Anda di halaman 1dari 6

HEART

The heart i s compri sed of two strong muscular pumps, whi ch are connected by two compl ementary sets of
arteri es: one for the systemi c and one for pul monary ci rcul ati on. They are essenti al i n the del i very of oxygen
to the mi l l i ons of cel l s of the body and i n the removal of thei r waste products. The heart pushes
deoxygenated blood to the l ungs and oxygenated blood around the enti re body. It must conti nual l y beat to
sustai n l i fe and so i ts muscul ar wal l s (cardiac muscle and myocardium) are made of speci al i zed cardi ac
muscl e cel l s that carry thei r own i ntri nsi c contracti l e rhythm.
POSITION OF THE HEART
The heart i s posi ti oned above and upon the superi or surface of the respi ratory diaphragm, posteri or to the
sternum. It l i es i n a space covered wi th connecti ve ti ssue, behi nd the sternal body, cal l ed the middle
mediastinum, whi ch di vi des the thoraci c cavi ty i nto two pl eural cavi ti es.
It i s roughl y cone-shaped and i s ori entated wi th i ts broad base superi or, and i ts bl unt apex i nferi or. It l i es
obl i quel y, the apex poi nti ng anteri or and to the l eft, cl ose to the 5th i ntercostal space and the base poi nti ng
posteri or and to the ri ght. Between the base and the apex the heart measures approxi matel y 12 cm; i t i s
approxi matel y 9 cm across i ts wi dest di ameter and 6 cm from front to back. The heart wei ghs approxi matel y
300 g i n the mal e and 250 g i n the femal e.
The heart i s anchored to the di aphragm, to the back of the sternum and to the great vessels (aorta,
pul monary arteri es, and vei ns and the venae cavae) by the peri cardi um.
NB: The heart i n thi s 3D model i s l arger than the average, as thi s i ndi vi dual suffered from heart di sease.
The heart i s on the ri ght si de of the thorax i n a very smal l percentage of peopl e. These peopl e have a
condi ti on cal l ed dextrocardi a whi ch i s a devel opmental anomal y. When the posi ti on of the organs of the
abdomen i s al so affected, the condi ti on i s known as si tus i nversus.
PERICARDIUM

Primal Pictures Ltd. 2010
The peri cardi um i s made up of two serous membrane l ayers, each composed of an epi thel i al l i ni ng, wi th an
underl yi ng connecti ve ti ssue. The peri cardi um keeps the heart i n pl ace, l i mi ts i ts moti on, prevents i t from over
expandi ng, whi l st the peri cardi al fl ui d reduces the friction between i t and i ts surroundi ng structures.
Serosal pericardium
A cl osed sac composed of two thi n membranous l ayers:
The visceral layer l i es di rectl y on the outer surface of the heart wal l .
The parietal layer l i es di rectl y on the deep surface of the fi brous peri cardi um.
Between the vi sceral and pari etal l ayers i s the pericardial cavity, a narrow cavi ty fi l l ed wi th a
thi n serous fl ui d, cal l ed pericardial fluid.
Imagi ne a softl y bl own up bal l oon wi th some water i nsi de of i t. Now i magi ne pushi ng your fi st
i nto the si de of that bal l oon. You woul d now have three l ayers surroundi ng your fi st; the fi rst l ayer
woul d be the bal l oon i mmedi atel y touchi ng your fi st (vi sceral l ayer), the second l ayer woul d be
the water i nsi de the bal l oon (peri cardi al fl ui d), and the thi rd l ayer woul d be the other si de of the
bal l oon (pari etal l ayer).
Function: The fl ui d i n the peri cardi al cavi ty reduces fri cti on as the heart beats, al l owi ng the vi sceral and
pari etal l ayers to sl i de over each other.
Fibrous pericardium
A superfi ci al l ayer of the peri cardi um whi ch i s composed of dense i rregul ar connecti ve ti ssue. It
attaches to the pari etal l ayer of the serous peri cardi um, and encl oses the heart. The fi brous
peri cardi um i s attached bel ow to the di aphragm and above to the great vessel s of the heart,
whi ch hel ps to anchor the heart wi thi n the chest cavi ty.
Function: It l i mi ts the moti on of the heart. Due to i ts tough, fi brous nature, the fi brous peri cardi um i s abl e to
resi st stretch, whi ch prevents the heart from over expandi ng.
LAYERS OF THE HEART WALL
The heart wall i s made up of three l ayers, the endocardium, myocardium and epicardium:
Endocardium The smooth thi n membrane that l i nes the i nner surface of the heart
chambers. The endocardi um i s composed of a thi n l ayer of endothel i al
cel l s, whi ch l i es over a thi n l ayer of connecti ve ti ssue. Thi s i nnermost l ayer
al so covers the val ves of the heart, and hel ps to prevent resi stance as bl ood
passes through the vessel s and chambers of the heart.
