design of slabs for shear
ACI 318

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design of slabs for shear
ACI 318

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Part 8: Design of Two-Way Slabs Shear

by

Dr. S. K. Ghosh

S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc.

Palatine, IL and Aliso Viejo, CA

USA

A web seminar series in cooperation with and under sponsorship of the

Department of Municipal Affairs, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE

www.skghoshassociates.com

334 East Col f ax St reet , Uni t E 43 Vant i s Dri ve

Pal ati ne, IL 60067 Al i so Vi ej o, CA 92656

Ph: (847) 991-2700 Fax: (847) 991-2702 Ph: (949) 249-3739 Fax: (949) 249-3989

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- 1 -

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN IN COMPLIANCE WITH

ACI 318M-08: DESIGN OF TWO-WAY SLABS - SHEAR

Please stay tuned. We will be starting at

8:00 am UAE Time.

You will be able to listen to the seminar

using computer speakers

If you are encountering technical difficulties, please call 00 1 847 991 2700

Visit us at: www.skghoshassociates.com

SKGA Web Seminar

in cooperation with and under sponsorship of

the Department of Municipal Affairs, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE

- 2 -

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN IN

COMPLIANCE WITH ACI 318M-08

A web seminar series in cooperation with and under sponsorship of

the Department of Municipal Affairs, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Part 9: DESIGN OF TWO-WAY SLABS -

SHEAR

S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc.

Palatine, IL and Aliso Viejo, CA

www.skghoshassociates.com

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Shear in Two-Way Slab Systems

Shear is typically not critical where a two-way slab

system is supported on beams and/or walls.

However, shear can be critical for flat plates or flat

slabs directly supported on columns. Shear strength

at an exterior slab-column connection is especially

critical because the total exterior negative slab

moment must be transferred to the edge column.

- 4 -

Unbalanced moment

Moment distribution: gravity load

Moment distribution: lateral load

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Shear in Two-Way Slab Systems

Two types of shear are checked for flat plates or flat

slabs directly supported by columns.

- One-way shear (beam-type shear)

- Two-way shear (punching shear)

- 6 -

Shear in Two-Way Slab Systems

One-way shear (beam-type shear)

- slab acts as a wide beam spanning between

columns

- critical section is taken at a distance d (effective

depth of slab) away from the column face

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Shear in Two-Way Slab Systems

Two-way shear (punching shear)

- failure line occurs along the surface of a truncated

cone or pyramid around a column

- critical section is taken at a distance d/2 from the

face of the column

- two-way shear is usually more critical than one-way

shear

- 8 -

Shear in Two-Way Slab Systems

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Shear in Two-Way Slab Systems

Direct shear at an interior slab-column joint

(Source: Portland Cement Association, Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete, Skokie, IL, 2008)

One-way shear

Two-way shear

- 10 -

Shear in Two-Way Slab Systems

When no or insignificant moment is transferred from

slab to column, direct shear, which is distributed

uniformly around the critical shear perimeter b

o

,

occurs around slab-column joints.

When significant moment is transferred from slab to

column because of unbalanced gravity loads on

either side of an interior column or horizontal load,

shear transferred from unbalanced moment, in

addition to direct shear, should be considered.

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Shear in Two-Way Slab Systems

ACI 318M-08 Fig. R11.11.7.2: Assumed distribution of shear stress

- 12 -

Critical Section for Shear

ACI 11.11 Provisions for slabs and footings

ACI 11.11.1

The shear strength of slabs and footings in the vicinity

of columns, concentrated loads, or reactions is

governed by the more severe of two conditions

ACI 11.11.1.1. Beam action where each critical

section to be investigated extends in a plane across

the entire width.

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Critical Section for Shear

ACI 11.11.1.2. For two-way action, each of the critical

sections to be investigated shall be located so that its

perimeter b

o

is a minimum but need not approach closer

than d/2 to:

(a) Edges or corners of columns, concentrated loads, or

reaction areas; and

(b) Changes in slab thickness such as edges of capitals,

drop panels, or shear caps.

For two-way action, the slab or footing shall be designed

in accordance with 11.11.2 through 11.11.6

- 14 -

Critical Section for Shear

Tributary areas and critical sections for two-way shear

(Source: Portland Cement Association, Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete, Skokie, IL, 2008)

(Drop panel)

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Critical Section for Shear

Tributary areas and critical sections for two-way shear

(Source: Portland Cement Association, Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete, Skokie, IL, 2008)

column capital Bar or wire reinforcement

- 16 -

Critical Section for Shear

Tributary areas and critical sections for two-way shear

(Source: Portland Cement Association, Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete, Skokie, IL, 2008)

Shearhead reinforcement Headed shear stud reinforcement

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Critical Section for Shear

Commentary to 11.11.1.2

For slabs of uniform thickness, it is sufficient to check

shear on one section. For slabs with changes in

thickness, such as drop panels or shear caps, it is

necessary to check shear at several sections.

For edge columns where the slab cantilevers beyond

the column, the critical perimeter will either be

three-sided or four-sided.

