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BachelorThesis

CentrifugalPumps

by
ChristianAllerstorfer

Supervisedby
Univ.Prof.Dipl.Ing.Dr.mont.FranzKessler

DirectoryI
Contents
1) Abstract.....................................................................................................................................................1
2) Abstract[German]....................................................................................................................................1
3) Introduction..............................................................................................................................................2
4) Definition..................................................................................................................................................5
5) Theprincipalofcentrifugalpumps...........................................................................................................5
6) Pumpdesign..............................................................................................................................................6
7) Pumpassembly.........................................................................................................................................8
Casing...............................................................................................................................................8
Impeller............................................................................................................................................9
Shaft................................................................................................................................................11
Bearings..........................................................................................................................................11
Sealing............................................................................................................................................12
8) Pumpparametersandselection.............................................................................................................13
Totaldynamichead(TDH)..............................................................................................................13
Flowrate(Q)...................................................................................................................................13
Netpositivesuctionhead(NPSH)...................................................................................................13
Specificspeed(n
s
)...........................................................................................................................14
PowerandEfficiency(P,).............................................................................................................15
Pumpcharacteristiccurve..............................................................................................................16
Affinitylaws....................................................................................................................................17
Systemcharacteristiccurve............................................................................................................19
Pumpselection...............................................................................................................................20
Example1.......................................................................................................................................22
Example2.......................................................................................................................................28
9) ProblemsatcentrifugalPumps...............................................................................................................31
Cavitation........................................................................................................................................31
Solidsandslurryhandling(abrasivemedias).................................................................................32
corrosion.........................................................................................................................................33
10) Comparisoncentrifugalpumpsvs.Pistonpumps...................................................................................33
11) Standards................................................................................................................................................35
12) Conclusion...............................................................................................................................................35
13) References..............................................................................................................................................36

DirectoryII
TableofFiguresandEquations
Figure1Pumpcategories.....................................................................................................................................2
Figure3MudCleaningUnit(NGMTechnologies)................................................................................................3
Figure2Mudcirculationrotarydrilling...............................................................................................................3
Figure5Pumpstation,byWarrenpumpsinwestchina(left)andTransAlaskaPumpStation(right)...............4
Figure4TransAlaskaPipelinetopographicmap.................................................................................................4
Figure6Principleofacentrifugalpump..............................................................................................................5
Equation1Bernoulliprinciple..............................................................................................................................6
Figure7Singleanddoublesuctionpump............................................................................................................6
Figure8Multistagepump(Gouldspumpsmodel3600)....................................................................................7
Figure9Deepwellpump(GouldspumpsmodelVITFF)...................................................................................7
Figure10horizontalsplittedcasingofadoublesuctionpump(lowerpart).......................................................8
Figure11openimpeller.......................................................................................................................................9
Figure12losscompensation..............................................................................................................................10
Figure13enclosedimpeller...............................................................................................................................10
Figure14pumpscrankshaft.............................................................................................................................11
Figure15bearingproperties..............................................................................................................................11
Figure16mechanicalsingleseal........................................................................................................................12
Equation2totaldynamichead..........................................................................................................................13
Equation3flowrate...........................................................................................................................................13
Equation4NPSH.................................................................................................................................................14
Equation5specificspeed...................................................................................................................................14
Figure17Impellerdesignoverspecificspeed...................................................................................................14
Equation6power................................................................................................................................................15
Equation7efficiency...........................................................................................................................................15
Figure18Pumpcharacteristicsheet(Gouldpumpsmodel3196)...................................................................16
Equation8affinitylaws(constantimpellerdiameter).......................................................................................17
Equation9affinitylaw(constantrotationspeed).............................................................................................17
Figure19approximatepumpcharacteristiccurve(Gouldspumpsmodel3196atdifferentRPMs)...............18
Figure20Examplesofhydraulicsystems...........................................................................................................19
Figure21Systemcharacteristiccurves...............................................................................................................20
Figure22System&PumpCharacteristiccurve.................................................................................................21
Figure23Borehole..............................................................................................................................................22
Figure24frictioncoefficientforOSTWALDfluids..............................................................................................23
Figure25pressurelossinmanifoldsystems......................................................................................................25
Figure26Pumpselectionsoftware,criteriadefinition......................................................................................26

DirectoryIII
Figure27exampleofresultsprovidedbygouldspumpspumsselectiontool..................................................26
Figure28Hydrocyclone,workingprinciple.........................................................................................................28
Figure29recommendedmanifoldsystem........................................................................................................28
Figure31regionsofimpellercavitation.............................................................................................................31
Figure30bubblecollapse..................................................................................................................................31
Figure32typicalimpellerwearduetocavitation..............................................................................................32
Figure33pistonpump.......................................................................................................................................33

1
1) Abstract
Aim of this thesis is to give an overview on centrifugal pumps in general and especially in applications within
the petroleum industry. There is a wide range of pumps available but as the radial pump is by far the most
prolificmemberofthepumpfamilysothispaperwillconcentrateonthem.Itwillfirstexplaintheprincipalof
centrifugal pumps; its types of construction, which bandwidth of pressures and flow rates are available and
how to choose the right pump for a specific application. Also some comparison with another big family of
pumps, the piston pumps, is made. Later chapters deal with typical problems when using centrifugal pumps
suchascavitationsandcorrosion.
NotethatthisismyfirstbachelorthesisduringmystudiesofPetroleumEngineering.Itismeantasaliterature
researchtoscientificallyhandleaspecifictopicandtodefinethestateoftheart.Allsourcesarelistedatthe
endofthedocumentinthechapterreferences.
2) Abstract[German]
Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es einen berblick ber Zentrifugalpumpen im allgemeinem und besonders in
Anwendungen der Erdlindustrie zu vermitteln. Fr industriele Anwendungen sind heutzutage viele
verschiedene Pumpentypen verfgbar, aufgrund der weiten Verbreitung von Zentrifugalpumpen wird sich
dieseAbhandlungaufdiesekonzentrieren.ZuerstwirdaufAufbau,PrinzipundKonstruktionsvariantenebenso
wie auf verfgbare Bandbreiten in Druck und Durchfluss sowie Pumpenwahl eingegangen. Weiteres werden
Zentrifugalpumpen den Kolbenpumpen gegenbergestellt. Sptere Kapitel behandeln typische Probleme
welchebeimBetriebdieserPumpenauftretenwieKavitationundKorrosion.
Man beachte das dies die erste Bakkalaureatsarbeit whrend meines Petroleum Engineering Studiums ist. Es
wird als Literaturrecherche verstanden und dient dazu sich mit dem wissenschaftlich bearbeiten eines
vorgegebenen Themas zu befassen. Alle Quellen sind am Ende des Dokuments im Kapitel References
angefhrt.

2
3) Introduction
A pump is a machinery or device for raising, compressing or transferring fluid. A fluid can be gasses or any
liquid. Pumps are one of the most often sold and used mechanical devices and can be found in almost every
industry. Due to this there is a wide range of different pumps available. In general, the family of pumps is
separatedintopositivedisplacementandkineticpumps.Asubcategoryofkineticpumpsarecentrifugalpumps
whichareagainseparatedintoradialpumps,mixedflowpumpsandaxialpumps.Butevenattheaxialendof
the spectrum there is still a part of the energy coming from centrifugal force unless most of the energy is
generatedbyvaneaction.Ontheotherhandsideinradialpumpsalmostalltheenergycomesfromcentrifugal
forcebutthereisstillapartcomingfromvaneaction.Therearealsoseveralpumpscombiningbothprinciples
placed somewhere in between the two extremes in the centrifugal pump spectrum known as mixed flow
impellers. Characteristic for radial pumps are low specific speeds. As shown in the diagram below there are
manyoptionsinpumpdesign,whichwillbediscussedindetailinlaterchapters.

