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Dr.

Curran Crawford
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Victoria
MECH 360 Design of Mechanical Elements
Solid Mechanics Review
Lecture #2
2
Lecture Outline
Today
Questions from last time?
Course structure, basic stress analysis, etc
Review examples (Chpt 4)
Tutorial this week
Project announcement next week
Assignment 1 posted today
Next time
Static failure theories (Chpt 5)
Intro to gearboxes
Carabiner testing
Where might these fail?
Why?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13poPfa8Zso&f
eature=related
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4
Translate forces and moments to the cross-
section of interest
5
The point of maximum stress is not always
obvious
Frequently have to check multiple locations
Develop engineering intuition to pick points
Changing cross-section
Stress-risers
Maximum internal loads
Points around circumference
Coordinate systems and associated
stresses are arbitrary
However, failure modes are not
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7
The maximum stress at a point is usually
the ultimate objective of a stress analysis
Require both shear and normal stresses
Principle stresses: zero shear stress
Maximum shear: associated normal stress
General 3D problem
Transformation equations in 3D & 2D
Frequently concerned with 2D problem on surface of
a part
Mohrs circle
Simply graphical representation of transformation
equations
8
The elemental cube is used to define stress
at a point in the material

, .
9
The 2D stress transformation problem
frequently arises
10
Even for a 2D loading problem, the 3D
problem must be considered
For element!
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This information should not be new!
Statics & dynamics courses
Loading
Mechanics of solids courses
Stress/strain analysis
Materials courses
Properties of different material compositions
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We will be using material from previous
courses to cover new topics
Static engineering analysis
Compute loads
Determine where to apply formulas
This is key: we dont have time to analyse every detail
Fatigue failure analysis
Load and stress determinations are identical to the
static case
Fluctuating components must use different failure
theories
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We will be using material from previous
courses to cover new topics
Analysis of specific types of mechanical
elements
Gears
Bearings
Fasteners
Welds
Etc.
Engine
Gearbox
(1:10 ratio)
Prop
Engine: 3000 Hp @ 20000 RPM
Engine & prop rotate CW as viewed
from prop
Gearbox bolted to engine housing
Neglect friction losses in gearbox
Find:
1. Dir. & mag. of torque applied to engine housing by
gearbox housing
2. Dir. & mag. of torque applied to aircraft
3. Why use 2 props?
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How do we ensure our parts will perform
their required function in service?
Failure prevention analysis
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Failure prevention is assured by following
an adaptive analysis process
No prescribed method will work in all cases
Generic questions to address:
Which location(s) on the part will fail first?
What are the consequences of failure there?
What is the stress there (and associated load) at
which failure will occur?
What is the actual maximum stress there (and
associated load) that will occur during service?
Is the failure stress (load) sufficiently higher than the
actual stress (load)?
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A real part presents many possible failure
locations for consideration
19
Even relatively simple geometry/loading
may have more than one failure location
Where might failure occur?
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The consequences of failure are an
important consideration
Failure of a loaded member can be regarded as any
behavior that renders it unsuitable for its intended
function
Failure may include
breakage or excessive
distortion/strain
Your bike handlebar
747 control yoke
VS
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What stress is developed at failure?
What is a critical stress?
Ultimate tensile stress?
Maximum shear stress?
Tensile or torsion yield stress?
Something else?
Hint: this is why youre here!
The type of loading affects the stress at failure
Static or steady loading
Impulse, impact, or shock loading
Variable loading
What loading creates that stress?
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Predicting the failure stress is one of two
major keys to failure analysis