Myocardium The heart muscle i tsel f, whi ch vari es i n thi ckness dependi ng on i ts
l ocati on, bei ng thi n i n the atri a and thi ck i n the ventri cl es. It i s composed
of cardi ac muscl e fi bers, whi ch exhi bi t stri ati ons di agonal l y across the
heart.
Epicardium The thi n outer serous membrane of the heart wal l , al so descri bed as the
i nner-most l ayer of the serous peri cardi um known as the visceral
pericardium. It i s composed mai nl y of connecti ve ti ssue mesothel i al cel l s,
whi ch gi ves a smooth texture on the outer surface of the heart.
CHAMBERS OF THE HEART
The heart i s a myocardial muscul ar pump consi sti ng of four chambers, two auri cl es, four val ves, and a
muscul ar septum.
The atria are the two upper chambers of the heart and are posi ti oned near i ts base. They possess smal l
semi -el asti c pouches cal l ed auricles, that expand when fi l l ed wi th bl ood. The auri cl es ensure that there i s
suffi ci ent bl ood vol ume to permi t maxi mal contracti on of the ventri cl es. The atri al wal l s are thi n as they onl y
have to squeeze bl ood past the atrioventricular valves i nto thei r correspondi ng l eft or ri ght ventri cl es.
Right atrium
A smal l thi n wal l ed chamber, i t recei ves deoxygenated bl ood from the enti re body vi a the
superi or and i nferi or vena cava. It al so recei ves bl ood from the myocardi um i tsel f through the
coronary si nus.
Function: It pumps deoxygenated bl ood from the atri oventri cul ar (tricuspid) val ve i nto the ri ght ventri cl e.
Left atrium
A smal l thi n wal l ed chamber that forms much of the base of the heart. It recei ves oxygenated
bl ood from the l ungs vi a the four pul monary vei ns.
Function: It pumps oxygen-ri ch bl ood from the atri oventri cul ar (bicuspid) val ve i nto the l eft ventri cl e.
The ventricles are the two l ower chambers of the heart and are posi ti oned near i ts apex. The ventri cl e wal l s
are thi cker than those of the atri a; the wal l of the l eft ventri cl e i s especi al l y thi ck, as i t must push the bl ood at
hi gh pressure around the enti re body. The l eft ventri cul ar wal l i s three ti mes thi cker than the thi ckness of the
ri ght ventri cl e. Thi s i s because i t pumps bl ood at a hi gher pressure i nto the systemi c ci rcul ati on through the
aorta. The l eft ventri cl e i s al so l onger and more coni cal i n shape than the ri ght formi ng the apex of the heart.
Right ventricle
A thi ck wal l ed chamber that forms most of the anteri or surface of the heart. It recei ves
deoxygenated bl ood through the tricuspid val ve from the ri ght atri um.
Function: It pumps deoxygenated bl ood i nto the l ungs from the pulmonary valve and trunk.
Left ventricle
The thi ckest wal l ed chamber (three ti mes as thi ck as the ri ght ventri cl e); i t i s cone-shaped and
forms most of the back and l ower surface of the heart. It recei ves oxygenated bl ood through the
bicuspid val ve i nto the l eft atri um.
Function: It pumps oxygenated bl ood to the enti re body through the aortic valve vi a the aorta.
The muscul ar septum i s di vi ded i nto two di fferent areas: The interatrial septum separates the l eft and ri ght
atri a, and the interventricular septum di vi des the l eft and ri ght ventri cl es. A smal l depressi on i s present on
the i nteratri al septum, cal l ed the fossa ovalis, whi ch i s the embryoni c remnant of the foramen ovale, an
openi ng i n the fetal heart, whi ch cl oses shortl y after bi rth.
The atri a are separated from the ventri cl es by shal l ow grooves on the external surface of the heart cal l ed
sulci. These are known as the coronary sulcus, the anterior interventricular sulcus and the posterior
interventricular sulcus.
Coronary sulcus
A groove on the external surface of the heart, whi ch marks the di vi si on between the superi or atri a,
and the i nferi or ventri cl es. It contai ns the trunks of the coronary vessel s and the coronary si nus.
Anterior interventricular sulcus
A shal l ow groove on the sternocostal , anteri or surface of the heart, whi ch marks the di vi si on
between the ri ght and l eft ventri cl es. It contai ns the branch of the l eft coronary artery.
Posterior interventricular sulcus
A shal l ow groove on the di aphragmati c, posteri or surface of the heart, whi ch marks the di vi si on
between the ri ght and l eft ventri cl es. It contai ns the posteri or i nterventri cul ar artery and the mi ddl e
cardi ac vei n.
