Anda di halaman 1dari 18

ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS

2013

INTRODUCTION

Ethanol fuel is gasoline mixed with grain alcohol. It is made from grains like
corn, wheat and barley. Environmentalists love this fuel because it burns without
producing greenhouse gases that are harmful to the environment. By mixing it with
gasoline, fuel producers reduce the world's oil consumption.

Ethanol fuel is added into gas in small amounts, as in E10, which is 10 parts
ethanol and 90 parts gasoline; it reduces the vehicle's environmental impact and gas
consumption. Blends like the E85, which has 85 parts ethanol to 15 parts gasoline, are
used primarily by flex-fuel vehicles. The E10 ethanol fuel burns in any car like gas; no
engine modifications are needed. Using E85, however, takes a few engine modifications
to accommodate the large proportion of the ethanol fuel.

It is well-known that ethanol fuel is made from corn. However, the fuel can also
come from wheat, barley, potatoes or sugar cane. Ethanol can't be used for fuel because
it is edible. Government regulations prohibit use of edibles for mass fuel consumption.
Therefore, the purest type of ethanol is E-95, or anhydrous ethanol. It's 95 percent
ethanol and 5 percent gasoline. Next is E85 and E10. Of these types of ethanol, only E10
has been approved for use in all vehicles. Both E95 and E85 require a flex-fuel engine.

Of all the alternative fuels, ethanol fuel has made the biggest splash in recent
news. It is a grain alcohol and gasoline blend that is already in use, fueling vehicles
across the nation. Although everyone can agree that ethanol is needed to reduce the
American dependence on foreign oil. Many people aren't familiar with what ethanol
really is, and the controversy behind its use.

ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013

ETHANOL PRODUCTION PROCESS:

Ethanol is commercially produced using either a wet mill or dry mill process. Wet
milling involves separating the grain kernel into its component parts (germ, fiber,
protein, and starch) prior to fermentation. ICM-designed plants utilize the dry mill
process, where the entire grain kernel is ground into flour. The starch in the flour is
converted to ethanol during the fermentation process, creating carbon dioxide and
distillers grain.

Source: http://www. www.icminc.com/ethanol/production_process/
Figure 1: Ethanol Production: Dry Mill Process

ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013


DELIVERY - STORAGE
Grain is delivered by truck or rail to the ethanol plant where its loaded in
storage bins designed to hold enough grain to supply the plant for 710 days.

MILLING
The grain is screened to remove debris, then ground into coarse flour.

COOKING (Hot Slurry, Primary Liquefaction, and Secondary Liquefaction)
During the cook process, the starch in the flour is physically and chemically
prepared for fermentation.

HOT SLURRY
The milled grain is mixed with process water, the pH is adjusted to about
5.8, and an alpha-amylase enzyme is added. The slurry is heated to 180
190F for 3045 minutes to reduce viscosity.

PRIMARY LIQUEFACTION
The slurry is then pumped through a pressurized jet cooker at 221F and
held for 5 minutes. The mixture is then cooled by an atmospheric or
vacuum flash condenser.

SECONDARY LIQUEFACTION
After the flash condensation cooling, the mixture is held for 12 hours at
180190F to give the alpha-amylase enzyme time to break down the
starch into short chain dextrins. After pH and temperature adjustment, a
second enzyme, glucoamylase, is added as the mixture is pumped into the
fermentation tanks.



ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013


SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION FERMENTATION
Once inside the fermentation tanks, the mixture is referred to as mash. The
glucoamylase enzyme breaks down the dextrins to form simple sugars. Yeast
is added to convert the sugar to ethanol and carbon dioxide. The mash is then
allowed to ferment for 5060 hours, resulting in a mixture that contains
about 15% ethanol as well as the solids from the grain and added yeast.

DISTILLATION
The fermented mash is pumped into a multi-column distillation system where
additional heat is added. The columns utilize the differences in the boiling
points of ethanol and water to boil off and separate the ethanol. By the time
the product stream is ready to leave the distillation columns, it contains about
95% ethanol by volume (190-proof). The residue from this process, called
stillage, contains non-fermentable solids and water and is pumped out from
the bottom of the columns into the centrifuges.