Figure1Pumpcategories

3
Figure2Mudcirculationrotarydrilling
1
Within the petroleum industry pumps are necessary to process fluids especially hydrocarbons. Another
importantapplicationwithinthepetroleumindustryisinthe
mud circuit on a drilling rig. On drilling rigs, mud which
consists mainly of water and bentonite as well as of several
different additives depending on many different factors is
used.Theheartofthemudcircuitisthemudpumpwhichis
ingeneralahighpressurepistonpump.Itprovidesthemajor
partofheadtoovercomethesystemsresistance.Themudis
pumped through a piping system to the derrick and through
the standpipe to a certain high. Now through the kelly hose
via the gooseneck into the upper kelly cock. It flows through
the kelly and the lower kelly cock into the drill string down
the borehole. At its end, the mud leaves the drilling collars
through the drilling bit. The mud pressure is increased by its
nozzlesandreleasedintotheborehole(fig.2
1
).Themudcools
the bit and collects the cuttings to transport them up to the
surfacewherethemudiscleaned.Itleavestheboreholeand
is forced through the BOP Stack and the chock manifold
system. Now bigger cuttings are removed in the shall shaker
andthemudiscollectedinthesettlingpit.Itisnowpumped
though a degasser to remove any gasses collected from the
borehole to avoid explosions. After degassing, the sand is
removedinadesanderandthemudisprocessedtothemud
cleaner. It consist of several desilters. Here small cuttings
evensmallerthan74m,areremoved.Desanderanddesilter
are so called hydrocyclones of different sizes, commonly
charged by centrifugal pumps. At the end of the mud conditioning circuit, a centrifuge is located to remove
anything left. The mud is now stored in tanks and kept in motion by nozzles or agitators. Finally the mud is
suckedthroughthehoppertothemudpumpbyanothercentrifugalpump.Tosumup,centrifugalpumpscan
be found on several locations within the mud circuit of adrilling rig like to charging degasser, desander, mud
cleaneraswellasthemudpump.Onrigscentrifugalpumpscanalsobefoundasfuelorcoolingwaterpumps
fore.g.dieselengines

Figure3MudCleaningUnit(NGMTechnologies)
2

1
www.q8geologist.com(modified)
2
NeftegazmashTechnologies(modified)

4
Other typical applications for centrifugal pumps are pipeline applications. Pipelines are used for economical
transport of hydrocarbons like oil and gas over long distances. At thebeginning of a pipeline system, in most
cases huge storage tanks can be found to ensure a continuous flow through the pipeline. The oil is forced
through the pipe by a few powerful centrifugal
pumps in serial. On its long way, pumping
stationsarerequiredtoovercometheresistance
and heights. These pumping stations are
distributed over the whole length of the
pipeline, but can be found especially before
mountains. As an example, the 1280km long
TransAlaska pipeline has 11 pumping stations
with4pumpseach.Usuallyonly7stationsarein
operation and provide the head to overcome
height differences and the fluid pipe friction.
The other 4 pump stations are on standby and
are activated if necessary to ensure sufficient
headatpeakloads.Thepipelinehasamaximum
capacity of around 330.000m per day. So it is
obviouslythatpipelinesareaperfectapplication
of high capacity pumps like centrifugal pumps.
Therearealsoseveralvalvestocontroltheflow
or to shut in the pipeline in case of an accident
alongit.Onthemap(fig.4
1
)itcanbeeasilyseen
that the pump stations are not distributed
regularly over the pipelines length. At the end
ofapipeline,usuallyadistributingstationlikea
major harbour or refineries can be found. In case of the TransAlaska Pipeline, it is the harbour in Valdez to
distributetheoilfromthePrudhoeBayOilFieldtouptofourtankerssimultaneously.

Figure5Pumpstation,byWarrenpumpsinwestchina(left)andTransAlaskaPumpStation(right)
2

Thesearejustexamplesforthewiderangeofapplicationsofcentrifugalpumpswithinthepetroleumindustry.
Alsoimportantareapplicationswithinthehydrocarbonprocessingindustryandonoffshorerigsordistributing
stationsatharbours.

1
www.Nationalatlas.gov(modified)
2
WarrenPumps(left),HowardC.Anderson(right)
Figure4 TransAlaskaPipelinetopographicmap
1

5
4) Definition
Symbol Unit Definition Symbol Unit Definition
D m Impellerdiameter kg/m density
z m height(pos.upwardsfromPCL) efficiency
p
s
bar pressuresuctionflange Q m/s flowrate
p
d
bar pressuredischargeflange p
v
bar vaporizepressure
p
e
bar pressureenvironment(1bar) P W electricpower
g m/s accelerationofgravity(9,81m/s) NPSH
A
m NPSHavailable
v m/s velocity NPSH
R
m NPSHrequired
n 1/min rotationperminute H m Head
Shortcut Description
TDH totaldynamichead
N PSH netpositivesuctionhead
BEP bestefficiencypoint
PCL pumpcentreline
index:1,2 suctionside,dischargeside
5) Theprincipalofcentrifugalpumps
Acentrifugalpumpisarotodynamicpumpthatusesarotatingimpellertoincreasethepressureofafluid.The
fluid enters the pump near the rotating axis, streaming into the rotating impeller. The impeller consists of a
rotating disc with several vanes attached. The vanes normally slope backwards, away from the direction of
rotation.Whenthefluidenterstheimpelleratacertainvelocityduetothesuctionsystem,itiscapturedbythe
rotating impeller vanes. The fluid is accelerated by pulse transmission while following the curvature of the
impellervanesfromtheimpellercentre(eye)outwards.Itreachesitsmaximumvelocityattheimpellersouter
diameterandleavestheimpellerintoadiffuserorvolutechamber(fig.6).

Figure6Principleofacentrifugalpump
1

1
ITTGouldsPumps(modified)

6
Sothecentrifugalforceassistsacceleratingthefluidparticlesbecausetheradiusatwhichtheparticlesenteris
smallerthantheradiusatwhichtheindividualparticlesleavetheimpeller.Nowthefluidsenergyisconverted
into static pressure, assisted by the shape of the diffuser or volute chamber. The process of energy
conversationinfluidsmechanicsfollowstheBernoulliprinciple(eqn.1)whichstatesthatthesumofallformsof
energyalongastreamlineisthesameontwopointsofthepath.Thetotalheadenergyinapumpsystemisthe
sumofpotentialheadenergy,staticpressureheadenergyandvelocityheadenergy.
2 2
1 1 2
1 2
2 2
v p v p
z z
2
g g g g
+ + = + +


Equation1Bernoulliprinciple
Asacentrifugalpumpincreasesthevelocityofthefluid,itisessentiallyavelocitymachine.Afterthefluidhas
lefttheimpeller,itflowsatahighervelocityfromasmallareaintoaregionofincreasingarea.Sothevelocityis
decreasing and so the pressure increases as described by Bernoullis principle. This results in an increased
pressureatthedischargesideofthepump.Asfluidisdisplacedatthedischargesideofthepump,morefluidis
suckedintoreplaceitatthesuctionside,causingflow.
6) Pumpdesign
Back in 1475, the Italian Renaissance engineer Francesco di Giorgio Martini describes a water or mud lifting
machineinoneofhistreatisesthatcanbecharacterisedasthefirstprototypeofacentrifugalpump.Thefirst
truecentrifugalpumpwasinventedbytheFrenchphysicianDenisPapinin1689,whenhewasexperimenting
with straight vane impellers. British inventor John Appold introduced the first curved vane impeller in 1851.
Nowadays only curved impellers are used in 3 different types. There are pumps with open, semiopen and
enclosed impellers. Open impellers only consist of blades attached to its eye as semiopen ones are
constructedwithadiscattachedtoonesideofthevanes.Enclosedimpellershavediscsattachedtobothsides
ofthevanes.Impellersarealsoclassifiedbasedonthenumberofpointswherethefluidcanenterthepump.
Therearesinglesuction,whichallowthefluidtoenteritscentrefromonlyoneside,aswellasdoublesuction
impellers which can be entered by fluid from both sides simultaneously. These types of construction are also
knownasoverhungimpellerpumpsandimpellerbetweenbearingspumps.

Figure7Singleanddoublesuctionpump
1

1
ITTGouldsPumps

7
Anotheroptionincentrifugalpumpdesignissinglestageandmultistagedesign(fig.9).Singlestagepumpisthe
standard centrifugal pumpdesign, equipped with only a single impeller. Multistage pumps on the other hand
consistoftwoormoreimpellersfittedtothesameshaftinasinglecasing.Multistagepumpsworkliketwoor
morepumpsoperatinginserial.ThereforemultistagepumpsaremostsuitableinlowflowrateandhighTDH
applications.

