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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 53, NO. 8, AUGUST 2005

of the antenna are also studied. Measured results indicate that for the
ground-plane length varied from 80 to 140 mm, small variations in the
measured return loss are seen, especially for higher frequencies in the
bandwidth, and the impedance bandwidths obtained are all about the
same. These related measured results for the study of ground-plane effects are not shown here for brevity.
IV. CONCLUSION
A wide-band cylindrical monopole antenna suitable for application
in mobile phones, especially for PDA phones capable of UMTS/
WLAN dual-mode operation, has been presented. The antenna has
a simple and low-prole structure, and a wide bandwidth of about
8.8 GHz (about 1.8 to 10.6 GHz) has been achieved. The antenna
shows good radiation characteristics, and small ground-plane effects
on the antennas impedance matching have been observed.
REFERENCES
[1] P. Eratuuli, P. Haapala, and P. Vainikainen, Dual frequency wire antennas, Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 10511052, 1996.
[2] I. Egorov and Z. Ying, A nonuniform helical antenna for dual-band
cellular phones, in 2000 IEEE Antennas Propagat. Soc. Int. Symp. Dig.,
pp. 652655.
[3] K. L. Wong, Planar Antennas for Wireless Communications. New
York: Wiley, 2003, p. 113.
[4] J. D. Kraus, Antennas, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988, p. 379.
[5] W. L. Stutzman and G. A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, 2nd ed.
New York: Wiley, 1998, p. 172.

Fig. 6. Measured radiation patterns at 2442 MHz.

Wide-Band Omnidirectional Square Cylindrical


Metal-Plate Monopole Antenna
Kin-Lu Wong and Chih-Hsien Wu
AbstractA novel square cylindrical monopole antenna easily fabricated
from bending a cross-shaped metal plate for wide-band omnidirectional operation is presented. With a cross-sectional area of 8 8 mm and a length
of 23 mm, the antenna can provide a wide operating bandwidth of about
4.7 GHz (about 1.9 6.6 GHz), making it very promising for WMAN operation with the 802.16e standard in the 2 to 6 GHz band. In addition, over
the operating bandwidth, the antenna shows very good omnidirectional radiation (gain variations less than 1.5 dB in the azimuthal plane over the
bandwidth). Experimental and simulation results of the proposed antenna
are presented and discussed.

Fig. 7. Measured radiation patterns at 5500 MHz.

WLAN band. It is seen that the radiation patterns show large radiation in the lower hemisphere. This radiation characteristic is largely
because in this case, the system ground plane also performs as an
efcient radiator. In addition, it is seen that the E component is
relatively large compared to that of a simple monopole antenna. This
characteristic is mainly owing to the large horizontal (x-direction)
component of the excited surface currents in the system ground plane,
observed from the HFSS simulated results. Also note that both the
E and E components have comparable intensities. This radiation
characteristic is an advantage for the proposed antenna for practical
applications, especially for WLAN operations, because their wave
propagation environment is usually complex.
The antenna gain was also measured. The antenna gain in general
increases with frequency, from about 2.2 to 5.0 dBi across the bandwidth. Effects of the ground-plane length on the impedance matching

Index TermsAntennas, metal-plate monopole antennas, wide-band


monopole antennas, wide-band omnidirectional antennas, Wireless
Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) antennas.

I. INTRODUCTION
Wire monopole antennas are attractive for their very good omnidirectional radiation characteristics. However, they are inherently
narrow-banded, which greatly limits their practical applications in the
existing wireless communication systems [1]. To provide omnidirectional radiation over a wide bandwidth, the widened wire monopole or
Manuscript received November 15, 2004; revised January 14, 2005.
The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun
Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan.
Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TAP.2005.851796

0018-926X/$20.00 2005 IEEE

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 53, NO. 8, AUGUST 2005

2759

Fig. 2.

