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THE NEW FEDERALIST March 4, 1991 Page 8

American Almanac
On the 200th Anniversary Of Mozart's Death:
The Power of Beauty and Truth
y David !havin
Mozart "fourth from ri#ht$ in attendance at a meetin# of the %iennese
Masonic &od#e '(rowned )o*e+' This unsi#ned *aintin# dates from c+ ,-.0+
&eft: a *ortrait of Mozart as a youn# man+
In cities throghot the !or"#, co$$e$orations o% the &''th anni(ersar) o%
Mo*art+s #eath are ,eing -"anne#, or are in -rogress. In the ear") $orning
hors o% Dece$,er /, 1091, the 1/2)ear o"# co$-oser, Wo"%gang A$a#es
Mo*art, e3-ire# in his ,e#. A %e! hors "ater on that sa$e #a), an# on") a
%e! ,"oc4s a!a), his "ong2ti$e %rien# an# associate, 5aron (on S!ieten6
the "ea#er o% the 7A$erican,7 or re-,"ican, %action in 8ienna6!as
s$$ari") #is$isse# %ro$ the go(ern$ent. 5e%ore this #a) !as o(er, the
!or"# !o"# !itness the a--earance o% A"e3an#er Ha$i"ton+s Report to the
Congress on the Subject of Manufactures6a $i"estone in the -rocess to
!hich the 9nite# States !as to gro! accsto$e#: na$e"), that each
sccessi(e generation !as to ,e $ore c"tre#, $ore s4i""e#, an# $ore
ca-a,"e o% assi$i"ating ne! techno"ogies, an# so"(ing $ore a#(ance#
-ro,"e$s, than the -re(ios. Ho!e(er, the $ost interesting connections
a$ong these three e(ents go ,e)on# that e(ent%" #a) o% a"$ost &'' )ears
ago.
The stor) o% Mo*art+s #eath is not !e"" n#erstoo# to#a), "arge") ,ecase the
4e) e"e$ents o% his "i%e to#a) are ignore#, o,scre#, or $isn#erstoo#. For
e3a$-"e, his ear") co""a,oration in Paris in 1008 !ith La%a)ette+s in2"a!s,
the #e Noai""es, is co$-"ete") ignore#. The &&2)ear2o"# Mo*art !as to ,e
the organist %or the French cort, !hich ha# ;st ;oine# the A$erican
Re(o"tion against the 5ritish E$-ire. Whi"e !e can on") i$agine the
-ossi,"e %rit%"ness o% Mo*art+s c"tra" in%"ence on Marie Antoinette an#
Lois <8I, !e ha(e !itnesse# the conse=ences o% the c)nica" -hi"oso-hies
that #i# -re(ai" !ith Mo*art a,sent. The intrige that #ro(e Mo*art ot o%
Paris in 1008 is as )et an nto"# stor).
>i(en sch o$issions, to#a) Ho"")!oo# can rega"e s !ith the %ra#"ent
thesis -ro-on#e# ,) the $o(ie, Amadeus, that Mo*art !as $r#ere# %or
reasons o% a -ersona"it) con%"ict !ith Antonio Sa"ieri. 5eetho(en, in his #a),
sa! throgh this ins"ting (ersion o% Mo*art+s $r#er, an# acte# to #estro)
the co(er2-.
To#a), the -o!er, grace, an# ,eat) o% Mo*art+s $sic sti"" %in# their !a) to
or $in#s an# hearts. Ho!e(er, or a,i"it) to hear an# to s-ea4 his
"angage has $ar4e#") #i$inishe#, ;st as sre") as the -rocess o% the
increase in the ca-a,i"ities o% sccessi(e generations6the -rocess e$,o#ie#
as the 9nite# States6has itse"% ,eco$e increasing") a"ien to s. As or
attention is #ra!n to this &''th anni(ersar) )ear, !e stan# ,e%ore a ni=e
o--ortnit) to attac4, an# re(erse, this tragic #ea%ness. There is -erha-s no
,etter -"ace to start than !ith Mo*art+s o-era, The Magic Flute.
/e*ulicans vs+ Oli#archs
In at$n 1091, the ca-ita"s o% Ero-e !ere in tr$oi" o(er the re(o"tion
in France. In 8ienna, Mo*art+s o-era Die Zauberflte !The Magic Flute"
-"a)e# to -ac4e# hoses, a#iences !hich !ere a $i3tre o% the $sic2
"o(ers o% the aristocrac) an# the "arge $i##"e c"ass o% the cit).
Mo*art !or4e# c"ose") !ith the "i,rettist, E$ane" Schi4ane#er, his goo#
%rien# an# -o"itica" associate. The) ha# co$e to 4no! each other in
Mo*art+s ho$e to!n o% Sa"*,rg in 108', !here Schi4ane#er+s acting tro-e
ha# co$e to -er%or$ Sha4es-eare. No!, !ith the co$-osition o% The
Magic Flute, the) !ere ha(ing great goo# %n in -resenting the strategic
cha""enge o% the A$erican re(o"tion to the $i3e# socia" c"asses o% 8ienna.
The si$-"e, n#er")ing the$e o% the -rece#ing ten )ears6o% the -erio#
since the A$ericans trne# the !or"# -si#e #o!n on the 5ritish o"igarch)
at ?or4to!n6can ,e -ose# as %o""o!s: can the co$$on $an rise a,o(e the
e(er)#a) concerns o% sr(i(a", an# access $ore -o!er%" ca-a,i"ities in his
heart an# $in#, that !o"# ,e the sorce o% =a"itati(e i$-ro(e$ents o% his
societ)@ Ar, rather, the o--osing (ie! B-t as charita,") as -ossi,"eC: is
societ) a ha--ier, $ore sccess%" -"ace, !hen $ost c"asses o% $an4in#
"earn on") a "i$ite# set o% actions, a tra#e, !hi"e a se"ecte# c"ass o% aristo2
crats se"ects itse"% to ,e the o(erseers o% societ)@ In the %irst ca$- stoo# the
re-,"icans, in the "atter, the o"igarchs.
