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Efficient energy consumption routing schemes for wireless ensor

networks
Vinod Kumar
1,*
, Dr. Mritunjay Rai
2

1
Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, India
2
Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara India.
Abstract
Wireless Sensor Network widely used in versatile environments for sensory information of environment. Sensor nodes are
broadcasting the information over the network and sensor nodes have battery power thats consumable in very small time
units. Energy efficiency is most important issue about sensor network performance. Optimization of efficient energy
consumption in sensor network is the objective of our paper. We have discussed four efficient energy consumption routing
schemes for sensor networks. In these schemes we are working on the sensor network areas and its regions where multiple
nodes are having different fields and regions. By applying the energy efficient techniques we can reduce the energy
consumption of the sensor networks. In this paper we are discussed four energy efficiency schemes Sensor Network Life
Problem (SNLP), Data Structure Representing Sensor Coverage, Centralized Maximization of sensor networks lifetime and
Distributed Algorithms for Lifetime Maximization.
2013 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Sensor network, Energy Consumption Scheduling, SNLP, DSRSC, SMSNL and DAML
1. Introduction
Wireless sensor network provides versatile tools in the battlefield surveillance or environment monitoring to
many application these are implemented on sensitive data and security of these applications crucially. Wireless
sensor network formed and deployed by a number of tiny battery powered sensor nodes. Sensor network are used
to monitoring the variety of fields such as environmental monitoring, military surveillance, forest fires, pollutant
levels or information gathering from inhospitable places. Sensor networks are capable of effective monitoring of
vast physical areas and hence are increasingly being deployed in emerging fields like Smart Grid, health
monitoring of power delivery systems [1,2], etc. These new application scenarios envision smart monitoring and
control through the deployment of hundreds of sensors in real time environments. The sensors have a very limited
energy budget and the bulk of energy is spent by the communication and computation subsystems of a sensor
node.
Wireless Sensor Networks are widely used for monitoring applications where the main purpose is continuous
data collection from environment parameters such as temperature, pressure, speed, etc. Since sensor data streams
are measurements of continuous physical phenomenon, spatial and temporal correlations within data streams are
inherent.
Thus the probability that the data sampled by a node is highly correlated or repetitious over time is quite high.
Consider the sample data trace shown in Fig. 1 consisting of two days of temperature variation in a room [3]. The
Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) readings correspond to the temperature sensor readings. The horizontal
portions in wireless sensor networks hardware constraints, communication and routing issues, data management
problems and software engineering principles etc issues are currently notes for research.
One of the most important issue apart from the above mentioned ones is energy optimization in wireless sensor
networks.
*
Corresponding author.Vinod Kumar
Proceedings of International Conference on Computing Sciences
WILKES100 ICCS 2013
ISBN: 978-93-5107-172-3
420 Elsevier Publications, 2013
Vinod Kumar, Dr. Mritunjay Rai
In sensor network number of nodes is densely deployed either inside the environment or close to it. The position
of sensor nodes not engineered or predetermined. It has random deployment in inaccessible terrains or hazardous
environments.
In traditional ad hoc networks, the most noticeable point about sensor networks is that, they are limited in power,
computational capacities, and memory. Hence optimizing the energy consumption in wireless sensor networks
has recently become the most important performance objective.
Fig 1 Sample trace of temperature sensor
In a sensor network the main task of sensor node is to monitor events, collection of data from environment,
perform quick data aggregation, and then transmit the data over network. Power consumption is can hence be
divided into three domains: sensing, aggregation, and data communication.
In this paper we are concentrating on minimizing energy consumption on sensing by using smart monitoring
schedules. Data aggregation most practically affected schedules to monitoring for distribution and organizing
data communication over sensor network by stabling better energy schedules.
2. Literature Review
J avad Akbari Torkestani, This algorithm provides an Energy-efficient area coverage algorithm, which
proposes the degree-constrained minimum weight connected dominating set (DCDS) problem for modeling the
energy-efficient coverage problem in WSNs. The CDS size remains the primary concern of the CDS based
coverage protocols. On one hand, MCDS (minimum size CDS)-based coverage results in saving more energy by
maximizing the number of sleep nodes[4].
In Degree-constrained CDS-based area coverage algorithm, a group of learning automata, named as GoL, is
constituted by equipping each sensor node ni with a variable action-set learning automaton Ai.
Benazir Fateh, Manimaran Govindarasu, For energy saving in sensor networks Taxonomy of approaches can
be found in [4,5]. Numerous methods have been proposed to lower energy consumption of a WSN by
suppressing redundant information in continuous data collection applications. This energy efficient data
acquisition methods can be categorized into adaptive sampling schemes model based schemes and data
aggregation schemes.
Adaptive sampling schemes propose adaptive adjustment in the sampling rate of sensors according to the
statistical features of the environment being monitored.
Y. Yu, V.K. Prasanna, B. Krishnamachari, To generate a concise report of the data data aggregation is
proposed in [8]. A combined approach to data aggregation and energy reduction using Dynamic Modulation
Scaling is proposed. However in these schemes, data aggregation happens at cluster heads. The repetitious,