MOLECULAR SIEVES
The 190-proof product stream is pumped into the molecular sieve system.
These specialized tanks contain molecular sieve beads that adsorb water
molecules from the process stream while ethanol molecules pass through
unaffected. When the product stream leaves the molecular sieves, it contains
approximately 99% ethanol by volume (200 proof).

STORAGE AND LOADOUT
The 200-proof ethanol is pumped to on-site storage tanks where it is
denatured and stored until it is ready to be shipped by tanker truck or rail.

LIQUID - SOLID SEPARATION
The stillage from the distillation system is pumped into centrifuges to
separate the majority of the solid matter from the solution. This creates two
ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013


products: A semi-solid product called wet cake is removed and conveyed to
rotary dryers. A mostly-water process stream, called thin stillage, is pumped
to the evaporation system.

EVAPORATION
The thin stillage from the centrifuges is pumped into a series of evaporators
where a majority of the water in the solution is removed. The resulting
product stream is called syrup. The syrup can be sold as a stand-alone product
or added to the wet cake before moving into the dryer system.

DDGS DRYING
The wet cake is conveyed to dryers where it is converted into a low-moisture
(10-12%) product called dried distillers grains with soluble.


INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL

In this section Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&ID) shows the ethanol
production process, Additional information is shown for the specification of the Process
Control and Safety Systems. This P&ID will only concentrate on the ethanol production
process only.






ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013

ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013


SYMBOLOGY

PURPOSE

LOCATION

REMARKS



WEIGHT
TRANSMITTER


Converts the reading of
the sensor into a
standard signal and
converts that signal to
the weight controller.


Between the storage
tank and hammer
mill;
In the make-up water
pipeline before
entering the cooking
slurry tank;
In the Aplha-amylase
pipeline before
entering the cooking
slurry tank; and
In the denaturant
pipeline before


Field (or locally)
Mounted
Transmitter



TIME
TRANSMITTER


Converts the reading of
the sensor into a
standard signal and
converts that signal to
the time controller.


In the Cooking Slurry
Tank;
In the Jet Cooker;
In the Secondary
Liquefaction Tank;
and
In the Ethanol
Fermentation Tank.


Field (or locally)
Mounted
Transmitter



pH INDICATING
CONTROLLER


Receives the data sent by
the pH trasnsmitter,
compares that data to a
programmed setpoint
and controls the
pneumatic valve


Connected to a pH
Transmitter







Field (or locally)
Mounted
Transmitter





ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013



TEMPERATURE
TRANSMITTER

Converts the reading of
the sensor into a
standard signal and
converts that signal to
the temperature
controller.


In the Cooking Slurry
Tank;
In the Jet Cooker;
In the Inlet and
Outlet cooling water
pipeline of the
Vacuum Flash
Condenser;
In the Secondary
Liquefaction Tank;
and

Between the Ethanol
Fermentation Tank
and Distillation Tank


Field (or locally)
Mounted
Transmitter



pH TRANSMITTER


Converts the reading of
the sensor into a
standard signal and
converts that signal to
the pH controller.


In the Cooking Slurry
Tank; and
In the Secondary
Liquefaction Tank;


Field (or locally)
Mounted
Transmitter





WEIGHT
INDICATING
CONTROLLER

Receives the data sent by
the weight transmitter,
compares that data to a
programmed set point
and controls the
pneumatic valve






Connected to a
Weight Transmitter




Field (or locally)
Mounted
Transmitter

ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013



TIME INDICATING
CONTROLLER

Receives the data sent by
the time transmitter,
compares that data to a
programmed set point
and controls the
pneumatic valve


Connected to a
Temperature
Transmitter


Field (or locally)
Mounted
Transmitter






TEMPERATURE
INDICATING
CONTROLLER


Receives the data sent by
the temperature
transmitter, compares
that data to a
programmed setpoint
and controls the
pneumatic valve


Connected to a
Temperature
Transmitter



Field (or locally)
Mounted
Transmitter



PROGRAMMABLE
LOGIC
CONTROLLER


Receives the data from
the local cotrollers,
compares that data to a
programmed setpoint
and if necessary controls
the system.


