N
1
E
1
+N
2
E
2
N
2
E
1
+N
2
E
3
N
2
E
2
+N
3
E
3
N
3
E
2

N
1
E
3
+N
1
E
1
N
3
E
3
+N
3
E
1
.
B (E
2
N
2
) N
E
C (E
3
N
3
)
A (E
1
N
1
)
R
Q P
O
O
Rearranging,
2xArea of ABC = N
1
E
2
=N
2
E
3
+N
3
E
1
E
1
N
2
E
2
N
3
E
3
N
1
= (N
1
E
2
+N
2
E
3
+N
3
E
1
) (E
1
N
2
+E
2
N
3
+E
3
N
1
)
2XArea of ABC = (N
1
E
2
+N
2
E
3
+N
3
E
1
) (E
1
N
2
+E
2
N
3
+E
3
N
1
)
The similarity between the two brackets should be taken note of.
The illustration above is for a three sided figure but the formula can be used
appropriately for any figure containing Nsides and the general formula for such a
case is given by;
2xArea = (N
1
E
2
+N
2
E
3
+N
3
E
4
+...N
N1
E
N
+N
N
E
1
)

(E
1
N
2
+E
2
N
3
+E
3
N
4
+...E
N1
N
N
+E
N
N
1
).
The area of figure shown below can be calculated, using the crosscoordinate method as
follows;
Area =1/2 [(N
1
E
2
+N
2
E
3
+N
3
E
4
+N
4
E
1
) (E
1
N
2
+E
2
N
3
+E
3
N
4
+E
4
N
1
)]
A (N
1
E
1
)
B (N
2
E
2
)
C (N
3
E
3
) D (N
4
E
4
)
QUESTION (Class work).
Use the crosscoordinate method to calculate the total area of a triangle whose co
ordinates are given as follows;
Where;
E
A
= 806.71, N
A
= 366.84
E
B
= 203.18, N
B
= 203.18
E
C
= 314.24, N
C
= 251.62
COMPUTATION OF AREA FROM PLOTTED PLAN.
By dividing the area into squares: In this method, square of equal size are ruled out a
piece of tracing paper. Each square represents unit area, which could be 1 cm
2
or 1 m
2
.
the tracing paper is placed over the plan and the number of full squares are counted. The
total area is then calculated by multiplying the number of squares by the unit area of each
square.
B
C
A
WEEK 11.
AREAS ENCLOSED BY IRREGULAR LINES.
For such cases, only approximate results are achieved. However, there are many methods
in use which give best approximations. Give and take lines, Graphical methods and
mathematical approach are some of the available methods which can be adopted.
Nevertheless, under the mathematical methods, Trapezoidal rule and Simpsons rule are
common.
y irregular figure or shape, which can be divided into strips most especially when the area
is bounded by a traverse line and irregular boundary, the total area can be found using
the Trapezoidal rule.
(I) THE TRAPEZOIDAL RULE.
Consider the figure below, showing a figure bounded by a survey line and an irregular
boundary.
x x x x x x x x x
A
1
A
2
A
3
A
4
A
5
A
6
A
7
A
8
The traverse line is divided into a number of small strips of equal intercepts of lengths; x
and the offsets O
1
, O
2
, O
3
, e.t.c. and are measured directly on the ground or by scaling
O
1
O
2
O
3
O
4
O
5
O
6
O
7
O
8
O
9
Traverse line
Offsets at regular intervals
from the plan. If x is so short enough for length of boundary between offsets to be
assumed straight, then, the area is divided into a series of trapezoids, as shown in the
figure above.
The area between each strip is calculated, thus;
A1 = (O
1
+O
2
) X
2
A2 = (O
2
+O
3
) X
2
A3 = (O
3
+O
4
) X , e.t.c.
2
Hence, for N offsets, the total area (A) is given by;
Area = (O
1
+O
2
) X + (O
2
+O
3
) X + . (O
N1
+ O
N
) X
2 2 2
This leads to the general trapezoidal rule as follows;
Total area = x/2 [O
1
+O
N
+2(O
2
+O
3
+O
4
+. +O
N1
)]
The trapezoidal rule applies any number of offsets.
Example: The following offsets, 8m apart were measured at right angles from a traverse
line to an irregular boundary.
0m,2.3m,5.5m,7.9m,8.6m,6.9m,7.3m,6.2m,3.1m,0m.
