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## PEMODELAN STRUKTUR PERKERASAN JALAN

MENGGUNAKAN METODA ELEMEN HINGGA
PEMODELAN STRUKTUR PERKERASAN JALAN
PEMODELAN STRUKTUR PERKERASAN JALAN
MENGGUNAKAN METODA ELEMEN HINGGA
MENGGUNAKAN METODA ELEMEN HINGGA
Kuliah Rekayasa Struktur dan Bahan Perkerasan
(SI4142)
Program Studi Sarjana Teknik Sipil
SAP2000
2
Outline SAP2000
Outline SAP2000
Pengantar Elemen Hingga
Pemodelan Elemen Hingga Struktur
Perkerasan Lentur
Research Background
SAP2000
Overview
Input
Output
M-ESH Generation
3
Base/Subbase
Surface
c
o
SUR
SUB
SUR
Axle
c
4
Multi
Multi
-
-
layered Pavement
layered Pavement
Struktur perkerasan dapat diidealisasi menjadi struktur
multi lapis dengan tyre imprint beban kendaraan
berbentuk lingkaran.
Sumber : Haas & Hudson, 1978
5
Respons
Respons
Struktur
Struktur
Perkerasan
Perkerasan
Apabila struktur perkerasan diberi sebuah beban, maka
struktur akan memberikan respons dalambentuk
besaran :
Stress (o)
Strain (c)
Displacement (o)
Asumsi kondisi property material akan mempengaruhi
respon struktur akibat beban.
6
Stress
Stress
-
-
Strain
Strain
Respons
Respons
Tergantung kondisi anisotrophy dari
material
Kondisi anisotrophy :
Isotrophic
Orthotropic
Anisotrophic
7
Kondisi
Kondisi
Anisotropis
Anisotropis
anisotropik, non elastis dan non linear. Material anisotropik
mempunyai besaran (properties) yang berbeda untuk semua arah.
Kondisi yang sederhana dalammaterial anisotropik adalah cross
anisotropic. (ZAMHARI, 1999).
Material cross anisotropic mempunyai sumbu simetri rotasi, yaitu
besaran material adalah ekivalen dalamsemua arah tegak lurus
terhadap sumbu simetri. Untuk cross anisotropic material sumbu
simetri elastik diasumsikan vertikal.(Wardle, 1977)
8
Finite Element
Finite Element
Metoda Elemen Hingga adalah suatu metoda analisis struktur
dengan menggantikan suatu continuum dengan sejumlah elemen-
elemen diskrit yang terhingga dan terhubungkan satu sama lain
dengan titik-titik nodal (Kumar, 1986)
Metoda Elemen hingga berawal sebagai pengembangan dari
metode kekakuan dan telah diterapkan untuk masalah dua atau tiga
dimensi pada mekanika struktur. Dua tipe elemen yang umum
digunakan adalah elemen berbentuk segi empat dan segi tiga.
Elemen-elemen tersebut diasumsikan saling berhubungan satu
sama lain pada sejumlah titik kumpul di sudut-sudut tepi elemen.
Meskipun begitu bisa saja terdapat titik kumpul di dalamyang tidak
berhubungan dengan elemen yang lain.
Persamaan kesetimbangan yang menyatakan gaya titik kumpul
dalambentuk perpindahan titik kumpul dan kekakuan, ditulis dan
diselesaikan untuk mendapatkan perpindahan. Dari perpindahan
titik kumpul ini, tegangan dan regangan kemudian dihitung
9
Finite Element Method
Finite Element Method
Two interpretations
1. Physical Interpretation:
The continous physical model is divided
into finite pieces called elements and laws
of nature are applied on the generic
element. The results are then recombined
to represent the continuum.
2. Mathematical Interpretation:
The differetional equation reppresenting the
system is converted into a variational form,
which is approximated by the linear
combination of a finite set of trial functions.
10
Discretization
Discretization
of a Continuum
of a Continuum
2D modeling:
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
11
Discretization
Discretization
of a Continuum
of a Continuum
2D cross section is divided into element:
Several element types are possible (triangles and
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
12
Element Types
Element Types
13
Elements
Elements
Different types of 2D elements:
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
14
FEM Notation
FEM Notation
Elements are defined by the following
properties:
1. Dimensionality
2. Nodal Points
3. Geometry
4. Degrees of Freedom
5. Nodal Forces
15
Model
Model
Elemen
Elemen
Hingga
Hingga
Struktur
Struktur
Perkerasan
Perkerasan
(1/2)
(1/2)
Wolff, 1982
Kruntcheva et al., 2005
