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STRENGTH OF EXTERIOR SLAB-COLUMN CONNECTIONS

S. Teng, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore


J .Z. Geng*, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
H.K. Cheong, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

29th Conference on OUR WORLD IN CONCRETE & STRUCTURES: 25 - 26 August 2004,
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29
th
Conference on OUR WORLD IN CONCRETE & STRUCTURES: 25 - 26 August 2004, Singapore
STRENGTH OF EXTERIOR SLAB-COLUMN CONNECTIONS
S. Teng, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
J.Z. Geng*, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
H.K. Cheong, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Abstract
Punching shear strength of exterior slab-column connections, including edge and corner
connections is discussed in detail based on the analysis of available data in t he literature
according to the ACI 318-02. It is found that the interaction between moment and shear for
exterior connections is not as strong as represented in the ACI 318-02. The interaction is
weak for edge connections, and even weaker for corner connections. A reduction 0 f Yv is
proposed based on the analysis. For edge connections, the reduced Yv is equal to 60
percent of the ACI defined value; for corner connections, it equals to 10 percent of the ACI
defined value only. Once this reduction of Yv is considered in the ACI 318-02, the accuracy
of prediction can be improved greatly for the collected data.
Keywords: punching shear strength, slab-column connections, moment transfer, design code.
1. Introduction
The ACI 318-02 1 presents an eccentric shear stress model for predicting punching shear strength
of slab-column connections with moment transfer. It assumes that the shear stresses due to
unbalanced moment can be added directly to shear stresses due to shear force. The shear stresses
due to unbalanced moment vary linearly along the critical section. The interaction between shear and
moment transfer is represented by a coefficient Yv' which defines the fraction of unbalanced moment
resisted by eccentric shear.
This paper begins with a summary of data obtained from numerous experiments on exterior slab-
column connections, including edge and corner connections. The eccentric shear stress model in the
ACI 318-02 is reviewed. The predictions according to the ACI 318-02 for the collected data are
analyzed and compared with the experimental results. Detailed discussions are provided and the
interaction between shear and moment is studied and emphasized.
2. Research significance
The present study provides a fresh review of previous experimental data on exterior slab-column
connections, including edge and corner connections. The punching strength of experimental data is
checked based on the ACI 318-02. It is found that the interaction between shear and moment is weak
for edge connections, and even weaker for corner connections . Reductions of yv are both proposed
based on the ACI defined value for edge and corner connections.
3. Review of experimental data
Numerous experimental data on slab-column connections are available in the literature. Included
in this study are seventy-four exterior slab-column connections subjected to combined shear and
moment transfer, tested by over 15 research centers around the world. Of the 74 connection
specimens, 46 are edge slab-column connections and 28 are corner connections. Some details of
each group of specimens are described below.
529
Compression surface
Simplysupportedr-.-\---i
!
Tension surface
10;10
3.1 Edge slab-column connections
Forty-six data involving edge slab-column connectionswerecollected in this study. The respective
detailed experimental information can be found in Ref. (2) through [17]. Forall included test slabs, the
outerfaces ofthe columns were flush with the slab edge. Mostof specimens had columns extended
from both above and belowthe slab, while some other specimens had columns extended from below
the slab only. Thosedata included both isolated single slab-column edgeconnections (Ref[2] through
[9]) and non-single specimens (Ref [10] through [17]). The specimens tested by Scavuzzo [10] and
Sherif and Dilger [14] comprised both an interior and exterior connections. The specimens tested by
Regan [11) comprised aslabspanningtwoedgeconnections. Thesubassembliestested by Robertson
and Durrani [15] consisted oftwo exteriorconnections and one interiorconnection each. Falamaki and
Loo[16) tested aseriesofnine half-scalemodelsrepresenting two adjacentedgeand cornerpanels of
abuilding floor. Each specimen contained six columns, including three slab-column connections with
spandrel beam ortorsion strip. Onlythe connectionswithoutspandrel beamwerecollected in this study.
Typicaltestspecimensare shown in Fig.1.
~ Vertical loads
Roller-supported
edge
Lateral load Reactions' ~
Lateral Load
Restrained against
rotation aboutedge
tReactions
Vertical reaction
(a) Scavuzzotestspecimens[10] (b) Specimenstested by Regan [11]
Fig. 1Typicalnon-singlespecimensofedgeconnections
None of the connections had slab shear reinforcement or edge beams, and no moment
transferred parallel to the slab edge. The specimens tested by Hawkins et al [5) were subjected to
inelastic load reversals simulating earthquake effects. The subassemblies tested by Robertson and
Durrani [15) were applied cyclic lateral load on the top ofcolumns to study the load-driftresponse and
interaction between interiorand exteriorconnections. All otherspecimenscollected hereinwere tested
understaticloading.
Load
Transverse
Load plate
Reaction
".
Transverseload
(a) Testspecimen byZaghlool etal [19] (b) Testspecimen by Zaghlooletal [22]
Fig. 2Typicalspecimensofcornerconnections
530
3.2 Corner slab-column connections
Twenty-eightdatawere collected from the literature (Ref [16], and Ref[19] through [23]) involving
corner slab-column connections. The detailed experimental information can be found in the
corresponding references. Normally, gravity-induced biaxial unbalanced momentsare transferred from
the slab to the column plus horizontal loads from wind or earthquake forces for corner slab-column
connections. The specimens involved in Zaghlool et al [19], Walkerand Regan [20], were cornerbays
of flat plate floors supported on four corner columns. The specimens tested by Ingvarsson [21],
Zaghlool et al [22], and Hammill and Ghali [23], were isolated single corner connections. Typical test
specimensareshown in Fig.2.
4. ACI 318-02 for punching strength with moment transfer
According to the ACI 318-02, the punching shear strength of slabs without shear reinforcement
can bedeterminedfrom the lowestofthefollowing expressions(in SI units)
Vc=0.083Xl2+;}ft; (MPa) (1)
(MPa) (2)
Vc = 0.083X( o + 2].Jf7
Vc = 0.083 x4.JC' (MPa) (3)
where fJ is the ratio ofthe longer side to the shorter side ofthe concentrated load (or columns),
a sis40 for interiorcolumn, 30 foredgecolumns, and 20 forcornercolumns. b
o
is the length ofcritical
shear perimeter taken at a distance of 0.5d away from the column face and has square corners for
squarecolumns and round shapesforcircularcolumns. d is the effectivedepth ofslabs. ( is specific
concrete cylinderstrength, in MPaunit.
rc 2 +O.5d=b 2 .1
A IZ
- ------r-------- C
i g Column
centroid
Vul ;"
t.lM -Vg
