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# GCSE Science A Scheme of Work

## Physics 1 Specification 2012

P1.1 The transfer of energy by heating processes and the factors that affect the rate at which that energy is transferred
Energy can be transferred from one place to another by work or by heating processes. We need to know how this energy is transferred and which heating processes
are most important in a particular situation.
P1.2 Energy and efficiency
Appliances transfer energy but they rarely transfer all of the energy to the place we want. We need to know the efficiency of appliances, so that we can choose
between them, including how cost effective they are, and try to improve them.
Spec
Reference
Summary of the Specification Content Learning utcomes
What most candidates should be able to do
E!amination "hints and
tips# Candidates should:
P1.1.2
\$inetic
theory
he use of kinetic theory to e!plain the different states of
matter.
he particles of solids, li"uids and gases have different
amounts of energy.
#raw simple diagrams to model the difference between
solids, li"uids and gases.
#escribe the states of matter in terms of the energy of their
particles.
\$e able to describe the
arrangement and movement
of particles in solids, li"uids
and gases.%
P1.2.1
Energy
transfers
and
efficienc
y
Energy can be transferred usefully, stored or dissipated,
but cannot be created or destroyed.
When energy is transferred only part of it may be usefully
transferred, the rest is &wasted'.
Wasted energy is eventually transferred to the
surroundings, which become warmer. he wasted
energy it becomes increasingly spread out and so
becomes less useful.
o calculate the efficiency of a device using(
Efficiency ) useful energy out
total energy in
Efficiency ) useful power out
total power in
#escribe the energy transfers and the main energy
wastages that occur in a range of situations or appliances.
*nterpret and draw a Sankey diagram.
+nderstand the concept of efficiency and why efficiency can
never be greater than ,--..
+se the e"uation to calculate efficiency as a decimal or
percentage.
/now how to use the
e"uation and calculate the
efficiency either as a
decimal or as a percentage.
+nderstand why a device or
process can never be
greater than ,--. efficient.
P1.1.%
Energy
transfer
he transfer of energy by conduction and convection
involves particles, and how this transfer takes place.
+nderstand in simple terms how the arrangement and
movement of particles determine whether a material is a
conductor or an insulator.
/now that air is an e!cellent
insulator and e!amples of
insulation materials using
GCSE Science A Scheme of Work
by
heating +nderstand the role of free electrons in conduction through
a metal.
+se the idea of particles moving apart to make a fluid less
dense and to e!plain simple applications of convection.
trapped air.
he transfer of energy by evaporation and condensation
involves particles, and how this transfer takes place.
he factors that affect the rate of evaporation and
condensation.
E!plain evaporation and the cooling effect this causes using
the kinetic theory.
\$e able to e!plain why
evaporation causes the
surroundings to cool.
he rate at which an ob4ect transfers energy by heating
depends on a number of factors.
he bigger the temperature difference between an ob4ect
and its surroundings, the faster the rate at which energy
is transferred by heating.
/now that the rate at which an ob4ect transfers energy by
heating depends on(
surface area and volume
the material from which the ob4ect is made
the nature of the surface with which the ob4ect is in
contact.
the temperature difference between the ob4ect and its
surroundings.
\$e able to e!plain the design of devices in terms of energy
transfer, eg cooling fins.
\$e able to e!plain animal adaptations in terms of energy
transfer, eg relative ear si5e of animals in cold and warm
climates.
/now the factors affecting
the rate at which an ob4ect
transfers energy by heating
and applications of this.
P1.1.1
&nfrared
All ob4ects emit infrared radiation.
he hotter an ob4ect is the more infrared radiation it
radiates in a given time.
#ark, matt surfaces are good emitters of infrared
6ight, shiny surfaces are poor emitters of infrared
+nderstand what infrared radiation is.
know the factors which affect the rate at which an ob4ect
/now how the nature of a
surface affects the amount
of infrared emitted.
All ob4ects absorb infrared radiation. +nderstand the difference between radiation and +nderstand the difference
GCSE Science A Scheme of Work
#ark, matt surfaces are good absorbers of infrared
6ight, shiny surfaces are poor absorbers of infrared
6ight, shiny surfaces are good reflectors of infrared
absorption of infrared radiation.
/now the factors which affect the rate at which an ob4ect
between an ob4ect emitting
he specific heat capacity of a substance is the amount
of energy re"uired to change the temperature of one
kilogram of the substance by one degree Celsius.
E = m c
+nderstand the meaning of specific heat capacity.
Evaluate different materials according to their specific heat
capacities, eg water, which has a very high specific heat
capacity, oil filled radiators and electric storage heaters
containing concrete.
/now the units of each of
the "uantities in the
e"uation7 know how to
convert grams to kilograms
and 4oules to kilo4oules.
P1.1.'
(eating
and
insu)ating
bui)dings
+8values measure how effective a material is as an
insulator.
he lower the +8value, the better the material is as an
insulator.
Solar panels may contain water that is heated by
radiation from the Sun. his water may then be used to
heat buildings or provide domestic hot water.