This !as a "i%e an# #eath isse %or the )ong A$erican re-,"ic, an# %or the
o"#er Ero-ean ci(i"i*ation %ro$ !hich it ca$e. In The Magic Flute, Mo*art
-resents the aristocrac) o% a se"%2se"ecte# gro- o% $en, Sarastro+s 5rother2
hoo#, as a socia" instittion that histor) is -assing ,). Dno!"e#ge can no
"onger ,e sccess%"") -rotecte# an# trans$itte# ,) these $en, !hether the)
,e thoght o% as $on4s, or as Masons. Sarastro chooses to -ass the $ant"e
o% "ea#ershi- to a -air o% )ong "o(ers, Ta$ino an# Pa$ina. For Mo*art,
4no!"e#ge $st no! "i(e as the %rit o% the $arriage o% trth an# ,eat), o%
the "o(e o% Ta$ino an# Pa$ina %or each other. The 4no!"e#ge necessar) to
go(ern s-rings %ro$ the sa$e sorce as tre "o(e, an# ,oth are accessi,"e to
an) $an or !o$an that is !i""ing to a--ro-riate") orient his or her concerns.
So, the !e""2s-ring o% h$an e$otion, ca""e# in the Ne! Testa$ent, agap#,
$st ,e -ro-er") c"ti(ate# as the strategic reser(e o% the h$an race.
Aristocracies, %or Mo*art, are6,) their (er) natre6too steri"e to carr) ot
this tas4.
The tria"s that Ta$ino an# Pa$ina $st each en#re "ie at the heart o% the
o-era. The) are no o,scre Masonic rita". Ho!e(er, to n#erstan# the$,
Mo*art+s a#ience, an# A$ericans to#a), $st a""o! the$se"(es to thin4
throgh the tas4s %or citi*enshi- in a re-,"ic. A ,rie% re%erence to the
historica" -erio# sho"# he"-.
(loc0wise from to* left: Mozart as a child1 at *ractice with his father
&eo*old2 3ohann !eastian Bach1 whose wor0 was introduced to the youn#
Mozart y Baron von !wieten2 the counter*oint introducin# the two #uards'
chorale1 efore Pamino and Tamino's trial y fire in The Magic Flute. This
*assa#e is also *art of Mozart's rewor0in# of Bach's (4minor Musical
Offering.
At the ti$e o% the French Re(o"tion, it !as an eas) $atter %or an) To$,
Dic4, or Harr) to ;$- in %ront o% a $ass o% #isgrnt"e# citi*ens an# )e""
anti2aristocrac) s"ogans. The a,ses in societ) !ere there %or a"" to see.
Ane nee# on") reca"" the "ist o% a,ses cite# ,) or %ore%athers at the
,eginning o% the Dec"aration o% In#e-en#ence, in#icting the r"ers o% >reat
5ritain.
More en"ightene# sections o% the aristocrac), sch as the signers to the
Leage o% Ar$e# Netra"it) #ring the Re(o"tionar) War, consi#ere# the
nee# an# the #esira,i"it) o% #e(e"o-ing a $i##"e c"ass. In -artic"ar, the
gro- that Mo*art ;oine# in 8ienna in 1081, aron# 5aron (on S!ieten an#
Eose-h (on Sonnen%e"s, a ra,,i+s son, re-resente# the %action in E$-eror
Eose-h+s cort !hich atte$-te# to create an e#cate# $i##"e c"ass.
Ho!e(er, the $ore ,ac4!ar# e"e$ents o% the aristocrac) throghot the
ca-ita"s o% Ero-e #ring the #eca#e a%ter the A$erican Re(o"tion ha# the
greatest interest in ensring their historica" a,ses !ere ne(er again to case
the$ to "ose contro" o% their -o-"ations. Throgh the se o% sch agents
-ro(ocater as Danton an# Marat, the) -"anne# to channe" the -o-"ation+s
nrest #o!n ,"in# a""e)s. A,o(e a"", the) acte# to -re(ent the co$$on $an
%ro$ recogni*ing his o!n h$anit) an# ca-a,i"ities.
Truth and Beauty
So !hat !as the ;o, o% a re-,"ican "ea#er o% the A$erican %action in
organi*ing #isgrnt"e# -o-"ations #ring sch a -erio#@ An# ho! !as an
in#i(i#a" citi*en to #istingish ,et!een a re-,"ican "ea#er an# an agent
-ro(ocater@
Mo*art+s 4no!"e#ge on these $atters !as enca-s"ate# a generation "ater ,)
Eohn Deats Ba "ea#ing $e$,er o% the Mo*art schoo" in Eng"an#C in his -oe$
7A#e on a >recian 9rn,7 !hich c"ose# !ith Deats+s %a$os s$$ation o%
c"assica" c"tre:
F +5eat) is trth, trth ,eat),+ 6that is a"" )e 4no! on earth, an# a"" )e
nee# to 4no!.7
Does this $ean that a re-,"ican "ea#er $st co$-ose ,eati%"")@ Does
this $ean that an agent -ro(ocater can ,e recogni*e# ,) his g"), ras-),
angr) (oice@ In an i$-ortant sense, )es.
Whi"e it !as necessar) to see the g") rea"ities, e.g., that too $an) chi"#ren
!ere #)ing o% too $an) #iseases, or that too $an) a#"ts rese$,"e# ,easts
o% ,r#en an# nothing $ore, this t)-e o% na4e# trth !as not the !ho"e
stor), nor !as it s%%icient. In ta4ing his a#ience throgh the tria"s o%
Ta$ino an# Pa$ina, Mo*art a##resses a s%%icient an# (ita" "e(e" o% trth. A
re-,"ican $st ,e a,"e to "oo4 at the g") trth, as it !ere, an# s$$on -
the inner ,eat) o% his or her so" to o(er-o!er g"iness. Anger, a"thogh
so$eti$es an honest e$otion, cannot ,e a""o!e# to #escen# into $ere rage,
,t rather $st ca"" %orth the $ore -o!er%" h$an e$otion o% agap#.