~ u u
Critical
section
- _______ 1________ 0
Bi,..-_C.:..=AB==---.-:-.it---'cC""D=---.I
!z
I
Fig. 3Eccentricshearstressmodel foredge connections
A
Column
centroid
-.2;"
Shearstress
Fig. 4Eccentricshearstressmodel forcornerconnections
531
The ACI 318-02 presents an analytical method (eccentric shear stress model) to calculate the
shear stress when both shear force and unbalanced moment are transferred. It assumes that the shear
stresses on the critical section due to the direct shear force can be added to the shear stresses on the
same section due to moment transfer. The shear stress due to unbalanced moment is distributed
linearly on the critical section.
The critical ratio between measured and computed strength for edge connections is the maximum
value of three ratios : v AB / v c' VCD / v
c
' and (1- Yv XMu- Vug}/M
r
' where, v AS is the shear stress along
critical section AB as shown in Fig. 3; v CD is the shear stress along critical section CD; yv is the
fraction of unbalanced moment resisted by shear; (Mu - Vug) is the ultimate unbalanced moment
acting at the centroid of the slab critical section; g is the distance between centroids of the slab critical
section and the column critical section; M r is the flexural strength of slab reinforcement with a transfer
width of c
1
+ 3h .
The critical ratio between measured and computed strength for corner connections is the
maximum value of three ratios: vB/v
e
' vc / ve ' and flexural strength ratio, similar to that for edge
connections, where, VB is the shear stress at Point B; v c is the shear stress at Point C as shown in
Fig. 4.
5. Data analyses for all collected specimens
5.1 Edge slab-column connections:
Table 1 lists the overall prediction for the forty-six collected data. Note that due to the space limit,
the respective prediction of each specimen collected herein is not listed in this paper. The overall
prediction includes the average strength ratio , the standard deviation (Stdev) of the strength ratio, and
the coefficient of variation (COV).
Table 1 Overall prediction according to AC1318-02 and that with a reduction of Yv
for edQe connections (46 data)
Method
Minimum of
strength ratio
Maximum of
strength ratio
Average of
strength ratio
Stdev COV
AC1318-02 0.807 2.546 1.464 0.419 0.286
ACI 318-02 with the
proposed reduction of yv
0.750 2.277 1.236 0.293 0.237
According to ACI 318-02, analysis of the data collected reveals that calculated strength is
governed by limiting shear stresses on the slab critical section rather than flexural yield for nearly all the
test specimens, except two specimens (Specimen 5A tested by Hall and Rangan [12]. and Specimen C
by Rangan [13]). The calculated strengths of those two specimens are governed by flexural yield.
Calculated strengths are almost in all cases conservative, with ratios between measured and
calculated strengths ranging from 0.807 to 2.546, except four specimens, having a mean of 1.464 and
a coefficient of variation of 0.286. It is interesting to note that even for the two specimens with moment
transfer only (Specimen M/E/2 tested by Stamenkovic and Chapmen [3] and Specimen Z-V(4) tested
by Zaghlool [4]) the calculated strengths are still governed by the limiting shear stress on the critical
section, not by the flexural yielding.
Moehle [18] suggested that there is no interaction between shear and moment for edge
connections based on the analysis of 27 data he collected. The strong interaction between shear and
moment embodied in the ACI 318-02 is the coefficient of Yv (the fraction of unbalanced moment
transferred by shear). Analytical work has been done herein to see how the predictions go by reducing
this coefficient yv step by step. The criterion is the value of COV for the data collected in this study. Fig.
5 shows the relationship between C OV and the percent 0 f yv This figure clearly shows that when
reducing Yv from 100 percent of ACI defined value, the value of COV becomes smaller and smaller
until Yv was reduced to 60 percent of ACI value. After that, the value of COV becomes larger if we
continue to reduce this Yv' This behavior suggests that the relationship between shear and moment for
edge connections is neither as strong as that represented in the ACI 318-02 (100 percent of yv should
be used), nor as zero as that proposed by Moehle [18]. A 60 percent of ACI defined Yv value should be
used for edge connections. Table 1 also lists the overall predictions when considering the reduction of
Yv .
532
0.300
c:
0.290
.Q
/
.;::
m
0.280
m
>
/
.....
0.270
0
C
/
Q) 0.260
' (3
""
/ !E
Q)
0.250
0 "
U /
0.240
....
-...
./
0.230
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
Percent of yv
Fig. 5 Relationship of value of COY and percent of yv for edge connections
It shows that the predictions have been improved much after we use a reduced value of Yv (60
percent of ACI defined value), meaning that a less interaction between shear and moment exists for
edge connections. The average strength ratio is 1.236, having a value of COY of 0.237. Note that there
are nine specimens which had strength ratios less than unity when we reduce this yv' This problem
can be easily solved by using a slightly larger strength reduction factor, which will not be discussed in
this paper.
5.2 Corner slab-column connections:
Table 2 lists the overall prediction for the twenty-eight collected data. The overall prediction also
includes the average strength ratio, the standard deviation (Stdev) of the strength ratio, and the
coefficient of variation (COV).
Table 2 Overall prediction according to ACI 318-02 and that with a reduction of Yv
for corner connections (28 data
Method
Minimum of
strength ratio
Maximum of
strength ratio
Average of
strength ratio
Stdev COy
AC13180-02 1.067 3.441 1.901 0.638 0.335
ACI 318-02 with the
proposed reduction of Yv
0.731 1.687 1.160 0.253 0.218
According to ACI 318-02, analysis of the data collected reveals that calculated strength is
governed by limiting shear stresses on the slab critical section rather than flexural yield for all the test
specimens. Calculated strengths are in all cases conservative, with ratios between measured and
calculated strengths ranging from 1.067 to 3.441, and having a mean of 1.901 and COY of 0.335. The
over-conservativeness and scattered trend of the data in Table 2 occurs in part because the analytical
model assumes a significant interaction between shear and moment as we discussed in the previous
section, which is embodied by the coefficient Yv as defined in the ACI 318-02. Analytical work has
been done similar to that for edge connections to see how the predictions go by reducing this
coefficient yv step by step. The criterion is still the value of COY for the data collected for corner
connections. Fig. 6 shows the relationship between COY and the percent of Yv' This figure obviously
shows that when reducing yv from 100 percent of ACI value, the value of COY becomes smaller and
smaller until Yv was reduced to 10 percent of ACI value. After that, the value of COY becomes larger if
we continue to reduce this Yv' This behavior suggests that the relationship between shear and moment
for corner connections is even less than that for edge connections. In the previous discussion part for
edge connection, Yv was reduced to 60 percent of ACI defined value.
533
0.340
/
0.320
c:
o