- 18 -

Critical Section for Shear

ACI 11.11.1.3. For square or rectangular columns,

concentrated loads, or reaction areas, the critical

sections with four straight sides shall be permitted.

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Concrete Shear Strength for

Two-Way Action

ACI 11.11.2

The design of a slab or footing for two-way action is

based on Eq. (11-1) and (11-2). V

c

shall be

computed in accordance with 11.11.2.1, 11.11.2.2,

or 11.11.3.1. V

s

shall be computed in accordance

with 11.11.3. For slabs with shearheads, V

n

shall be

in accordance with 11.11.4. When moment is

transferred between a slab and a column, 11.11.6

shall apply.

- 20 -

Concrete Shear Strength for

Two-Way Action

ACI 11.11.2.1. For nonprestressed slabs and footings,

V

c

shall be the smallest of (a), (b), and (c):

(a)

Where is the ratio of long side to short side of the

column, concentrated load or reaction area;

d b f

2

1 17 . 0 V

o

'

c c

+ =

ACI Eq. (11-31)

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- 21 -

Concrete Shear Strength for

Two-Way Action

(b)

where

s

is 40 for interior columns, 30 for edge

columns, 20 for corner columns; and

(c)

ACI Eq. (11-32)

ACI Eq. (11-33)

d b f 2

b

d

083 . 0 V

o

'

c

o

s

c

=

d b f 33 . 0 V

o

'

c c

=

- 22 -

Concrete Shear Strength for

Two-Way Action

ACI 318M-08 Fig. R11.11.2: Value of for a nonrectangular loaded area

12

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- 23 -

Concrete Shear Strength for

Two-Way Action

Effect of on two-way shear strength V

c

(Source: Portland Cement Association, Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete, Skokie, IL, 2008)

0.08

0.17

0.25

0.33

1/

d b f . V

o

'

c c

+ =

2

1 17 0

d b f

V

o

'

c

c

- 24 -

Concrete Shear Strength for

Two-Way Action

Effect of b

o

/d on two-way shear strength V

c

(Source: Portland Cement Association, Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete, Skokie, IL, 2008)

d b f

V

o

'

c

c

0.08

0.17

0.25

0.33

b

o

/d

d/b

o

d b f

b

d

. V

o

'

c

o

s

c

= 2 083 0

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Shear Strength Provided by Bars, Wires,

and Single or Multiple-Leg Stirrups

ACI 11.11.3

Shear reinforcement consisting of bars or wires and

single- or multiple-leg stirrups shall be permitted in

slabs and footings with d greater than or equal to

150 mm, but not less than 16 times the shear

reinforcement bar diameter. Shear reinforcement

shall be in accordance with 11.11.3.1 through

11.11.3.4.

- 26 -

Shear Strength Provided by Bars, Wires,

and Single or Multiple-Leg Stirrups

ACI 318M-08 Fig. R11.11.3 (a) (c): Single- or multiple-leg stirrup-type slab

shear reinforcement

(a) Single-leg stirrup or bar (b) Multiple-leg stirrup or bar

(c) Closed stirrups

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Shear Strength Provided by Bars, Wires,

and Single or Multiple-Leg Stirrups

ACI 11.11.3.1. V

n

shall be computed by Eq. (11-2),

where V

c

shall not be taken greater than

and V

s

shall be calculated in accordance with 11.4.

In Eq. (11-15), A

v

shall be taken as the cross-

sectional area of all legs of reinforcement on one

peripheral line that is geometrically similar to the

perimeter of the column section.

d b f 17 . 0

o

'

c

s c n

V V V + =

s

d f A

V

yt v

s

=

ACI Eq. (11-2)

ACI Eq. (11-15)

- 28 -

Shear Strength Provided by Bars, Wires,

and Single or Multiple-Leg Stirrups

ACI 11.11.3.2. V

n

shall not be taken greater than

ACI 11.11.3.3. The distance between the column face

and the first line of stirrup legs that surrounds the

column shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between

adjacent stirrup legs in the first line of shear

reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a

direction parallel to the column face.

d b f 5 . 0

o

'

c

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- 29 -

Shear Strength Provided by Bars, Wires,

and Single or Multiple-Leg Stirrups

The spacing between successive lines of shear

reinforcement that surround the column shall not

exceed d/2 measured in a direction perpendicular to

the column face.

ACI 11.11.3.4. Slab shear reinforcement shall satisfy

the anchorage requirements of 12.13 and shall

engage the longitudinal flexural reinforcement in the

direction being considered.

- 30 -

Shear Strength Provided by Bars, Wires,

and Single or Multiple-Leg Stirrups

Design and detailing criteria for slabs with stirrups (interior column)

(Source: Portland Cement Association, Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete, Skokie, IL, 2008)

d b f 17 . 0 V

o

'

c u

d b f 50 . 0

s / d f A d b f 17 . 0 V

o

'

c

yt v o

'

c u

+

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Shear Strength Provided by Bars, Wires,

and Single or Multiple-Leg Stirrups

Design and detailing criteria for slabs with stirrups

(edge and corner column)

(Source: Portland Cement Association, Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete, Skokie, IL, 2008)

- 32 -

Shear Strength Provided by

Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement

ACI 11.11.5

Headed shear stud reinforcement, placed

perpendicular to the plane of a slab or footing, shall

be permitted in slabs and footings in accordance

with 11.11.5.1 through 11.11.5.4.