Connected to all local
controllers




Control Room
Panel Mounted
Controller



PNEUMATIC VALVE


Opens or closes in
response to control
signals sent by the
controller.





Connected to a local
controller




Pneumatically
controlled Valve

ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013





SWITCH



Turns the boiler on and
off in response to control
signals sent by the
controller

The switch of the
Electrically Operated
Built-in Boiler


Electrical
Component



VALVE


Opens or closes in
response to control
signals sent by the
controller.


Connected to a local
controller


Electrically
controlled Valve





PUMP


A pump is a device used
to move fluids.




Between the Jet
Cooker and the
Secondary
Liquefaction tank;
Between the
Secondary
Liquefaction tank
and Ethanol
Fermentation Tank;
Between the Ethanol
Fermentation Tank
and Distillation
Tank;
Between the
Distillation Tank and
Molecular Sieve; and
After the Denaturant


Piston Pump -
usually simple
devices for
pumping small
amounts of liquid

ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013


DISCUSSION

CHEMISTRY

During ethanol fermentation, glucose and other sugars in the corn (or sugarcane
or other crops) are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide.

C6H12O6 2 C2H5OH+ 2 CO2 + heat Like any fermentation reaction, the
fermentation is not 100% selective and other side products such a acetic acid, glycols
and many other products are formed to a considerable extent and need to be removed
during the purification of the
ethanol. The fermentation takes
place in aqueous solution and the
resulting solution after fermentation
has an ethanol content of around
15%. The ethanol is subsequently
isolated and purified by a
combination of adsorption and
distillation techniques. The
purification is very energy intensive.
Figure 2: Structure of ethanol molecule.

During combustion ethanol reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water,
and heat: C2H5OH + 3 O2 2 CO2 + 3 H2O + heat Starch and cellulose are molecules
that are strings of glucose molecules. It is also possible to generate ethanol out of
cellulosic materials. However, a pretreatment is necessary that splits the cellulose into
glycose molecules and other sugars which subsequently can be fermented. The resulting
product is called cellulosic ethanol, indicating its source.

ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013


Ethanol may also be produced industrially from ethene (ethylene), by hydrolysis
of the double bond in the presence of catalysts and high temperature. C2H4 + H2O
CH3CH2OH by far largest fraction of the global ethanol production, however, is
produced by fermentation

SOURCES

Ethanol is a renewable energy source because the energy is generated by using a
resource, sunlight, which cannot be depleted. Creation of ethanol starts
with photosynthesis causing a feedstock, such as sugar cane or a grain such as maize
(corn), to grow. These feedstocks are processed into ethanol.


Figure 3: Sugar cane harvest, Cornfield in Africa and Switchgrass

About 5% of the ethanol produced in the world in 2003 was actually a petroleum
product.
[18]
It is made by the catalytic hydration of ethylene withsulfuric acid as
the catalyst. It can also be obtained via ethylene or acetylene, from calcium carbide, coal,
oil gas, and other sources. Two million tons of petroleum-derived ethanol are produced
annually. The principal suppliers are plants in the United States, Europe, and South
Africa.
[19]
Petroleum derived ethanol (synthetic ethanol) is chemically identical to bio-
ethanol and can be differentiated only by radiocarbon dating.



ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013

Bio-ethanol is usually obtained from the conversion of carbon based feedstock.
Agricultural feedstocks are considered renewable because they get energy from the sun
using photosynthesis, provided that all minerals required for growth (such as nitrogen
and phosphorus) are returned to the land. Ethanol can be produced from a variety of
feed stocks such as sugar cane, bagasse, miscanthus, sugar beet, sorghum, grain,
switchgrass, barley, hemp, kenaf, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, sunflower, fruit,
molasses, corn, stover, grain, wheat, straw, cotton and other biomass, as well as many
types of cellulose waste and harvestings, whichever has the best well-to-
wheel assessment.