Fro$ the (er) otset o% the o-era+s "i,retto, The Magic Flute gi(es a!a) the
intention o% Mo*art an# Schi4ane#er to engage their a#ience in the critica"
isses o% the #a), !ith the greatest o-ti$is$ an# h$or. Instea# o% $ere")
,eing intro#ce# to the ne! characters, the a#ience is h$oros") in(ite#
into the in(estigation o% -rinces, -easants, an# h$an i#entities. The
"istener is a""o!e# to "oo4 o(er Prince Ta$ino+s sho"#er an# =estion ho!
he 4no!s an# ;#ges h$an characters an# i#entities. The Prince $eets a
$an #resse# - in %eathers, in a strange "an#, o% !hich he #oes not 4no! the
!a)s, an# he as4s hi$ !ho he is:
$apageno% Who a$ I@6St-i# =estion@6A h$an ,eing "i4e
)orse"%6An# !hat i% I as4e# )o !ho )o are@
Tamino% I a$ a -rinceG
$apageno% A -rince@
Tamino% Te"" $e, !hat #o )o "i(e %ro$@
$apageno% Fro$ %oo# an# #rin4, "i4e e(er)one e"se.
Tamino% An# !here #o )o get it %ro$@
$apageno% I catch ,ir#s %or the starr) Heen, an# in retrn she gi(es
$e $) #ai") %oo# an# #rin4.
Tamino% Te"" $e, goo# %rien#, ha(e )o e(er ha# the goo# %ortne to
see this go##ess o% the night@
$apageno% See@ See the starr) Heen@ See her@ 5t !h) are )o
"oo4ing at $e so ss-icios")@
Tamino% 5ecase I+$ #,ios as to !hether )o are a h$an ,eing.
Ta$ino %ai"s to n#erstan# the ss-icios arrange$ent o% societ) #escri,e#
to hi$ ,) the -easant Pa-ageno, in !hich 7-easant #oes &, r"er gi(es '.(
This e3-"anation is $ore sita,"e %or ho! a three2)ear2o"# (ie!s the $agic
o% his $o$$) in the 4itchen. Instea#, the a#ience+s $in# is in(ite# to
e3-erience the %n o% gro!ing -. The si$-"est =estions in the o-era
,eco$e an o--ortnit) %or e-iste$o"ogica" in(estigations6,oth h$oros
an#, %or the tr,"ent Ero-e o% 1091, #ea#") serios.
For e3a$-"e, !hen Sarastro -ro-oses to his 5rotherhoo#, that Ta$ino ,e
recrite#, !e hear: 7>reat Sarastro, !i"" Ta$ino a"so !ithstan# the se(ere
tria"s that a!ait hi$@ Re$e$,er, he is a -rinceG7 Sarastro ans!ers: 7E(en
$ore, he is a h$an.7
Then there is the 7$agica"7 e"e$ent, the tre -rotagonist o% the o-era, the
$agic %"te itse"%. Its $agic ser(es to carr) the characters ,e)on# the n2
so"(a,"e contra#ictions o% their #a). A g"orios =intet sings: 7AhG Sch a
%"te is $ore -recios than go"# or cro!ns, %or ,) its -o!er !i"" h$an ;o)
an# content$ent ,e increase#.7
What no,"e senti$entsG 5t Mo*art is not $a4ing a %"o!er), ro$antic
state$ent. He $eans !hat he sa)s, an# is rea#) to -ro(e it. 5t !h)
sho"#n+t an) a#ience !hose critica" %ac"ties !eren+t "e%t at the #oor,
=estion Mo*art+s intro#ction o% sch a 7$agica"7 -o!er@ Mo*art+s ans!er
is his $sic. It is the (er) -o!er #is-"a)e# ,) Mo*art+s $sic throgh the
corse o% the o-era that ren#ers sch o,;ections s-eech"ess. Mo*art -ts the
=estion o% the co$-osing -o!ers o% his a#ience, an# o% his -o-"ation, on
the agen#a. The 7$agic %"te7 is nothing ,t a $o#est !a) o% re%erring to
the -o!er o% Mo*art hi$se"%, the -o!er o% c"assica" $sic, an#6,)
e3tension6the -o!er o% an) citi*en to access his o!n #e"i,erati(e
-rocesses.
A"ong the !a), Mo*art $a4es sre to ho"# - to goo#2h$ore# ri#ic"e the
ha,its that -eo-"e ten# to %a"" into as a s,stitte %or en;o)ing thin4ing.
When the goo#2natre# Pa-ageno st$,"es across the soght2a%ter heroine,
Pa$ina, he is -re-are# to a--") a"" his e$-irica" tests to $a4e rea"it)
con%or$ to his i$$e#iate sense2#ata. Not ,e"ie(ing her assertion that she is
!ho she is, he co$-ares her to a -ortrait o% Pa$ina that he is carr)ing:
7E)es ,"ac46right, ,"ac4. Li-s re#6right, re#. 5"on# hair6,"on# hair.
E(er)thing is correct, e3ce-t the han#s an# %eetI ,ecase %ro$ this -ictre,
)o ha(en+t an) han#s an# %eet, %or none are -ainte# here.7
Pa$ina e3-resses si$i"ar #o,ts as to !ho Pa-ageno is:
$amina% 5t s--ose this is on") a tra-@ S--ose )o are ,t an e(i"
genis o% Sarastro@
$apageno% I@ An e(i" genis@ What are )o thin4ing o%@ I a$ no
genis at a"".
$amina% Frien#, %orgi(e $e i% I ha(e o%%en#e# )o. ?o ha(e a
ten#er heart.
At this, Pa$ina ,egins singing: 7The $an !ho %ee"s s!eet "o(e+s e$otion,J
Wi"" a"!a)s ha(e a 4in#") heart.7 An# Pa-ageno ;oins in. This %a$os #et
ce"e,rates the -o!er an# ;o) o% "o(e. The a#ience no! 4no!s that ,oth
Pa-ageno an# Pa$ina are !orth) o% their interest, an# o% their concern,
,ecase the) ,oth con=ere# their %ears an# ss-icions ,ase# -on their
o-enness to >o#+s -o!er on earth, "o(e.