Figure8Multistagepump(Gouldspumpsmodel3600)1

Centrifugal pumps can also be separated into horizontal pump


designandverticalpumpdesign(fig.8).Verticalcentrifugalpumps
areespeciallyusedassubmergedorinwellpumps.Anotherpoint
whentalkingaboutcentrifugalpumpsispriming.Everycentrifugal
pumphastobeprimedasitisnotabletosuckanyfluidaslongas
the impeller is filled with air. This is because air is approximately
1000 times lighter than for example water. So to suck water into
thepumptoprimeitself,foreverymeteritwouldhavetobeable
to produce a TDH of 1000m.Due to the fact that conventional
centrifugalpumpsarenotabletoproduceaTDHinthatorderof
magnitude,mostcentrifugalpumpshavetobeprimedeitherwith
anextradevice,forexampleavacuumpumporaspecialdesignof
the pump casing. Due to the wide range of design variations
wheremostofthemarecombinableinmanydifferentwaysthere
is a huge range of centrifugal pumps available beginning with
standardsinglesuction,singlestage,nonselfprimingpumpsupto
double suction high flow rate, multistage pumps for high
pressuresorselfprimingpumpsforspecialapplications.

1
ITTGouldsPumps
Figure9Deepwellpump(Gouldspumps
modelVITFF)
1

8
7) Pumpassembly
Inthischapter,themainparts,acentrifugalpumpconsistofarediscussed.Thesearethecasing,theimpeller,
shaft,bearingsandseals.
Casing
The pumps casing (fig.9
1
) houses the hole assembly and protects is from harm as well as forces the
fluid to discharge from the pump and convert velocity into pressure. The casings design does not
influence TDH but is important to reduce friction losses. It supports the shaft bearings and takes the
centrifugalforcesoftherotatingimpellerandaxialloadscausedbypressurethrustimbalance.Mostof
allcentrifugalpumpsareofsimplespiralcasingandarenotequippedwithaguidevaneaperture.Even
if this would increase efficiency due to the simplicity of spiral
casings, this is the preferred type of construction. Only
extraordinarybigormultistagepumpsdohaveguidevanes.The
spiral pump casing has to be carefully designed to avoid
turbulences resulting in a decrease in efficiency. The shape of
the casing is defined by several factors; these are profiles
angles, diameter and width. The whole amount of fluid flows
through the discharge cross section, the amount of fluid is
decreasing when going backwards in the spiral, from point of
view of flow direction. Therefore the area of the profiles is
decreasingcontinuouslyaswell,tofittheflowrateinthespecific
pointofthepumpcasing.Theresultisaspiralshapedcasing.The
optimumpropertiesofthespiralwerefoundinexperimentsandexpressedinformulasanddiagrams.
The fluid velocity is not constantly distributed over a certain profile section. Modern Pumps are
designedforaconstantpressureandconstantmeanvelocityineveryprofilesectionattheBEP.Apart
fromtheBEP,theradialforcesareoutofbalanceresultinginatotalradialforcedifferenttozero.This
is important because the radial force bends the pumps shaft and results in higher wear at seals and
couldleadtoshaftfatigue.Toreducemostradialforcesthepumpcasingcanbedesignedasadouble
spiralcasing.Inthiscasetheflowisspittedintotwoparts.Duetosymmetryreasonsalmostallradial
forceschanceleachotherout.Anotherimportantpartofthepumpscasingareelbowsinmultistage
pumpstodeflecttheflowfromthepreviousstagesdischargesidetothesuctionsideofthefollowing.
If a multistage pump is equipped with guide vanes, no elbows are necessary. As already mentioned,
guidevaneconstructionisonlycommonatbigorhorizontalmultistagepumps.Guidevanesworkasa
diffuser and convert the increased fluid velocity into pressure. It consists of extending channels
arrangedaroundtheimpeller.Toensureadequatepumplifetime,thepumpscasingmaterialshould
beselectedcarefully.Standardpumpcasingsaremadeofcastironbutduetothefactthatcastironis
not that resistant against cavitation, many pumps are coated or made from more wear resistant
materials. Due to vibrations the casing should have good damping properties. Pump casings are
splittedeitheraxialorradialtoallowassemblingandmaintenance.

1
www.rumfordgroup.com
Figure10horizontalsplittedcasing
ofadoublesuctionpump(lower
part)
1

9
Impeller
Theimpelleristheessentialpartofacentrifugalpump.Theperformanceofthepumpdependsonthe
impellerdiametersanddesign.ThepumpsTDHisbasicallydefinedbytheimpellersinnerandouter
diameterandthepumpscapacityisdefinedbythewidthoftheimpellervanes.Ingeneral,thereare
threepossibletypesofimpellers,open,enclosedandsemiopenimpellers,eachsuitableforaspecific
application. Standard impellers are made of cast iron or carbon steel, while impeller for aggressive
fluidsandslurriesrequirehighendmaterialstoensurealongpumplife.
o Openimpeller
Open impellers (fig.9
1
) are the simplest type of
impellers. They consist of blades attached to the hub.
This type of impeller is lighter than any of the other
type at the same diameter. Weight reduction leads to
lessforceappliedtotheshaftandallowssmallershaft
diameters. These results in lower costs compared to
equivalent shrouded impellers. Typically, open
impellersoperateathigherefficiencybecausethereis
nofrictionbetweentheshroudsandthepumpcasing.
On the other hand side, open impellers have to be
carefullypositionedinthecasing.Thegapbetweentheimpellerandthesurroundingcasingshouldbe
assmallaspossibletomaximiseefficiency.Astheimpellerwearstheclearancebetweentheimpeller
andthefrontandbackwallsopenup,whatleadstoadramaticdropinefficiency.Abigproblemwhen
using a pump with an open impeller are abrasives. Due to the minimized clearance between blades
and casing, high velocity fluids in close proximity to the stationary casing establish vortices that
increaseweardramatically.
o Semiopenimpeller
Semiopenimpellerscanbeseenasacompromisebetweenopenandenclosedimpellers.Asemiopen
impeller is constructed with only one shroud, usually located at the back of the impeller. It usually
operatesatahigherefficiencythananequivalentenclosedoneduetoreduceddiscfrictionasthereis
onlyoneshroud.Abigadvantageofsemiopenimpellerscomparedtoopenonesisthattheimpellers
axial position can be adjusted to compensate for wear. A problem is that the entire backside of the
impellers shroud is under full impeller discharge pressure as the front side is under suction pressure
increasingalongtheimpellerradiusduetocentrifugalforce.Thedifferentialbetweenthesepressures
causesanaxialthrustimbalance.Manufacturestrytoreducethiseffectbyapplyingvanestotheback
sideoftheimpeller.Buttheefficiencyofthesesocalledpumpoutvanesdecreasesiftheimpelleris
moved forward to compensate for wears. A better option to compensate the loss of efficiency is an
adjustablewearplate,sothatclearanceadjustmentscanbemade.Semiopenimpellersarealsoeasily
tomanufactureasallsidesoftheimpellerareeasyaccessibleformanufacturingprocessesaswellas
for applying surface hardening treatments. In combination with wear compensation applications,
semiopen impellers can be used for intermediate abrasive fluids. Another advantage if using semi
closedimpellersincombinationwithanadjustablewearplatecomparedtoanopenimpellerequipped
withthesamewearcompensationsystemisvanesupport.Thispreventsthevanesfromcollapsingor
deformation when using it with fluids contaminated by solids. This justifies the application of semi
openimpellerseventhoughtitseemslogicallytouseanopenimpellerduetoitsreducedweight.