Currently, the first generation processes for the production of ethanol from corn
use only a small part of the corn plant: the corn kernels are taken from the corn plant
and only the starch, which represents about 50% of the dry kernel mass, is transformed
into ethanol. Two types of second generation processes are under development. The first
type uses enzymes and yeast fermentation to convert the plant cellulose into ethanol
while the second type uses pyrolysis to convert the whole plant to either a liquid bio-
oil or a syngas. Second generation processes can also be used with plants such as
grasses, wood or agricultural waste material such as straw.

ETHANOL-BASED ENGINES

Ethanol is most commonly used to power automobiles, though it may be used to
power other vehicles, such as farm tractors, boats and airplanes. Ethanol (E100)
consumption in an engine is approximately 51% higher than for gasoline since the
energy per unit volume of ethanol is 34% lower than for gasoline. The
higher compression ratios in an ethanol-only engine allow for increased power output
and better fuel economy than could be obtained with lower compression ratios. In
general, ethanol-only engines are tuned to give slightly better power and torqueoutput
than gasoline-powered engines. In flexible fuel vehicles, the lower compression ratio

ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013

requires tunings that give the same output when using either gasoline or hydrated
ethanol. For maximum use of ethanol's benefits, a much higher compression ratio
should be used. Current high compression neat ethanol engine designs are
approximately 20 to 30% less fuel efficient than their gasoline-only counterparts.

Ethanol contains soluble and insoluble contaminants. These soluble
contaminants, halide ions such as chloride ions, have a large effect on the corrosively of
alcohol fuels. Halide ions increase corrosion in two ways; they chemically attack
passivating oxide films on several metals causing pitting corrosion, and they increase
the conductivity of the fuel. Increased electrical conductivity promotes electric, galvanic,
and ordinary corrosion in the fuel system. Soluble contaminants, such as aluminum
hydroxide, itself a product of corrosion by halide ions, clog the fuel system over time.

Ethanol is hygroscopic, meaning it will absorb water vapor directly from the
atmosphere. Because absorbed water dilutes the fuel value of the ethanol (although it
suppresses engine knock) and may cause phase separation of ethanol-gasoline blends,
containers of ethanol fuels must be kept tightly sealed. This high miscibility with water
means that ethanol cannot be efficiently shipped through modern pipelines, like liquid
hydrocarbons, over long distances. Mechanics also have seen increased cases of damage
to small engines, in particular, the carburetor, attributable to the increased water
retention by ethanol in fuel.

Ethanol's higher octane rating allows an increase of an engine's compression
ratio for increased thermal efficiency. In one study, complex engine controls and
increased exhaust gas recirculation allowed a compression ratio of 19.5 with fuels
ranging from neat ethanol to E50. Thermal efficiency up to approximately that for a
diesel was achieved.
[36]
This would result in the fuel economy of a neat ethanol vehicle to
be about the same as one burning gasoline. Since 1989 there have also been ethanol
engines based on the diesel principle operating in Sweden. They are used primarily in
city buses, but also in distribution trucks and waste collectors. The engines, made

ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013

by Scania, have a modified compression ratio, and the fuel (known as ED95) used is a
mix of 93.6% ethanol and 3.6% ignition improver, and 2.8% denaturants. The ignition
improver makes it possible for the fuel to ignite in the diesel combustion cycle. It is then
also possible to use the energy efficiency of the diesel principle with ethanol. These
engines have been used in the United Kingdom by Reading Transport but the use of
bioethanol fuel is now being phased out.

ETHANOL FUEL MIXTURES

To avoid engine stall due to "slugs" of water in the fuel lines interrupting fuel
flow, the fuel must exist as a single phase. The fraction of water that an ethanol-gasoline
fuel can contain without phase separation increases with the percentage of
ethanol.
[48]
This shows, for example, that E30 can have up to about 2% water. If there is
more than about 71% ethanol, the remainder can be any proportion of water or gasoline
and phase separation will not occur. The fuel mileage declines with increased water
content. The increased solubility of water with higher ethanol content permits E30 and
hydrated ethanol to be put in the same tank since any combination of them always
results in a single phase. Somewhat less water is tolerated at lower temperatures. For
E10 it is about 0.5% v/v at 70 F and decreases to about 0.23% v/v at 30 F.