5ood and 6vil
The =estion o% !hether Sarastro, the r"er o% the 5rotherhoo#, is -art o% a
goo# cons-irac), or o% an e(i" one, ,rings - the =estion regar#ing the
-o-"ace+s a,i"it) to choose "ea#ers, an# to -artici-ate in a re-,"ic. Mch
nonsense has ,een !ritten concerning the -ersona"it) o% the o$inos %igre
o% Sarastro. The Heen o% the Night !o"# ha(e Ta$ino, an# the a#ience,
,e"ie(e that he is the hea# o% a #angeros c"t that has 4i#na--e# her
#aghter. It has e(en ,een sai# that the t!o #i%%erent Sarastros -resente# in
the "i,retto, are e(i#ence that the "i,retto !as !ritten ha-ha*ar#") ,)
Schi4ane#er, !ith "itt"e attention to o(era"" coherence.
What -atent nonsenseG I% to#a)+s -r(e)ors o% c"tra" o-inions !o"#
s-en# as $ch e%%ort on their Sha4es-eare as Mo*art+s %rien# Schi4ane#er
#i# in his ti$e, !e !o"# not s%%er %ro$ sch inanities. In %act, the
contra#ictions a,ot Sarastro, %ar %ro$ o(er"oo4e# ,) Schi4ane#er, are
#e"i,erate") %orce# to the a#ience+s attention, to con%ront the$ on ho! the)
$a4e their ;#g$ents.
Ta$ino co$es to Sarastro+s rea"$ !ith the intention o% rescing Pa$ina, his
ears %i""e# !ith (eno$os r$ors a,ot Sarastro. He is con%ronte# ,) three
te$-"es o% ,eati%" architectre, #e#icate# to reason, to natre, an# to
!is#o$.
Ta$ino enters the Te$-"e o% Wis#o$, thin4ing that he -rses the no,"e an#
,"a$e"ess -r-ose o% rescing Pa$ina. 5t he is con%ronte# !ith a -riest o%
the te$-"e, an# this interchange %o""o!s:
$riest% What are )o, stranger, see4ing %or@
Tamino% +Tis "o(e an# (irte that I see4.
$riest% These !or#s a "o%t) $in# ,es-ea4. An# )et, ho! #o )o ho-e
to earn the$@ Not "o(e nor (irte #o )o hee#I !ith #eath an#
(engeance )o are ,rning.
Tamino% ?es, (engeance %or a (i""ain+s #ee#G
$riest% M) son, )o are ensnare# in error.
9-on %in#ing ot that Sarastro #oes in %act r"e e(en 7in !is#o$+s te$-"e,7
Ta$ino cries ot, 7Then a"" is %a"se as %a"se can ,eG7
Wi"" or -rince, an# or a#ience, renonce their no,"e -r-oses o%
o(ertrning e(i", !hen con%ronte# !ith sch a--arent contra#ictions@ At
%irst, the (er) na$e 7Sarastro7 is enogh to sen# Ta$ino -ac4ing. Ho!e(er,
the -riest #e$an#s an ans!er as to !h) he hates Sarastro so. 7He is a %oe o%
$en, a t)rantG7 5t ho! #oes Ta$ino 4no! this, not 4no!ing Sarastro, nor
n#erstan#ing ho! Sarastro+s rea"$ co"# ,e a -"ace o% ,eat) an# !is#o$@
It see$s that a s%%ering !o$an, the Heen o% the Night, has to"# hi$ so.
An# ho! is this #i%%erent %ro$ gossi-@ Ta$ino #oes not 4no!, ,t he is sre
that he #esires the ,eati%" #aghter, Pa$ina, an# Sarastro stan#s in
,et!een Pa$ina an# her $other.
What #oes Prince Ta$ino go throgh, that the a#iences o% 8ienna in the %a""
o% 1091 are -ro$-te# ,) Mo*art+s $sic a"so to go throgh@ Ta$ino has
o-ene# hi$se"% - to the e$otions o% "o(e, an# o% %ree#o$, an# is a""o!ing
his actions, his %tre, to ,e a"tere# in his -rsit o% these goa"s. No! he is
con%ronte# !ith a !or"# he #oes not n#erstan#. Wi"" he trn ,ac4 in
con%sion, an# ass$e %or the rest o% his "i%e that sch inner e$otions are
#angeros, irrationa", an# not in coherence !ith rea"it)@ Ar !i"" he "o(e
,eat) an# trth #ee-") enogh, to a""o! the$ to he"- hi$ $aster !hate(er
shortco$ings sti"" re$ain in his #e(e"o-$ent, characteri*e# ,) these
see$ing") inso"(a,"e contra#ictions@ What $st Ta$ino 4no! to #e%eat
e(i"@ Ho! is he to $ster the -o!er to acco$-"ish !hat he %ee"s he $st@
The Trials
Dring the corse o% the tria"s that Ta$ino an# Pa$ina $st n#ergo, the)
are %orce# to -"$, the #e-ths o% their as2)et2nteste# e$otion ca""e# "o(e,
in or#er to reso"(e their -re#ica$ents. An# it is Pa$ina, not Ta$ino, !ho
"ea#s the !a).
Est as the o$inos Sarastro is a,ot to $a4e his %irst a--earance, Pa-ageno
s-ea4s on ,eha"% o% the a#ience+s %ears as he scrries a,ot, #es-erate %or
so$ething to sa). It is Pa$ina, !ho sei*es the $o$ent, an# sings ot, s-ea4
7The trthG7 In the %ace o% i$agine# an# ni$agine# horrors, !ith no
-re#eter$ine# !a) ot, one cannot a""o! one+s $in# to s-in aron# in
%antasies. The trth is the natra" %oo# o% the $in#. Withot it, the $in#
star(es an# ,rea4s #o!n. I$-ortant"), it is 75eat),7 in the %or$ o% Pa$ina,
!hich asserts 7The TrthG7
Dring Ta$ino+s tria"s, he !i"" co$e to #isci-"ine his $in# against gossi-,
-re%erring to see4 -roo%. Wea4 $in#s $a) re-eat gossi- as !o$en #o, he
sings, ,t h)-ocrites in(ent sch nonsense to 4ee- $in#s !ea4.
Those !ho re-eat the nonsense that Mo*art so$eho! ,"a$es !o$en %or a""
the -ro,"e$s o% the !or"#, o,(ios") ha(e ne(er chosen to con%ront the gt2
!renching tria"s that Pa$ina is -t throgh. The a#ience !atches as she is
threatene# !ith a,se an# ,"ac4$ai" ,) the Moor. Then, the) !atch as her
$other threatens to renonce her n"ess she ;oins !ith her $other+s #es-era2
tion an# rage against Sarastro, an# ses her #agger to 4i"" hi$. This is the
horror o% the %a$os Heen o% the Night aria:
I% ,) )or han# Sarastro #oes not -erish
Then as $) chi"# I 4no! )o ne(er$ore.