Measured and simulated return loss for the proposed antenna with L =

23 mm, W = 8 mm, t = 6 mm, d = 4:5 mm.

strated, which is suitable for application in the new broadband wireless


metropolitan area network (WMAN) system with the IEEE 802.16e
standard for mobile broadband wireless access [3], [4].
II. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF THE PROPOSED ANTENNA

Fig. 1. (a) Geometry of the proposed wide-band omnidirectional square


cylindrical metal-plate monopole antenna. (b) The antenna unbent into a planar
cross-plate structure.

hollow cylindrical monopole antenna with an input conical section has


been shown to be a promising design [2]. In such a design, the input
conical section is an important portion of the antenna, which provides
as a smooth transition section between the cylindrical monopole and
the excitation source for achieving good impedance matching over a
wide frequency range. However, due to their different congurations,
the input conical section and the cylindrical monopole cannot be
fabricated using a single metal plate. They may require a molding
process or need to be fabricated separately and then connected together
(usually by welding), which complicates the fabrication process.
In this paper we propose a new and simple wide-band omnidirectional square cylindrical monopole antenna. The antenna is easily fabricated from bending a cross-shaped metal plate into a square cylindrical
shape (see Fig. 1). Owing to its symmetric conguration, the antenna
is expected to provide good omnidirectional radiation, similar to the
conventional wire monopole antenna or the cylindrical monopole antenna with an input conical section [2]. In addition, good impedance
matching over a wide frequency range (larger than 4 GHz here) can
be achieved by properly selecting the side width (W in Fig. 1) of the
square cylindrical monopole, the feed gap (d in Fig. 1) of the monopole
to the ground plane, and the width (t in Fig. 1) of the monopoles four
vertical plates. A design example showing good omnidirectional radiation over a wide frequency range covering 2 to 6 GHz is demon-

Fig. 1(a) shows the geometry of the proposed wide-band omnidirectional square cylindrical monopole antenna. The antenna is mounted
at the center of a square ground plane (size 150 2 150 mm2 ) with a
feed gap of d, and is easily obtained from bending a cross-shaped metal
plate, shown in Fig. 1(b), into a square cylindrical cross-sectional area
of W 2 W , which corresponds to the dimensions of the square bottom
surface (denoted as square matching portion here) of the cylindrical
monopole.
Across the feed gap is the central conductor (diameter 1.2 mm) of
a 50
SMA connector located below a via-hole in the center of the
ground plane. The central conductor is connected to the feeding point
A of the antenna. By varying the feed gap d and the area of the square
matching portion (W 2W ), the capacitive coupling between the square
matching portion and the ground plane is varied, which introduces various capacitances to the antennas input impedance. The impedance
matching of the antenna can thus be adjusted. Also note that the four
arms of the cross-shaped metal plates which form the four vertical
plates facing toward four different directions in Fig. 1(a) have the same
width of t, which shows a relatively small effect on the impedance
matching of the antenna, comparing to the parameters W and d.
Also note that the four arms of the cross-shaped metal-plate have
the same length of L, which corresponds to the length L of the proposed square cylindrical monopole. The achievable lower edge frequency (fL , dened to be the lowest frequency with 2:1 VSWR in the
bandwidth) of the antenna bandwidth is mainly controlled by the length
L, which is about 0.15 wavelength of the frequency fL .
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
For achieving a bandwidth covering the 2 to 6 GHz band for IEEE
802.16e application [3], [4], the design dimensions are selected to be
L = 23 mm, W = 8 mm, t = 6 mm, d = 4:5 mm, which are determined from many experimental and simulation results. The simulation
study is performed using Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator
(HFSS) simulation software [5]. The selection of the length L to be
23 mm (corresponds to about 0.15 wavelength of the frequency at 2
GHz) ensures the lower edge frequency of the obtained bandwidth less
than 2 GHz. For the parameters W and d chosen to be 8 and 4.5 mm,
respectively, good impedance matching over the desired bandwidth is
obtained. For the width t, it is selected to be equal to W 0 2 mm (that
is, 6 mm here), leaving narrow slits or spacings between adjacent vertical plates of the proposed antenna. A parametric study of the param-

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Fig. 3.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 53, NO. 8, AUGUST 2005

Measured and simulated radiation patterns at 4 GHz for the antenna studied in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4. Measured maximum gain variations in the azimuthal radiation pattern


versus frequency for the antenna studied in Fig. 2.