1
Hwww.mcnallyinstitute.com(left),ITTGouldsPumps(right)
Figure11openimpeller
1

10
o Enclosedimpeller
Enclosed impellers (fig.12
1
) consist of blades covered
by a front and back shroud. The fluid steams through
the impeller without interacting with the stationary
pump casing. In a well designed enclosed impeller, the
relative velocity between the fluid and the impeller
walls at any given radius is rather small. The disc
frictionoftheshroudsrotatingincloseproximitytothe
pump casing causes a lower efficiency as comparable
semiopen or open impellers. A problem when dealing
withenclosedimpellersisleakagebetweentheimpeller
shroudsandthepumpcasingbacktothesuctionsideofthepump.Therearetwocommonwaysfor
controlling leakage in enclosed impeller pumps (fig.13
2
). One are
wearringsincombinationwithimpellerbalanceholes.Butthetight
clearancebetweentherotatingandthestationarywearringcauses
high fluid velocities and therefore a high wear rate. Wear ring
lifespan is unacceptable short in an abrasive environment. If wear
ringsreachtheendoftheirintendedlifespan,ithastobereplaced
because if it is not the high velocity zone can shift from the wear
ring into the impeller thrust balance holes. This could cause
significant damage to the impeller and may result in an expensive
repairorreplacementoftheimpeller.Sothisisonlyanoptionwhen
dealing with moderate abrasive fluids with light solids only. The
otherpossibilitytocontrolwearandaxialthrustbalancearepump
outvanes.Thesepumpoutvanescausemuchlowerlocalvelocities
spread over a bigger area resulting in lower wear. It is not
uncommon, that pumpout vane lifespan equals or exceeds the
mainimpellerslifespan.Themajordisadvantageofpumpoutvanes
istheirpowerconsumptionwhatleadstoalowerefficiency.Overall
pumpout vanes provide a good pump characteristic when dealing
with abrasive solids. Another problem when operating an enclosed
impellerincombinationwithfluidscontaminatedbylargesolidslike
rocks is that it may happen that a piece of solid gets caught in the
impeller eye outlet. This may cause a mechanical or hydraulically
imbalanceandhasthepotentialtodamagethepump.Inanopenor
semiopen impeller this rock would be broken by the grinding
betweentherotatingimpellerandthestationarycasing.Toremovetheblockagedisassemblingofthe
pumpwouldbenecessary.

1
http://knowledgepublications.com(left),www.engineersedge.com(right)
2
LawrencePumpsInc.,RunTimesjan.05issue(modified)
Figure13 enclosedimpeller
1
Figure12losscompensation
2

11
Shaft
The shaft is the connectionbetween impeller anddriveunit which is in mostcases an electric motor
but can also be a gas turbine. It is mainly charged by a radial force caused by unbalanced pressure
forcesinthespiralcasingandanaxialforceduetothepressuredifferencebetweenfrontandbackside
of the impeller. Most common pump shafts are made of carbon steel. There are several cranks to
supportthebearingsandseals.Ahighsurfacequalityandsmallclearancesarerequired.Especiallyin
theareasofthebearings,clearanceandsurfacequalityisimportanttoensurerightpositioningofthe
shaftinthecasingandthereforeclosepositioningclearancesoftheimpeller.Attheareaoftheseals,
particularly the surface quality is important to ensure an adequate seal lifespan. In shaft design it is
alsoimportanttoavoidsmallradiusesatcrankstominimizestressintheseareaswhicharesusceptible
forfatigue.

Figure14pumpscrankshaft
1

Bearings
The bearings keep the shaft in place to ensure radial and
axialclearance.Someapproximatebearingpropertiescanbe
seeninfig.14
2
.Thebearingsleadradialandaxialforcesfrom
the impeller into the casing. In double suction pumps
bearingsarelocatedatbothsidesoftheimpellerasatsingle
suction pumps all bearings are located behind the impeller.
In horizontal process pumps, usually oil bath lubricated
bearings are used. Medium and heavy duty process pumps
areusedinrefineries,wherehighestreliabilityisrequired.In
these pumps axial loads are supported by universal single
row angular contact ball bearings. In heavy duty process
pumps, also matched taper roller bearings with steep
contact angles, arranged face to face or back to back are
used to support combinations of high radial and axial loads.
In very high duty service and slurry pumps, spherical roller
bearings can be used to support very high radial loads. A
spherical thrust bearing is used to support axial loads. It is
usually spring preloaded to ensure that sufficient load is
applied during start up or pump shutdown. At vertical
pumps, the thrust bearing can be a ball bearing with a
spherical outer ring raceway, with the centre of the radius
located on the bearing axis, providing a selfalignment

1
ITTGouldspumps(modified)
2
PumpUsersHandbook(byHeinzP.Bloch,AllanR.Budris)
Figure15bearingproperties
2

12
capability.Itisequippedwitha45contactanglethatenablesthebearingtosupportlargeaxialloads
andmoderateradialloads.Ifthepumpisoperatedat itsBEP,thebearingwillonlyhavetocarrythe
rotating assemblies weight, the stress due to interference fit of the shaft and in some cases
manufacturer dependent preloads. Unfortunately, many bearings are overloaded because of wrong
interference fit, shaft bend, solids, unbalanced rotating elements, vibrations, axial thrust and many
more.Thisleadstoincreasedstressandtemperatureandthereforetoadecreaseinlifespan.Itisalso
importantforthebearingslifespantoprotectitfromfluidbyadequateseals.
Sealing
Toprotectthebearingsagainstfluidandpreventleakage,thereareseveralsealsfittedintothecasing.
Nowadays, rotary pumps are equipped with mechanical seals (fig.14
1
). A mechanical seal consists of
primaryandsecondarysealing.Inmostcasestheprimarypart,whichisfittedtothecasing,ismadeof
ahardmateriallikesiliconcarbideortungstencarbide.Theother,therotatingpartoftheprimaryseal
ismadeofasoftmateriallikecarbon.Bothpartsarepressedagainsteachotherbye.g.aspring.The
secondarysealingsarenotrotatingrelativetoeachotherandprovideafluidbarrier.Mechanicalseals
canbeseparatedintopusher/nonpusherseals,sealdriving/springcompression,balanced/unbalanced
and inside/outside mounting.
Pushersealswillhaveatendencyto
hang up when handling fluids
which crystallize because the
secondary seal member is not able
to accommodate for travel.
Whether applying a balanced or
unbalanced seal will effect seal
performance. Unbalanced seals see
ahighpressureat theimpellerside
and therefore have a reduced fluid
film between the seal faces. This
leads to overheating, rapid face
wear and seal fatigue at early
stages. To simplify maintenance
many seals are available in
cartridges which are prepacked
seal assemblies. To avoid any leakage when handling hazard fluids, double or tandem seals can be
applied. In these seals, a secondary so called containment seal is placed after the primary one. The
space in between is filled with a natural fluid called barrier or buffer fluid. These seals are very
common in the petroleum industry. The difference between a tandem and a double seal is that in a
doublesealthebarrierfluidispressurised.Duetothis,incaseofprimarysealfatiguethepressurised
barrier fluid streams into the pumps instead of the hazard fluid into the atmosphere. The seal
materialsmustfitthefluidtoensureaccurateseallifespan.Thestandardsofmodernmechanicalseals
arewidelydefinedbyAPIStandard682ShaftSealingSystemsforCentrifugalandRotaryPumps.

1
USpatent2951719
Figure16mechanicalsingleseal
1

13
8) Pumpparametersandselection
Thereareseveralparametersdependingonimpellerdesign,diameter,RPMetc.,characterisingapump.Inthis
chapter the most important pump parameters will be discussed as well as an example showing how to
calculatelossesinasystemandtoselectapump.
Totaldynamichead(TDH)
Head in general is used to define energy supplied to a liquid by a pump and is expressed in units of
length.Inabsenceofanyvelocityitisequaltotheheightofastaticcolumnoffluidthatissupported
byapressureinthepointofdatum.Totaldynamichead(TDH)isthedifferencebetweentotaldynamic
discharge head and total dynamic suction head (eqn.2). Total dynamic discharge (suction) head is
practicallythepressurereadfromagaugeatthedischarge(suction)flangeconvertedtolengthunits
andcorrectedtothepumpcentrelineplusthevelocityheadatthepointofthegauge(eqn.2).These
twovaluesrepresentthetotalamountofenergyofthefluidatthedischargeandsuctionflangeofthe
pump. Mathematically it is the sum of static discharge (suction) head and velocity at the discharge
(suction)flangeminustotalfrictionheadinthedischarge(suction)line.Thedifferenceofthesevalues
gives you the THD which represents the energy added to the fluid. TDH does not depend on the
deliveredfluidsdensity.Ahigherdensityonlyincreasesthepressureandthereforetherequiredpower
ataconstantflowrate.
d s
2 2
2 1 2 1
2 1
TDH=h -h
(p -p ) (v -v )
TDH=(z -z )+ +
g 2g

Equation2totaldynamichead
Flowrate(Q)
(Volumetric)Flowrateisthevolumeoffluidpassingthroughthepumpperunitoftime.Itiscalculated
as area times fluid velocity (eqn.3). It depends on the impeller geometry and RPM. Impellers are
optimised for highest outlet velocities. Multiplied by the useable impeller inlet area you will get the
flow rate. An impeller is designed for a maximised flow rate at a specific speed depending on its
diameter.Thisiscalledthepointofbestefficiency.
1 1 2
Q=A v =A v
2