A,an#one# ,e %ore(er,
Forsa4en ,e %ore(er,
An# shattere# ,e %ore(er,
A"" the %orce o% natre+s tieG
Har4G >o# o% (engeance,
Hear a $other+s cr)G
Pa$ina is a"" a"one in the !or"#, !hen the a#ience !itnesses her renion
!ith Ta$ino. 5t, s!orn to si"ence #ring the corse o% their tria"s, he
cannot s-ea4 to te"" her o% his "o(e. She has gi(en her a"" %or "o(e, an# it
see$s she has nothing in retrn. The -ain is n,eara,"e. Listen to Mo*art+s
$sic %or Pa$ina, an# one rea"i*es that Mo*art ,oth 4ne! this "e(e" o% "o(e,
an# chose to ,ring his a#ience to this #e-th o% con%rontation !ith their
inner$ost thoghts an# %ee"ings.
Mo*art 4ne! the in%inite ca-acit) %or "o(e an# re#e$-tion !ithin the h$an
heart. He ha# e3-"ore# this the$e rigoros"), an# -assionate"), an# he te""s
the !or"# ho! he 4no!s !hat he 4no!s, in a %re=ent") o(er"oo4e# -assage
Continued on page ) !not a*ailable"
A**endi7: The Ma#ic 8lute and the Death of Mozart
+&ecuti*e ,ntelligence Re*ie-, Dece$,er 4, 199&
FAnother Atte$-t To Ko(er 9- Mo*art+s Assassination Fai"sL
,) Da(i# M. Sha(in
The Mo.art M'ths% A Critical Reassessment
,) Wi""ia$ Sta%%or#
Stan%or# 9ni(ersit) Press, Stan%or#, Ka"i%., 1991
&8/ -ages, har#,on#, M&4.9/
Daumer and the 8reemasons
It is 4no!n that in the "ast three $onths o% Mo*art+s "i%e, his o(er!he"$ing")
sccess%" o-era, Die Zauberflte BThe Magic FluteC, ,roght ,e%ore the
citi*ens o% 8ienna crcia" isses o% the connection ,et!een "o(e an# 4no!2
"e#ge, an# o% the necessit) %or a -o-"ation in a re-,"ic to $a4e 4no!"e#ge
their -ersona" ac=isition. Mo*art+s %ight to n#er$ine an# #estro) the
secreti(e, cons-iratoria" !ea-ons se# ,) the o"igarch) against the A$erican
Re(o"tion a$ong >er$an2s-ea4ing -eo-"e !as not "ost -on >oethe,
Schi""er, 5eetho(en, an# other re-,"ican circ"es o% the ti$e.
In 18N1, a contro(ersia" artic"e, 7At o% the Attic,7 ,) >.F. Da$er, a--eare#
in Main*, >er$an), a""eging that Mo*art !as -oisone# ,) a c"tish assort2
$ent o% Free$asons, I""$inati, Eaco,ins, an# Kar,onari. This e(i" co""ec2
tion !as asserte# to ha(e e3iste# o(er the centries, to ha(e se# $an) %ront
gro-s, an# to ,e #e(ote# to -o!er, to %ree "o(e, an# to natre2!orshi-.
Da$er na$e# se(era" "ea#ing $e$,ers o% this cons-irac), inc"#ing Da(i#
H$e, 8o"taire, Marie Eean Antoine Kon#orcet Ba 4e) %igre in the French
Re(o"tionC, an# anarchist Pierre Eose-h Pro#hon. He e(en sggeste# that
a scri,,"er in the 5ritish Mse$ in Lon#on, na$e# Dar" Mar3, !as one o%
their assets.
Da$er correct") "ocates the e3-"osi(e ro"e o% the Ltheran chora"e sng ,)
the t!o ar$e# $en in The Magic Flute, in angering those a$ong the
Free$asons !ho har,ore# nKhristian $oti(ations. BIn %act, this chora"e
!as set to Mo*art+s ,e"o(e# K2$inor series $ateria", an n$ista4ea,"e
re%erence on Mo*art+ s -art to his o!n sccess%" %ight %or 4no!"e#ge.C
Da$er sitates Mo*art+s -oisoning in the conte3t o% si$i"ar -oisonings o%
the E$-eror Leo-o"# II, an#, ear"ier, o% >ottho"# Lessing. Da$er a"so
ta4es care to #istingish the e(i" inner core o% Free$asons %ro$ $ost o% the
$en Mo*art !or4e# !ith.
Fidelio, Winter 199&
FMo*art an# the A$erican Re(o"tionar) 9-srgeL
,) Da(i# Sha(in
As each act o% The Abduction ha# ,een co$-"ete#, Mo*art ha# -er%or$e#
the$ %or the Kontess Maria Wi"he"$ine Thn, !hose sa"on !as re-orte#")
e3tre$e") sti$"ating. I% 5aron (an S!ieten+s se$inars !ere the center o%
the 75ach7 -ro;ect %or re-,"ican "ea#ershi-, Kontess Thn+s sa"on !as
c"ear") the center o% the ongoing -o"itica" an# c"tra" $eetings an#
#iscssions. . . .
The Kontess Thn -ro(e# instr$enta" in arranging %or the )ong ta"ent,
L#!ig (an 5eetho(en, to co$e to 8ienna in 1080 an# $eet !ith Mo*art.
T!o o% her sons2in2"a!, Prince Lichno!s4) Bthe one %ro$ the Sn#a)
se$inar seriesC, an# Kont Ra*$o(s4), "ater ,eca$e $a;or s--orters o%
the a#"t 5eetho(en.
