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FOREWORD

In Institut Teknologi Bandung, undergraduate final project is an academic activity which


represents the final phase of undergraduate study sequences in its area of study. It is a
summary of applied knowledge and technology student learned during her/his time in
ITB. The final project emphasis is not the final product, but the proses in which stundent
learned through the eperiments or eperiences. Thus, the end product might be a failure.
!owever, student should give an account of the process systematically so that others can
gain knowledge from this previous eperience.
"ndergraduate #inal $roject in %chool of Business and &anagement is designed to
encourage student to reflect what he/she has learned so far.It is a two credits academic
activity in semester ' in the third year, but %tudy $rogram will ask students to begin the
activity from early of %emester ( until %emester '. The schedule will help student to
finish study in three years. %B&)ITB will assign counselor and/or assistant of supervisor
to supervise the students in the following activities*
%tructuring final project problems+
,eveloping methodology to solve the problems+
-ollecting ,ata and .nalysis
,rawing conclusions
/riting the final project referring to the guidance and template in
0nglish.
#inal project report states student contribution to the business and management area,
therefore it must be written in a comprehensive manner that are consistent and easy to
comprehend. . well)written final report should show not only student1s intellectual
capability, but also indicated the competence of the advisor, the school and the university.
Therefore, certain style and format must be followed to make it acceptable and readily
understood, and the final report must be written in 0nglish.
This document is designed to guide students in writing her/his final report.
"ndergraduate study program, %B&)ITB, thanks very much to ,wi 2arso and Ira #achira
and all the members of academics committee, for their contributions to prepare this
guidance.
/e wish you success3
I. Introduction
-ongratulations3 4ou have successfully passed two eciting years in %B& and finally
arrive at your last year. The third year will be marked with another challenge* writing
your final report. This report represents what you have learned and also the reflection of
the knowledge you acquired on your chosen field. This reports also states your
contribution to the business and management area, therefore it must be written in a
comprehensive manner that are consistent and easy to comprehend.
. well)written final report shows not only your intellectual capability, but also indicates
the competence of your advisor, your school and your university. Therefore, certain
style and format must be followed to make it acceptable and readily understood.
There are four alternatives of final project, i,e,+
5.%tandar 6esearch/.pplication
7.-ase on ,escriptive %tudy
8.Business $lan
9.-ritical 6eview
This manual provides a format for each of the alternatives and will guide you in
writing your final report. !owever, not all topics can be covered in such a short
document. $lease feel free to contact your advisor or the program should you have any
specific question.
II. 1 Important Information *)
Student Responsibility
The first two years in %B& is primarily filled with group reports and achievements in
groups. This year, students are epected to show his or her individual
accomplishments by writing the final report that would display his/her mastery on a
specific subject in the business and management area. The process of choosing a
specific topic and writing the final report must be done individually. .vailable topics
from your concentration can be selected, however this is not mandatory. 4ou are
allowed to pick other topics from other areas in business and management.
4our advisor will guide you through the writing process, however, the ultimate
responsibility for the final report rests with you. 4ou are responsible for gaining the
information necessary to prepare your report properly, meeting the deadlines
associated with report preparation, and ensuring that the library copy of your report
conforms to all the requirements.
4our final report is also a form of professional contribution to your chosen field.
Therefore, the responsibility of taking a professional approach is upon you. This
means you must be familiar with the broader protocols of your discipline in particular
and the world of research in general. #or eample, published and unpublished work
must be acknowledged in the bibliography, written permission to use copyrighted
materials must be secured.
II.2 opyri!"tin!
0clusive rights to reproduce, distribute and make use of one1s original work for
specific period is given to the author as a copyright. Immediately after the creation of
your final report, you are automatically given its copyright for the period of your life
plus fifty years. This starts without notice or registration formalities. The
acknowledgement of your legal rights as the copyright owner of your report must be
proclaimed to your readers by inserting a copyright page in your report. This is a sign
that you are protecting your copyright.
:n the other hand, you must be aware that almost all material used in your final
report from other sources is copyrighted. This applies to all media* printed works,
pictures, musical compositions, video and sound recordings, computer disks, and so
on. 6emember also that you need permission not only for tet but for pictures,
charts, graphs, drawings, cartoons, or lyrics. There are, however, a few eceptions.
#or eample, works of the government are considered ;in the public domain< and
generally not copyrighted.
= %ource* :regan %tate "niversity, >uidelines of writing a thesis.5''?
