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0/6/99 Equilibrium Staged Separations 1

EQUILIBRIUM STAGED
SEPARATIONS
u Single Stage Flash [Flash Drum]
u Distillation
Simple Distillation
Complex Distillation
Non-I deal Distillation
u Gas Absorption and Stripping
u Liquid-Liquid Extraction
u Multi-Effect Evaporation
0/6/99 Equilibrium Staged Separations 2
PHASE EQUILIBRIUM
uConditions for thermodynamic equilibrium between two
phases
f
i

*(1)
= f
i

*(2)
, i =1,,nc
T
(1)

= T
(2)
and
P
(1)
= P
(2)
u For an ideal system
f
i
*(V)
= y
i
P and f
i
*(L)
=x
i
P
i
S
(T)
0/6/99 Equilibrium Staged Separations 3
PHASE EQUILIBRIUM DEFINITIONS
u K-value K
i
K
i
= y
i
/x
i
For an ideal system K
i
= P
i
S
(T)/ P
u

Relative Volatility
jk
of component j with respect to
component k

jk
=K
j
/ K
k

0/6/99 Equilibrium Staged Separations 4
VAPOR
V
Yi
LIQUID
L
Xi
Heating
Q or
Cooling
FEED
F
Zi
FLASH DRUM
0/6/99 Equilibrium Staged Separations 5
FLASH DRUM PERFORMANCE
u Separation Factor SF
jk
between components j and k
SF
jk
= SR
j
/ SR
k
But SR
j
= V Y
j
/ L X
j
and SR
k
= V Y
k
/ L X
k
So SF
jk
=[V Y
j
/ L X
j
] / [V Y
k
/ L X
k
] =K
j
/ K
k
=
jk
u Conclusion
The maximum separation is limited by the relative
volatility
jk
which is set by nature.
u Fractional Recovery of component j
FR
j
= Vy
j
/ F z
j
=Vy
j
/ [Vy
j
+L x
j
] =[ S
j
/ S
j
+1]
where S
j
= VK
j
/ L
0/6/99 Equilibrium Staged Separations 6
F
Zi
L1
X1i
V1
Y1i
V2
Y2i
L2
X2i
TWO-STAGE FLASH
0/6/99 Equilibrium Staged Separations 7
TWO-STAGE FLASH PERFORMANCE
u How can chemical engineers improve on the single -
stage flash? Answer: Try two stages.
u Overall Separation Factor
SF
1jk
= SF
2jk
=
jk
So SF
OVERALLij
=
ik
2
Since
ij
>1, this is an improvement in the separation factor.
u Overall Fractional Recovery of component j
If both stages are operated at the same S
j
, then
FR
OVERALLj
= FR
1j
FR
2j
=FR
j
2
<FR
j
So the overall recovery factor is lower for two stages than for one.
0/6/99 Equilibrium Staged Separations 8
THE SOLUTION
COUNTERCURRENT
MULTI -STAGI NG
OF
FLASH UNI TS
0/6/99 Equilibrium Staged Separations 9
F
COUNTERCURRENT
MULTI-STAGE
FLASH SYSTEM
V
L
F
0/6/99 Equilibrium Staged Separations 10
D
F
B
F1
F2
D
S1
S2
B
SIMPLE
DISTILLATION
COMPLEX
DISTILLATION
0/6/99 Equilibrium Staged Separations 11
CONDITIONS FOR SIMPLE DISTILLATION
u Single Feed
u No Sidestreams
u I deal or relatively ideal VLE
No azeotropes
No tangent pinches
0/6/99 Equilibrium Staged Separations 12
XY Diagram for Alpha = 4
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
X
Y
Ideal
VLE
0/6/99 Equilibrium Staged Separations 13
A
B
A
B
B
E
E
EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION
0/6/99 Equilibrium Staged Separations 14
EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION
u Use when relative volatility is poor (
AB
< 1.1)
u Use only for a binary feed if possible
u Requires a mass separating agent (MSA) to enhance the
relative volatility (aka entrainer)
Entrainer must increase
AB
significantly
Entrainer must be less volatile than A
Entrainer should be less volatile than B
Entrainer should be non toxic, non corrosive, etc.
u A sccond distillation column is required to recover the
entrainer E