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- 33 -

Shear Strength Provided by

Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement

The overall height of the shear stud assembly shall

not be less than the thickness of the member less

the sum of: (1) the concrete cover on the top flexural

reinforcement; (2) the concrete cover on the base

rail; and (3) one-half the bar diameter of the tension

flexural reinforcement.

- 34 -

Shear Strength Provided by

Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement

Where flexural tension reinforcement is at the bottom

of the section, as in a footing, the overall height of

the shear stud assembly shall not be less than the

thickness of the member less the sum of: (1) the

concrete cover on the bottom flexural reinforcement;

(2) the concrete cover on the head of the stud; and

(3) one-half the bar diameter of the bottom flexural

reinforcement.

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- 35 -

Shear Strength Provided by

Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement

Commentary to 11.11.5

Headed shear stud reinforcement was introduced in

the 2008 Code. Using headed stud assemblies as

shear reinforcement in slabs and footings requires

specifying the stud shank diameter, the spacing of

the studs, and the height of the assemblies for the

particular applications.

- 36 -

Shear Strength Provided by

Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement

Tests (J oint ACI-ASCE Committee 421) show that vertical

studs mechanically anchored as close as possible to the

top and bottom of slabs are effective in resisting

punching shear. The bounds of the overall specified

height achieve this objective while providing a

reasonable tolerance in specifying that height as shown

in Figure R7.7.5.

J oint ACI-ASCE Committee 421, Shear Reinforcement for

Slabs (ACI 421.1R-99) (Reapproved 2006),American

Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 1999, 15 pp.

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- 37 -

Shear Strength Provided by

Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement

ACI 318M-08 Fig. R7.7.5: Concrete cover requirements for headed shear

stud reinforcement

- 38 -

Shear Strength Provided by

Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement

ACI 318M-08 Fig. R7.7.5: Concrete cover requirements for headed shear

stud reinforcement

20

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- 39 -

Shear Strength Provided by

Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement

ACI 11.11.5.1. For the critical section defined in

11.11.1.2, V

n

shall be computed using Eq. (11-2),

with V

c

and V

n

not exceeding and

, respectively.

d b f 25 . 0

o

'

c

d b f 66 . 0

o

'

c

- 40 -

Shear Strength Provided by

Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement

V

s

shall be calculated using Eq. (11-15) with A

v

equal

to the cross-sectional area of all the shear

reinforcement on one peripheral line that is

approximately parallel to the perimeter of the

column section, where s is the spacing of the

peripheral lines of headed shear stud reinforcement.

A

v

f

yt

/(b

o

s) shall not be less than

'

c

f .17 0

s

d f A

V

yt v

s

= ACI Eq. (11-15)

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- 41 -

Shear Strength Provided by

Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement

ACI 11.11.5.2. The spacing between the column face

and the first peripheral line of shear reinforcement

shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between

peripheral lines of shear reinforcement,measured in

a direction perpendicular to any face of the column,

shall be constant.

- 42 -

Shear Strength Provided by

Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement

For prestressed slabs or footings satisfying 11.11.2.2, this

spacing shall not exceed 0.75d; for all other slabs and

footings, the spacing shall be based on the value of the

shear stress due to factored shear force and unbalanced

moment at the critical section defined in 11.11.1.2, and

shall not exceed:

(a) 0.75d where maximum shear stresses due to factored

loads are less than or equal to and

(b) 0.5d where maximum shear stresses due to factored

loads are greater than

'

c

f 5 . 0

'

c

f 5 . 0

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- 43 -

Shear Strength Provided by

Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement

Commentary to 11.11.5.2

The specified spacing between peripheral lines of

shear reinforcement are justified by experiments

(J oint ACI-ASCE Committee 421). The clear

spacing between the heads of the studs should be

adequate to permit placing of the flexural

reinforcement.

- 44 -

Shear Strength Provided by

Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement

ACI 11.11.5.3. The spacing between adjacent shear

reinforcement elements, measured on the perimeter

of the first peripheral line of shear reinforcement,

shall not exceed 2d.

ACI 11.11.5.4. Shear stress due to factored shear

force and moment shall not exceed at

the critical section located d/2 outside the outermost

peripheral line of shear reinforcement.

d b f 17 . 0

o

'

c

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- 45 -

Shear Strength Provided by

Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement

ACI 318M-08 Fig. R11.11.5: Typical arrangements of headed shear stud

reinforcement and critical sections

- 46 -

BREAK!

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- 47 -

QuestionandAnswerSession

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- 48 -

Openings in Slabs

ACI 11.11.6 Openings in slabs

When openings in slabs are located at a distance less

than 10 times the slab thickness from a

concentrated load or reaction area, or when

openings in flat slabs are located within column

strips as defined in Chapter 13, the critical slab

sections for shear defined in 11.11.1.2 and

11.11.4.7 shall be modified as follows:

25

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Openings in Slabs

ACI 11.11.6.1. For slabs without shearheads, that part

of the perimeter of the critical section that is

enclosed by straight lines projecting from the

centroid of the column, concentrated load, or

reaction area and tangent to the boundaries of the

openings shall be considered ineffective.

ACI 11.11.6.2. For slabs with shearheads, the

ineffective portion of the perimeter shall be one-half

of that defined in 11.11.6.1.

- 50 -

Openings in Slabs

Effect of openings in slabs on shear strength

(Source: Portland Cement Association, Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete, Skokie, IL, 2008)

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- 51 -

Transfer of Moment in Slab-

Column Connections

ACI considers transfer of moment between a slab and

a column in 13.5.3 and 11.11.7.

Critical section for shear due to moment transfer is

d(effective depth)/2 from the face of the column,

which is the same critical section for direct two-way

shear.

- 52 -

Transfer of Moment in Slab-

Column Connections

The total shear stress due to direct shear and shear

caused by moment transfer is

where

V

u

=direct shear at the critical section

A

c

=area of critical section

J

c M

A

V

v

u v

c

u

u

+ =

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- 53 -

Transfer of Moment in Slab-

Column Connections

v

=factor used to determine the unbalanced moment

transferred by eccentricity of shear at slab-column

connections

M

u

=unbalanced moment

c =distance from centroid of critical section to

face of section where stress is being computed

J =property of critical section analogous to polar

moment of inertia

- 54 -

Transfer of Moment in Slab-

Column Connections

Shear stress distribution due to moment-shear transfer at slab-column

connections

(Source: Portland Cement Association, Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete, Skokie, IL, 2008)

28

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- 55 -

Transfer of Moment in Slab-

Column Connections

ACI 13.5.3

When gravity load, wind, earthquake, or other lateral

forces cause transfer of moment between slab and

column, a fraction of the unbalanced moment shall

be transferred by flexure in accordance with

13.5.3.2 through 13.5.3.4.

ACI 13.5.3.1. The fraction of unbalanced moment not

transferred by flexure shall be transferred by

eccentricity of shear in accordance with 11.11.7.

- 56 -

Transfer of Moment in Slab-

Column Connections

ACI 13.5.3.2. A fraction of the unbalanced moment

given by

f

M

u

shall be considered to be transferred

by flexure within an effective slab width between

lines that are one and one-half slab or drop panel

thickness (1.5h) outside opposite faces of the

column or capital, where M

u

is the factored moment

to be transferred and

( )

2 1

3 2 1

1

b b

f

+

= ACI Eq. (13-1)

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- 57 -

Transfer of Moment in Slab-

Column Connections

Parameters b

1

and b

2

(Source: Portland Cement Association, Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete, Skokie, IL, 2008)

- 58 -

Transfer of Moment in Slab-

Column Connections

ACI 13.5.3.3. For nonprestressed slabs with

unbalanced moments transferred between the slab

and columns, it shall be permitted to increase the

value of

f

given by Eq. (13-1) in accordance with

the following:

(a) For edge columns with unbalanced moments

about an axis parallel to the edge,

f

=1.0 provided

that V

u

at an edge support does not exceed

0.75V

c

, or at a corner support does not exceed

0.5V

c

.

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- 59 -

Transfer of Moment in Slab-

Column Connections

(b) For unbalanced moments at interior support, and for

edge columns unbalanced moments about an axis

perpendicular to the edge, increase

f

to as much as

1.25 times the value from Eq. (13-1), but not more than

f

=1.0, provided that V

u

at the support does not exceed

0.4V

c

. The net tensile strain

t

calculated for the

effective slab width defined in 13.5.3.2 (c

2

+3h) shall not

be less than 0.010.

The value of V

c

in item (a) and (b) shall be calculated in

accordance with 11.11.2.1 (Eqs. 11-31, 11-32, 11-33).

- 60 -

Transfer of Moment in Slab-

Column Connections

Commentary to 13.5.3.3

At exterior supports, for unbalanced moments about an

axis parallel to the edge, the portion of moment

transferred by eccentricity of shear

v

M

u

may be

reduced provided that the factored shear at the support

(excluding the shear produced by moment transfer)

does not exceed 75 percent of the shear strength V

c

as

defined in 11.12.2.1 for edge columns or 50 percent for

corner columns. Tests indicate that there is no

significant interaction between shear and unbalanced

moment at the exterior support in such cases.

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- 61 -

Transfer of Moment in Slab-

Column Connections

Evaluation of tests of interior supports indicate that

some flexibility in distributing unbalanced moments

transferred by shear and flexure is possible, but with

more severe limitations than for exterior supports.

For interior supports, the unbalanced moment

transferred by flexure is permitted to be increased

up to 25 percent provided that the factored shear

(excluding the shear caused by the moment

transfer) at the interior supports does not exceed 40

percent of the shear strength V

c

as defined in

11.11.2.1.

