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Methodology

The drug quinine is used to treat malaria. Quinine must be taken with the correct dosage or it
might have no effect or a hazardous effect.For example , if the amount of quinine is lesser than
the required dosage, it will be useless. On the other hand, is the dosage exceeds the required
dosage then it becomes fatal.
With regards to the given problem, we use sequences and series to calculate the exact quantities
and concentration of quinine before and after every dosage. The patient is given 50mg of quinine
and routinely injected every 24 over the course of 8 days.
Using a formula used in a Geometric Progression, : a(1-r
n
) , we are able to determine the
(1-r)
quantities of quinine after every dosage. To determine the concentration of quinine in the body,
simple mathematical operations are used which are addition, multiplication and division.
The information we have so far is the patient is given 50mg of quinine every 24 hours, 75% of
the quinine is metabolized which means 25% of the quinine is unused and for quinine to be safe
and effective, the concentration of quinine in the body has to be between 0.4mg/kg and 2.0
mg/kg.
Results
1. A patient is given 50 mg dose of quinine at the same time every day. For every 24 hours only
75% of the quinine is metabolized.
a) Determine the value for Qn :
when n= 1,
Q1 = 50.0000
when n=1
Q2 = 50 + 50( 3/4)
= 87.5000
Q3 =50+87.5(3/4)
= 115.6250
Q4 = 50+ 115.63(3/4)
=136.7188
Q5 = 50 + 136.7188(3/4)
= 152.5391
Q6 = 50 + 152.5391(3/4)
=164.4403
Q7 = 50 + 164.4403(3/4)
=173.3032
Q8 = 50 + 173.3032(3/4)
=179.9774




b) Plot a Graph Q
n
versus n.

c) suggest a suitable formula to calculate the amount of quinine in the body right after every
dosage.
formula used : a(1-r
n
)
(1-r)
a = 50
r= (3/4)
n= 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8

1. Q
1
= 50[1-(3/4)
1
] = 50.0000
(1-3/4)

2. Q2 = 50[1-(3/4)
2
] = 87.5000
(1-3/4)

3. Q3= 50[1-3/4)
3
] = 115.6250
(1-3/4)

4. Q4 = 50[1-(3/4)
4
] = 136.7188
(1-3/4)

5. Q5 = 50[1-(3/4)
5
] = 152.5391
(1-3/4)

6 .Q6 = 50[1-3/4)
6
] = 164.4403
(1-3/4)

7. Q7 = 50[1-(3/4)
7
] = 173.3032
(1-3/4)

8. Q8 = 50[1-(3/4)
8
] = 179.9774
(1-3/4)

By comparing the results obtained , we can confirm that the formula used is valid.

Introduction

Mathematical modelling is connecting problems into mathematical formulations which give a
more accrurate value as well gives the correct direction and guidance into solving the particular
problem.

In this coursework, the study of amount of quinine, a drug used to treat malaria, in a patient's
body over a fixed period of time. After each dosage , the quantity of quinine in the patient's body
is calculated. Then , it was determined whether the prescription given was suitable to patients of
different weights.

Series and sequences are used thoroughly in this coursework. Series are basically the sum of a
sequence. In a finite series, a defined first and last term is present but in infinite series , it
continues indefinitely. A sequence is a list of numbers that are governed by fixed rules. In a
sequence , each number is also known as a term.

The marriage between series and sequences and daily problems can be vividly seen in this
assignment. In order to determine the exact quantity, in mg, of quinine in the body right after a
down in the course of 8 days, series and sequences are used. Series and sequences are also used
in determining whether the concentration of quinine prescribed is safe and effective for a patient
corresponding to their respective weight.

2. The concentration of quinine in the body is measured in mg of quinine per kg of body weight.
For effective treatment, the concentration must be between 0.4 mg/kg and 2.0 mg/kg.