Required; calculate the area between the survey line and the irregular boundary using the
trapezoidal rule.
Solution;
Total Area = 8.0/2 [0+0 + 2(2.3+5.5+7.9+8.6+6.9+7.3+6.2+3.1)]
= 4 x 2(47.8) = 382.4m
2
Question;
Calculate the total area of the plot between the survey line the boundary if the offsets,
scaled from the plan of the intervals of 10.00m are shown below.
Present your answer in both m
2
and hectares.
(II) SIMPSONS RULE:
This method assumes that instead of being made of a series of straight lines, the
boundary consists of a series of parabolic arcs. A more accurate result is obtained
since a better approximation of the true shape of the irregular boundary is achieved.
Figure below shows an illustration.
Offset O
1
O
2
O
3
O
4
O
5
O
6
O
7
O
8
O
9
O
10
Length(m) 16.76 19.81 20.42 16.76 17.69 17.68 17.37 18.53 16.76 17.68
A
1
A
2
A
3
A
4
A
5
A
6
A
7
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
O
1
O
2
O
3
O
4
O
5
O
6 O
7
O
8
Offset at regular intervals.
Transverse line
Simpsons rule considers offsets in sets of three and it can be shown that the area between
offset 1 and 3 is given by;
A
1
+ A
2
= L/3 (O
1
+ 4 O
2
+ O
3
)
Similarly,
A
3
+ A
4
= L/3 (O
3
+ 4 O
4
+ O
5
)
Hence, in general,
Total Area = L/3(O
1
+ O
N
+ 4 Even Offsets + 2 Remaining Odd Offsets)
It is important to note that N must be an Odd number for Simpsons rule to be applicable.
When faced with an Even number of N offsets, the final offset should be omitted (for
example O
8
or O
10
), the rest of the area calculated and the last (omitted) area calculated
separately as a trapezium using the trapezoidal rule.
Example; Use the Simpson rule to solve the last worked example on page 63.
Solution; There are 10 (even) number of offsets. Thus, area between offsets 19 would be
calculated using the Simpsons rule while the area between offsets 910 would be
calculated by trapezoidal rule.
Area (19) = 8/3[0 + 3.1 + 4(2.3+7.9+6.9+6.2) + 2(5.5+8.6+7.3)]
= 8/3[3.1 + 4(23.3) + (2(21.4)]
= 8(139.1)/3
= 370.9m
2
Area (910) =8/2(3.1 + 0)
= 12.4m
2
Hence, the Total Area = 370.9 + 12.4 = 383.3m
2
Note the difference between this result and that obtained previously. This is so because
the Simpsons rule will give more accurate results when the irregular boundary is
genuinely irregular and the trapezoidal rule will give the most accurate results if the
irregular boundary is almost a series of straight lines.
In general, for irregular sided figure, Simpsons rule should be used.
WEEK 12.
iii. The Planimeter.
A Planimeter is an instrument which is used to automatically measure the total area of
any irregular sided plane figure. Traditionally, mechanical devices were used but
although these are still being manufactured, they have been largely super ceded by digital
instruments like the Planimeter.
When using the Planimeter, a high degree of accuracy can be achieved no matter how
complex the shape of the irregular area in question may be.
Mechanical Planimeter;
This consists of two arms, the pole arm and the tracing arm, which are joint at a pivot.
At the other end of the pole is a heavy weight known as the pole block and at the other
end of the tracing arm is the tracing point which normally consists of magnifying
eyepiece containing an index mark.
The tracing arm also incorporates a measuring unit which contains an integrating disc.
The area is obtained from the integrating disc which revolves and alters the reading on
the measuring unit as the tracing point is moved round the perimeter of the figure. It is
possible to read 1/1000
th
of a revolution of the disc. The reading obtained on the
measuring unit is directly related to the length of the tracing arm. There are two types of
the mechanical planimeter; those with fixed tracing arms and those with movable tracing
arms.
On a fixed tracing arm type, the readings are obtained directly in m
2
and then have to be
converted according to the plan scale to get the ground area.
While on the other hand, on the movable arm instrument, the tracing am length can be set
to particular values, depending on the plan scale such that the reading obtained give the
area directly.
Example:
A crosssectional area was measured using a fixed arm mechanical planimeter which
gave readings in mm directly. The initial planimeter reading was 88 and the final reading
was 7450. If the horizontal scale of the crosssection was 1 in 200 and the vertical scale is
1 in 100, calculate the true area represented by the crosssection.
Solution:
The planimeter difference = Final reading Initial reading
= 7450 88 = 7362mm
2
However, 1mm
2
actually represents an area (200mm x 100mm) since the horizontal and
vertical scales are 1 in 200 and 1 in 100 respectively.
Thus, 7362mm
2
= (7362 x 200 x 100)
= 147240000mm
2
=147.24m
2
Note that once the areas of all the crosssections have been obtained they are used to
calculate the volumes of material to be either excavated (cut) or imported (fill) between
consecutive crosssections.
ASSIGNMENT.
Draw the different types of planimeter you know and explain fully, the working
principles of one (how to find area on the ground).
WEEK 13.
VOLUME CALCULATIONS.
The excavation, removal and dumping of earth is a frequent operation in
building/constructions sites in civil engineering practice.
In the construction of sewer, for example, a trench of sufficient width is excavated to a
given depths and gradients. The earth being stored in some convenient place (usually the
side of the trench) and then returned to the trench after the laying of the pipe. Any
material left over after the reinstatement must be carted away and disposed of. In
basement excavation, probably all the material removed will have to be required to be
carted away. But for embankment, the material required will have to be brought from
some other places.
In each case, however, payment will have to be made for labour, plant e.t.c; and this is
done on the basis of the calculated volume of the material handled. It is therefore
essential that the engineer or surveyor concerned is able to make good estimation of
volumes of earth works.
There are three general methods for calculating earth work volumes;
By Contours.
By Spot heights.
By Crosssections.
ESTIMATION OF VOLUMES FROM CONTOUR LINES.
It is possible to calculate volumes using the horizontal areas contained in contour lines.
Due to the relatively high cost of accurately contouring large areas, the method is of
limited use. But where accurate contours are available, for instance, in reservoir sites,
they may be conveniently used.
The contour interval will determine the distance; D in the Endarea method or
Prismoidal formula, however, for accuracy, this should be as small as possible,
preferably, 1 or 2 metres.
(A) THE ENDAREA FORMULA.
The areas enclosed by individual contour lines are best taken off the plan by means of a
planimeter. In computing the volumes, the areas enclosed by two successive contour lines
are used in the end area formula, whence,
Volume = D. (Ax+Ay)/2
Where D = Vertical interval, A = Area enclosed by the contours.
Example:
The area within the underwater contour lines of a lake are as follows;
Contour(m) 190 188 186 184 182
Area (m
2
) 3150 2460 1630 840 210
Required: Calculate the Volume of water in the Lake between the 190 and 182 contour
lines.
Solution: Using the Endarea method, Volume = D (Ax + Ay)/2 for two successive
contour; x and y.
Volume=2(3150+2460) + 2(2460+1630) + 2(1630+840) + 2(840+210)
2 2 2 2
= 5610 + 4090 + 2470 + 1050
= 13,220m
3
.
In general, Volume = D/2 [A
1
+2(A
2
+A
3
+A
4
+. +A
N1
) +A
N
]
Applying the above general formula to solve the last worked example, Volume =
2/2[3150+2(2460+1630+840) +210]
= 1[3150+9860+210]
= 13,220m
2
Question (1):
Use the Endarea method to calculate the volume of the following contour data for a
given site.
Contour(m) 0 15 30 45 60 75 90
Area(m
2
) 11 42 64 72 160 180 220
Question (2):
A trench, 80m long and with end faces vertical is excavated in a flat land. Subsequent to
excavation, crosssections were taken at 20m intervals beginning at one end of the trench
and ending at the other end. The areas of the cross sections are progressively 63,71,76,72
and 69 m
2
. Determine the amount of excavation required in cubic meters, using the End
area method.
WEEK 14.
PRISMOIDAL FORMULA.
If the volume of earth between two successive crosssections be considered, a prismoid,
then a more precise formula (The Prismoidal formula) may be used. It is generally
considered that; all things being equal, the use of this formula gives the most accurate
estimate of volume which must be parallel plane figure not necessary of top and bottom
must be formed by straight contour lines running from one end face to the other.
The volume of a prismoid is given by;
Volume = D/6 (A
1
+ 4M + A
2
)
Where A1 and A2 are the areas of the two end faces, distance; D apart, M = area of the
section midway between the end faces.