9#naz von Born's (ons*iracy
Perha-s one o% the $ost contro(ersia" o% the gests at Kontess Thn+s !as
Igna* (on 5orn, thoght to ,e the $o#e" %or Sarastro in Mo*art+s The Magic
Flute. ?ears ear"ier in Prage, 5orn ha# esta,"ishe# a 7Societ) %or the St#)
o% Mathe$atics, Nationa" Histor), an# Natra" Histor).7 He hea#e# a ni=e
Masonic gro- ca""e# Zur -ahren +intracht BThe Tre Har$on)C,
esta,"ishe# in 1081 to organi*e other Masonic gro-s a!a) %ro$ $)sticis$,
Rosicrcianis$, a"che$), an# the "i4e. A(er the ne3t %e! )ears, se(era"
hn#re# o% the ,est scientists, artists, an# !riters o% 8ienna ;oine# his
organi*ation. The) !or4e# to #isse$inate a re-,"ican ot"oo4, !ith a
(igoros -ro$otion o% science, ,) sen#ing ot ,oth a ;orna" ai$e# at
Masonic gro-s, in a##ition to the scienti%ic $aga*ine. It is sai# that Eose-h
(on Sonnen%e"s %on#e# the /ournal f0r Fre'maurer BFreemasons1 /ournalC.
Igna* (on 5orn !as the e#itor o% the scienti%ic ;orna", !hose -ages !ere
o-en to scientists o% $an) #i%%erent s-ecia"ties.
A"thogh >eorg Forster at the ti$e ha# ,een right") c)nica" to!ar# Free2
$asonr), he !as -"easant") sr-rise# ,) 5orn+s "o#ge: 7It -,"ishes a
Free$ason+s ;orna" in !hich e(er)thing6%aith, the oath an# cere$onies,
an# e(en %anaticis$6is $ore o-en") #iscsse# than at ho$e in Sa3on).
The ,est scho"ars an# -oets are $e$,ers o% this "o#ge. The) $a4e "ight o%
the !ho"e i#ea o% secrec) an# ha(e trans%or$e# the entire thing into a
societ) o% rationa", n-re;#ice# $en #e#icate# to en"ighten$ent.7
The $e$,ers o% 5orn+s Zur -ahren +intracht "o#ge are sai# to ha(e
inc"#e#: Kont Lichno!s4)I Schi""er+s ac=aintance Dar" Leonhar#
Reinho"#I Mo*art+s -,"isher Pas=a"e ArtariaI the cort -h)sician to Maria
Theresa, Fer#inan# Eose-h Le,erI the -h)sician o% Eose-h II, Eose-h 5arthI
the i$-eria" srgeon Ban# %or a ti$e the -h)sician o% Mo*art an# 5eet2
ho(enC, Eohann Ne-o$4 Hnc*o!s4)I the Kort Konci""or Fran* (on
>reiner, !hose sa"on s-onsore# $an) concerts !here Mo*art -er %or$e#I
an# a scientist, Eose-h Marter, !ho !o"# s-en# 1084 an# 108/ in A$erica.
Eose-h Ha)#n ;oine# this "o#ge in 108/, at the sa$e that that Mo*art an# his
%ather !ere (er) acti(e in the a%%airs o% 5orn+s "o#ge. The $eetings o%
5orn+s "o#ge too4 -"ace at the ho$e o% Eose-h Pa" (on Wein,renner, a
8ienna in#stria"ist !ho ha# o-ene# Astria+s %irst teacher training schoo" in
1001.
Mo*art co$-ose# a cantata, Die Maurerfreude BD. 401C, to ce"e,rate the
-,"ic co$$e$oration in 108/ ,) E$-eror Eose-h o% the scienti%ic
achie(e$ents o% Igna* (on 5orn. The E$-eror he"# - %or -,"ic honor the
$eta""rgica" ,rea4throghs !hich 5orn #e(e"o-e# that !ere se# to
i$-ro(e the $ining o-erations o% Astria. It is thoght that 5en;a$in
Fran4"in ha# !ritten to Eose-h, -raising the (a"e o% 5orn+s $eta""rgica"
-rocesses. 5) sing"ing ot 5orn+s acco$-"ish$ents, Eose-h sho!e# !hat he
consi#ere# hea"th) inte""ecta" !or4.
5orn stoo# in contrast to a"" the anti2scienti%ic irrationa"is$ that %"oate#
aron# a"" the other Masonic gro-s. An e3a$-"e o% this -ro,"e$ !as Kont
Thn, a $e$,er o% 5orn+s "o#ge !hose -reocc-ation !ith Mes$eris$,
a"che$), an# $)sticis$ !as %ro!ne# on ,) the rest o% the "o#ge. Mo*art
"i$ite# hi$se"% to !riting that Kont Fran* Eose-h Thn !as 7-ec"iar, ,t
!e""2$eaning.7 . . .
Mo*art+s ne3t, an# "ast, >er$an o-era, Die Zauberflte BThe Magic FluteC,
!as -ro#ce# . . . in#e-en#ent") o% an) go(ern$ent ,oar#. His 7-atriot7
!as E$ane" Schi4ane#er, his o-era hose !as not $ch #i%%erent %ro$ a
,r"es=e hose, an# his sccess !as n-rece#ente#.
Dring the increasing -ressre an# attac4s against the Free$asons in 8ienna
%ro$ 1084 nti" 1091, !hen it !as no "onger %ashiona,"e to ,e a Mason,
on") t!o Masons re$aine# %aith%" the !ho"e se(en )ears: Wo"%gang
A$a#es Mo*art !as one o% those t!o. Kontrast that to Leo-o"# A"o)s
Ho%%$an, the Mason2c$2-o"ice s-) !ho ha# trie# to e3c"#e Mo*art %ro$
the Masons in 1084. Ho%%$an ,eca$e a -ro%essiona" !itness in the tria"s
n#er E$-eror Fran* in 1094 an# 109/ against Mo*art+s erst!hi"e asso2
ciates, !ho recei(e# sentences ranging %ro$ si3t) )ears+ i$-rison$ent to the
#eath -ena"t).