iii 0.300
.;::
rn
/
.:: 0.2BO
o
/
0.260
'(3
/
!EO 0.240
(!)
o
/
U 0.220

0.200
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 O.BO 1.00
Percentof Yv
Fig.6RelationshipofvalueofCOYand percentof Yvforcornerconnections
Theoverall predictionsfollowing areduction of Yv(10 percentofACI definedvalue) are also listed
Table 2.The strength ratio ranges from 0.731 to 1.687, having a mean of 1.160 and avalue ofCOY
about 0.218.The accuracy of prediction is highly improved by reducing Yv only. However, there are
nine specimens which had strength ratios less than unity, meaning that their strengths are
overestimated.Thisproblemcan alsobeeasilysolved by applying foralargerstrength reduction factor
in theACI 318-02, which isnotdiscussedin detail in this paper.
6. Conclusions
Based on the analysis of available data for exterior connections, including edge and corner
connections, thefollowing conclusionsmaybe drawn.
Forexteriorconnections the interaction between shearand momentis notas strong as expected.
The interaction between shear and moment is even weaker for corner connections than for edge
connections. A 60 percent of ACI defined Yvvalue should be used for edge connections, and 10
percentofthatvalueshould be usedforcornerconnectionsonly.Oncethe reduced valueof Yvis used
in the ACI 318-02, the accuracy ofthe strength prediction forexteriorslab-column connections can be
improvedgreatly.
7. Acknowledgements
Thisresearch ispartofthejointBCA-NTU research on fiatplatestructures. Researchgrantsfrom
the Building and Construction Authority - Singapore, and the Nanyang Technological University are
gratefullyacknowledged.
8. References
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