Question:
A trench, 80m long and with end faces vertical is excavated in a flat land. Subsequent to
excavation, crosssections were taken at 20m intervals beginning at one end of the trench
and ending at the other end. The areas of the cross sections are progressively 63,71,76,72
and 69 m
2
. Determine the amount of excavation required in cubic meters, using the
Prismoidal method.
ESTIMATION OF VOLUMES FROM SPOT LEVELS.
This is another method by means of which the earth involved in the construction of large
tanks, basements, borrowpits e.t.c; and similar works with vertical sides may be
calculated. The computation is simplified if the formation level is to be a fixed level or to
fixed falls. But even basement with several levels present little difficulty.
Having located the outline of the structure on the ground, the engineer divides up the area
into squares or rectangles, marking the corner points. Levels are taken at each of these
corner points and by subtracting from these, the corresponding formation levels; a series
of heights is obtained from which the mean height of a series of vertical truncated prisms
of earth can be found. It is important to note that the prisms are called truncated because
unless the ground and formation levels are parallel, the end planes are not parallel to each
other.
The volume of each prism is given by he plan area (or area of the normal section)
multiplied by the mean height of the prism. The prisms may, ofcorse, be considered as
either rectangular or triangles as shown in the following examples.
Example; Given the layout of a construction site as shown in figure below, calculate
the volume of exaction required if the formation level is designed as 90.00m.
10M 10M
A B C
10M
D EEE F F
10M
G H I
91M 93M 94M
92M E 92M 93M
93M 91M 92M
SOLUTION:
POINT DIFFERENCE IN HEIGHT
ABOVE FORMATION
LEVEL(M)
NO. OF TIMES
TRIANGLE
OCCURS
PRODUCT
A 9190 = 1 1 1
B 9390 = 3 3 9
C 9490 = 4 2 8
D 9290 = 2 3 6
E 9290 = 2 6 12
F 9390 = 3 3 9
G 9390 = 3 2 6
H 9190 = 1 3 3
I 9290 = 2 1 2
 TOTAL 24 56
Volume = ( product / No. of times triangle occurs) x total area
Where; product = 56
No. of times triangle occurs = 24
Total area = 20 x 20 = 400m
2
Hence, Volume = (56/24) x 400
= 2.33 x 400
= 933.33m
3
WEEK 15.
Example:
The figure below shows a rectangular plot of land which is to be excavated for
development. If the sides of the excavations are to be vertical, estimate the total volume
of earth to be removed. The depth of excavation at each point is indicated on the figure.
15M 15M
A B C
12.5M
D EEE F F E
12.5M
G H I
3.15M 3.70M 4.33M
3.94M 4.80M E 4.97M
5.17M 6.10M 4.67M
SOLUTION:
POINT DIFFERENCE IN HEIGHT
ABOVE FORMATION
LEVEL(M)
NO. OF TIMES
TRIANGLE
OCCURS
PRODUCT
A 3.15 1 3.15
B 3.70 3 11.10
C 4.33 2 8.66
D 3.94 3 11.82
E 4.80 6 28.80
F 4.97 3 14.91
G 5.17 2 10.34
H 6.10 3 18.30
I 4.67 1 4.67
 TOTAL 24 111.75
Volume = ( product / No. of times triangle occurs) x total area
Where; product = 111.75
No. of times triangle occurs = 24
Total area = 25 x 30 = 750m
2
Hence, Volume = (111.75/24) x 750
= 3492.19m
3
ESTIMATION OF VOLUMES FROM CROSS SECTIONS.
In this method, crosssections are taken at right angles to some convenient line which
runs longitudinally through the earthworks and, although it is capable of general
application, it is probably most useful on long narrow works such as roads, ail ways,
canals, embankments, and pipe lines excavations e.t.c. The volumes of earthwork
between successive crosssections are calculated from a consideration of the
crosssectional areas, which in turn are measured by the general methods already
explained i.e. planimeter, division into triangles, counting squares e.t.c.
In long constructions, which have constant formation width ad sideslopes, it is possible
to simplify the computation of the crosssectional areas by the use of formulae. These are
especially useful for railways, long embankments e.t.c. and formulae are available for the
following types of crosssections:
(a) Sections level across.
(b) Section with a cross fall.
Section part in cut part in fill.
(d Section of variable levels.
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