Ha# the Scottish Rite ta4en its re(enge against those !ho trie# to i$-ose
reason an# a Khristian conce-t o% "o(e -on the Free$asons@ A co$-etent
in(estigation into Mo*art+s -re$atre #e$ise in 1091, cannot e(en ,e
initiate# !ithot sorting ot !hat Mo*art+s strategic ro"e !as throghot that
#eca#e, -artic"ar") in his "ast )ear. An# !hat o% the ne! rita" $r#er o%
Mo*art+s s-irit, ,eing carrie# ot to#a) ,) the $o(ie -ro#cers o% Amadeus
an# others, !ho -ortra) this great $ora" artist as a %o"2$othe#, ,rain"ess
%o-, e%%ort"ess") chrning ot #i(ine co$-ositions@ Has this -erha-s ,een
co$$itte# at the ,ehest o% the heirs o% Mo*art+s ene$ies@ For ho! #oes the
c"tra" $a%ia+s sa#istic treat$ent o% s in their crrent re-resentations o%
Mo*art, #i%%er %ro$ the treat$ent D4e Dar" Egen ,esto!e# -on the
-oetJ-atriot Sch,art, or %ro$ that !hich the E$-eror Fran* ,esto!e# -on
the ,o#) o% Mo*art+s goo# %rien#, Ange"o So"i$an@
+&ecuti*e ,ntelligence Re*ie-, Eanar) &8, &'''
F OThe Phi"oso-herPs StoneP: Mo*artPs Ne!") Disco(ere# A-eraL
,) Da(i# M. Sha(in
The $hilosopher2s Stone, or The +nchanted ,sle
,) Wo"%gang A$a#es Mo*art, Eohann 5a-tist Henne,erg, 5ene#i4t Schac4,
Fran* <a(er >er" an# E$ane" Schi4ane#er
A %air)2ta"e o-era %ro$ 109', re#isco(ere# ,) Da(i# E. 5ch
5oston 5aro=e, Martin Pear"$an, Te"arc KD
8all ,-.,: A Turnin# Point for the :America; Pro<ect
Mo*artPs The Magic Flute inter(ene# into a high") charge# 8ienna. In
France, La%a)ette sti"" ha# the "ast, ,est ho-e %or carr)ing the A$erican
re(o"tionar) %ight %or re-,"icanis$ into Ero-e. The Nationa" >ar# he"#
ot the o--ortnit) o% a Presi#entia" ro"e %or La%a)ette. France !as ;st at
the (erge o% crossing o(er into the Eaco,in terror. In 8ienna, the hea# o% the
secret -o"ice, Pergen, ha# ,een #is$isse# ,) E$-eror Leo-o"#6!hose
sister, Marie Antoinette, !as n#er hose arrest in Paris. In Prage,
Mo*artPs o-era 3a Clemen.a di Tito !as -er%or$e# %or %esti(ities %or the
E$-eror. Mo*art !as #ee-") in(o"(e# in the strategic sitation. In %act, in
this -erio#, !hich inc"#e# the creation o% The Magic Flute, he ha# con%i#e#
to his !i%e, that he thoght that he !as ,eing -oisone#.
Wo"# "ea#ers o% Ero-e choose to #e(e"o- their "an#s ,) renoncing the
Fe$-ireL $o#e" o% en%orce# ,ac4!ar#ness, an# in(esting in e#cating, an#
raising the s4i"" "e(e"s o%, the -o-"ations@ Ar !o"# o"igarchica" agents
$ani-"ate "ea#ers an# -o-"ations aron# si$-"istic F"e%tL an# FrightL
-ositions, !here "i,ert) !as Eaco,inis$, an# sccess !as 4ee-ing others
#o!n@ Si$-") state#, Mo*artPs The Magic Flute a##resse# the =estion o%
!hether the sorce o% the ni(ersa" e$otion o% "o(e in e(er) h$an ,eing, is
a"so the ,asis %or reason, %or creati(e $entation, an# hence %or the scienti%ic
acco$-"ish$ents necessar) %or #e(e"o-$ent o% one an# a"". In#i(i#a"s
either #e(e"o-e# their e$otions to ,e thin4ing citi*ens in a re-,"ic, or the)
!o"# ,e r"e# ,) their e$otions as s,;ects, !here sr(i(a" $eant $a4ing
others into ,eggars. Mo*art ,roght to this sitation a ni=e "ea#ershi-
ca-a,i"it), !hich he -t on stage. An# the -o-"ation o% 8ienna res-on#e#
!ith e3cite$ent.
Mozart;s transformation of :The Philoso*her;s !tone;
In The $hilosopher2s Stone o% 109', "o(e ensnares h$ans, an#, i% the)
%o""o! it throgh its t!ists an# trns, $atters !i"" trn ot, $agica""), %or the
,est. The -hi"oso-herPs stone itse"% is the a"che$ica" 4no!"e#ge to con=er
#eath, an# it !as t)-ica" o% Schi4ane#er to e$-"o) sch a #e(iceI ,t it is
not science. The a#ience (ie!ing this o-era %in#s their hearts toche#I
the) "agh, the) s%%er, an# the) "ea(e o-ti$istic, as things ha(e %ortnate")
!or4e# ot. 5t, in The Magic Flute, the !or4ings o% "o(e are not "e%t to
%ortne. Mo*art ,rings to ,ear his strgg"e to $aster his o!n genis, %ro$
his intense !or4ing throgh o% Eohann Se,astian 5achPs contra-nta"
science. In co$ing to 4no! the non2$agica" !or4ings o% his o!n genis, he
gaine# a ni=e insight into the "o(e his Kreator ,ore hi$, an# a"" $en. The
-o!er o% "o(e, an# o% $in#, !ere %n#a$enta"") the sa$e.
When the $agic %"te arri(es onstage, an# is -resente# to Ta$ino, it is not
$agica", ,t $ch $ore. Mo*art re(ea"s the "o(e an# -o!er o% his heart an#
$in# in the signatre trio, sng ,) Ta$ino an# t!o gar#s BFDer, !e"cher
!an#e"t #iese Strasse,L FHe !ho tra(e"s this roteLC, co$ing in on to- o% the
n$ista4a,"e K2$inor FA#agio.L This section -o!er%"") re%ers to Mo*artPs
scienti%ic re2!or4ing o% 5ach, !hen he entere# the ca(e o% his o!n Fnatra"L
creati(e -rocesses. Pa$ina, ha(ing con=ere# her o!n #e$ons, renites
!ith Ta$ino at this -oint, an# -resents hi$ !ith the $agic %"te. Ar$e#
!ith this ne!") #isco(ere# -o!er, the co-"e ,ra(e") -rocee#s into the ca(e
%or their $orta" tria". 5eat), an# the sensa" !or"# can ensnare, ,t,
%o""o!e# !ith a"" or heart an# $in#, it a%%or#s $an4in# the -o!er o%
creation. Mo*art 4ne! this, ,ecase he !or4e# to #isco(er sch in the
"a,orator) his Kreator ha# -ro(i#e# hi$.
+&ecuti*e ,ntelligence Re*ie-, No(e$,er 1/, &'11
FWhere Trage#) Meets A-ti$is$: Mo*artPs S,"i$e ORe=ie$P Q The
Denne#) AssassinationL
,) Da(i# Sha(in
Mozart;s Political Offensive: Beauty &eads to Truth
What sho"# ha(e ha--ene# in France, ,t #i#nPt, Mo*art atte$-te# in
8ienna. He too4 the %ight to the -o-"ation. The Magic Flute, his %irst
>er$an "angage o-era since the 108& Abduction, e3-"o#e# onto the -,"ic
scene "ate in Se-te$,er 1091, an# cha""enge# his a#iences !ith a ,o"#,
re-,"ican -ro-osition: -t si$-"), i% the) !ere ca-a,"e o% %a""ing in "o(e,
the) !ere ca-a,"e o% go(erning. Fe! co$$entators ha(e sto--e# to as4
!h) Rarastro,
1
the r"er, #eci#es that it !i"" no "onger %nction to ha(e his
!e""2intentione# ,rotherhoo#, n#er his "ea#ershi-, r"e the "an#. Perha-s,
- nti" then, ci(i"i*ation ha# st$,"e# a"ong !ith an Finner e"iteL
go(erning, ,t Rarastro is %ir$ that this cannot ,e the $o#e" %or the %tre.
Rather, "ea#ershi- $st ,e e3erte# ,) a $an an# a !o$an, con;oint"). 5t
1
Rarastro !as $o#e"e# -on Igna* (on 5orn, the F5en;a$in Fran4"inL o% 8ienna. He
hea#e# - the "o#ge that Mo*art -re%erre# to !or4 !ith. Mo*art co$-ose# a !or4
co$$e$orating the -,"ic honor ,esto!e# -on 5orn ,) Eose-h II, in 108/, %or his
!or4 in $eta""rg).
this !as not $ere") a -o"e$ic on ,eha"% o% e=a"it) %or !o$en. Rather, the
intense an# $ta" aesthetic e#cation, in co$ing to ter$s !ith, an# $aster2
ing, the #ee-est -h)sica" an# s-irita" -assions, ho"#s the -ro$ise o% a
"ea#ershi- in !hich the n#er")ing re"ationshi- o% ,eat) an# trth -re(ai"s.
In the Magic Flute, the critica" isse %or the re-,"ican $o(e$ent, that o% the
aesthetica" an# e-iste$o"ogica" e#cation o% $an, is ca-tre# in the
#)na$ics o% the inter-"a) ,et!een ,eat) an# trth. E(er) h$an is gi(en
the ca-acit), throgh his instinct %or "o(e, an# his )earning %or ,eat), to
search %or trth. I$-ortant"), Mo*art 4no!s this is tre %ro$ his -ersona"
strgg"e to co$e to n#erstan# his o!n )oth%" genis, throgh !or4ing
ot his %ascination !ith the $in# o% 5ach.
&
Mo*art e3-"icit") re%erences ho-
he 4no!s that the F$agicL o% the %"te, the -o!er o% K"assica" $sic, !or4s:
;st ,e%ore their "ti$ate tria", !here Ta$ino an# Pa$ina %ina"") are a,"e to
;oin %orces, the singing o% the t!o gar#s ,e%ore the %ier) He"" is set to a
$ar(e"os, an# se"%2re(ea"ing, K2$inor %ge #eri(e# %ro$ his 5ach st#ies.
That Acto,er, the -o-"ation o% 8ienna !as entrance# ,) the Magic Flute.
There !ere $ore than %or -er%or$ances -er !ee4, a"" $onth "ong, a""
,e%ore -ac4e# hoses.
1
5eati%", gri--ing $sic, ,r"es=e h$or, great
-oignant $o$ents, an# corageos o-ti$is$ !ere a"" a -art6,t the
-o-"ation hear# so$ething a,ot the$se"(es the) ha# not rea"i*e# ,e%ore.
The o"igarchica" reaction !as s!i%t an# (icios. Within #a)s, #ecisions !ere
$a#e to -re-are %or an e$-ire !ithot the E$-eror Leo-o"#, an# !ithot
Mo*artPs re-,"ican $aster!or4s. In $i#2Acto,er6a,ot the sa$e ti$e
that a #ecision !o"# ha(e ,een $a#e to -oison Mo*art6the ttor %or
Kro!n Prince Fran* !as #is$isse#. That ttor, Eohann 5a-tist (on Sch"oiss2
nig, "i4e Mo*art, a -rotSgS o% 5aron >ott%rie# (an S!ieten, !as accse# o%
teaching Eaco,in re(o"tionar) i#eas, an# o% s--orting the in(asion o%
Astria ,) the French Eaco,ins. S!ieten hi$se"% !as #is$isse# %ro$ his
$inisteria" -ost on the (er) #a) o% Mo*artPs #eath, Dec. /, 1091. E$-eror
Leo-o"#, other!ise in goo# hea"th, #ie# ,e%ore that !inter en#e#. An# !ith
Leo-o"# #ea#, Kont (on Pergen !as %or$a"") ,roght ,ac4 into the
go(ern$ent.
2
Mo*artPs F5achL -ro;ect ste$$e# %ro$ his ear") )ears in 8ienna, at reg"ar Sn#a)
$eetings o% the E#cation Minister, 5aron (an S!ieten.
3
5) No(. N, the &4th -er%or$ance o% the Magic Flute, the aristocratic, an#
consistent") ,ana" #iarist, Rin*en#or% note#: FThe $sic an# #esigns are -rett). The
rest an incre#i,"e %arce. Hge a#ience.L B5t, %or sch ;a#e# characters, the
A$erican Re(o"tion !as an incre#i,"e %arce !ith a hge a#ience.C