16
Model
Model
Elemen
Elemen
Hingga
Hingga
Struktur
Struktur
Perkerasan
Perkerasan
(2/2)
(2/2)
Romanoschi & Metcalf, 2001
Uddin et al., 1998
17
Finite & Infinite Element
Finite & Infinite Element
Kumar (1986) membandingkan model elemen hingga dan tak
hingga, hasilnya seperti terlihat pada tabel berikut.
18
SAP2000 Overview
SAP2000 Overview
Program komputer SAP (Structure Analysis Program) dikembangkan oleh Profesor Edward L.
Wilson di Universitas California Berkeley selama 25 tahun, yang merupakan solusi berbasis
komputer terhadap metoda analisis struktur dengan menggunakan elemen hingga (finite element).
SAP2000 merupakan keluaran terakhir dan paling mutakhir dari seri program komputer SAP.
SAP2000 merupakan versi pertama yang terintegrasi dengan Microsoft Windows.
Saat ini SAP2000 sudah sampai versi 11
SAP2000 mempunyai elemen-elemen dasar yang dapat digunakan untuk mengembangkan model
elemen hingga yaitu :
FRAME
SHELL
PLANE
ASOLID
SOLID
Functionality dari SAP2000 terdiri dari :
Static and dynamic analysis
Linear and nonlinear analysis
Dynamic seismic analysis and static pushover analysis
P-Delta analysis
Various Material Properties
Multiple coordinate systems
Many types of constraints
Alpha-numeric labels
Large capacity
Highly efficient and stable solution algorithms
19
SAP2000 Input
SAP2000 Input
Menggunakan fasilitas GUI
New Model
Using Templates
Text File Importing
SAP90 Text Inputing
SAP2000 Text Inputing (.s2k)
Elemen yang digunakan untuk struktur perkerasan adalah :
ASOLID : 2D axisimetris
SOLID : 3D
Untuk Pemodelan Finite Element Struktur Perkerasan
direkomendasikan menggunakan SAP2000 Text Inputing, karena :
Belumadanya template yang disediakan khususnya untuk elemen
ASOLID dan SOLID
Seringkali continuum dipecah menjadi elemen-elemen dengan ukuran
tertentu dan bervariasi
20
ASOLID & SOLID Elements
ASOLID & SOLID Elements
21
SAP2000 Text
SAP2000 Text
Inputing
Inputing
(ASOLID)
(ASOLID)
22
SAP2000 Text
SAP2000 Text
Inputing
Inputing
(SOLID)
(SOLID)
SYSTEM
Length=MM Force=N PAGE=SECTIONS
J OINTS
1,15,1,211,15,2251,225 X=0,65,0,0 Y=0,0,65,0
Z=0,0,0,53
2476,2490,1,2686,15,2701,225 X=0,65,0,0
Y=0,0,65,0 Z=53.5,53.5,53.5,54
2926,2940,1,3136,15 X=0,65,0 Y=0,0,65
Z=57,57,57
3151,3165,1,3361,15,4951,225 X=0,65,0,0
Y=0,0,65,0 Z=61.8,61.8,61.8,105
RESTRAINTS
ADD=1 15 1 2026 225 DOF=ALL
ADD=16 211 15 2041 225 DOF=ALL
ADD=30 225 15 2055 225 DOF=ALL
ADD=212 224 1 2237 225 DOF=ALL
MATERIAL
NAME=BOT
E=3218 U=.35
NAME=INT
E=2.39 U=.4
NAME=TOP
E=2661 U=.35
SOLID
1 J R=1,2,16,226 MAT=BOT
GEN=1 14 1 183 14 1765 196 J INC=1 15 225
1961 J R=2251,2252,2266,2476 MAT=INT
GEN=1961 1974 1 2143 14 2157 196 J INC=1
15 225
2353 J R=2701,2702,2716,2926 MAT=TOP
GEN=2353 2366 1 2535 14 4117 196 J INC=1
15 225
NAME=HOR
TYPE=SURFACE PRESSURE ELEM=SOLID
FACE=4
ADD=2549 2731 14 4117 196 P=1.3563
NAME=NORMAL
TYPE=SURFACE PRESSURE ELEM=SOLID
FACE=6
ADD=4117 4130 1 4299 14 P=0.58
COMBO
NAME=NORHOR
OUTPUT
ELEM=J OINT TYPE=DISP COMB=*
ELEM=SOLID TYPE=STRESS COMB=*
23
Stress Output
Stress Output
-
-
ASOLID Element
ASOLID Element
24
Stress Output
Stress Output
-
-
SOLID Element
SOLID Element
25
SAP2000 Output
SAP2000 Output
Respons Struktur, dalambentuk Stress
dan Displacement untuk setiap joint.
GUI Display :
Deformed & Undeformed Shape
Element Stress Contours
Structure Animation
26
Typical Output Files
Typical Output Files
27
M
M
-
-
ESH Generation
ESH Generation
Sebuah add-on program yang digunakan untuk men-generate file .s2k untuk
pemodelan finite element struktur perkerasan.
Program ini terintegrasi dengan Program SAP2000 sebagai calculation enginenya.
Output Program SAP2000 dapat ditampilkan dalambentuk format yang user friendly
serta dapat dieksport ke MS Excel untuk pengolahan lebih lanjut.
Dengan program ini nilai strain untuk kondisi isotropik dapat diketahui secara
langsung.
28
Three Layer Pavement Model
Three Layer Pavement Model
29
30
Introduction to the Finite Element Method (FEM)