0.4mg/kg concentration of quinine 2.0mg/kg

a) A patient is given a dosage of 50 mg for every 24 hours.

i) using the numerical values of situation 1, where n=1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,

Before,
Q
1
= 0.0000

After,
Q
1
= 50.0000

Before,
Q
2
= 50.0000(3/4)= 37.5000

After,
Q
2
= 50.0000+37.5000= 87.5000

Before,
Q
3
= 87.5000(3/4) = 65.6250

After,
Q
3
= 50.0000 + 65.6250 =115.6250

Before,
Q
4
= 115.625(3/4) = 86.7188

After,
Q
4
= 86.7188 + 50.0000 = 136.7188

Before,
Q
5
= 136.7188(3/4)= 102.5391

After,
Q
5
= 102.5391 + 50.0000= 152.5391

Before,
Q
6
= 152.5391(3/4) = 114.4043

After,
Q
6
= 114.4043 + 50.0000 = 162.4043


Before ,
Q
7
= 164.4043 (3/4) = 123.3032

After,
Q
7
= 123.3032 + 50.0000 = 173.3032

Before,
Q
8
= 173.3032(3/4)= 129.9774
After,
Q
8
= 129.9774 + 50.0000 = 179.9774


ii) determine whether the prescription is effective and safe if the body 35 kg :

n Before( mg/kg) After (mg/kg)
1 0/35= 0 50/35= 1.4
2 37.5/35 = 1.07 87.5/35= 2.5
3 65.625/35= 1.875 115.6250/35 = 3.3036
4 86.7188/35= 2.4777 136.7188/35= 3.9063
5 102.5391/35= 2.9297 152.5391/35= 4.3583
6 114.4043/35=3.2686 162.4043/35= 4.6401
7 123.3032/35= 3.5229 173.3032/35= 4.9515
8 129.9774/35 = 3.7136 179.9774/35= 5.1422


According to the results gained, the prescription is only safe at the first dosage. Beyond that, the
drug is deemed unsafe for the patient due to high levels of concentration of quinine in the body.





iii) determine whether the prescription is effective and safe for 60kg :

n Before (mg/kg) After (mg/kg)
1 0/60= 0 50/60= 0.8333
2 37.5/60 = 0.625 87.5/60= 1.4083
3 65.625/60= 1.0938 115.6250/60 = 1.921
4 86.7188/60= 1.445 136.7188/60= 2.2786
5 102.5391/60= 1.7090 152.5391/60= 2.543
6 114.4043/60=1.9076 162.4043/60= 2.7067
7 123.3032/60= 2.0551 173.3032/60= 2.8884
8 129.9774/60 = 2.1663 179.9774/60= 2.9996

According to the results, the prescription given is only safe and effective after the third dosage.
After that, the drug will hard the patient's body


b) Based on my body weight, the range of dosage for every 24 hours such that the prescription os
effective and safe are as follows :

n Before (mg/kg) After (mg/kg)
1 0/77= 0 50/77= 0.6494
2 37.5/77 = 0.4870 87.5/77= 1.1363
3 65.625/77= 0.8653 115.6250/77 = 1.5016
4 86.7188/77= 1.1262 136.7188/77= 1.7756
5 102.5391/77= 1.3317 152.5391/77= 1.9810
6 114.4043/77=1.4858 162.4043/77= 2.1091
7 123.3032/77= 1.6013 173.3032/77= 2.2507
8 129.9774/77 = 1.6880 179.9774/77= 2.3374

According to the results obtained, the drug is only safe and effective until the fifth dosage. The
range of concentration is as follows :

0.6494 mg/kg Concentration of quinine 1.9810 mg/kg

Conclusion

Based on the results obtained, the use of mathematical modeling proves we can use it to solve
problems. We should also appreciated the individuals who have spent many years devising
formulas as well as mathematical modeling for the future generation to use. With the use of
series and sequences , we are able to accurately calculate the quantity of quinine and also the
concentration of quinine where it is safe and effective for patients corresponding to their
respective weights.