eters W , d, and t on the impedance matching will be explored later in


Figs. 68.
Fig. 2 shows the measured and simulated return loss for the
constructed prototype. Good agreement between the measurement
and simulation is seen. From the measured results, the impedance
bandwidth dened by 2:1 VSWR reaches about 4.7 GHz (about 1.9
to 6.6 GHz), covering the desired bandwidth of 2 to 6 GHz. Also note
that the obtained bandwidth, dened by (fU 0 fL )=fC where fU is
the upper edge frequency or the highest frequency with 2:1 VSWR
in the bandwidth and fC is the center frequency of the bandwidth,
reaches about 110%, which is comparable to those of the recently
reported planar monopole antennas [6][8] to cover the 3.1 to 10.6
GHz band (bandwidth ratio also about 110%) for ultrawide-band
(UWB) operation.
Radiation characteristics for frequencies over the bandwidth are also
studied. Fig. 3 plots the measured and simulated radiation patterns at
4 GHz. Note that the radiation patterns are normalized with respect to
the peak gain of the antenna, and agreement between the measurement
and simulation is observed. The radiation patterns are all similar to that
of a conventional wire monopole antenna, and good omnidirectional
radiation patterns in the azimuthal plane (x 0 y plane) are also seen.
As shown in Fig. 4, the measured gain variations in the azimuthal plane
are less than 1.5 dB for frequencies over the bandwidth. For frequencies
less than 5 GHz, the gain variations are even less than 1 dB. Fig. 5
shows the measured antenna gain versus frequencies. The antenna gain
increases monotonically from about 3.3 to 6.0 dBi.
Effects of the antenna parameters on the impedance matching of the
antenna are also analyzed. Fig. 6 shows the measured return loss as a
function of W ; other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2. It is seen
that the side width W has a large effect on the upper edge frequency
fU of the obtained bandwidth. For the side width W varied from 10 to
7 mm, there shows a largest fU (about 6.6 GHz) for W = 8 mm. When
W = 9 or 10 mm, the frequency fU is decreased to be lower than 6

Fig. 5.

Measured peak antenna gain for the antenna studied in Fig. 2.

Fig. 6.

Measured return loss as a function of W ; L = 23 mm,

= 4:5 mm.

= 6 mm,

GHz. On the other hand, the side width W shows a relatively small
effect on the lower edge frequency fL . However, when W = 7 mm,
the impedance matching for lower frequencies (about 2 to 5 GHz) in
the desired bandwidth is quickly degraded.
Effects of the feed gap d on the impedance matching are also studied.
Fig. 7 shows the measured return loss as a function of d. When the
feed gap d varies from 2.5 to 5.5 mm, large variations in the measured return loss are seen. When a smaller feed gap is used, improved
impedance matching for lower frequencies in the desired bandwidth is
seen. However, degraded impedance matching for higher frequencies in
the desired bandwidth is also observed. Conversely, when a large feed
gap is used, the impedance matching is degraded for lower frequencies
and improved for higher frequencies. Thus, in order to achieve good
impedance matching for both lower and higher frequencies over the
desired bandwidth, a proper selection of the feed gap is important, and
it is selected to be 4.5 mm here. In this case good impedance matching
(better than 2:1 VSWR) over the desired bandwidth of 2 to 6 GHz is
achieved.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 53, NO. 8, AUGUST 2005

2761

has been demonstrated. Very good omnidirectional radiation over the


desired bandwidth has been obtained. Effects of the parameters of the
proposed antenna on the impedance matching have also been analyzed.
REFERENCES

Fig. 7. Measured return loss as a function of d; L = 23 mm, W = 8 mm,


t = 6 mm.

Fig. 8. Measured return loss as a function of t; L = 23 mm,


d = 4:5 mm.