## Steps in Using the FEM (an Example from Solid

Steps in Using the FEM (an Example from Solid
Steps in Using the FEM (an Example from Solid
Mechanics)
Mechanics)
Mechanics)

Examples
Examples
Examples

## Commercial FEM Software

Commercial FEM Software
Commercial FEM Software

Competing Technologies
Competing Technologies
Competing Technologies

Future Trends
Future Trends
Future Trends

Internet Resources
Internet Resources
Internet Resources

References
References
References
Content
Content
31
Many problems in engineering and applied science are
governed by differential or integral equations.
The solutions to these equations would provide an exact,
closed-form solution to the particular problem being studied.
However, complexities in the geometry, properties and in
the boundary conditions that are seen in most real-world
problems usually means that an exact solution cannot be
obtained or obtained in a reasonable amount of time.
FEM Defined
FEM Defined
32
Current product design cycle times imply that engineers
must obtain design solutions in a short amount of time.
They are content to obtain approximate solutions that can
be readily obtained in a reasonable time frame, and with
reasonable effort. The FEM is one such approximate
solution technique.
The FEM is a numerical procedure for obtaining
approximate solutions to many of the problems encountered
in engineering analysis.
FEM Defined (cont.)
FEM Defined (cont.)
33
In the FEM, a complex region defining a continuum is
discretizedinto simple geometric shapes called elements.
The properties and the governing relationships are assumed
over these elements and expressed mathematically in terms of
unknown values at specific points in the elements called nodes.
An assembly process is used to link the individual elements to
the given system. When the effects of loads and boundary
conditions are considered, a set of linear or nonlinear algebraic
equations is usually obtained.
Solution of these equations gives the approximate behavior of
the continuum or system.
Finite Element Method Defined (cont.)
Finite Element Method Defined (cont.)
34
The continuum has an infinitenumber of degrees-of-freedom
(DOF), while the discretizedmodel has a finitenumber of
DOF. This is the origin of the name, finite element method.
The number of equations is usually rather large for most real-
world applications of the FEM, and requires the computational
power of the digital computer. The FEM has little practical
value if the digital computer were not available.
has brought the FEM within reach of engineers working in
small industries, and even students.
Finite Element Method Defined (cont.)
Finite Element Method Defined (cont.)
35
Two features of the finite element method are worth noting.
The piecewise approximation of the physical field
(continuum) on finite elements provides good precision even
with simple approximating functions. Simply increasing the
number of elements can achieve increasing precision.
The locality of the approximation leads to sparse equation
systems for a discretizedproblem. This helps to ease the
solution of problems having very large numbers of nodal
unknowns. It is not uncommon today to solve systems
containing a million primary unknowns.
Finite Element Method Defined (cont.)
Finite Element Method Defined (cont.)
36
It is difficult to document the exact origin of the FEM, because the
basic concepts have evolved over a period of 150 or more years.
The term finite element was first coined by Clough in 1960. In the
early 1960s, engineers used the method for approximate solution of
problems in stress analysis, fluid flow, heat transfer, and other
areas.
The first book on the FEM by Zienkiewicz and Chung was
published in 1967.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the FEM was applied to a wide
variety of engineering problems.
Origins of the Finite Element Method
Origins of the Finite Element Method
37
The 1970s marked advances in mathematical treatments, including