/now what a +8value is and what it tells us about the
material as an insulator.
\$e able to evaluate the effectiveness of different types of
material used for insulation, including +8values and
economic factors including payback time.
\$e able to evaluate the efficiency and cost effectiveness of
methods used to reduce &energy consumption'.
+nderstand the term &pay8
back' time in relation to
heating and insulating
buildings.
P1.% The usefu)ness of e)ectrica) app)iances
We often use electrical appliances because they transfer energy at the flick of a switch. We can calculate how much energy is transferred by an appliance and how
much the appliance costs to run.
P1.' *ethods we use to generate e)ectricity
0arious energy sources can be used to generate the electricity we need. We must carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of using each energy source
before deciding which energy source9s: it would be best to use in any particular situation. Electricity is distributed via the ;ational Grid.
Spec
Reference
Summary of the Specification Content Learning utcomes
What most candidates should be able to do
E!amination "hints and
tips# Candidates should:
P1.%.1
Transferri
ng
e)ectrica)
energy
E!amples of energy transfers that everyday electrical
appliances are designed to bring about.
he amount of energy an appliance transfers depends
+nderstand the energy transfers that occur in electrical
appliances.
+se the e"uation to calculate the energy transferred from
/now the units of each term
in the e"uation.
/now how to convert power
GCSE Science A Scheme of Work
on how long the appliance is switched on and its power.
o calculate the amount of energy transferred from the
mains using the e"uation(
E = P t
o calculate the cost of mains electricity given the cost
per kilowatt8hour 9kWh:.
the mains to an electrical appliance, either in 4oules or
kilowatt8hours.
Calculate the cost of using individual appliances and also to
interpret electricity meter readings to calculate total cost
over a period of time.
from watts to kilowatts and
vice versa.
/now how to convert time
from hours to minutes and
seconds and vice versa, and
be careful to make these
conversions in an e!am if
necessary.

P1.'.1
+eneratin
g
e)ectricity
*n some power stations an energy source is used to heat
water. he steam produced drives a turbine that is
coupled to an electrical generator.
+nderstand the purpose of the main parts of a power
station.
know that different energy sources which heat the water
include(
the fossil fuels 9coal, oil and gas: which are burned to
heat water or air
uranium and plutonium, when energy from nuclear
fission is used to heat water
biofuels that can be burned to heat water.
/now that, of the fossil fuel power stations, gas8fired have
the shortest start8up time.
\$e aware of the advantages of pumped storage systems in
order to meet peak demand, and as a means of storing
energy for later use.
\$e able to draw and label a
block diagram of a power
station showing the main
parts.
Water and wind can be used to drive turbines directly.
*n some volcanic areas hot water and steam rise to the
surface. he steam can be tapped and used to drive
turbines. his is known as geothermal energy.
/now the basic principles by which wind turbines operate.
/now that water can be used to drive turbines in a variety of
ways, which include, but are not limited to, waves, tides and
the falling of water in hydroelectric schemes.
/now the basic principles of how geothermal energy is
used.
\$e able to distinguish the
difference between waves
and tides.
Electricity can be produced directly from the Sun's /now that solar cells can be used to generate electricity. \$e able to describe the
GCSE Science A Scheme of Work
Small8scale production of electricity may be useful in
some areas and for some uses, eg hydroelectricity in
remote areas and solar cells for roadside signs.
\$e able to describe the advantages and disadvantages of
the use of solar cells in generating electricity.
vantages of solar cells.
+sing different energy resources has different effects on
the environment.
+nderstand effects on the environment such as(
the release of substances into the atmosphere
the production of waste materials
noise and visual pollution
the destruction of wildlife habitats.
+nderstand that carbon capture and storage is a rapidly
evolving technology.
+nderstand that to prevent carbon dio!ide building up in the
atmosphere we can catch and store it7 some of the best
natural containers are old oil and gas fields, such as those
under the ;orth Sea.
Evaluate different methods of generating electricity given
data including start8up times, costs of electricity generation
and the total cost of generating electricity when factors such
as building and decommissioning are taken into account.
he reliability of different methods should also be
understood.
+nderstand that to prevent
carbon dio!ide building up in
the atmosphere we can
catch it and store it. Some of
the best natural containers
are old oil and gas fields.
P1.'.2
The
,ationa)
+rid
Electricity is distributed from power stations to
consumers along the ;ational Grid.
>or a given power, increasing the voltage reduces the
current re"uired and this reduces the energy losses in
the cables.
he uses of step8up and step8down transformers in the
;ational Grid.
*dentify and label the essential parts of the ;ational
Grid.
/now why transformers are an essential part of the ;ational
Grid.
\$e able to identify and label
a diagram of the main parts
of the ;ational Grid.
GCSE Science A Scheme of Work
P1.- The use of wa.es for communication and to pro.ide e.idence that the uni.erse is e!panding.