FUEL ECONOMY

In theory, all fuel-driven vehicles have a fuel economy (measured as miles per US
gallon, or liters per 100 km) that is directly proportional to the fuel's energy content. In
reality, there are many other variables that come into play that affect the performance of
a particular fuel in a particular engine. Ethanol contains approx. 34% less energy per
unit volume than gasoline, and therefore in theory, burning pure ethanol in a vehicle
will result in a 34% reduction in miles per US gallon, given the same fuel economy,
compared to burning pure gasoline. Since ethanol has a higher octane rating, the engine

ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013

can be made more efficient by raising its compression ratio. In fact using a variable
turbocharger, the compression ratio can be optimized for the fuel being used, making
fuel economy almost constant for any blend. For E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline),
the effect is small (~3%) when compared to conventional gasoline, and even smaller (1
2%) when compared to oxygenated and reformulated blends. For E85 (85% ethanol),
the effect becomes significant. E85 will produce lower mileage than gasoline, and will
require more frequent refueling. Actual performance may vary depending on the
vehicle. Based on EPA tests for all 2006 E85 models, the average fuel economy for E85
vehicles resulted 25.56% lower than unleaded gasoline. The EPA-rated mileage of
current USA flex-fuel vehicles should be considered when making price comparisons,
but E85 is a high performance fuel, with an octane rating of about 9496, and should be
compared to premium. In one estimate the US retail price for E85 ethanol is 2.62 US
dollar per gallon or 3.71-dollar corrected for energy equivalency compared to a gallon of
gasoline priced at 3.03-dollar. Brazilian cane ethanol (100%) is priced at 3.88-dollar
against 4.91-dollar for E25 (as July 2007).

AIR POLLUTION

Compared with conventional unleaded gasoline, ethanol is a particulate-free
burning fuel source that combusts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, water
and aldehydes. Gasoline produces 2.44CO2 equivalent kg/l and ethanol 1.94.
]
Since
ethanol contains 2/3 of the energy per volume as gasoline, ethanol produces 19% more
CO2 than gasoline for the same energy. The Clean Air Actrequires the addition
of oxygenates to reduce carbon monoxide emissions in the United States. The
additive MTBE is currently being phased out due to ground water contamination, hence
ethanol becomes an attractive alternative additive. Current production methods include
air pollution from the manufacturer of macronutrient fertilizers such as ammonia.

A study by atmospheric scientists at Stanford University found that E85 fuel
would increase the risk of air pollution deaths relative to gasoline by 9% in Los Angeles,

ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013

USA: a very large, urban, car-based metropolis that is a worst case
scenario. Ozone levels are significantly increased, thereby increasing photochemical
smog and aggravating medical problems such as asthma.


OTHER USES

Ethanol fuel may also be utilized as a rocket fuel. As of 2010, small quantities of
ethanol are used in lightweight rocket-racing aircraft. There is still extensive use of
kerosene for lighting and cooking in less developed countries, and ethanol can have a
role in reducing petroleum dependency in this use too. A non-profit namedProject
Gaia seeks to spread the use of ethanol stoves to replace wood, charcoal and kerosene.
There is also potential for bioethanol replacing some kerosene use in domestic lighting
from feedstocks grown locally. A 50% ethanol water mixture has been tested in specially
designed stoves and lanterns for rural areas.

REFERENCES:

http://www.vsep.com/pdf/Ethanol.pdf
http://www.eia.gov/biofuels/workshop/pdf/paul_kamp.pdf
http://bio-process.com/research/sponsored/











ETHANOL PRODUCTION: THE DRY MILL PROCESS
2013

Engr. Diosdado Doctor





Uni versi ty of the East
College of Engi neeri ng
Mechani cal Engi neeri ng Department






P&ID of Ethanol Production:
Dry Mill Process







Submitted By: Submitted To:

Gwyniever Fryce B. Quilantang.
20070153310 Instructor