/ritten permissions from the copyright owner must be obtained before you use it in
your final report. 4ou can send a letter informing your intention to use and describe
specifically how you are going to use the material. Bear in mind that the copyright
owner have no obligation to grant permission, some may even charge a fee for
permission. If you can not obtain this permission or if the fee is prohibitive, you must
remove the copyrighted material from your report.
!owever, limited use of copyrighted material is allowed without permission from the
owner. #or eample, quoting several sentences verbatim form another author. The
general guideline to do this is that the portion copied is insignificant in relation to the
work as a whole. @evertheless, when in doubt, request permission.
6emember that you have to credit all material used in your report, copyrighted or not,
by mentioning them in tet citation and bibliography.
II.# $an!ua!e
The entire final report must be written in 0nglish. 0ceptions may be made, if
appropriate, in appendi material, dedication, or acknowledgement pages only.
III. FOR%&' OF '(E FI)&$ RE*OR'
6egardless of format, the final report includes a particular set of parts in an
established order Asee the following tableB.
#ront #lyleaf Ablank pageB
.bstract
-opyright $age AoptionalB
Title $age
.pproval $age
.cknowledgment AoptionalB
Table of -ontents
2ist of #igures Aif two or moreB
2ist of Tables Aif two or moreB
2ist of .ppendices Aif two or moreB
,edication AoptionalB
$reface AoptionalB
&ain Body of Tet
Bibliography
.ppendi or .ppendices Aif anyB
Back #lyleaf Ablank pageB
4ou must submit your final project in one of four formats*
5. %tandard 6esearch/.pplication ASee Appendix AB
7. -ase or ,escriptive %tudy ASee Appendix B for Detailed GuidelinesB
8. Business $lan ASee Appendix C for Detailed GuidelinesB
9. -ritical 6eview ASee Appendix D for Detailed GuidelinesB
III.1 +uidelines to Write an &pplied Researc"
The applied research report address a single major theme which could be a
research topic or an application of a specific method to solve a real business or
managerial problem.
The individual chapters represent the various steps or stages of the research or
application process. The typical chapters for this standard research format usually
include*
-hapter 5 Introduction
This chapter describes the background of your chosen topic or problem. The
general approach or brief methodology in solving the problem is presented. >oals
and objectives of the report is also stated.

-hapter 7 Theoretical #oundations
Theoretical foundations from various literature regarding the subject is reviewed
here.
-hapter 8 &ethodology
,etailed methodology used to address the problem is eplained here. . clear and
thorough description of methodology will give the reader a comprehensive view
of your report. >raphs and flowcharts can be used to illustrate the research
process.
-hapter 9 ,ata .nalysis
This chapter presents the results of your research. Tables and graphs really helps
the reader to understand your findings.
-hapter C ,iscussions/-onclusions
The concluding chapters normally incorporate a discussion of your results, your
conclusions, and a project summary. The description of the research/problem
solving project should flow logically from beginning to end so that readers do not
have to refer frequently back and forth among different chapters.
III. 2 +uidelines to Write a ase Study
. case is an account of business or management activity, event or problem
containing some of the background and compleities actually encountered by an
analyst or manager. Therefore, all managerial activities, events that caused them
or the results of decision making, is described as it actually happened.
. case must be taken from real eperience faced by the manager. $roblems and
issues should be clearly stated with data that supports them. #acts should not be
changed to tell how it should have been done. .ll failures and successes must be
told. Duotation should be considered to state important issues, differences of
opinion or epressing the manager1s point of view or personal philosophy.
!owever, because of its factual nature, not all company agreed to let you openly
discuss their problem. /hen this happened, you should not name the company
and use only titles or references to positions or departments. The case will not be
published without prior consent of the individual or agency supplying the
material.
.lthough some case can be written based on available documents, interviewing
the actors who took part in the problem will get a better insight of what really
happened.
Typical questions are*
5. /ere any solutions other than the final one consideredE /hy were they
rejectedE /hat were the trade)offsE
7. /ho made the decisionsE
8. /ere there any difficulties in completing the project or was it a FbreeGeFE
"se of a tape recorder is recommended. It will help keep facts straight+ the
interviewee will be reviewing the final version anyway+ and once discussion
starts, the recorder is forgotten. . tape recorder simplifies interviewing. 0ven
with it you must be an active listener who prompts the speaker to give detail+ you
must listen critically to what is said, evaluate its usefulness, and ask for epansion
when more detail is needed+ you must listen for what is not said, as topics which
are not volunteered may be the best parts of a case.