In addi ti on to cardi ac muscl e, the heart wal l al so contai ns a l ayer of dense connecti ve ti ssue, cal l ed the
cardiac skeleton, whi ch connects the atri a and ventri cl es. Thi s fi brous skel eton serves as an i nserti on poi nt for
cardi ac muscl e fi bers, and provi des el ectri cal i nsul ati on through the atrioventricular node from the ri ght atri a
to the ri ght ventri cl e. In addi ti on, the cardi ac skel eton provi des structural stabi l i ty i n the form of ri ngs of
connecti ve ti ssue that surround the val ves of the heart.
DISSECTION IMAGES
To see a human di ssecti on of the heart cl i ck on the thumbnai l bel ow:

VALVES OF THE HEART
There are four val ves i n the heart, the pul monary val ve, aorti c val ve, ri ght atri oventri cul ar val ve, and the l eft
atri oventri cul ar val ve. They open and cl ose i n response to pressure created by the vol ume of bl ood as i t
pumped i nto each chamber as the heart contracts. These four val ves prevent the bl ood from fl owi ng back i nto
the chambers that i t has j ust been di spl aced from, and assure that the di recti on of bl ood fl ow i nto and out of
the heart remai ns constant.
The atrioventricular valves (AV) are l ocated between the atri a and the ventri cl es and prevent the bl ood i n
the ventri cl es from fl owi ng back i nto the atri a. When the atri oventri cul ar val ves cl ose, they create the fi rst heart
sound, lub.
Right atrioventricular valve (tricuspid)
The ri ght atri oventri cul ar val ve l i es i n between the ri ght atri um and ri ght ventri cl e. It i s al so
known as the tricuspid valve because i t has three cusps (leaflets), tri - meani ng three.
Attached to the i nferi or porti on of the cusps are thi n, stri ng-l i ke chordae tendineae, whi ch are
attached at the opposi te end to the ventri cul ar wal l or papillary muscles. They prevent the
val ve prolapsing i nto the ri ght atri um.
Function: It prevents the back fl ow of bl ood from the ri ght ventri cl e i nto the ri ght atri um duri ng ventri cul ar
systol e.
Left atrioventricular valve (bicuspid)
The l eft atri oventri cul ar val ve l i es i n between the l eft atri um and l eft ventri cl e. It i s al so known as
the mitral valve, or bicuspid valve, because i t has two cusps (leaflets), bi - meani ng two.
Attached to the i nferi or porti on of the cusps are thi n, stri ng-l i ke chordae tendineae, whi ch are
attached at the opposi te end to the ventri cul ar wal l or papillary muscles. They prevent the
val ve prolapsing i nto the l eft atri um.
Function: It prevents the back fl ow of bl ood from the l eft ventri cl e back i nto the l eft atri um duri ng
ventri cul ar systol e.
The semilunar valves prevent the back fl ow of bl ood from the pul monary trunk and the aorta to the ri ght
ventri cl e and l eft ventri cl e, respecti vel y. Each val ve has three crescent-shaped cusps. When the ventri cl es are
contracti ng, the cusps of the val ves are pushed fl at agai nst the wal l s of the vessel s, therefore keepi ng the
val ves open. When the ventri cl es stop contracti ng, the bl ood i mmedi atel y tri es to fl ow back i n the opposi te
di recti on (back i nto the ventri cl es). Thi s returni ng bl ood fl ows i nto the cusps of the val ves, openi ng them out,
and thereby bl ocki ng the fl ow of bl ood back i nto the ventri cl es. When the pul monary and aorti c val ves cl ose,
they create the second heart sound, dup.
Pulmonary valve
The pul monary val ve l i es i n between the ri ght ventri cl e and the pul monary trunk.
It i s a semilunar valve (SL) wi th three crescent-shaped cusps. The cusps are attached partl y to
the wal l of the right ventricle and partl y to the wal l s of the pulmonary trunk.
Function: After the ventri cl e has contracted, pressure from bl ood tryi ng to rush back i nto the ventri cl e from
the pul monary trunk fi l l s the cusps and cl oses the val ve.
Aortic valve
The aorti c val ve l i es i n between the l eft ventri cl e and the aorta.
It i s a semilunar valve (SL) wi th three crescent-shaped cusps. The cusps are attached partl y to
the wal l of the left ventricle and partl y to the wal l s of the aorta.
Function: After the ventri cl e has contracted, pressure from bl ood tryi ng to rush back i nto the ventri cl e from
the aorta fi l l s the cusps and cl oses the val ve. Just above the cusps are the openi ngs to the
coronary arteries. The back fl owi ng bl ood suppl i es the myocardium (heart muscl e).
The heart val ves are al i gned more or l ess i n a verti cal l i ne behi nd the sternum. The order from the top down
i s: the aorti c val ve, the pul monary val ve, the bi cuspi d val ve and the tri cuspi d val ve.
DISSECTION IMAGES
To see a human di ssecti on of the heart val ves cl i ck on the thumbnai l bel ow: