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PSV SIZING

1. Homogenous Equilibrium Model (HEM)


a. Equations
b. Princiles
c. !licabilit" # !ssumtions
i. No slip between gas & liquid (two-phase travels at the same speed) (pg
64, 136)
ii. as & liquid in thermod!nami" and phase equilibrium at all times (pg 64,
136)
iii. #low $rom upstream "ondition to throat is adiabati" & $ri"tionless (pg 64)
iv. %ppli"able up to a liquid mass $ra"tion o$ &.' (pg 61)
v. %ppli"able $or ori("e. )ut might slightl! over-predi"t or under-predi"t si*e
$or relie$ or blowdown valve (pg 6+)
d. $ecommended %alues &or coe'cients
i. ,d varies linearl! $rom &.-. to &.-' with liquid mass $ra"tion $rom & to &.'
(pg 6/, 136) (although ,d0&.' was used in the e1ample given in %nne1 #2
ma!be the rule is to use manu$a"turer3s value when available else &.-. -
&.-')
E1
h
u
+
1
2
u
u
2
=h
o
+
1
2
a
o
2
C7
a
o
2
=
P

|
S
E2
A=
^ m
C
D

o
a
o
(. )*+ !PI ,(-
(Need to get !PI ,(- ,t./0t. Edition to con1rm222)
a. Equations
i. #ind ori("e pressure 4o
ii. (nd the ori("e temperature
iii. (nd the ori("e liquid phase mass $ra"tion
iv. 5valuate the required gas and liquid rates
v. ,al"ulate %g & %l
vi. 5valuate 6ow si*e
P
c
P
u
=
[
2
k+1
]
k/ (k1)
does this apply t otwo phase??
k=
C
p
C
v
x
o, L
=f (P
o
, T
o
)
^ m

=
(
1x
o, L
)
^ m
^ m
L
=x
o, L
^ m
!1
!2
!3
A
l
=
196.33
(
^ m
L
/
L
)
"
d
"
w
"
v


P
u
P
d
C=520

k
(
2
k+1
)
( k+1) /( k1)
#
2
=

k
k1
( P
d
/ P
u
)
2/ k
(
1
(
P
d
/ P
u
)
(k1) /k
1P
d
/ P
u
)
"
v
=
(
0.9935+
2.878

0.5
+
342.75

1.5
)
1
A=A
$
+A
l
b. Princiles
c. !licabilit" # !ssumtions
i. Non-homogenous (pg 11/)

d. $ecommended %alues &or coe'cients
i. 7d is &.-+/ $or gas while &.6/ $or liquid (pg 1&+, 1&')
ii. 7b & 7w is 1.& $or "onventional and pilot-operated valve (pg 1&+, 1&')
3. NE4 !PI ,(-
a. Equations
i. ,al"ulate the omega parameter w
ii. 8etermine throat pressure parameter
iii. #ind throat pressure
iv. #ind the mass 6u1
v. ,al"ulate required si*e
b. Princiles
c. !licabilit" # !ssumtions
(flashi%$&T
'!
<83")
C18
x
u
v
u,
v
u
(
1
2P
u
v
u,
h
u,L
)
+
Cp
u, L
T
u
P
u
v
u
(
v
u, ,L
h
u,L
)
2
x
u
v
u,
v
u
k
+
Cp
u, L
T
u
P
u
v
u
(
v
u,, L
h
u, L
)
2
(flashi%$&T
'!
<83") C19
(=
(flashi%$&T
'!
>83")
C20
9
(
v
9
v
u
1
)
(%o%flashi%$) x
u
v
u,
v
u
C22
(if P
c)
>P
d
)
(if P
c)
<P
d
)
C21
*
c)
P
u
P
o
=
(if P
c)
<P
d
)
(if P
c)
>P
d
)
P
d
*
c)

P
u
v
u
(
C23 (if P
c)
>P
d
)

m
=

(
2
[
(ln
(
*
o
)
+( (1)
(
1*
o
)] )
(
(
1
*
o
1
)
+1

P
u
v
u
C24 (if P
c)
<P
d
)
A=
^ m
"
d
"
+

m
C25
i. No slip between gas & liquid (two-phase travels at the same speed) (same
as 95:)
ii. as & liquid in thermod!nami" and phase equilibrium at all times (same
as 95:)
iii. #low $rom upstream "ondition to throat is adiabati" & $ri"tionless (same as
95:)
iv. Linear relation between pressure & density for isentropic path from
upstream conditions to throat conditions.
d. $ecommended %alues &or coe'cients
i. 7d is "hosen as &.'/ $or preliminar! si*ing (pg 116)
ii. 7b is "lose to unit! i$ the ba"; pressure is less than around 1/< o$ the
valve set pressure (pg 116)
5. IS) 51(0
a. Equations
b. Princiles
c. !licabilit" # !ssumtions
i. No slip between gas & liquid (two-phase travels at the same speed)
ii. as & liquid in non-equilibrium (pg 1.)
iii. =vertemperature is less than -&< o$ the 6uid3s thermod!nami" "riti"al
temperature (pg 1.).
iv. =verpressure is less than /&< o$ the 6uid3s thermod!nami" "riti"al
pressure (pg 1.)
v. )oiling point range should not e1"eed 1&&7 (pg 13)
vi. >hould not be used in "ase with large amount o$ dissolved gases - eg
where large amounts o$ nitrogen or h!drogen is dissolved in liquid (pg 13)
d. $ecommended %alues &or coe'cients
i. ,d varies linearl! $rom &.-. to &.-' with liquid mass $ra"tion $rom & to &.'
(pg 6/, 136)
E1
h
u
+
1
2
u
u
2
=h
o
+
1
2
a
o
2
C7
a
o
2
=
P

|
S
E2
A=
^ m
C
D

o
a
o