The typical case usually consists of following subjects.
"apter 1 Introduction
This chapter presents the case in general. It describes the background of the case
and introduces problems faced by the main character. The area of interest should
be stated along with points that makes this case interesting. It should also
introduce the company and the key players of this case.
"apter 2 ,ac-!round Information
,eeper understanding of the case should start in this chapter. ,etailed
background information should be arranged so that it illustrates the connection
between the company and its influencing factors. This include the company
profile, its products or services and company history. 6elevant succeses and
failure of the company should also be eplained. Business environment should be
described including the market, the competitor and relevant government policies
that affect the industry.
"apter # Se.uence of E/ents 0 Data
$roblems must be focused to the specific choice of topic. ,etailed events that
lead to the problems are described clearly and chronogically. ,ecisions must be
stated which include how they were made, why and who took the responsibility.
.ctions must be clearly illustrated and the direct effect of them must be depicted
thoroughly. This chapter should also consist of relevant data to make an analysis.
$rimary and secondary data provided should be related to the problems stated in
the previous chapter. ,ata should be presented in tables and graphs. :riginal copy
used by the manager should be used whenever possible, including memos,
photographs, letters, etc.
"apter 1 Discussion
This chapter discusses the analysis of problems described in the previous chapter.
$roblems should be studied or solved from the theoretical point of view.
0amination of the application of business and management concepts in the real
setting can also be discussed here.
"apter 2 onclusion
This chapter presents the summary of your discussion and highlight lessons
learned from the case. %uggestions to solve the problem should be referred if it is
a problem solving case. #urther topic of discussion should be suggested along
with application of the theoretical frameworks used in discussion.
III.# +uidelines to Write a ,usiness *lan
Business Plan Format
/riting a final report in the business plan format must include three chapters*
Introduction, Business $lan, and -onclusions/6ecommendations.
"apter 1 I)'ROD3'IO) covers background and the student1s motivation in
writing a business plan. It also provides brief eplanation of the business idea,
scope of writing, data collection approaches, and outline of the report.
"apter 2 ,3SI)ESS *$&) is basically the complete document of the business
plan itself. This Business $lan document should be supported by primary data.
"apter # $OSI)+ summariGes conclusions and recommendations the student
has learned during and after writing the business plan. -onclusions could cover
lessons learned during writing or a summary of results or facts related to business
being planned. 6ecommendations are intended to provide suggestions or proposed
actions needed for the implementation of the business plan. 6ecommendations
could also propose further studies or research related to the business being planned.
The following table shows more detailed information on chapters of the business
plan format.

(&*'ER 14 I)'ROD3'IO)
5.5. Background
This part states the student1s reason and motivation in planning H
writing a business plan.
5.7. Business ,escription
This section is giving a brief eplanation on the business being
planned.
5.8. %cope
%cope of writing and the topic limitation is stated in this section.
5.9. ,ata -ollecting &ethodAsB
This section briefly describe method of data collection applied in
the business plan.
5.C. :utline
The final section of this chapter gives the general organiGation of
this document.
(&*'ER 24 ,3SI)ESS *$&)
7.5. 0ecutive %ummary
This section is supposed to stimulate the interest of the reader Ai.e
potential investorB hence should highlight the key points of the
business plan. Business concept and any supporting data must be
briefly eplained. :pportunity must be clearly presented and plans
on how to pursue this is described clearly. &arketing strategy and
its financial result must also be stated.
7.7. -ompany and Business ,escription
-omplete overview of the company must be detailed in this part. It
should start with the mission statement which describes the nature
of the business and becomes the guideline for future decision
making in the company. -ompany profile must be elaborated which
includes product or service, location and the siGe of the business.
7.8. $roduct/%ervice $lan
$roduct/%ervice $lan describes detailed how product will be
manufactured or how service will be provided. -omplete
manufacturing process must be provided for manufacturing
operation. 0ach subcontracted process must be named with its
reasons of selection, costs and location.
7.9. &arket .nalysis
This section describe market conditions which includes industry
demand and competition. The description should be supported by
thorough market research that illustrate the demand for the product
or service. This section should also identifies who the competitors
are along with their strengths and weaknesses. 2ast but not least,
this section must pinpoints the specific target market for the
product/service.
7.C. &arketing $lan and %trategy
The marketing plan and strategy describes how products and
services will be distributed, priced and promoted. The plan is based
on data from marketing research.