the development of new elements, and convergence studies.
Most commercial FEM software packages originated in the 1970s
(ABAQUS, ADINA, ANSYS, MARK, PAFEC) and 1980s
(FENRIS, LARSTRAN 80, SESAM 80.)
The FEM is one of the most important developments in
computational methods to occur in the 20th century. In just a few
decades, the method has evolved from one with applications in
structural engineering to a widely utilized and richly varied
computational approach for many scientific and technological areas.
Origins of the Finite Element Method (cont.)
Origins of the Finite Element Method (cont.)
38
The FEM offers many important advantages to the design engineer:
Easily applied to complex, irregular-shaped objects composed
of several different materials and having complex boundary
conditions.
Applicable to steady-state, time dependent and eigenvalue
problems.
Applicable to linear and nonlinear problems.
One method can solve a wide variety of problems, including
problems in solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, chemical reactions,
electromagnetics, biomechanics, heat transfer and acoustics, to
name a few.
How can the FEM Help the Design Engineer?
How can the FEM Help the Design Engineer?
39
General-purpose FEM software packages are available at
reasonable cost, and can be readily executed on
microcomputers, including workstations and PCs.
The FEM can be coupled to CAD programs to facilitate solid
modeling and mesh generation.
Many FEM software packages feature GUI interfaces, auto-
meshers, and sophisticated postprocessors and graphics to speed
the analysis and make pre and post-processing more user-
friendly.
How can the FEM Help the Design Engineer?
How can the FEM Help the Design Engineer?
(cont.)
(cont.)
40
the design organization:
Reduced testing and redesign costs thereby shortening the product
development time.
Identify issues in designs before tooling is committed.
Refine components before dependencies to other components
prohibit changes.
Optimize performance before prototyping.
Discover design problems before litigation.
Allow more time for designers to use engineering judgement, and
less time turning the crank.
How can the FEM Help the Design
How can the FEM Help the Design
Organization?
Organization?
41
Several approaches can be used to transform the physical
formulation of a problem to its finite element discrete analogue.
If the physical formulation of the problem is described as a
differential equation, then the most popular solution method is
the Method of Weighted Residuals.
If the physical problem can be formulated as the minimization
of a functional, then the Variational Formulation is usually
used.
Theoretical Basis: Formulating Element
Theoretical Basis: Formulating Element
Equations
Equations
42
One family of methods used to numerically solve differential equations
are called the methods of weighted residuals (MWR).
In the MWR, an approximate solution is substituted into the differential
equation. Since the approximate solution does not identically satisfy the
equation, a residual, or error term, results.
Consider a differential equation
Dy(x) + Q = 0 (1)
Suppose that y = h(x) is an approximate solution to (1). Substitution then
gives Dh(x) + Q = R, where R is a nonzero residual. The MWR then
requires that
} W
i
(x)R(x) = 0 (2)
where W
i
(x) are the weighting functions. The number of weighting
functions equals the number of unknown coefficients in the approximate
solution.
Theoretical Basis: MWR
Theoretical Basis: MWR
43
There are several choices for the weighting functions, W
i
.
In the Galerkins method, the weighting functions are the same
functions that were used in the approximating equation.
The Galerkins method yields the same results as the variational
method when applied to differential equations that are self-adjoint.
The MWR is therefore an integral solution method.
Many readers may find it unusual to see a numerical solution that
is based on an integral formulation.
Theoretical Basis:
Theoretical Basis:
Galerkin
Galerkin