Its not easy!
Standard mechanical properties derived from:
Particular specimen geometries
Specific loading conditions
Controlled experimental conditions
In service, everything changes
Part geometry
Type of loading
Environment
Surface finish
Etc
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There are two possible methods to
determine the failure stress
Experimental
Test an actual part under actual operating
conditions
Good for final verification, bad for design
Analytic
Modify standard test data for specific application
A lot less costly!
At least do this step as a pre-cursor to testing
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The other key to failure analysis is
accurately predicting the real loads
How do you determine the real loads?
Instrument a model or real part
Strain gauges, accelerometers, etc.
Analysis
Dynamic simulation
Statically indeterminate?
Solid mechanics
FEA
The loads are frequently modified as the part
design is modified
Changes in mass, stiffness, etc.
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Do you feel lucky, punk?
We must account for analysis uncertainty
We can define a safety factor (SF):
The book uses N as a symbol for SF
Also called Factor of Safety (FS, FoS)
Margin of Safety (MoS) = FoS - 1
Quantity can be stress, load, stiffness, etc.
If you are confused, remember that N should
always be > 1
SF = N =
Predicted quantity at failure
Predicted maximum in-service quantity
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Factor of Safety example
Consider a steel cylindrical rod in tension
Define failure as the onset of yielding
The factor of safety could then be defined as:
where
N =
S
y
F =A
N = safety fact or
S
y
= yield st rengt h
F = t ensile load
A = cross-sect ional area
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The magnitude of the safety factor will
depend on the application
In general, use a higher FS to reflect:
Uncertainty in: material properties, loading conditions
Criticality: potential threat to life & limb
Design refinement: e.g. weight-critical
Some industries have standards or established
practices
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In the absence of standards, there are
general guidelines for selecting FS
SF = 1.25 1.5
Exceptionally reliable materials
Controllable conditions
Subjected to loads and stresses that can be
determined with certainty
Almost always used when low weight is a particularly
important consideration
Reduce uncertainly and use lower SF by more
detailed testing
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In the absence of standards, there are
general guidelines for selecting FS
SF = 1.5 2
Well-known materials
Reasonably constant environmental conditions
Subject to loads and stresses that can be
determined readily
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In the absence of standards, there are general
guidelines for selecting FS
SF = 2 2.5
Average materials
Operated in ordinary environments
Subjected to loads and stresses that can be
determined
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In the absence of standards, there are
general guidelines for selecting FS
SF = 2.5 3
Less tried or brittle materials
Average conditions of environment, load, and stress
SF = 3 4
Untried materials
Used under average conditions of environment,
load, and stress
Or
Better known materials
Used in uncertain environments or subjected to
uncertain loads and stresses
We need criteria for quantifying the
maximum allowable stresses
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There are essentially 3 basic failure
classes to be aware of
Static loading
Most simple case
Ductile vs. brittle behaviour
Ductile brittle transition
Dynamic failure
Fatigue
Material imperfections
May occur in any type of material
Results from micro-cracks, inclusions, flaws, etc.
creating stress concentrations
Fracture mechanics approach
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A large number of static loading failure
theories have been developed
Ductile
Maximum shear stress
Distortion energy (Von Mises
stress)
Total strain-energy*
Brittle
Maximum normal stress
Maximum normal strain*
Coulomb-Mohr*
Modified Mohr*
*Not Covered in Mech 360
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Ductile materials yield significantly before
failure; brittle materials do not
Ductile >5% elongation at failure Brittle
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Dont confuse strength and stress
Strength refers to the properties of the material
Stress refers to the stress state due to actual
loading
Safety factor compares the two
S

Testing of test articles


Analysis of actual part
SF = N =

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Ductile failure is usually defined by yield
strength, not ultimate strength
Yield strength usually much less than ultimate
strength
Plastic deformation after yield
Non-linear deformations
More complicated elasto-plastic stress distributions
Ductile failure mode is safer
Can usually visually observe deformation
Avoid catastrophic brittle failure
Usually post-examining a brittle (unexpected) failure,
as ductile failures usually give warning
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Ductile failure occurs along planes of
maximum shear stress
Failure of ductile materials is generally
controlled by shear strength
How does Mohrs circle explain this picture?
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Brittle materials fail along planes of
maximum normal stress
Failure of brittle materials is controlled by tensile
strength
How does Mohrs circle explain this picture?
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Tensile specimens have characteristic
fracture surfaces
1) Crack initiation and growth by coalescence of microvoids
2) Final failure along maximum shear plane
Brittle fracture at inter or transgranular surfaces
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Ductile failure occurs in stages
Plastic deformation
Necking
Microvoid formation
Local plastic deformations
to relieve stresses
Microvoids join up
Final failure along
maximum shear planes
Note difference between
plastic deformations and
final failure in shear
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Cup-and-cone elongation & crack
initiation at center of specimen
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Real parts behave in a similar manner to
tensile specimens
Material composition
doesnt tell the whole
story
Material may be brittle
or ductile
Cold-working
Heat treatment
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The failure mechanism is independent of
the loading
Failure in shear of ductile materials
How does Mohrs circle explain failure in torsion
specimen?
Material fails along
slip planesShear
stress is critical
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The failure mechanism is independent of
the loading
Failure by normal stresses of brittle materials
How does Mohrs circle explain failure in torsion
specimen?
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The failure mode can be deduced by the
pieces left behind
Ductile failure
One piece
Large deformations
Preferred mode
Most metals
Brittle failure
Many pieces
Small deformations
E.g. Ceramics
Temperature dependence
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Fracture surfaces tell the story of failure to
the trained eye
Chevron pattern pointing to origin of brittle fracture
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Fracture surfaces tell the story of failure to
the trained eye
Crack initiation site
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Fracture surfaces tell the story of failure to
the trained eye
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Fracture surfaces tell the story of failure to
the trained eye
Radial marks
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Failure theories derive from a fundamental
premise relating test articles and parts
The mechanism of failure is always the same,
for either ductile or brittle material
Therefore:
If a certain set of conditions is responsible for failure in
the test specimen, then when this set of conditions
occurs in a part, the part will fail
OR
Whatever is responsible for failure in the standard
tensile test will also be responsible for failure under all
other conditions of static loading
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Brittle materials fail due to normal stresses
From experimental evidence:
Brittle material in a standard tensile test fails when
maximum normal stress exceeds a critical value
Therefore we might reasonably expect components
made of that brittle material to fail when the
maximum normal stress in the component exceeds
that same critical value
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The Maximum Normal Stress Theory is the
most simple brittle failure theory
Failure will occur when:
One of the principal stresses exceeds the ultimate
tensile strength (or ultimate compressive strength) of
the material
Reasonable correlation for brittle materials but
not for ductile materials
Conceptually simple, but often wrong!
For brittle materials stronger in compression
than tension, should use alternate theories:
Coulomb-Mohr
Modified Mohr
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Always remember the third principal stress!
Largest Smallest
One principal stress is zero
Define as 2 non-zero principal stresses

1
;
2
;
3

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Labeling A & B instead of 1, 2, 3 avoids
ambiguity
*Note that the book uses 1, 2, 3, usually with 2 as zero principal stress
Maximum
Normal Stress
Theory
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The failure envelope defines the range of
safe principle stresses
Non-conservative!
(
B
)
(
A
)
Stronger in
compression
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Ductile materials ultimately fail in shear
From experimental evidence:
Ductile material in a standard tensile test fails when
maximum shear stress exceeds a critical value
Therefore we might reasonably expect components
made of that ductile material to fail when the
maximum shear stress in the component exceeds
that same critical value
Ductile failure is defined by yield, not ultimate
strength
Recall complex nature of final failure
We presuppose yielding is also characterized by
shear properties (to start with)
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The Maximum Shear Stress theory is
reasonable for ductile yielding
Note that the failure criterion for ductile
materials is yield, not rupture:

<
;
= 0.5

Normal
Shear
Pure
Torsion
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Safety factors can be viewed as % along
line from origin to failure envelope
*Or just use the formulas!
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Mohrs circle or the equations will yield the
same answer, if applied correctly
You have a choice of method
Use whichever you are more comfortable with
The graphical method shows directions and rotations
of the element
Not always useful, but frequently is
Were usually after stress magnitudes, rather than
principle directions/axes
Just remember to check all 3 principle stresses
to find maximum shear
Check course website for Mohrs circle tool
End of Lecture 2
Questions?
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Deflection may be a design criteria, in
addition to stress allowables
Axial deflection
=

Torsion
=

Beam deflection
w
E I
=
d
4
y
dx
4
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Beams have some additional methods:
graphical integration
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Beams have some additional methods:
singularity functions
Find (qualitatively):
1. FBD of shaft AB
2. Shear and bending moment diagrams
3. Draw stresses on infinitesimal elements
on shaft AB @ C, at points on the
surface tangent to vertical and
horizontal planes
Motor input
Output 1 (12kW)
Output 2 (8kW)
Shaft AB transmits
20kW @ 450RPM
A B