7.I.:perations $lan
,etailed operational plan must be submitted for nonmanufacturing
business.
7.(. &anagement Team
This section describes the organiGational plan of the business. It
eplains the lines of authority and responsibiity of the company
members. :rganiGatinal chart should be provided.
7.?. #inancial $lan
This section presents the projection of key financial data that
determine economic feasibility and necessary financial investment
commitment. It should consists of the summary of forecasted sales
and the appropriate epenses. It also gives cash flow figures and the
projected balance sheet.
(&*'ER #4 $OSI)+
8.5. -onclusions
This section could shows lessons learned during writing the
business plan. If the plan was based on actual business, this
section could summariGes the results or facts related to business
being planned.
8.7. 6ecommendations
This sections includes suggestions and proposed actions to carry
out the business plan. It could also propose further studies or
research related to it.
%ource*
!isrich, 6.,., H $eters, &.$., 7JJ7, ntrepreneurship, Cth 0dition, &c>raw)!ill,
%ingapore
III.1 Writin! a ritical Re/ie5
. critical review critically evaluates a tet, this can be an article, a book, a
chapter or a journal article. This does not mean critisiGing in a negative manner
but question the information and opinions in a tet and present your evaluation or
jugdgement of the tet. . good critical review presents a fair and reasonable
evaluation of the chosen tet. This required not only reading the tet thoroughly,
but also read other related tets and attemp to understand them from different
point of view.
To be critical means you must ask questions about the idea and information
presented in the tet. 4ou must link them with relevant theoretical frameworks in
the field and develop a position and arguments to support it. -omments should be
made after you evaluate the tet methodically. Kudgements should be made after
the validity or relevance of the tet assessed.
The evaluation process requires you to analyse the purpose and the structure of
the tet, assessing and making judgements about its appropiateness according to
various academic criteria. "nderstanding the tet1s purpose, the intended
audience and why it is structured the way it is should help you get a
comprehensive evaluation of the tet.
To approach a topic analytically is to eamine carefully the content, issues and
structure, by separating them into component parts and eplaining how they
interrelate, connect and possibly influence each other.
The following is a list of criteria that can be referred to when reviewing academic
tets and included in your critical commentary.
/riting and structure of the article or book. Ae.g the style and epressionB
.rgumentation and use of evidence
&ethodology
6elevance
%ignificance and contribution to its field
There will also be other criteria for evaluating tets which are specific to
individual disciplines and will vary from one discipline to another.
The -ritical 6eview has a specific structure*
-hapter 5 Introduction
This chapter must include*
The title of the article or book.
The author
.n overview of the article or book stating its aim and identifying the aim
argument
4our response to the article Apositive, negative, miedB
-hapter 7 6eview .pproach
This chapter eplained the methodology of your review Acomparison,
cognitive analysis or discourse analysisB
-hapter 8 -riticism
&ain sections and subsections. -omment critically on the tet including*
discussion of the points raised,
questioning the arguments,
epressing agreement / disagreement,
considering agreement / disagreement.
positive and / or negative judgements on the author1s ideas, methods,
argument, epression, organiGation etc.
-hapter 9 -onclusions
This chapter summarises your review, emphasiGe points that you consider to
be important and states your conclusion of the article or book.
I6. 'emplate Instruction On Writin! & Final *ro7ect Report
&. Final Report *"ysical Re.uirements
&.1 *aper Si8e and Wei!"t
The final report ought to be printed on siGe .9 A75J mm width and 7'( lengthB !L% paper
which weighed ?J g/m
7
A!L% ?J >%&B.
&.2 *rintin! and ,indin!
The final report ought to be printed and bind according to these requirements*
5. The final report must be narrated with serif font 57pt such as Times @ew 6oman or
$alatino. #ont 5J or ' ought to be used for quotations, tables and picture notes.
7. The final report must be printed on both sides of the paper using black ink.
8. The binding area must not be less than 8C mm. The left margin of the right)hand side of
the page when opened Arecto pageB must not be less than 7C mm. The right margin of the
left)hand side of the page when opened Averso pageB must not be less than 7C mm. :ther
margins must not be less than 7J mm.
9. @arration paragraphs must be typed with 5.C line spacing. Duotations, content of
diagrams, tables, pictures and references must be typed with 5 line spacing.
C. The first line of the net paragraph must be typed within 8 line spacing from the last line
of the previous paragraph.