s
s
Method
Method
44
The variational method involves the integral of a function that
produces a number. Each new function produces a new
number.
The function that produces the lowest number has the
additional property of satisfying a specific differential equation.
Consider the integral
t = } |D/2 y(x) - Qy]dx = 0. (1)
The numerical value of t can be calculated given a specific
equation y = f(x). Variational calculus shows that the
particular equation y = g(x) which yields the lowest numerical
value for t is the solution to the differential equation
Dy(x) + Q = 0. (2)
Theoretical Basis:
Theoretical Basis:
Variational
Variational
Method
Method
45
In solid mechanics, the so-called Rayeigh-Ritz technique
uses the Theorem of Minimum Potential Energy (with the
potential energy being the functional, t) to develop the
element equations.
The trial solution that gives the minimum value of t is the
approximate solution.
In other specialty areas, a variational principle can usually
be found.
Theoretical Basis:
Theoretical Basis:
Variational
Variational
Method (cont.)
Method (cont.)
46
The three main sources of error in a typical FEM solution are
discretization errors, formulation errors and numerical errors.
Discretization error results from transforming the physical system
(continuum) into a finite element model, and can be related to modeling
the boundary shape, the boundary conditions, etc.
Discretizationerror due to poor geometry
representation.
Discretizationerror effectively eliminated.
Sources of Error in the FEM
Sources of Error in the FEM
47
Formulation error results from the use of elements that don't precisely describe
the behavior of the physical problem.
Elements which are used to model physical problems for which they are not
suited are sometimes referred to as ill-conditioned or mathematically unsuitable
elements.
For example a particular finite element might be formulated on the assumption
that displacements vary in a linear manner over the domain. Such an element
will produce no formulation error when it is used to model a linearly varying
physical problem (linear varying displacement field in this example), but would
create a significant formulation error if it used to represent a quadratic or cubic
varying displacement field.
Sources of Error in the FEM (cont.)
Sources of Error in the FEM (cont.)
48
Numerical error occurs as a result of numerical
calculation procedures, and includes truncation
errors and round off errors.
Numerical error is therefore a problem mainly
concerning the FEM vendors and developers.
The user can also contribute to the numerical
accuracy, for example, by specifying a physical
quantity, say Youngs modulus, E, to an inadequate
number of decimal places.
Sources of Error in the FEM (cont.)
Sources of Error in the FEM (cont.)
49
The heart and power of the FEM.
Can handle complex analysis types:
Vibration
Transients
Nonlinear
Heat transfer
Fluids
forces).
Can handle complex restraints:
Indeterminate structures can be analyzed.
Advantages of the Finite Element Method
Advantages of the Finite Element Method
50
Can handle bodies comprised of nonhomogeneous materials:
Every element in the model could be assigned a different set of
material properties.
Can handle bodies comprised of nonisotropic materials:
Orthotropic
Anisotropic
Special material effects are handled:
Temperature dependent properties.
Plasticity
Creep
Swelling
Special geometric effects can be modeled:
Large displacements.
Large rotations.
Contact (gap) condition.
Advantages of the Finite Element Method
Advantages of the Finite Element Method
(cont.)
(cont.)
51
A specific numerical result is obtained for a specific problem. A
general closed-form solution, which would permit one to examine
system response to changes in various parameters, is not