[1] K. L. Wong, Planar Antennas for Wireless Communications. New


York: Wiley, 2003.
[2] J. D. Kraus, Antennas, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988, p. 379.
[3] IEEE 802.16 Working Group on Broadband Wireless Access Standards.
[4] Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access Forum or WiMAX
Forum.
[5] Ansoft Corporation [Online]. Available: http://www.ansoft.com
[6] A. J. Kerhoff, R. L. Rogers, and H. Ling, Design and analysis of planar
monopole antennas using a genetic algorithm approach, IEEE Trans.
Antennas Propag., vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 27092711, Oct. 2004.
[7] K. Kiminami, A. Hirata, and T. Shiozawa, Double-sided printed
bow-tie antenna for UWB communications, IEEE Antennas Wireless
Propag. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 152153, 2004.
[8] K. L. Wong, C. H. Wu, and S. W. Su, Ultrawide-Band square planar
metal-plate monopole antenna with a trident-shaped feeding strip, IEEE
Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 12621269, Apr. 2005.
[9] E. Antonino-Daviu, M. Cabedo-Fabres, M. Ferrando-Bataller, and A.
Valero-Nogueira, A discussion on the feed conguration of planar
monopole antennas to obtain ultra wide band performance, in 2004
IEEE Antennas Propag. Soc. Int. Symp. Dig., Monterey, CA, pp.
18671870.
[10] W. L. Stutzman and G. A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, 2nd ed.
New York: Wiley, 1998, pp. 172173.
[11] Y. L. Kuo and K. L. Wong, Printed double-T monopole antenna for
2.4/5.2 GHz dual-band WLAN operations, IEEE Trans. Antennas
Propag., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 21872192, Sep. 2003.

= 8 mm,

Fig. 8 shows the measured return loss as a function of t. Note that for
= 8 mm, the four vertical plates in Fig. 1(a) have the same width as
the side width W of the square matching portion. In this case the four
vertical plates are electrically connected together in the experiment, and
the measured upper edge frequency is decreased to be at about 6 GHz,
thus leading to a smaller bandwidth as compared to that for the case
with t = 6 mm. This behavior is probably because, with t chosen to
be less than W , there are slits or spacings between adjacent vertical
plates, which can suppress the horizontal surface currents excited in
the vertical plates and lead to intensied vertical excited surface currents for the antenna. This also corresponds to a more uniform surface
current distribution excited for the antenna. In this case an enhanced
impedance bandwidth can be obtained [8], [9].
On the other hand, for the cases with t = 2, 4, and 6 mm, it is seen
that the larger the width t, the smaller is the frequency fU and the larger
is the frequency fL . That is, among the cases with t = 2; 4; and 6 mm,
a maximum bandwidth can be obtained for t = 6 mm. This behavior
agrees with the general rule that the thicker the wire monopole/dipole,
the wider is its bandwidth [10]. Similar results have also been obtained
for a printed monopole antenna with a wider strip width [11]. From
the obtained results, it indicates that the width t should be chosen to
be close to (but not equal to) the width W in the proposed antenna for
achieving a maximum bandwidth.
t

IV. CONCLUSION
A new square cylindrical metal-plate monopole antenna for
achieving wide-band omnidirectional radiation has been proposed.
The antenna has a simple conguration and is easy to implement
from bending a cross-shaped metal plate. A design example of the
proposed antenna for IEEE 802.16e operation in the 2 to 6 GHz band

Radiation From Cavity-Backed Apertures in a


Conducting Plane
Jong W. Zeong and Hyo J. Eom
AbstractElectromagnetic wave radiation from cavity-backed apertures in a conducting plane is investigated. The Fourier transform and
mode matching technique are used to obtain simultaneous equations for
the modal coefcients. The simultaneous equations are solved to investigate
radiation in terms of the aperture geometry. The presented formulation
is suitable for analyzing radiation from a rectangular aperture antenna
backed by a cavity.
Index TermsAperture antenna, Fourier transform, mode matching
technique.

I. INTRODUCTION
Cavity-backed aperture antennas nd many practical applications
in microwave and millimeter wave frequencies. For example, the
cavity-backed aperture antenna can be used as elements for wireless
transmission of microwave energy [1]. A general formulation for
the aperture in a screen has been studied in [2] using the method of

Manuscript received July 7, 2004; revised October 25, 2004. This work was
supported by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation under project R012002-000-00189-0.
The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer
Science, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Daejeon,
Korea (e-mail: hjeom@ee.kaist.ac.kr).
Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TAP.2005.851785

0018-926X/$20.00 2005 IEEE