I. The first letter of the new paragraph must begin from the border of the left)hand side of
the script. @ew paragraph should not begin at the bottom of the page unless there is
enough space for the net 7 lines. The last line of the paragraph must not be on the net
page. It has to be included on the bottom of the page.
(. The first letter after comma, semicolon, colon and a period must be typed after a single
space.
?. :dd)numberesd pages must be on the recto page with even)numbered pages on the verso
page.
'. @ew chapters ought to begin in the odd)numbered pages. Blank page number should be
inserted on even)numbered page at the end of chapters with odd)numbered pages.
5J. %tudents must print 8 AthreeB copies of her/his original reports for final project seminars
and submit them to "ndergraduate .cademic .ffair. -orrections Aif necesssaryB must be
conducted after student is announced passed the seminar stage. :ne hardcopy of revised
report must be submitted along with one .pdf file copy.
&.# Errors
#inal project report ought to be free of errors or corrections. Thus, students must
accommodate and be concerned with comments from her/his supervisor/s and eaminers.
,. +eneral Writin! *rinciples
#inal $roject 6eport must be written according to firm writing principles, which are*
5. 0nglish 2anguage must be used in the short, precise and official manner.
7. 6eport must be written according to common rules which relevant with Business and
&anagement science.
8. &aimum @umber of pages M IJ pages, ecluding appendices.
. )umberin! *rinciples
$ages containing eecutive summary, school validation, foreword, list of contents, list of
tables, list of pictures, list of appendies, list of abbreviations and symbols must be given
separate number from the main document using 6oman notation of i, ii, iiiN. The pages of
the main report must be numbered with .rabic notation 5, 7, 8 accodingly from start to
finish. Both numbering system must be placed at the bottom left or bottom right of the page.
D. (eadin! and Sub"eadin! *rinciples
0ach part of the main document should be labeled -hapter with principles below.
D.1 "apter %ain (eadin!
These headings are designed for the main part of the report. The main headings of each
chapter must be placed at the top middle of the page with bold font capital letters siGed 59.
D.2 Secondary (eadin!
%econdary heading AsubheadingB must be numbered according to the particular chapter with
.rabic notation. #irst number represents chapter number with second number represents the
number of the sub heading. These sub heading are typed without a capital letter ecept for the
beginning of each word. %ub heading must also be typed with bold font.
D.# 'ertiary (eadin!
The rules are applied with secondary heading ecept that there must be 8 AthreeB digit
numbers which corresponds to the particular secondary heading. This heading must be typed
in itallic.
&**E)DI9
FI)&$ *RO:E' RE*OR' 'E%*$&'E
I)SER' '(E RE*OR' 'I'$E I) ,O$D &*I'&$
FI)&$ *RO:E'
,y
Insert ;our )ame
Insert ;our ID )umber
3nder!raduate *ro!ram
Sc"ool of ,usiness and %ana!ement
Institut 'e-nolo!i ,andun!
&,S'R&'
.bstract must be written as an eecutive summary in 0nglish. This part consists of CJJ)?JJ
words that summariGed the problems, findings, conclusions and recommendations of the project.
Times @ew 6oman Aor $alatinoB 55 pt must be used in single spacing with the same margins as
the main tet. This page must be titled .B%T6.-T with upper margin of 8 cm. #irst line of the
abstract must be given 7 single spaces from the title.
6&$ID&'IO) *&+E
I)SER' ;O3R 'I'$E
,y4
I)SER' ;O3R )&%E
ID )o4
3nder!raduate *ro!ram
Sc"ool of ,usiness and %ana!ement
Institut 'e-nolo!i ,andun!
6alidated ,y
<Insert ;our Super/isor )ame)
FOREWORD
#oreword is printed on the separate page after the validation page. This page should
contain student1s gratitude to her/his supervisorAsB, company and individuals which
related to completion of this project. This page must be written in 0nglish language with
official manner.
$IS' OF O)'E)'S
.B%T6.-T NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN i
#:60/:6, ..NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN... ii
2I%T :# -:@T0@T% NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN iii
2I%T :# I&.>0% NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN.... iv
2I%T :# T.B20% NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN v
2I%T :# .$$0@,IO0% NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN.. vi
-!.$T06 I I@%06T 4:"6 TIT20 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 5
5.5 Insert 4our %ubchapter Title NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN.. 7
5.5.5 Insert 4our Tertiary %ubchapter NNNNNNNNNNNNNNN... 8
0tc.