Equation3flowrate
Netpositivesuctionhead(NPSH)
NPSH is defined as total suction head above the suction nozzle and corrected to datum, less the
vapour pressure of the fluid converted into length units. It analyses energy condition on the suction
side of the pump to determine whether the liquid will vaporise at the lowest pressure point of the
pump. Vapour pressure is a characteristic fluid property increasing with increasing temperature. It
indicates the pressure at which a fluid starts boiling, causing bubbles which move along the impeller
surface to an area of higher pressure were they collapse rapidly and cause significant harm to it. By
decreasing the pressure the temperature at which this happens also decreases. So if the pressure is
low enough it is possible to see this effect even at surrounding temperature. This effect is known as
cavitationsandshouldnecessarilybeavoided.Itisobviousthatinordertopumpafluidinaneffective
waywehavetokeepitliquid.ThereforeNPSHrequired(NPSH
R
)isthetotalsuctionheadrequiredto
prevent the fluid from vaporising at the lowest pressure point of the pump. NPSH
R
is a function of

14
pump design as the pressure at the impeller decreases by accelerating the fluid along the impeller.
There are also pressure losses due to shock and turbulences as the fluid strikes the impeller. To
overcomeallthesepressuredropsinthepumpandmaintainthefluidabovevapourpressureacertain
positive suction head is required. NPSH
R
varies with flow rate and speed within any particular pump.
TheavailableNPSHisafunctionofthesysteminwhichthepumpoperates.ToavoidcavitationsNPSH
A

mustbebiggerthanNPSH
R
.InpractisetheNPSH
A
canbedeterminedbyagaugeonthesuctionflange
ofthepumpandthefollowingformula(eqn.4).Itisalsocommontoaddacertainsafetyvaluetothe
NPSH
R
tomakesurethatthereisenoughsuctionheadtopreventthefluidfromvaporising.Inpractice
asafetyvalueof0,5mhasturnedouttobereasonable.
2
1
1 e v
A 1
A R
v
p +p + -p
2
NPSH = +z
g
NPSH NPSH +0,5m


,2

Equation4NPSH
Specificspeed(n
s
)
Specific speed (eqn.5) is a value to characterise the shape of a impeller. Low specific speed
characterisesaradialimpellerandisincreasinguptohighspecificspeedataxialimpellers.Impellersin
between are known as Francisvane and mixedflow impeller (fig.11). Specific speed is only of
designingengineeringsignificanceusedtopredictpumpcharacteristics.
BEP
s 3
4
BEP
Q
n =n
TDH

Equation5specificspeed

Figure17Impellerdesignoverspecificspeed
1

1
www.lightmypump.com(modified)

15
PowerandEfficiency(P,)
The work performed by a pump is a function of THD, flow rate and the specific gravity of the fluid.
Pump input (P) or brake horse power (bhp) is the actual power delivered to the pump shaft. Pump
output(P
hydr
)orhydraulichorsepower(whp)istheenergydeliveredtothefluidpertimeunit(eqn.6).
Duetomechanicalandhydrauliclossesinthepump,P
hydr
isalwayssmallerthanP.Thereforeefficiency
isdefinedasP
hydr
dividedbyP(eqn.7).Theimpellergeometryisoptimizedtoprovidehighestflowrate
at acertainspeedatagivendiameteratitspointofbestefficiency(BEP).Ifoperatingapumpoffits
(BEP),lossesduetoincreasingturbulencesandrecirculationwillincreaseandreduceefficiency.These
effects are caused by a mismatch of the pumps design flow rate and the actual flow rate. The
differencebetweeninletvaneangleandapproachingflowangleisincreasingasmovingawayfromthe
BEP as well as losses between impeller vane exit and the diffuser. Result of this is an increased flow
betweentheimpellersshroudsandthecasing.
hydr
P = g Q TDH
Equation6power
hydr
P
g Q TDH
= =
P P


Equation7efficiency

16
Pumpcharacteristiccurve
The pump characteristic curve shows the performance of a pump. It usually shows TDH, power,
efficiency and NPSH
R
plotted over flow rate at a given RPM. There are absolute or dimensional and
relativeornondimensionalplots(fig.12).Thedifferenceisthatadimensionaldiagramshowsabsolute
values,whileanondimensionalplotshowsthedatainpercentoftheirvaluesatthepumpsBEP.The
first line in the diagram shows the pumps THD plotted over flow rate. Characteristic is the slightly
decreasing THD at increasing flow rate. The efficiency graph is typically increasing until it reaches its
peak at the pumps BEP and drops as flow rate is further increasing. The bhp line is more or less a
straight line as it increases with increasing flow rate. It is also possible to plot these functions for
severalspeedsatagivendiameteroratdifferentdiametersforagivenspeedinonediagram.Resultis
a set of pump characteristic curves as provided by most manufactures. In these diagrams you can
estimate pump behaviour at constant speeds and a range of impeller diameters. Constant horse
power,efficiency,andNPSH
R
linesareplottedoverthevariousheadcurves.Thepumpcharacteristic
curveshowninfig.12isanexampleforthewhatinformationyoucangetoutofsuchadiagram.Inthis
example, we assume that we have this pump with an impeller diameter of 7 operating at 3540RPM
and a flow rate of 48m/h. Therefore we can read from the diagram the pumps current efficiency,
head,requiredpoweraswellastheNPSH
R
.Inthiscase,ouroperatingpointisalmostthepumpsBEP
andwegetTHDof60m,anefficiencyofabout61%,requiredpowerof13HpandaNPSH
R
of9ft.

Figure18Pumpcharacteristicsheet(Gouldpumpsmodel3196)
1

1
ITTGouldsPumps(modified)

17
Affinitylaws
These laws express relationships between several variables involved in pump performance such as
flow rate, impeller diameter, head and power. There are two ways to express these relationships:
eitherholdingtheimpellerdiameter(eqn.8)ortherotationspeed(eqn.9)constant.Affinitylawsapply
toradialpumpsaswellasaxialpumps.
2 3
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
Q n TDH n P n
= =
Q n TDH n P n



=

Equation8affinitylaws(constantimpellerdiameter)

2 3
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
Q D TDH D P D
= =
Q D TDH D P D



=

Equation9affinitylaw(constantrotationspeed)
Asanexample,assumeoperatingapumpatBEPatn1,wecancalculatetheBEPforanyothern2(or
any other diameter). The efficiency remains almost constant at speed and small impeller diameter
changes. At first; we have to determine flow rate, TDH and power for the pumps BEP at 3540RPM
fromthepumpcharacteristiccurve(fig.12).Withthisknowledge;itispossibletocalculatetheBEPfor
4000RPMandplotanewpumpcharacteristiccurve.

3
1 1
2
2 2
2
1 1
2
2 2
3
1 1
2
2 2
Q n m
= Q =42,9
Q n h
TDH n
= TDH =76,6m
TDH n
P n
= P =18,75Hp
P n

18
By performing this calculation for several points; we get the pump characteristic curve for the new
speed(fig.13).

Figure19approximatepumpcharacteristiccurve(Gouldspumpsmodel3196atdifferentRPMs)
This shows that with a change in speed or in impeller diameter; the pumps characteristic can be
optimizedtofitthesystemitisoperatedin.

19
Systemcharacteristiccurve
Asystemcharacteristiccurverepresentsthebehaviourofthesysteminwhichthepumpisoperated.It
definesthepointonthepumpcharacteristiccurveonwhichthepumpoperates.Plottingthesystem
andpumpcharacteristiccurveinthesamediagram,thepointofintersectionistheoperationpointof
thepump,operatedatacertainspeedinagivensystem.Itisalsopossibletopredictthebehaviourof
thepumpduringachangeeitherinsystemorpumpproperties.

Figure20Examplesofhydraulicsystems
1

System A is a typical piping system with a centrifugal pump to deliver fluid to a higher tank. The
differenceinsystemBisthatinthiscasealmostallthepipingisvertical.Thisisimportantbecausethe
mainlossesarecausedbyfrictionbetweenthefluidandthepipesinnersurface.Therefore,lossesin
system B are smaller than in system A. The system characteristic curves corresponding to the
examples(fig14)areshownbelow(fig.10).Duetothisdependenceoffrictionfromvelocity,theblue
curve, representing system B, is much flatter than the characteristic curve of system A. The red line
showstheenergythatisrequired(TDH)topumpthefluidfromthelowertotheuppertankwhichare
both under ambient pressure. The system characteristic curve is of parabolic shape because it is
plotted over flow rate and friction is function of squared velocity. So if flow rate is increasing, also
velocity is increasing the same way and losses due to friction increase. Therefore, more energy is
requiredtocompensatelossesanddeliverfluidtotheuppertank.Obviously,athrottledvalvecauses
additionalresistanceandthereforeadditionallossesresultinginmoreenergyrequiredtodeliverfluid
totheuppertankatthesameflowrateoralowerflowrateatconstantpower.