produced.
The FEM is applied to an approximation of the mathematical
model of a system (the source of so-called inherited errors.)
Experience and judgment are needed in order to construct a good
finite element model.
A powerful computer and reliable FEM software are essential.
Input and output data may be large and tedious to prepare and
interpret.
Disadvantages of the Finite Element Method
Disadvantages of the Finite Element Method
52
Numerical problems:
Computers only carry a finite number of significant digits.
Round off and error accumulation.
Can help the situation by not attaching stiff (small) elements
to flexible (large) elements.
Susceptible to user-introduced modeling errors:
Poor choice of element types.
Distorted elements.
Certain effects not automatically included:
Buckling
Large deflections and rotations.
Material nonlinearities .
Other nonlinearities.
Disadvantages of the Finite Element Method
Disadvantages of the Finite Element Method
(cont.)
(cont.)
53
Finite Element Method
Finite Element Method
54
Contents
Contents
Steps in the FE Method
Introduction to FEM for Deformation
Analysis
Discretization of a Continuum
Elements
Strains
Stresses, Constitutive Relations
Hookes Law
Formulation of Stiffness Matrix
Solution of Equations
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
55
Steps in the FE Method
Steps in the FE Method
1. Establishment of stiffness relations for each element.
Material properties and equilibrium conditions for each
element are used in this establishment.
2. Enforcement of compatibility, i.e. the elements are
connected.
3. Enforcement of equilibrium conditions for the whole
structure, in the present case for the nodal points.
4. By means of 2. And 3. the system of equations is
constructed for the whole structure. This step is called
assembling.
5. In order to solve the system of equations for the whole
structure, the boundary conditions are enforced.
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
56
Introduction to FEM for Deformation
Introduction to FEM for Deformation
Analysis
Analysis
General method to solve
boundary value problems
in an approximate and
discretized way
Often (but not only) used
for deformation and
stress analysis
Division of geometry into
finite element mesh
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
57
Pre-assumed
interpolation of main
quantities (displacements)
over elements, based on
values in points (nodes)
Formation of (stiffness)
matrix, K, and (force)
vector, r
Global solution of main
quantities in nodes, d
d D K D = R
r R
k K
Introduction to FEM for Deformation
Introduction to FEM for Deformation
Analysis
Analysis
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
58
Discretization
Discretization
of a Continuum
of a Continuum
2D modeling:
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
59
Discretization
Discretization
of a Continuum
of a Continuum
2D cross section is divided into element:
Several element types are possible (triangles and
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
60
Elements
Elements
Different types of 2D elements:
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
61
Elements
Elements
Other way of writing:
u
x
= N
1
u
x1
+ N
2
u
x2
+ N
3
u
x3
+ N
4
u
x4
+ N
5
u
x5
+ N
6
u
x6
u
y
= N
1
u
y1
+ N
2
u
y2
+ N
3
u
y3
+ N
4
u
y4
+ N
5
uy
5
+ N
6
u
y6
or
u
x
= N u
x
and u
y
= N u
y
(N contains functions of x and y)
Example:
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
62
Strains
Strains
Strains are the derivatives of displacements. In finite
elements they are determined from the derivatives of the
interpolation functions:
or
(strains composed in a vector and matrix B contains
derivatives of N )
c
xx
=
cu
x
cx
= a
1
+ 2a
3
x + a
4
y =
cN
cx
u
x
c
yy
=
cu
y
cy
= b
2
+ 2b
4
x + b
5
y =
cN
cy
u
y

xy
=
cu
x
cy
+
cu
y
cx
= (b
1
+ a
2
)+ (a
4
+ 2b
3
)x + (2a
5
+ b
4
)y =
cN
cx
u
x
+
cN
cy
u
y
c = Bd
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
63
Stresses, Constitutive Relations
Stresses, Constitutive Relations
Cartesian stress tensor,
usually composed in a
vector:
Stresses, o, are related to
strains c:
o = Cc
In fact, the above
relationship is used in
incremental form:
C is material stiffness matrix
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
64
Hooke
Hooke

s
s
Law
Law
For simple linear elastic behavior C is
based on Hookes law:
C=
E
(12v)(1+v)
1v v v 0 0 0
v 1v v 0 0 0
v v 1v 0 0 0
0 0 0
1
2
v 0 0
0 0 0 0
1
2
v 0
0 0 0 0 0
1
2
v

(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
65
Hooke
Hooke

s
s
Law
Law
Basic parameters in Hookes law:
Youngs modulus E
Poissons ratio v
Auxiliary parameters, related to basic
parameters:
Shear modulus Oedometer
modulus
Bulk modulus
G =
E
2(1+v)
K =
E
3(12v)
E
oed
=
E(1v)
(12v)(1+v)
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
66
Hooke
Hooke

s
s
Law
Law
Meaning of parameters
in axial compression
in axial compression
in 1D compression
E =
co
1
co
2
v =
cc
3
cc
1
E
oed
=
co
1
cc
1
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
axial compression 1D compression
67
Hooke
Hooke

s
s
Law
Law
Meaning of parameters
in volumetric
compression
in shearing
note:
K =
cp
cc
v
G =
co
xy
c
xy
o
xy
t
xy
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
68
Hooke
Hooke

s
s
Law
Law
Summary, Hookes law:
o
xx
o
yy
o
zz
o
xy
o
yz
o
zx
|
\

|
.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
=
E
(12v)(1+v)
1v v v 0 0 0
v 1v v 0 0 0
v v 1v 0 0 0
0 0 0
1
2
v 0 0
0 0 0 0
1
2
v 0
0 0 0 0 0
1
2
v

(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
c
xx
c
yy
c
zz
c
xy
c
yz
c
zx
|
\

|
.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
69
Hooke
Hooke

s
s
Law
Law
Inverse relationship:
c
xx
c
yy
c
zz
c
xy
c
yz
c
zx
|
\

|
.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
=
1
E
1 v v 0 0 0
v 1 v 0 0 0
v v 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 2+ 2v 0 0
0 0 0 0 2+ 2v 0
0 0 0 0 0 2+ 2v

(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
o
xx
o
yy
o
zz
o
xy
o
yz
o
zx
|
\

|
.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
70
Formulation of Stiffness Matrix
Formulation of Stiffness Matrix
Formation of element stiffness matrix K
e
Integration is usually performed numerically: Gauss
integration
(summation
over sample points)
coefficients o and position of sample points can be chosen such that the
integration is exact
Formation of global stiffness matrix
Assembling of element stiffness matrices in global matrix
}
= dV
T e
CB B K
pdV = o
i
p
i
i=1
n
}
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
71
Formulation of Stiffness Matrix
Formulation of Stiffness Matrix
K is often symmetric and has a band-form:
(#are non-zeros)
# # 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
# # # 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 # # # 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 # # # 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 # # # 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 # # # 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 # # # 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 # # # 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 # # #
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 # #

(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering
72
Solution of Equation
Solution of Equation
Global system of equations:
KD = R
forces
Usually in incremental form:
Solution:
(i = step number)
1
AR
i=1
n

Solution of Equations
Solution of Equations
From solution of displacement
Strains:
Stresses:
Ac
i
= BAu
i
o
i
=o
i1
Computational Geotechnics Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Engineering

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