60#060@-0% NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN IJ
(&*'ER I
I)SER' (&*'ER 'I'$E
1.1 Insert Subc"apter 'itle
1.1.1 Insert 'ertiary "apter 'itle
The final report must be narrated with serif font 57 pt such as Times @ew 6oman or
$alatino. The final report ought to be printed on siGe .9 A75J mm width and 7'( lengthB
!L% paper which weighed ?J g/m
7
A!L% ?J >%&B. @arration paragraphs must be typed
with 5.C spacing.
The first line of the net paragraph must be typed within 8 spacing from the last line of
the previous paragraph. The first letter of the new paragraph must begin from the border
of the left)hand side of the script. @ew paragraph should not begin at the bottom of the
page unless there is enough space for the net 7 lines. The last line of the paragraph must
not be on the net page, it has to be included on the bottom of the page.
The first letter after comma A,B, semicolon A+B, colon A*B and a period A.B must be typed
after a single space.
1.2 itations *rinciples
/ords or phrases from interview or other documents must be written between two
apostrophes A; ;B. 2ong citations Amore than 8 linesB must be written in a separated
paragraph, placed 5J mm toward the inside of the main paragraph. %ource of the citations
must also be stated.
&ake sure that readers know the original source of the citations and its relevancy with the
report. -itations from 6ichard %teers book, for eample.
This is the narration and then insert your citation ;This is the citation! This is the citation!
This is the citation< A.uthor name, year of publication* pageB
:r
.ggressive defense mechanism was defined in the chapter 5? of "ntroduction to
#rgani$ational Behavior as follow* ;Aggressive defense mechanism include those
reactions by which we directly or indirectly attac% the source of the threat to our self&
concept< A%teers, 5''I* 77B
It is not necessary to mention the source if it is already written beforehand. #or eample*
.rthur >oldsmith defined entrepreneurial politics as a situation in which ;!!! society, or
large part of it, thin%s it gains from a policy that harms a small segment of society<
A7JJ7* 7J7B
0ample below showed how to write a long citations and how to use ellipsis. 0llipsis
AN.B indicated parts of the original information are not quoted because it is not relevant
with the report. @ote that the long citations must be placed 5J mm from the left margin
with single spacing.
Interview for new recruitments is conducted to get more information and not to evaluate
the information itself as stated by /ood and $ayne*
The main ob'ective of the interview should be to collect relevant information! (ou do not
evaluate the information during the interview! !!!By relevant information, we mean relevant to the
competencies you are trying to assess! "n practice, this means gathering specific example of
candidate has actually achieve in the past and how they did it. A5''?* 5J?B
:r
This is your narration followed by the long citation Amore than 8 linesB*
-itation -itation -itation -itation -itation -itation -itation -itation -itation -itation -itation
-itation -itation -itation -itation -itation -itation -itation -itation -itation -itation -itation
-itation -itation -itation -itation -itation -itation A$ublication year* pageB
Name of the author Publication year Page
Publication year Page
Below is the eample of how to write double citations Acitations taken from quoted
sourceB in which the author quoted %teers who got his citation from Thomas*
In chapter 5? of "ntroduction to #rgani$ational Behavior, 6ichard %teers offered a
definition of conflict* ; )Conflict is the process which begins when one party perceives
that the other has frustrated, or is about to frustrate, some concern of his* AThomas,
5'(I, p. ?'5B< A5''I* 799B
0ample of writing separated citations.
;The process nonaction strategy, ;according to %teers< is to wear down the dissatisfied
employee while at same time claiming that resolution procedures are open and available<
A5''I* 878B
1.2.1 *rinciples of Writin! a itation Source
The source of all citations from books, journals, unpublished documents or the internet
must be cited as follows* author1s last name, publication year and the page number where
the citation is located. The citation source is placed in brackets AAuthor&Date +arvard
SystemB.
1.2.1.1 itations 5it" multiple aut"ors
#ormat* Alist of authors, year, pageB
;Internal marketing is the relationship and knowledge management required for the Pnew
organisation1 ; ALarey and 2ewis, 5'''* '95B
:r
;-itation citation citation citation citation citation citation citation citation citation
citation citation< A#irst author and second author, year of publication* pageB
Source of Steers citation
The authors citation source
; .......strategic goals ...... A.nchonam, Qochan, Lan &aanen, H /estney, 5''', &)7, 5JB
:r
;NNN citation NNN.. A#irst author, second author H third author, publication year,
&odule number, pageB
:r
; .......strategic goals ...... A.nchonam et!al 5''', &)7, 9JB
:r
;NNcitationNN.. A#irst author et.al publication year, module number, pageB
.bove eamples showed that the citations was taken from a book written by .nchonam
et.al, from &odule 7 page 9J with each module has separated page number Aeach module
began with page number 5B.