- 62 -

Transfer of Moment in Slab-

Column Connections

ACI 13.5.3.4. Concentration of reinforcement over the

column by closer spacing or additional

reinforcement shall be used to resist moment on the

effective slab width defined in 13.5.3.2.

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- 63 -

Transfer of moment in slab-

column connections

Often column strip reinforcement is concentrated near

the column to accommodate this unbalanced

moment. Available test data (Hanson and Hanson

1968) seem to indicate that this practice does not

increase shear strength but may be desirable to

increase the stiffness of the slab-column junction.

Hanson, N.W., and Hanson J .M., Shear and Moment

Transfer between Concrete Slabs and Columns,

Journal, PCA Research and Development

Labortories, V.10, No.1, J an. 1968, pp. 2-16.

- 64 -

Transfer of moment in slab-

column connections

ACI 11.11.7 Transfer of moment in slab-column

connections

ACI 11.11.7.1. Where gravity load, wind, earthquake,

or other lateral forces cause transfer of unbalanced

moment M

u

between a slab and column,

f

M

u

shall

be transferred by flexure in accordance with 13.5.3.

33

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- 65 -

Transfer of moment in slab-

column connections

The remainder of the unbalanced moment,

v

M

u

, shall

be considered to be transferred by eccentricity of

shear about the centroid of the critical section

defined in 11.11.1.2 where

v

=(1

f

) ACI Eq. (11-37)

- 66 -

Transfer of moment in slab-

column connections

Graphical solution of ACI Eqs. (13-1) and (11-37)

(Source: Portland Cement Association, Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete, Skokie, IL, 2008)

34

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- 67 -

Transfer of moment in slab-

column connections

ACI 11.11.7.2. The shear stress resulting from

moment transfer by eccentricity of shear shall be

assumed to vary linearly about the centroid of the

critical sections defined in 11.11.1.2. The maximum

shear stress due to V

u

and M

u

shall not exceed v

n

:

(a) For members without shear reinforcement

v

n

=V

c

/(b

o

d) ACI Eq. (11-38)

where V

c

is as defined in 11.11.2.1 or 11.11.2.2.

- 68 -

Transfer of moment in slab-

column connections

For members with shear reinforcement other than

shearheads,

v

n

=(V

c

+V

s

)/(b

o

d) ACI Eq. (11-39)

Where V

c

and V

s

are defined in 11.11.3.1. The design

shall take into account the variation of shear stress

around the column.

35

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- 69 -

Transfer of moment in slab-

column connections

The shear stress due to factored shear force and

moment shall not exceed at the critical

section located d/2 outside the outermost line of

stirrup legs that surround the column.

) f . (

'

c

17 0

- 70 -

Transfer of moment in slab-

column connections

ACI 318M-08 Fig. R11.11.7.2: Assumed distribution of shear stress

36

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Transfer of moment in slab-

column connections

Commentary to 11.11.7.2

The stress distribution is assumed as illustrated in

Figure R11.11.7.2 for an interior or exterior column.

The perimeter of the critical section, ABCD, is

determined in accordance with 11.11.1.2. The

factored shear force V

u

and unbalanced factored

moment M

u

are determined at the centroidal axis c-c

of the critical section. The maximum factored shear

stress may be calculated from

- 72 -

Transfer of moment in slab-

column connections

or

where

v

is given by Eq. (11-37). For an interior

column, A

c

and J

c

may be calculated as shown on

the next slide.

c

AB u v

c

u

u

J

c M

A

V

) AB ( v

+ =

c

CD u v

c

u

u

J

c M

A

V

) CD ( v

=

37

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- 73 -

Transfer of moment in slab-

column connections

A

c

=area of concrete of assumed critical section

=2d (c

1

+c

2

+2d)

J

c

=property of assumed critical section analogous to

polar moment of inertia

=

Similar equations may be developed for A

c

and J

c

, for

columns located at the edge or corner of a slab.

( ) ( ) ( )( )

2

d c d c d

6

d d c

6

d c d

2

1 2

3

1

3

1

+ +

+

+

+

+

- 74 -

Transfer of moment in slab-

column connections

Section properties for shear stress computations

(Source: Portland Cement Association, Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete, Skokie, IL, 2008)

38

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- 75 -

Transfer of moment in slab-

column connections

Section properties for shear stress computations

(Source: Portland Cement Association, Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete, Skokie, IL, 2008)

- 76 -

Transfer of moment in slab-

column connections

Section properties for shear stress computations

(Source: Portland Cement Association, Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete, Skokie, IL, 2008)

39

S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc.

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- 77 -

Transfer of moment in slab-

column connections

Section properties for shear stress computations

(Source: Portland Cement Association, Notes on ACI 318-08 Building Code

Requirements for Structural Concrete, Skokie, IL, 2008)

- 78 -

Factored Shear in Slab Systems

with Beams

ACI 13.6.8 Factored shear in slab systems with

beams

ACI 13.6.8.1. Beams with

f1

l

2

/l

1

equal to or greater

than 1.0 shall be proportioned to resist shear

caused by factored loads on tributary areas which

are bounded by 45-degree lines drawn from the

corners of the panels and the centerlines of the

adjacent panels parallel to the long sides.

40

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- 79 -

Factored Shear in Slab Systems

with Beams

f1

=[(E

cb

I

b

)/(E

cs

I

s

)] in direction l

1

l

1

=length of span in direction that moments are

being determined

l

2

=length of span in direction perpendicular to l

1

.

E

cb

I

b

=Flexural stiffness of beam

E

cs

I

s

=Flexural stiffness of slab

- 80 -

Factored Shear in Slab Systems

with Beams

ACI 318M-08 Fig. R13.6.8: Tributary area for shear on an interior beam

41

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- 81 -

Factored Shear in Slab Systems

with Beams

ACI 13.6.8.2. In proportioning beams with

f1

l

2

/l

1

less

than 1.0 to resist shear, linear interpolation,

assuming beams carry no load at

f1

=0, shall be

permitted.

ACI 13.6.8.3. In addition to shears calculated

according to 13.6.8.1 and 13.6.8.2, beams shall be

proportioned to resist shears caused by factored

loads applied directly on beams.

- 82 -

Factored Shear in Slab Systems

with Beams

ACI 13.6.8.4. Computation of slab shear strength on

the assumption that load is distributed to supporting

beams in accordance with 13.6.8.1 or 13.6.8.2 shall

be permitted. Resistance to total shear occurring on

a panel shall be provided.

ACI 13.6.8.5. Shear strength shall satisfy the

requirements of Chapter 11.

42

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- 84 -

QuestionandAnswerSession

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- 85 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Check shear for the shaded design strip as shown

below

5.5 m

5.5 m

5.5 m

4.3 m 4.3 m 4.3 m

Design Direction

- 86 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Structural system

Two-way slab systems without beams (flat plate

slab system); no edge beams

Material properties

Concrete: f

c

=40 MPa w

c

=2400 kg/m

3

Reinforcement: f

y

=420 MPa

44

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- 87 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Member dimension

Column: 400 mm 400 mm

Loading condition

Live load =2.0 kN/m

2

Partition load =1.0 kN/m

2

- 88 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Determine slab thickness

From ACI Table 9-5 (c)

h =l

n

/ 30

=(5500 400) / 30 =170 mm

Use 200 mm

According to ACI 9.5.3.2, allowable minimum

thickness is 125 mm <200 mm O.K.

45

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- 89 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Effective depth d =200 32 (20 mm cover and

diameter of one No.12 bar =20 +12 =32 mm) =

168 mm

- 90 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Determine factored load q

u

Dead load (q

D

):

q

D

=0.2 2400 9.8/1000 =4.7 kN/m

2

Live load (q

L

):

Reducible live load (2009 IBC Section 1607.9.2)

R =0.861(A 13.94)

=0.861(23.65 13.94) =8.4 %

where A =4.3 5.5 =23.65 m

2

46

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- 91 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Reducible live load =(1-0.084)2.0 =1.83 kN/m

2

Non-reducible live load (Partition) =1.0 kN/m

2

q

L

=1.83 +1.0 =2.83 kN/m

2

q

u

=1.4q

D

=1.44.7 =6.58 kN/m

2

=1.2q

D

+1.6q

L

=1.24.7+1.62.83

=10.2 kN/m

2

(Governs)

- 92 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Check one-way shear (interior column)

Panel centerline

4.3 m

5.5 m

Critical section

for one-way shear

0.4 m

0.4 m

Slab effective depth

d=0.168 m

Design

Direction

47

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- 93 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Factored shear at critical section:

V

u

=10.2(5.5/2 0.4/2 0.168)4.3

=104 kN

V

c

=0.750.17(f

c

)

0.5

b

w

d

=0.750.171.0(40)

0.5

43001681/1000

=583 kN >V

u

(=104 kN) O.K.

- 94 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Check one-way shear (edge column)

Panel

centerline

4.3 m

5.5/2 =2.75 m

Critical section

for one-way shear

0.4 m

0.4 m

Slab effective depth

d=0.168 m

Design Direction

48

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- 95 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Factored shear at critical section:

V

u

=10.2(2.75 0.4/2 0.168)4.3

=104 kN

V

c

=0.750.17(f

c

)

0.5

b

w

d

=0.750.171.0(40)

0.5

43001681/1000

=583 kN >V

u

(=104 kN) O.K.

- 96 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Check two-way shear (Interior column)

Panel centerline

4.3 m

5.5 m

Critical section

for two-way shear

0.4 m

0.4 m

d/2=0.084 m

d/2=0.084 m

Design

Direction

49

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- 97 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Side dimension of square critical section =400 +168

=568 mm

Factored shear at critical section:

V

u

=10.2(5.54.3 0.5680.568)

=238 kN

- 98 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Shear strength V

c

for two-way slab (ACI 11.11.2.1)

=0.4 / 0.4 =1.0

s

=40 (Interior)

b

o

=4568 =2272 mm

d b f

2

1 17 . 0 V

o

'

c c

+ =

d b f 2

b

d

083 . 0 V

o

'

c

o

s

c

=

d b f 33 . 0 V

o

'

c c

=

ACI Eq. (11-31)

ACI Eq. (11-32)

ACI Eq. (11-33)

50

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Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

V

c

=0.75 797 =598 kN >V

u

(=238 kN) O.K.

kN 1231 1000 / 168 2272 40

1

2

1 17 . 0

d b f

2

1 17 . 0 V

o

'

c c

=

+ =

+ =

kN 993 1000 / 168 2272 40 2

2272

168 40

083 . 0

d b f 2

b

d

083 . 0 V

o

'

c

o

s

c

=

=

kN 797 1000 / 168 2272 40 33 . 0 d b f 33 . 0 V

o

'

c c

= = = (Governs)

- 100 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Check two-way shear (edge column)

Panel

centerline

4.3 m

5.5/2 =2.75 m

Critical section

for two-way shear

0.4 m

0.4 m

d/2=0.084 m

Design Direction

d/2=0.084 m

51

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- 101 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Dimension of critical section, b

1

=400 +168 =568 mm

Dimension of critical section, b

2

=400 +168/2 =484 mm

Factored shear at critical section:

V

u

=10.2[(5.5/2+0.2)4.3 0.5680.484]

=127 kN

- 102 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Shear strength V

c

for two-way slab (ACI 11.11.2.1)

=0.4 / 0.4 =1.0

s

=30 (Edge column)

b

o

=568 +484 +484 =1536 mm

d b f

2

1 17 . 0 V

o

'

c c

+ =

d b f 2

b

d

083 . 0 V

o

'

c

o

s

c

=

d b f 33 . 0 V

o

'

c c

=

ACI Eq. (11-31)

ACI Eq. (11-32)

ACI Eq. (11-33)

52

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- 103 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

V

c

=0.75 539 =404 kN >V

u

(=127 kN) O.K.

Slab thickness is determined as 200 mm.

kN 832 1000 / 168 1536 40

1

2

1 17 . 0

d b f

2

1 17 . 0 V

o

'

c c

=

+ =

+ =

kN 715 1000 / 168 1536 40 2

1536

168 30

083 . 0

d b f 2

b

d

083 . 0 V

o

'

c

o

s

c

=

=

kN 539 1000 / 168 1536 40 33 . 0 d b f 33 . 0 V

o

'

c c

= = = (Governs)

- 104 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Direct Design Method can be used for this example

(13.6.1). Positive and negative moments at column

and middle strips were determined using Direct

Design Method.

53

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- 105 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Total factored moment (M

o

)

where

q

u

=factored load (10.2 kN/m

2

)

l

2

=length perpendicular to design direction (4.3m)

l

n

=clear span length in design direction (5.1m)

m kN 6 . 142

8

1 . 5 3 . 4 2 . 10

8

q

M

2

2

n 2 u

o

=

=

=

l l

- 106 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Table: Moments and provided reinforcement

Location M

u

(kN-m) Width

(mm)

Required

A

s

(mm

2

)

Provided

reinforcement

End Span Column

strip

Ext. neg. 0.26M

o

=37.1 2150 583 9 No.12

Positive 0.31M

o

=44.2 2150 696 7 No.12

Int. neg. 0.53M

o

=75.6 2150 1201 11 No.12

Middle strip Ext. neg. 0.0M

o

=0 2150 0 7 No.12

Positive 0.21M

o

=30.0 2150 471 7 No.12

Int. neg. 0.17M

o

=44.2 2150 696 7 No.12

Interior

Span

Column

strip

Positive 0.21M

o

=30.0 2150 471 7 No.12

Negative 0.49M

o

=69.9 2150 1109 11 No.12

Middle strip Positive 0.14M

o

=20.0 2150 313 7 No.12

Negative 0.16M

o

=22.8 2150 357 7 No.12

Minimum A

s

=0.0018bh =0.00182150200 =774 mm

2

, Maximum spacing =2h =400 mm, Use 7-No.12 (A

s

=791 mm

2

) to

satisfy minimum A

s

and maximum spacing

54

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- 107 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Shear Design

Total shear stress is the sum of the direct shear stress

plus the shear stress due to the fraction of

unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of

shear. Assume shear stress due to moment transfer

by eccentricity of shear varies linearly about the

centroid of the section.