1
ReinhttePumpen(modified)

20
Pumpselection
Firstofall,andthisisproperlythemostimportantpart,wehavetotakeacloselookattheapplication
of the pump. There should be as much details about the system available as possible, to ensure
choosing the right pump. Important selection parameters are required TDH, flow rate, NPSH
A
, fluid
andflexibilityofthesystem.Itisalsoimportanttoknowthefluid.ParameterslikepHvalue,viscosity,
abrasives,fluidandsurroundingtemperaturerangeaswellasquantity,sizeandshapeofsolids.Ifwe
knowthatacentrifugalpumpistherightpumpfortheapplication,wecangointodetailsearchingfor
a potential pump model. Most manufactures provide a pump selection software, but there are also
various manufacturerindependent software packages available (e.g. www.pumpflo.com). A pump
selectionsoftwaregivesyouachoiceofpumps,fittingthespecificationmadeatthebeginning.Many
detailedspecificationscanbemadetocharacterisetheapplication.Mostpumpselectionsoftwareare
quitepowerfultoolsthatalsoprovidecalculatorsforNPSH
A
andTDHdetermination.Therearealsoa
lotofadministrationtoolslikePDForexcelexportandfilemanagementfeaturesimplemented.Butin
general,toselectapumpitisusefultoplotthecurve,characterisingthesystemandthecharacteristic
curve of a potential pump into the same diagram. The point of intersection of the two head curves
indicates the operation point of the pump in the system. It is also possible to make predictions how
thepumpwillbehavewhenchangingsystemparameters.Obviously,theoperationpointshouldbeas
closetotheBEPaspossible.Acommonrulewhenselectingapumpistochooseapumpwithatleast
25%moreheadavailablethanrequiredbythesystem.Anothercommonpracticeistochooseatmost
the second largest impeller diameter available in a pump series. This is reasonable in the case of a
changingsystemoriftherehasbeenmadeamistakeduringpumpselection.Soitispossibletochange
theimpellertothenextlargersizewithoutchangingthecasing.
Figure21 Systemcharacteristiccurves

21
Figure22System&PumpCharacteristiccurve

22
Example1
Inthisexample,thewholecalculationforaselectedapplicationwillbeshown.Aimofthecalculation
istocalculatetherequiredpumpparametersandtoselectamatchingpumpaswellasaproperdrive
unit.Weassumethefollowingequipmentandhole(fig.18
1
)properties:
Downhole:
part type dimension
hole depth 1100m
Bitdiameter
9
1
2
(0,2413m)
Nozzles 3
tubing diameter
10
3
4
(0,2731m)
length 820m
wallthickness 10,16mm
drillingrod Type
6
5
8
FH
wallthickness 8,38mm
outerdiameter 0,169m
drillingcollar outerdiameter
8
1
2
(0,2159m)
innerdiameter
2
7
8
(0,07m)
length 120m
Manifold:
part diameter[mm] length[m]
mainpipe 100 35
standpipe 100 14
mudhose 75 17
mudhead 75 2
Kelly 100 12
Drillingfluidproperties:
property value
Type OSTWALDfluid
density 1250kg/m
KFactor 0,28Ns/m
fluidindexn 0,64
recommendedspeed 0,63m/s

1
DieBohrsplung(byGerdUlrichLotzwick)
Figure23Borehole
1

23
Firstofall,itisrequiredtocalculatetheflowrate,dependingonthecrosssectionsandrecommended
fluidspeed.Thereforeitisnecessarytodeterminethecrosssectionsonetothreeandtocalculatethe
flowrateforthegivenspeedbytheinchapter7introducedformula.
2 2
o i
2
1
2
2 2
2
3

A= (D -D )
4
A =0,02775m
A =0,04341m V=A v
m
A =0,02924m V=98,478
h

Inpractice,itiscommontointroduceasafetyfactorof20%totheflowrate.
m
V=118,17
h

Now we calculate the pressure losses for all parts of the downhole assembly as well as in the
manifold.
Pressurelossesinsidethedrillingrod:
V m
= =1,873
A s
v

BycalculatingthemodifiedReynolds number,itispossibletodeterminethefrictioncoefficientfrom
thediagram(fig.19
1
)
2-n n
m m
v D
Re = Re =5875
K 1+3n
8
8 4n
=0,027
n


1
1
L v
p =
d 2
p =0,402MPa

1
DieBohrsplung(byGerdUlrichLotzwick)
Figure24frictioncoefficientforOSTWALDfluids
1

24
Pressurelossesinsidethedrillingcollar:
Thepressurelossesintheinsideofthedrillingcollararecalculatedbythesamewayasshownabove.
2
p =1,201MPa

Pressurelossesbetweenboreholeanddrillingrod:
Whencalculatingfluidflowinanannularsection,itisimportanttousethehydraulicdiameterinthe
formulaforthepressurelossandReynoldsnumber.
hydr o i
M
D =D - D
Re =1910

As the determined Reynolds number is smaller than the critical Reynolds number (3600), we can
assumelaminarflow.
M
3
Re
= =0,035
64
p =0,043MPa

Pressurelossesbetweentubinganddrillingrod:
After checking the Reynolds number, the calculation can be done either as shown above or like the
firstonebutinbothcaseswiththehydraulicdiameter.
4
p =0,157MPa

Pressurelossesinthedrillingbit:
To effectively support the drilling process the discharge speed of the drilling fluid from the nozzles
shouldnotbebelow105m/s.Thereforeitispossibletocalculatethemaximumnozzlescrosssection
areabythelawofcontinuity.
2
nozzles discharge nozzles
V=A v A =3,13cm

Toensureenoughfluidspeed,ajetnozzlewithadiameterof7/16(11,11mm)andaflowcoefficient
of0,95wouldbesuitable.
discharge
nozzles
V m
v 112,8
A s
= =

Nowitispossibletocalculatethepressurelossesinthedrillingbit.
discharge
5 5 2
v
p = p =8,814MPa
2

25
Pressurelossesinthemanifoldsystem:
Themanifoldsystemcanbeseparatedintofourmaingroups.Incaseofthisexamplethetypeisgiven
anditispossibletoreadthepressurelossattheearlierdetermineflowratefromthediagrambelow
(fig.20
1
).
6
p =0,25MPa

Thediagramisonlysuitableforafluiddensityof
1000kg/m (water). So if this diagram is used to
determine the pressure loss in the manifold
systemwiththefluidintheexampleithastobe
correctedbythedensityfactor.
drillingfluid
F F
water
6 F 6

= =1, 25

p =p p =0,31MPa


Totalpressurelosses:
To select a pump, now all the pressure losses are summed up and 10% is added to ensure sufficient
head.
6
i
i=1
(p )+10%=12,02MPa


So for this application apump with a flow rate of about 120m/h and aTDH of1202m is needed. By
entering this information into the previous mentioned pump selection software we get a number of
matching pumps. To finally decide which pump fits the application best some other factors like
acquisitioncosts,maintainingcosts,energyconsumptionandelectricityorfuelpricesmustbetakenin
account.

1
DieBohrsplung(byGerdUlrichLotzwick)
Figure25 pressurelossinmanifoldsystems
1

26

Figure26Pumpselectionsoftware,criteriadefinition
1

Figure27exampleofresultsprovidedbygouldspumpspumsselectiontool
1

Apossibleselectioncanbesavedaspdffileorplotteddirectlyasshownintheexampleonthenextpage.