1.2.1.2 itations from Inter/ie5 and 3npublis"ed Documents
-itations from interview must cite the interviewee, type of contact Asuch as private
interview or telephone interviewB and date of interview. 0ample* A$aul #ireman, private
interview, 5J/5J/7JJ7B.
-itations from unpublished documents must follow this rule* name of authorAsB, year, and
page Aif applicableB. "nknown authorAsB should be replaced with list of organisationAsB or
quoted documents. If there is no information on date, write n.d. as follows*
This eample showed unknown year of production A!amblin and .ustin, n.d.* 7CB.
This eample showed unknown author A!ealth %ervices $artnership Business $lan, 5'''*
7B.
1.2.1.# itations from t"e Internet
#ormat* Author*s name, year of publication, and page Aif applicableB.
If unavailable, author1s name must be replaced with name of periodicals or website. If
these are also unavailable, n.d. must be written instead.
.ctual year must be used for time)bound information Asuch as company1s yearly financial
dataB. -omplete web "62 must be written in the bibliography, therefore it is not
necessary to write them in the tet. %ome eamples*
-itation citation citation A#ujiwara, 7JJ5* 5'B
-itation citation citation AKenisch, n.d.B for unavailable year of publication and page.
-itation citation citation Abusinessweek.com, 7JJ9B for unknown author and year of
downloading information.
1.#. 'ables and Ima!es
#igure 5.5 Insert 4our -aption !ere Acite the source of this image according to citation
principlesB
Table 5.5 Insert 4our -aption !ere
&argins 2eft -olumn 6ight -olumn
Top J.C5F A5.8 cmB J.C5F A5.8 cm B
2eft
J.9(F A5.7 cmB 9.97F A55.79 cmB
6ight
9.J(F A5J.8C
cmB
?.J7F A7J.8' cmB
Bottom '.'IF A7C.8 cmB '.'IF A7C.8 cmB=
Table 5.7 Insert 4our -aption !ere
&argins 2eft -olumn 6ight -olumn
Top J.C5F A5.8 cmB J.C5F A5.8 cm B
2eft
J.9(F A5.7 cmB 9.97F A55.79 cmB
6ight
9.J(F A5J.8C
cmB
?.J7F A7J.8' cmB
Table 5.7 Insert 4our -aption !ere A-ont.B
&argins 2eft -olumn 6ight -olumn
Top J.C5F A5.8 cmB J.C5F A5.8 cm B
2eft
J.9(F A5.7 cmB 9.97F A55.79 cmB
6ight
9.J(F A5J.8C
cmB
?.J7F A7J.8' cmB
Tables, images, diagrams, photographs or maps must follow these principles*
5. The same type of ?J gr !L% paper must be used whenever necessary ecept for
photographs or images that required other type of paper. &ake sure that use of
different paper would not disrupt the harmony of the report.
7. -aptions for images, photographs and maps must be placed below the individual
images, photographs and maps with capital letters only on the beginning of each
word.
8. -aptions for tables must be placed above the individual table with capital letters only
on the beginning of each word.
9. Tables must not be separated into two pages, ecept for the long ones. 2ong tables
that required separation must be placed on the net page with the same previous full
table captions as its heading with added word ;cont.<
C. Tables and images lay out must be accustomed to the design of the report. 6ules for
page numbering in landscape lay out must be in accordance with page set)up menu of
/ord processor.
REFERE)ES
#irst editor last name, first editor initials, 7nd editor last name, 7nd editor initials H 8rd
editor last name, 8rd editor initials A0dsB, publication year, Title in italic, place of
publication, publisher name.
Qahn, 6.2. H Bounding, 0. A0ds.B, 5'I9, -ower and Conflict in #rgani$ation, >lencoe,
I2* #ree $ress.
QatG, ,. H Qahn, 6.2., 5'(C, The Social -sychology of #rgani$ations A7nd ed.B, @ew
4ork* /iley.
/ibisono, ,., 7JJ8, .iset Bisnis, -anduan bagi -ra%tisi dan A%ademisi, Kakarta, I@.*
>ramedia $ustaka "tama.
#irst author last name, first author initials, 7nd author last name, 7nd author initials H 8rd
author last name, 8rd author initials, publication year, article title, 'ournal title in
italic, journal volume* page.
#ry, 2./. H %locum, K. /. Kr. 5'?9, Technology, %tructure and /orkgroup 0ffectiveness*
. Test of -ontingency &odel. Academy of /anagement 0ournal, 75* 775)79I.
>oggin, /.-., 5'(9, !ow &ultidimensional %tructure /orks at ,ow -orning, +arvard
Business .eview, CC A5B* C9)IC.
#rgani$ation name in italic, publication year, article title, publication year, publication
volume* page
Biro -usat Statisti%, 7JJ9, 2aju Inflasi Bisa ,isebabkan oleh Qenaikan $opulasi,
%eptember, 79*59.
.uthor last name, initials, publication year, In 0ditor and editor last nameAsB A0dsB, boo%
title in italic* page, city of publication or country Aif necessaryB* publisher name.
Berg, @... 5'(8, -orporate 6ole in ,iversified -ompanies. In B. Taylor H I. &ac&illan
A0dsB, Business -olicy, Teaching and .esearch* 7'?)89(, @ew 4ork* /iley.
6oberts, #.%., 5'(I, %trategy for the 0nergy -risis* The -ase of -omputer Transportation
$olicy, In 6. .elrod A0d.B Structure of Decision* 597)59(, $rinceton, @K*
$rinceton "niversity $ress.
.uthor last name, author initials, boo% title in italic AtranslatedB, translator name,
publication place, publisher name, publication date.
.pple, Kames, Tataleta% -abri% dan -emindahan Bahan, AtranslatedB, @urhajati &a1mun,
Bandung* $enerbit ITB, 5''J.
$rivate interview by Ainsert interviewer nameB, place and date of interview.
#ireman, $aul, $rivate interview by Koan -. Tonn, Boston, &.* :ctober 77nd 7JJ7.
.uthor last name, author initials Aif availableB, date Aif availableB, document full title+
insert ;unpublished document<
Tonn, Koan -., 5''', && I8J8 %yllabus, unpublished document.
#ive 4ears $lan of -ompany O4R, unpublished document.
.uthor last name, author initials, publication year, article title, publication name in italic,
publication date, retrieved on Ainsert date of retrievalB, complete "62 address
Qharif, :., 7JJ8, -ellular -arriers "nder %iege, Business 1ee% #nline, &arch 5?.
6etrieved on &arch 7J, 7JJ8 from
http*//businessweek.com/technology/content/mar7JJ8/tc7JJ8J85?SJ78Itc5JI.ht
m.
Runitch, L.&., 7JJ8, Businesses in Transition, 0ournal of Accountancy, &arch, 5''C A8B,
retrieved on &arch 5(, 7JJ8 from
http*//www.aicpa.org/pubs/jofa/mar7JJ8/Gunitch.htm.
Kournal or e)Gine name in italic, publication year, article title, publication date, retrieved
on Ainsert date of retrievalB, complete "62 address
The conomist, 7JJ8, In %earch of those 0lusive 6eturns, &arch 7J, retrieved on &arch
75 7JJ8 from http*//economist.com/finance/display%tory.cfmEstorySidM5I9'I98.
.ustin, ..!., n.d. The 0lectronics Industry, 5'9()5''(, retrieved from
http*//www.geocities.com/econhist/html
,epartemen Tenaga Qerja 6epublik Indonesia, n.d. !ukum Qetenagakerjaan di
Indonesia, retrieved on &ay 78, 7JJ8 from
http*//www.@aker.go/""7JJ8/whd/fair.pdf.
4ahoo.com, 7JJ8, LeriGon -ommunication profile, retrieved on %eptember 75,7JJ8 from
http*//finance.yahoo.com/inde.asp.
&**E)DI9
&**E)DI9 &
I)SER' &**E)DI9 'I'$E
.ppendi is used to keep detailed information which related to the main part of the report
and used to help readers who need to get better understanding of it. .ppendi might
include* tet from a document, regulations, very long list, questionnaire or even maps,
graphs and tables. It can also contain etra notes, eample of formulation, raw data and
other information that could disrupt the main tet narration if included. 0ach appendi
must be given a title numbered with 5, 7, 8 ... or with capital letters of ., B, -...
.ppendi must begin with a single page that contained the word .$$0@,IO in the
middle of the unnumbered page.