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MAS2104/MAS3104 Problems, Part 7

More Line, Double and Volume Integrals


The purpose of these revision exercises is to gain further experience in evaluating various integrals.
Question 1 R
Find the line integral I = AB
[(4x + y) dx + (x + 4y) dy], where the path AB is given by y = x4 and
A = (1, 1), B = (−1, 1).
Solution
We apply the following expression for a line integral over a two-dimensional line C given in a parametric
form, x = x(t), y = y(t), t1 ≤ t ≤ t2 :
Z Z Z t2  
dx dy
F(r)·dr = (Fx dx + Fy dy) = Fx + Fy dt . (1)
C C t1 dt dt
Taking t = x, we obtain another useful formula
Z Z x2  
dy
F(r)·dr = Fx + Fy dx , (2)
C x1 dx
where x1 and x2 are the end-points of the path of integration. A similar formula can be obtained for
t = y (see Example 3 in the handout Review of Line Integrals).
We take t = x and use Eq. (1). (Alternatively, we could use Eq. (2) directly.) Since y = x4
and x varies from 1 to −1, the parametric representation of C is t → (t, t4 ), −1 ≤ t ≤ 1. Since
Fx = 4x + y = 4t + t4 , Fy = x + 4y = t + 4t4 , and dy/dt = 4t3 , we have
Z 1
I=− [(4t + t4 ) + (t + 4t4 )4t3 ] dt = −2 .
−1

Figure 1: Paths of integration in Question 2(a), 3(b) and 4(c).

Question 2 R
b + x2 y
Consider the line integral I = AB F(r) · dr with F(r) = 2xy x b. Demonstrate by direct evaluation
that the integral has the same value for three paths AB joining the points A = (0, 0) and B = (1, 1)
R the xy-plane as shown in Fig. 1(a). Find f such that F = ∇f and evaluate the same integral using
in
AB
F(r) · dr = f (B) − f (A).
Solution
1. Consider first the integration path AB given by y = x and use x as a parameter on AB, so we use
directly Eq. (2). Then dy/dx = 1 on AB and the ends of the path of integration are given by x1 = 0
and x2 = 1. Then Eq. (2) yields
Z 1 Z 1 1
2 2

3
I1 = (2x · x dx + x dx) = 3x dx = x = 1 .
0 0 0
MAS2104/MAS3104 Problems, Part 7 2

2. For AB given by y = x2 , we have dy/dx = 2x, so that Fx = 2x · x2 , Fy = x2 and


Z 1 Z 1
1
2 2 3

4
I2 = (2x · x dx + x · 2x dx) = 4x dx = x = 1 .
0 0 0

3. When the integration path AB consists of two segments AC and CB, one of which goes along
the x-axis and another along the y-axis, we represent the integral as a sum of two integrals, one over
AC and another over CB with C = (1, 0). Since y = 0, dy/dx = 0 and 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 along AC, we have
from Eq. (2) Z Z 1
2
(2xy dx + x dy) = (2x · 0 dx + x2 · 0 dx) = 0 .
AC 0

For the segment CB, we Ztake y as a parameter to describe the path of integration, so that Eq. (1) takes
Z y2
dx
the form F(r) · dr = (Fx + Fy ) dy. Then we have x = x(y) = 1, dx/dy = 0 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 1
C y1 dy
(i.e., y1 = 0, y2 = 1), so that
Z Z 1
1
2
2
(2xy dx + x dy) = (2 · 1 · y · 0 dy + 1 dx) = y = 1 .
CB 0 0

As a result, Z Z
2
I3 = (2xy dx + x dy) + (2xy dx + x2 dy) = 1 .
AC CB
Note that I1 = I2 = I3 , that is the integral does not depend on the choice of the path of integration.
Therefore, this integral can be more easily calculated as shown below.
4. Since the integral is apparently independent of the path of integration, there must exist f such
that ∇f = F (see Example 4 in the handout Review of Line Integrals). To be certain that f exists we
must confirm that curl F is zero, as indeed it is. Then
∂f ∂f
= Fx = 2xy , = Fy = x2 . (3)
∂x ∂y
Integration of the first of these equations yields

f = x2 y + g(y) , (4)

where g(y) is a function of y that arises as the “constant” of integration over x. We can use the
∂f dg
second equation of (3) in order to find g(y). As Eq. (4) implies = x2 + , we see from Eq. (3)
∂y dy
2
that dg/dy = 0, or g = const. Thus, f = x y + C , where C is an arbitrary constant. Therefore,
I = f (1, 1) − f (0, 0) = 12 · 1 + C − 02 · 0 − C = 1.
Question 3 R
Find the line integral AB F(r) · dr when F(r) = z x b+xy
b+yb
z and AB is the helix shown in Fig. 1(b),
that is r(t) = x
b cos t + y z 3t (0 ≤ t ≤ 2π).
b sin t + b
Solution
The parametric equations of the path of integration are x(t) = cos t, y(t) = sin t, z(t) = 3t, 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π.
In order to apply Eq. (1), written as
Z Z t2   dr
F(r) · dr = F r(t) · dt , (5)
AB t1 dt

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MAS2104/MAS3104 Problems, Part 7 3

we first evaluate the dot product: F(r(t) · ṙ(t) = (b x 3t + y


b cos t + bz sin t) · (−b
x sin t + y
b cos t + 3b
z) =
2
−3t sin t + cos t + 3 sin t, where r(t) = (cos t, sin t, 3t) and ṙ(t) = dr/dt. Now Eq. (5) yields
Z Z 2π
F(r) · dr = (−3t sin t + cos2 t + 3 sin t) dt = 6π + π + 0 = 7π ,
AB 0

R 2π 2π R

where we have integrated by parts, t sin t dt = −t cos t + 0 cos t dt = −2π, and used the following

0
0
2 1
identity: cos t = (1
+ cos 2t).
2
Note that here curlF 6= 0 so we cannot evaluate this integral in terms of f (B) − f (A).
Question
RR 4
Find R
(x + y 2 ) dx dy over the region R bounded by y = x and y = x2 .
Solution
If the region of inegration R in the (x, y) plane can be described by inequalities of the form

R: a ≤ x ≤ b, y1 (x) ≤ y ≤ y2 (x) ,

then a double integral may be evaluated by two successive integrations:


ZZ Z b Z y2 (x)
f (x, y) dx dy = dx f (x, y) dy . (6)
R a y1 (x)
R y (x)
In the first integration, y12(x) f (x, y) dy , we keep x fixed. This integral is a function of x.
If R can be described by

R: c ≤ y ≤ d, x1 (y) ≤ x ≤ x2 (y) ,

then a double integral may be evaluated by two successive integrations:


ZZ Z d Z x2 (y)
f (x, y) dx dy = dy f (x, y) dx . (7)
R c x1 (y)
R x (y)
In the first integration, x12(y) f (x, y) dx , we keep y fixed. This integral is a function of y.
The region of integration in the present integral is shown in Fig. 1(c). Applying Eq. (6), we have
a = 0, b = 1, y1 (x) = x2 , y2 (x) = x, so that
ZZ Z 1 Z x
2
(x + y ) dx dy = dx (x + y 2 ) dy .
R 0 x2
Rx  y=x
First calculate the inner integral considering x as a constant: x2 (x + y 2 ) dy = xy + 13 y 3 y=x2
= x2 − x3 + 13 x3 − 31 x6 = x2 − 23 x3 − 13 x6 .
R1  1
The outer integral then yields the final result: 0 (x2 − 23 x3 − 13 x6 ) dx = 31 x3 − 16 x4 − 21 1 7
x = 42 5
.
0 √
R 1 R √y R1 x= y

We could also use Eq. (7) to obtain R (x+y 2 ) dx dy = 0 dy y dx (x+y 2 ) = 0 ( 21 x2 + xy 2 )
RR
=
x=y
R1 1
( y − 12 y 2 + y 5/2 − y 3 ) dy = 41 − 16 + 27 − 41 = 42
0 2
5
. Of course, the result is the same as above.
Question
RRR 5
Find T
[(x + y)2 − z] dx dy dz, where the region T is bounded by the surface z = 0 from below and
(z − 1) = x2 + y 2 from above.
2

Solution
The region T is a p
cone shown in Fig. 2(a). The conical surface which is the upper boundary of T is
given by z = 1 − x2 + y 2 . It is convenient to use cylindrical coordinates, so that the base of T is

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MAS2104/MAS3104 Problems, Part 7 4

Figure 2: (a) The region of integration T in Question 5 and (b) its projection onto the (r, z) plane. (c)
The region of integration T in Question 6 and (d) its projection onto the (r, z) plane.

described by 0 ≤ r ≤ 1, 0 ≤ φ ≤ 2π and the conical surface is z = 1 − r — see Fig. 2(b). The integrand
is then given by (x + y)2 − z = r2 (cos φ + sin φ)2 − z = r2 (1 + sin 2φ) − z since 2 sin φ cos φ = sin 2φ.
Thus, the triple integral can be evaluated by the following successive integrations:
ZZZ Z 2π Z 1 Z 1−r
2
[r (1 + sin 2φ) − z] r dr dφ dz = dφ dr [r2 (1 + sin 2φ) − z] r dz
ZT2π Z 1 0 0 0
Z 2π
3 1 1 1 π
= dφ [r (1 − r)(1 + sin 2φ) − 2 r(1 − r)] dr = [ 20 (1 + sin 2φ) − 24 ]dφ = .
0 0 0 60

Question 6
Find the volume V of a region T enclosed by the surface z = x2 + y 2 and the plane z = a2 , a = const.
Solution
Since the boundary of the region explicitly contains a combination x2 + y 2 recognized as r2 (with r the
cylindrical radius), it is natural to use cylindrical coordinates, x = r cos φ, y = r sin φ, z = z. Then
equations representing the boundary reduce to z = r2 , z = a2 . As in Question 5, these equations do not
contain φ explicitly because the region is symmetric with respect to the z-axis (a body of revolution,
or an axially symmetric body).
We show in Fig. 2(c) the region of integration T (this is a paraboloid of revolution) and in Fig. 2(d)
its projection onto the (r, z) plane (or any other plane φ = const — T is axially symmetric!). The latter
projection is the region between the parabola z = r2 and the horizontal line z = a2 , that is r2 ≤ z ≤ a2
within T . These two lines intersect at r = a, so that 0 ≤ r ≤ a within T . RRR
RRR As the volume V of a any region T can be expressed as a triple integral, we have V = T
dx dy dz =
T
r dr dφ dz . NB! note the factor r in the latter integral which arises from the volume element in
cylindrical coordinates.
It is clear now that T is represented in cylindrical coordinates by the following inequalities: 0 ≤ r ≤
a, 0 ≤ φ ≤ 2π, r2 ≤ z ≤ a2 . Therefore,
Z 2π Z a Z a2
V = dφ r dr dz .
0 0 r2

The integrals over r and z do not contain any termsR 2πdepending on φ (because of the axial symmetry),
so integration over φ reduces to multiplication by 0 dφ = 2π:
Z a z=a2 ! Z a a

2 2 1 2 2 1 4
πa4
V = 2π r z dr = 2π r(a − r ) dr = 2π( 2 a r − 4 r ) = .

0 2 0 0 2
z=r
R a2 R √z
You can check this by doing the integral in the alternative order: 2π 0
dz 0
r dr.

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