1
ITTGouldsPumps

27

27

28

Inthiscasemaybeapistonpumpwouldbemoresuitableduetoahigherefficiencyathighpressures
likeacentrifugalpump.ProblemswiththeselectedpumpsmightbeitsoperationfaroffitsBEPand
thefactthatthereisfairlynooptiontoincreasepressureorflowratifnecessary.Thereforecentrifugal
pumpsarerarelyfoundasmudpump.Butasalreadymentionedtheycanbebetterusedtosuckthe
mudtoapistonpump.InthatapplicationtheneededTDHismuchlowersothisapplicationmatches
thecentrifugalpumpsareaofapplication,whichislowTDHandhighflowrate,muchbetter.
Example2
Another possible application on a drilling rig would be to charge a desander. A desander is, in most
cases, one or more hydrocyclones
1
. The mud enters the
hydrocyclonetangentiallyintotheuppercylindricalsection.
The mud is forced to move downwards into the conical
segment. Due to centrifugal force the heavier solids are
pressedagainsttheouterwall.Theinnerphaseofthemud
canentertheinnercylindricalpartatacertainpointtoflow
upwards and discharge at the top. The solids leave the
desanderatitslowerend.Sosolidsdowntoabout8070m
areremoved.Toensureproperoperationitisimportantto
guaranteetherequiredvelocityattheinletofthedesander.
It mainly depends on the size of the desander. In this
example the pump has to charge a triflo model 10002
desanderunitwiththepropertiesshownbelow.Itconsists
of2x10hydrocyclonesseperatingsolidsdownto70m.

m
o
d
e
l

F
e
e
d

R
a
t
e

r
e
c
o
m
a
n
d
e
d

o
p
e
r
a
t
i
n
g

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

L
e
n
g
t
h

W
i
d
t
h

H
e
i
g
h
t

W
e
i
g
h
t

H
e
a
d
e
r

D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

I
n
s
i
d
e

10002 1000gpm 25psi 48 80 38 760lbs 8

The manifold system recomanded by the


manufacturer can be seen in fig.29
2
. Over all, the
desanderischargedovera6(~150mm)pipewitha
total length of 117 (~4m). Total hight difference is
about2m.Thepropertiesofthemudcanbeseenin
thetablebelow.

1
http://glwww.mst.dk
2
Triflodesander2x10operatingmanual
property value
Type OSTWALDfluid
density 1250kg/m
KFactor 0,28Ns/m
fluidindexn 0,64
Figure28Hydrocyclone,workingprinciple
1
Figure29recommendedmanifoldsystem
2

29
Firstcalculatingthefluidspeedfromtherequiredflowrateandthegivencrosssectionarea.
V m
= =3,6
A s
v

BycalculatingtheReynoldsnumberitispossibleto
determinethefrictionfactorfromthediagram.
2-n n

m m
v D
Re = Re =14708
K 1+3n
8
8 4n
=0,015
n

Nowthepressurelossesinthesuctionsystemcanbe
calculated.
2
p =0,172MPa (=25psi)
p = g h=0,25MPa
1
1
L v
p =
d 2
p =0,034MPa


Alsotherequiredpressureatthedesanderinletandthehightdifferencehastobetakeninaccount.
2
requiredpressureathydracycloneinlet
3

3

ThesumequalstherequiredTDH.Inthiscase20%forsafetyreasonsareadded.
i
i=1
(p )+20%=0,842MPa


SowearelookingforapumpwithaTDHof84mandaflowrateof230m/h.Apossiblepumpwould
beaGouldsPumpsmodel3700witha4x69impelleroperatedat3560RPM.Thepumpscaracteristic
curveisshowninthediagrambelow.

30

31
9) ProblemsatcentrifugalPumps
A major problem at centrifugal pumps is, like at all fast moving parts in a fluid, cavitation. Other difficulties
obtain solid handling, abrasives and corrosives as well as leakage. Mosterrors duringpump operation canbe
avoidedbyselectingaqualitypumpdesignedfortheapplicationandadequatemaintenance.
Cavitation
Cavitationoccurswhenthestaticpressureinafluidislowerthan
thefluidsvapourpressure,mostlycausedbyhighvelocities.Due
to Bernoullis law, static pressure decreases when velocity is
increasing. If this happens, the fluid locally starts boiling and
forms gas bubbles which need more space than the fluid would
take.Inacentrifugalpumpssimpeller,thebubblesaremovingto
an area of decreasing pressure. If the pressure now exceeds the
vapour pressure, the gas condensates at the bubbles inner
surface and so collapse rapidly. This implosion of gas bubbles
causes high, temporarily pressure fluctuations of up to a few
1000bar. As the fluid flows from higher to lower pressure, this
flow causes a jet of the surrounding fluid, which may hit the surface. These high energy microjets
causehighcompressivestressweakeningthematerial.Finally,cratershapeddeformationsandholes
known as cavitation pitting (fig.23
1
) occur. Other reasons for cavitation can be a rise of fluid
temperature, a low pressure at the suction side or an increase of delivery height. Cavitations in
centrifugal pumps mainly occur at the impeller leading edges (fig.24) but also at the impeller vane,
wearringsandthrustbalanceholes.Toavoidcavitation,itisimportanttodeliversufficientNPSHand
to keep fluid temperature low. High fluid temperatures can occur if the pump is on to keep the
pressureupbutnofluidistakenout

Figure31regionsofimpellercavitation
2

Theharmofcavitationtotheimpellerandotherpartsofthepumpissignificant.

1
www.motorlexikon.de(modified)
2
www.cheresources.com(modified)
Figure30bubblecollapse
1

32

Figure32typicalimpellerwearduetocavitation
1

Solidsandslurryhandling(abrasivemedias)
When expecting solids in the fluid or dealing with slurries, it is important to select a pump that is
designed for this application. Onthe other hand side, slurry pumps aremuch more expensive than a
standard water pump, so the decision is not that easy. As there is a very wide range of slurries it is
useful to divide them into three categories, light, medium and heavy slurries as shown in the table
below.

property lightslurry mediumslurry heavyslurry


particlesize <200m 0,2mm 5mm >5mm
settling/nonsettling nonsettling settling&nonsettling settling
specificgravity <1,05 1,05 1,15 >1,15
amountofsolids <5% 5% 20% 20%

Toprovideapumpthatcanbeusedwithslurries,specialdesignfeaturesmustbemade.Slurrypumps
canbeequippedwithe.g.thickerwearsections,largerimpellers,specialmaterialandsemivoluteor
concentric casing. All these features extend pump lifespan but also cause disadvantages like higher
initialcosts,higherweightorlessefficiency.Slurrypumpscanbeseparatedintotwomaincategories,
rubberlinedandhardmetalpumps.Atrubberlinedpumps,theinnersurfaceiscoveredbyalayerof
rubber, to absorb solids impact energy. Rubber lined pumps have a limited application range. This
typeofwearpreventionisonlysuitableforlightatleastformediumslurriesatlowheadapplications.
Also the fluid temperature should not exceed 150C. Rubber lined pumps are not applicable for
hydrocarbon based slurries. On the other hand side, hard metal pumps are suitable for high power
applicationsusedatevenheavyslurries.Hardmetalslurrypumpscanalsohandlesharp,jaggedsolids
even at fluid temperatures above 150C. Standard hard metal slurry pumps can be designed of
hardenedsteelbutforhighcorrosivefluidshighalloyedsteelsareused.Whenselectingahardmetal
pump it is important that the pump material is harder than the solid particles. Cartable ceramics
provide excellent resist to erosion but limit impeller tip velocity. The lifespan of a pump can be
increasedbyselectingthecorrectmaterialsofconstruction.Anotherimportantfactorwhenhandling
slurries is speed. By decreasing the pumps RPM also the fluid speed is decreasing and therefore the
solidsspeedisdecreasingtoo.Thisleadstolowerimpactenergyandlesswear.Experimentsbypump
manufacturers have shown that a slurry pumps wear rate is proportional to speed raised by the