- 108 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Case 1: Shear check at end support

Panel

centerline

4.3 m

5.5/2 =2.75 m

Critical section

for two-way shear

0.4 m

0.4 m

d/2=0.084 m

Design Direction

d/2=0.084 m

55

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- 109 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Direct shear V

u

can be computed as below

A =area tributary to column

=(5.5/2+0.2)4.3 =12.69 m

2

b

1

=dimension of critical section in direction

of analysis =0.4 +0.168/2 =0.484 m

( )

n

2 1

2 1 u u

M M

b b A q V

l

=

- 110 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

b

2

=dimension of critical section perpendicular to

direction of analysis

=0.4 +0.168 =0.568 m

M

1

=total negative design strip moment at interior

support determined from Direct Design Method

=0.70M

o

=99.8 kN-m

M

2

=total negative design strip moment at exterior

support determined from Direct Design Method

=0.26M

o

=37.1 kN-m

56

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- 111 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

( )

[ ]

kN 3 . 114 3 . 12 6 . 126

1 . 5

1 . 37 8 . 99

568 . 0 484 . 0 69 . 12 2 . 10

M M

b b A q V

n

2 1

2 1 u u

= =

=

l

- 112 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Total shear stress is computed as follows:

A

c

=area of concrete section resisting shear

transfer =b

o

d =(20.484+0.568)0.168 =0.26 m

2

J

c M

A

V

v

u v

c

u

u

+ =

( ) ( )

62 . 0

568 . 0 484 . 0 3 2 1

1

b b 3 2 1

1

2 1

f

=

+

=

+

=

57

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- 113 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

0.4V

c

(=0.4404 =162 kN) >V

u

(=114.3 kN)

Use 5-No.12 bars over effective width equal to c

2

+3h =400

+3200 =1000 mm. From section analysis, a (the depth

of rectangular stress block) is 7.0 mm.

c (distance from top to neutral axis) = a/

1

=7/0.76 =9.2 mm

t

(net tensile strain) =0.003(d-c)/c

=0.003(168-9.2)/9.2 =0.052 >0.01

Thus,

f

=1.250.62 =0.78;

v

=1-

f

=1 0.78 =0.22

M

u

=0.3M

o

=42.8 kN-m (ACI 13.6.3.6)

- 114 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Therefore,

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

3

3 2

1

2 1

3

2 1

2

1

m 0464 . 0

484 . 0 6

568 . 0 484 . 0 2 168 . 0 568 . 0 2 484 . 0 168 . 0 484 . 0 2

b 6

b b 2 d b 2 b d b 2

c

J

=

+ + +

=

+ + +

=

2

u v

c

u

u

m / kN 643

0464 . 0

8 . 42 22 . 0

26 . 0

3 . 114

J

c M

A

V

v

=

+ =

+ =

58

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- 115 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Shear strength

v

c

=0.750.33(40)

0.5

=1.56 N/mm

2

=1560 kN/m

2

>V

u

(=643 kN/m

2

) O.K.

- 116 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Case 2: Shear check at interior support

Panel centerline

4.3 m

5.5 m

Critical section

for two-way shear

0.4 m

0.4 m

d/2=0.084 m

d/2=0.084 m

Design

Direction

59

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- 117 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

where

A =5.54.3 =23.65 m

2

b

1

=b

2

=0.4 +0.168 =0.568 m

M

1

=0.70M

o

=99.8 kN-m

M

2

=0.26M

o

=37.1 kN-m

( )

[ ] kN 3 . 250 3 . 12 0 . 238

1 . 5

1 . 37 8 . 99

568 . 0 65 . 23 2 . 10

M M

b b A q V

2

n

2 1

2 1 u u

= + =

+ =

+ =

l

- 118 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

Total shear stress is computed.

A

c

=b

o

d =2(0.568+0.568)0.168

=0.38 m

2

( )

( )

3

3

3

2 1 1

m 0738 . 0

3

168 . 0 568 . 0 3 568 . 0 168 . 0 568 . 0

3

d b 3 b d b

c

J

=

+ +

=

+ +

=

60

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- 119 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

The difference between the slab moments acting on

opposite faces of the interior support needs to be

transferred by shear to the first interior column.

Exterior moment at the face of the support is 0.70M

o

=

0.70142.6 =99.8 kN-m, and the interior moment at

the face of the support is 0.65M

o

=0.65142.6 =

92.7 kN-m. Therefore, the unbalanced moment M

u

=

99.8 92.7 =7.1 kN-m

- 120 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

0.4V

c

(=0.4598 =239 kN) <V

u

(=250.3 kN)

Thus, there is no increase in

f

(=0.6).

v

=1 0.6 =0.4

( )

60 . 0

568 . 0 568 . 0 3 2 1

1

f

=

+

=

61

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- 121 -

Example 1: Two-Way Slab Shear

Design

v

c

=0.750.33(40)

0.5

=1.56 N/mm

2

=1560 kN/m

2

>V

u

(=697 kN/m

2

) O.K.

2

u v

c

u

u

m / kN 697

0738 . 0

1 . 7 40 . 0

38 . 0

3 . 250

J

c M

A

V

v

=

+ =

+ =

- 122 -

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- 123 -

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For more information

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Palatine, IL 60067

Phone: (847) 991-2700

Fax: (847) 991-2702

Email: skghoshinc@gmail.com

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43 Vantis Drive

Aliso Viejo, CA 92656

Phone: (949) 249-3739

Fax: (949) 249-3989

Email: susandowty@gmail.com

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