Electromagnetic radiations travel as waves and move energy from one place to another. hey can all travel through a vacuum and do so at the same speed. he
waves cover a continuous range of wavelengths called the electromagnetic spectrum. Sound waves and some mechanical waves are longitudinal, and cannot travel
through a vacuum.
Current evidence suggests that the universe is e!panding and that matter and space e!panded violently and rapidly from a very small initial &point', ie the universe
began with a &\$ig \$ang'.
Spec
Reference
Summary of the Specification Content Learning utcomes
What most candidates should be able to do
E!amination "hints and
tips# Candidates should:
P1.-.2
Ref)ection
he &normal' is a construction line perpendicular to the
reflecting surface at the point of incidence.
he angle of incidence is e"ual to the angle of reflection.
he image produced in a plane mirror is virtual, upright
and laterally inverted.
#raw diagrams showing rays of light being reflected from a
plane mirror, labelling incident and reflected rays, angles of
incidence and reflection, and the normal.
+nderstand how an image is formed by a plane mirror, and
why it is virtual.
\$e able to construct a ray
diagram to show the image
formed by a plane mirror.
P1.-.1
+enera)
propertie
s of
wa.es
Waves transfer energy.
Waves may be either transverse or longitudinal.
Electromagnetic waves are transverse, sound waves are
longitudinal and mechanical waves may be either
transverse or longitudinal.
All types of electromagnetic waves travel at the same
speed through a vacuum 9space:.
6ongitudinal waves show areas of compression and
rarefaction.
he terms &fre"uency', &wavelength' and &amplitude'.
+nderstand that in a transverse wave the oscillations are
perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer.
+nderstand that in a longitudinal wave the oscillations are
parallel to the direction of energy transfer.
+nderstand the terms &compression' and &rarefaction' and
how they are formed.
+nderstand the terms &fre"uency', &wavelength' and
&amplitude' and be able to annotate a diagram to show
these terms.
/now the order of electromagnetic waves within the
spectrum, in terms of energy, fre"uency and wavelength.
/now the order of the
electromagnetic waves
within the spectrum in terms
of energy, fre"uency and
wavelength.
Waves can be reflected, refracted and diffracted. +nderstand the circumstances where a wave is reflected, \$e able to complete
GCSE Science A Scheme of Work
Waves undergo a change of direction when they are
refracted at an interface.
refracted or diffracted.
\$e able to complete wavefront diagrams for reflection,
refraction and diffraction.
/now that waves are not refracted if travelling along the
normal.
diagrams for wave fronts
showing reflection, refraction
and diffraction.
he terms fre"uency, wavelength and amplitude.
All waves obey the wave e"uation(
v = f
\$e able to use the e"uation, knowing that v is speed in
metres per second 9m%s: f is fre"uency in hert5 9A5: and is
wavelength in metres 9m:.
6earn the units of the terms
in the e"uation and know
how to convert kilohert5 to
hert5.
Badio waves, microwaves, infrared and visible light can
be used for communication.
/now situations in which waves are typically used for
communication, eg(
radio waves C 0 and radio 9including diffraction effects:
microwaves C mobile phones and satellite television
infrared C remote controls
visible light C photography.
/now how radio waves,
microwaves, infrared and
visible light can be used in
communications.
P1.-.%
Sound
Sound waves are longitudinal waves and cause
vibrations in a medium, which are detected as sound.
he pitch of a sound is determined by its fre"uency and
loudness by its amplitude.
Echoes are reflections of sounds.
/now how sound waves are produced.
+nderstand the relationship between the pitch of a sound
and the fre"uency of the sound wave.
+nderstand how echoes are formed.
/now the relationship
between pitch and
fre"uency.
,otes/ 6ongitudinal waves
are created by pushing and
pulling, and include sound
9all the &u's together:.
P1.-.'
Red0shift

*f a wave source is moving relative to an observer there
will be a change in the observed wavelength and
fre"uency. his is known as the #oppler effect.
here is an observed increase in the wavelength of light
from most distant gala!ies. his effect is called the &red8
shift'.
Aow the observed &red8shift' provides evidence that the
universe is e!panding and supports the &\$ig \$ang'
theory.
\$e able to e!plain the #oppler effect.
/now that when the source moves away from the observer,
the observed wavelength increases and the fre"uency
decreases7 when the source moves towards the observer,
the observed wavelength decreases and the fre"uency
increases.
\$e able to e!plain the term &red8 shift'.
/now that the further away the gala!ies are, the faster they
\$e able to e!plain the term
&red8shift' and the &\$ig \$ang'
theory.
GCSE Science A Scheme of Work
Cosmic microwave background radiation 9CE\$B: is a
form of electromagnetic radiation filling the universe
he &\$ig \$ang' theory is currently the only theory that can
e!plain the e!istence of CE\$B.
are moving, and the bigger the observed increase in
wavelength.
\$e able to e!plain how &red8shift' provides evidence that the
universe is e!panding.
/now that the &\$ig \$ang' theory indicates that the universe
began from a very small initial point.
/now that CE\$B comes from radiation that was present
shortly after the beginning of the universe.