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33
power of 2,5. Therefore, by decreasing the speed of a slurry pump by half, this will lead to
approximately 6 times lifespan. For this reason most slurry pumps are operated at slowest speed
possibleequippedwithimpellerlargeindiametertoincreasepumplifespan.
corrosion
Corrosion is breaking down of essential properties in a material due to chemical or electrochemical
reactions with its surroundings. As there is a wide range of pump applications within the chemical
industry, including the petroleum industry, handling oil and gas up to high aggressive acids it is
important to provide pumps that can be operated under these difficult conditions. There are several
typesofcorrosionandmanyfactorsitdependson,likefluidtemperature,containedelementsandpH
value.Mostcommonanddangerouscorrosioninpumpsisthesocalleduniformcorrosion.Thisisthe
overallattackofacorrosiveliquidonametal.Thechemicalreactionsbetweenfluidandmetalsurface
leadtouniformmetallossonthemoistenedsurface,knownascorrosivewear.Tominimizecorrosive
wearitisimportanttoselectaresistantpumpmaterial.
10) Comparisoncentrifugalpumpsvs.Pistonpumps
Centrifugalandpistonpumpsbaseontwodifferentphysicalprinciplesto
causeflow.Whileacentrifugalpumpacceleratesthefluidalongimpeller
vanes, a piston pump causes flow by the principle of positive
displacement.Thepressureinapistonpumpisdirectlyincreasedbyfluid
displacement,duetoaforceappliedonanenclosedfluidvolume.Atthe
first step, only the inlet check valve is open and the back moving piston
sucks fluid from the suction side. After a half rotation of the cam, the
piston reaches the back dead centre. Now the piston starts moving
forwardandappliesaforceonthefluid.Therefore,theinletcheckvalve
closes and the outlet check valve opens. The fluid is pressed into the
piping at the discharge side. After the piston reaches the forward dead
centre,fluidissuckedinagain(fig.27
1
).Obviously,apistonpumpcauses
a pulsating flow, what is the first major difference. To reduce these
pulsations,pistonpumpsaremainlydesignedasduplex,triplexormultiplexpumps.Mostapplicationsrequire
an additional pulsation damper to reduce pulsations in the piping system. General centrifugal pumps are
unstable at low flow rates but are a good choice at medium up to high flow rates. Piston pumps could be
manufactured for similar flow rates but would get extraordinary big and too expensive for most applications.
Centrifugalpumpsaremostsuitableforlowtomediumpressureapplicationwhilepistonpumpsaregenerally
usedinhighpressureservice.Multistagecentrifugalpumpscanbedesignedforpressuredupto400barbutare
mostefficientathighflowrates.Pistonpumpsontheotherhandaregenerallyabetterchoiceforapplications
exceeding 200bar at low to medium flow rates. A piston pump is continuously increasing the pressure, while
working against an enclosed fluid volume. Therefore, a relief valve is needed to prevent pump and piping
systemofoverpressure.Centrifugalpumpscannotincreasepressureuponthepumpstypicalshutoffpressure
onthepumpcharacteristiccurve.Theshutoffpressureisalwayslowerthanthepumpsdesignpressureandin
awelldesignedapplicationalsolowerthanthepipingsystemsmaximumpressure.Sowhenusingacentrifugal
pump,noreliefvalveisneeded.Anexceptionistopreventthepumpofdamageduetotemperatureriseatlow
flow rates or shut down the pump and ensure a minimum flow to keep it stable. As a centrifugal pump
operatesonavariousflow,variousheadcurve,theflowrateincreasesifthedischargepressureisreduced.A
piston pump always delivers a constant flow rate at a given speed, independent of discharge pressure.

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Figure33pistonpump
1

34
Generally,centrifugalpumps,apartfromspecialdesignsofsomemanufactures,arenotselfpriming.Somost
applications require an external priming source. In application where both, a centrifugal pump as well as a
piston pump, may be suitable another factor is required space and costs. A centrifugal pump is in general
cheaperinacquisitionandmaintenanceandrequireslessspacethanacomparablepistonpump.Ontheother
hand side, a piston pump requires less power. Of course this is only a general guideline. A pump operated
outside of its optimum operating parameters can turn this around by causing e.g. higher maintenance costs.
Thereforeapumpshouldbecarefullyselectedtoavoidextracosts.Soitisimportanttoknowthatcentrifugal
pumpsaresuitableforhandlingclear,nonabrasivefluidsuptoabrasivefluidswithahighamountofsolids,but
donotworkwellwithhighviscousfluidsbecauseefficiencywoulddropdramatically.Therewouldalsoappear
problemswhenhandlingfluidscombinedwithgassesduetotherequiredcloseclearances.Pistonpumpsalso
work well for clean, clear non abrasive fluids up to abrasive slurries. Due to the relatively low fluid velocities,
pistonpumpsareunsusceptibletoerosionsandwear.

Centrifugalpump Pistonpump
optimum flow and pressure
application
medium/highcapacity
low/mediumpressure
low/mediumcapacity
medium/highpressure
maximumflowrate 50000m/h+ 3000m/h+
lowflowcapability no yes
maximumpressure 400bar+ 7000bar+
requiresreliefvalve no yes
smoothorpulsatingflow smooth pulsating
selfpriming no yes
variableorconstantflow variable constant
spaceconditions requireslessspace requiresmorespace
fluidhandling Suitableforawiderangeincluding
clean, clear, nonabrasive fluids to
fluids with abrasive, highsolid
content.
Suitable for clean, clear, non
abrasive fluids. Speciallyfitted
pumps suitable for abrasiveslurry
service.
fluidviscosity Not suitable for high viscosity
fluids
Suitableforhighviscosityfluids
gases Lower tolerance for entrained
gases
Higher tolerance for entrained
gases
costs lowerinitial
lowermaintenance
higherpower
higherinitial
highermaintenance
lowerpower

35
11) Standards
1

There are different organisations dealing with standardisation. Also some standards in pump design are
available.Standardsofdesignanddimensionalspecificationsarenecessarytobringunitytocentrifugalpumps.
Standardsareprovidedbyorganizationslike
ISOInternationalStandardsOrganizations
APIAmericanInternationalInstitute
ANSIAmericanNationalStandardsInstitute
DINDeutschesInstitutfrNormung
NPFANationalFireProtectionAgency
BSiBritishStandardsinstitute

Somecommonlyusedcentrifugalpumpsstandards

ANSI/API6101995CentrifugalPumpsforGeneralRefineryServiceCoverstheminimumrequirementsfor
centrifugal pumps, including pumps running in reverse as hydraulic power recovery turbines, for use in
petroleum, heavy duty chemicals, andgas industry services. The pumptypescoveredby this standard canbe
broadlyclassifiedasoverhung,betweenbearings,andverticallysuspended.

DINENISO5199Technicalspecificationsforcentrifugalpumps

ASME B73.12001 Specification for Horizontal End Suction Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical Process This
standard covers centrifugal pumps of horizontal, end suction single stage, centreline discharge design. This
standard includes dimensional interchange ability requirements and certain design features to facilitate
installation and maintenance. It is the intent of this standard that pumps of the same standard dimension
designationfromallsourcesofsupplyshallbeinterchangeablewithrespecttomountingdimensions,sizeand
locationofsuctionanddischargenozzles,inputshafts,baseplates,andfoundationboltholes

ASMEB73.22003SpecificationsforVerticalInLineCentrifugalPumpsforChemicalProcess

BS 5257:1975 Specification for horizontal endsuction centrifugal pumps (16 bar) Principal dimensions and
nominaldutypoint.Dimensionsforsealcavitiesandbaseplateinstallations.
12) Conclusion
Duetothewiderangeofapplicationsandmillionsofsoldpumps,nowadayscentrifugalpumpsaretechnically
mature machines. Reasons for high efficiencies are a lot of experience as well as modern finite element
optimisation. These flow optimisation procedures are standard engineering methods and lead to well
constructedcasingsandimpellers.Thisleadstomanydifferentspecialdesigns,constructedforaspecificrange
of applications. Equipped with well selected anti wear systems and materials in combination with reasonable
maintenance,alonglifespancanbemet.

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36
13) References
Internetsources:
ITTGouldsPumps http://www.gouldspumps.com
LightmyPump http://www.lightmypump.com/pump_glossary.htm
McNallyInstitute http://www.mcnallyinstitute.com
YokotaManufacturingCo.,Ltd. http://www.aquadevice.com
Theengineeringtoolbox http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com

Literature:
RadialundAxialpumpen(byA.J.Stephanoff)
FundamentalsandApplicationsofCentrifugalpumps(byAlfredBenaroya)
DieBohrsplung(byGerdUlrichLotzwick)
ReinhttePumpenCentrifugalpumps,technicaldesign(byStephanNckel)
LawrencePumpsRunTimes,sept.04,jan.05&oct.05issue(byDaleB.Andrews)
WorldPumps,sept.07issue(byJosephR.Askew)
PumpUsersHandbook(byHeinzP.Bloch,AllanR.Budris)

Figuresourcesarementionedattheendofeachpage

Contact:
ChristianAllerstorfer
Roseggerstrae10/6
8700Leoben

Supervisedby
Univ.Prof.Dipl.Ing.Dr.mont.KesslerFranz
Dep.ofdesignandconveyingtechnology
MULeoben