421 Elsevier Publications, 2013
Efficient Energy Consumption Routing Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks
redundant data still needs to be communicated by each sensor to the cluster head before being termed as
redundant.
Raniwala et al. In this paper, author proposed centralized and distributed solutions. In [9], they propose an
offline centralized algorithm that assumes knowledge of a traffic matrix. The matrix specifies long-term average
demands between all nodes (intended to be valid for hours or days). Repeated applications of separate routing and
CA algorithms are used until it converges to a solution capable of accommodating the given demands.
3. Notification and assumptions
We assume if one sensor node has n units of energy and other sensors have 1 unit of energy and any 2 sensors
can monitor the region, then the same sensor in different sensor covers increases the lifetime of sensor nodes by n
factors.
1. Sensors are deployed over the region R.
2. Sensor nodes pi.
3. Sensor nodes monitored region Ri.
4. Sensor nodes pi has certain initial energy supply bi.
4. Energy Efficiency Schemes
1. Interchange of multiple nodes over disjoint sensor cover the original energy supply is the same for all
sensors. Figure 2.1 shown an example of multiple node interchange in case of the same initial energy
supply.
Fig 2.1 Three sensor nodes with sensor region area R
There are three sensors which monitored by regions and supposed to monitor a dark square region R.
Through this technique we can resolve Sensor Network Life Problem (SNLP).
SNLP formulated maximum number of schedules into a multidimensional knapsack with dimensions defined
by the number of energy units assigned to sensors.
422 Elsevier Publications, 2013
Vinod Kumar, Dr. Mritunjay Rai
2. A grid structured sensor area pointed in the form of n * n arrays. The grid sensor area distributed in sub
sets of covering sensor disks. All the grid points are partitioned into fields. Where a field is defined as a
subset of grid points covered by the same subset of sensors. By this partitions the model becomes large
and the complexity of computation task is partitioning into fields since potentially O(2nn). Figure 2.2
shows four sensor nodes with disk regions.
Fig 2.2 shows four sensor nodes with disk regions.
The planar graph P =(V;E) with vertices corresponding to points of intersections and edges connecting
adjacent points. There are 10 vertices, 21 edges and 13 faces.
P =(V;E) is a planar graph
[V] [E] +[F] =2, where V, E and F are the sets of vertices, edges and faces of P, respectively.
Our data structure monitored region is a disk. The graph P is considered to be directed with each edge
represented by two opposite arcs and each arc belongs to the boundary of exactly one face.
If monitored regions are not convex then we suggest partitioning them into convex sub-regions and
applying data structured afterward. By this Efficient Data Structure Representing Sensor Coverage field
finding done efficiently.
3. The Sensor Network Lifetime problem as a packing linear program, give the (1+log n)-approximation
algorithm for Sensor Network Life Problem. In SNLP if only one coverage required then how to take in
account communication cost. After finding different sensor covers we have to maximize the network
lifetime by assigning the active time stretch for each sensor cover.
4. Distributed algorithms for SNLP substantially increased by using smart self-organizing monitoring
schedules. Distributed Algorithms for Lifetime Maximization approach has following advantage. It
represented better monitoring area. Dynamic energy supply for sensor nodes. Minimization of active
sensor sets.
5. Conclusion
In this paper we have proposed four energy efficiency schemes to reduce the consumption of battery power of
sensor networks in sensor areas. These schemes can be implemented on various sensor networks as per the
scenario discussed in the schemes. The Distributed algorithm for SNLP scheme is more energy efficient sachem
for self-organized sensor network.
423 Elsevier Publications, 2013
References
[1] R. J . Marks II, A. K. Das, M. El-Sharkawi, P. Arabshahi, and A. Gray, Maximizing lifetime in energy constrained wireless sensor array
using team optimization of cooperating systems, in Proc. IEEE World Conference on Computational Inteligence 2002.
[2] G. Zussman and A. Segall, Energy efficient routing in ad hoc disaster recovery networks, in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM03, 2003.
[3] P. Berman, G. Calinescu, C. Shah, and A. Zelikovsky Efficient energy management in sensor networks
[4] J avad Akbari Torkestani An adaptive energy-efficient area coverage algorithm for wireless sensor networks Ad Hoc Networks 11
(2013) 16551666
[5] Benazir Fateh, Manimaran Govindarasu Energy minimization by exploiting data redundancy in real-time wireless sensor networks Ad
Hoc Networks 11 (2013) 17151731
[6] J uan J . Glvez, Pedro M. Ruiz Efficient rate allocation, routing and channel assignment in wireless mesh networks supporting dynamic
traffic flows SciVerse ScienceDirect (2013) 17651781
[7] R. Hahn and H. Reichl, Batteries and power supplies for wearable and ubiquitous computing, in Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Wearable
Computers, 1999.
[8] Y. Yu, V.K. Prasanna, B. Krishnamachari, Energy minimization for real-time data gathering in wireless sensor networks IEEE
Transactions on Wireless Communications 5 (11) (2006) 30873096.
[9] A. Raniwala, K. Gopalan, T.-c. Chiueh, Centralized channel assignment and routing algorithms for multi-channel wireless mesh
networks SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev. 8 (2) (2004) 5065.
424 Elsevier Publications, 2013
Efficient Energy Consumption Routing Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks
Index

C
Check-pointing
in distributed systems, 415
types of, 417
Clock condition, 416
Concurrent events, 416
Consistent global checkpoint, 416

D
Distributed systems
check-pointing in, 415
example, 417418
ordering of events in, 416

G
Global checkpoints, 416

L
Lamport's "happen before" relation, 416
Local checkpoint, 416
Logical clocks, 416

M
Message passing system
checkpoint algorithm assumptions for, 417

O
Ordering of events in distributed systems, 416

T
The partial ordering, 416