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Cabl e Si zi ng For Safe Power

System Based on IEC Standards


I r . H. P. Looi ( me k t r i c o n @g ma i l . c o m)
B. Eng ( Hons ) , FI EM, J ur ut er a Gas
Cable Sizing Fundamentals and
El e c t r i c a l LV St a n d a r d
Ar mada Hot el , Pet al i ng J ay a
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P a r t 2 C a b l e S i z i n g
We had an overview of the following topics in Part 1
2 SYNOPOSIS
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1. Introduction
2. Scope
3. General Design Procedure (design road map)
4. Earthing system
5. Cable types & installation method
6. Circuit configuration
Part 2 will deal with Cable Sizing with the following:
1. Overview
2. Protection Device & Implication for cable sizing
3. Simplified Method 60364-5-52
4. Heat Flow Calculation 60297 series
3 OVERVIEW TO CABLE SIZING
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4 OVERVIEW TO CABLE SIZING
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5 OVERVIEW NEHER MCGRATH AMPACITY
Cable sizing or Amps capacity calculation is basically a heat transfer problem. 1957 Neher
MacGrath equation makes the following simplification assumptions:
(a) Assumption of steady state conditions;
(b) The heat transfer media surrounding the cable system is homogeneous and the following
conditions apply:
(i) In case of cables in air, thermal transfer via convection is assumed to predominate
(direct solar radiation to be considered if relevant);
(ii) In case of cables in ground or embedded in solid media, conduction predominate;
(c) Cable diameter is assumed negligible compared to cable length, this reduces the model to
2-dimensions.

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I = Ampacity (current carrying capacity), (kA)
Tc = Conductor temperature, (C)
Ta = Ambient temperature, (C)
TD= Conductor temp rise due to dielectric loss, (C)
Rdc = Conductor dc resistance, (/foot)
Yc = Loss increment due to skin & proximity effects
Rca = Thermal resistance between conductor and
ambient (thermal feet)
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6 OVERVIEW 2 METHODS
Simplified 60364-5-52 Annex B to E look up tables



IEC 60287 series of equations,
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Circuit
Capacity
Cable
Ampacity
Voltage
Drop
I
2
<1.45In
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8 IEC 60364-4-43 CIRCUIT CAPACITY
(1) I
B
< In < Iz
(2) I
2
< 1.45 x Iz
Calculate
current
from load
Select
protective
devices,
In > I
B
Calculate cable size
based on:
Iz > In
I
B
decide current
rating of circuit
I
B
> load current
Check I
2
< 1.45 Iz
Electrical load
Iz = current capacity of cable.
Cables
Protection devices
In = nominal
current rating
of protective
devices
I
2
= current ensuring effective
operation within time
prescribed for protective
device
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9 IEC 60364-4-43 CIRCUIT CAPACITY
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10 IEC 60364-5-52 ANNEX B
Current capacities
Tables B52.2 to B52.13
Installation method
Reference methods Table B52.1
Temperature correction factor
Table B52.14 (cables in air);
B52.15 (cables in ground) and
B52.16 (cables in ducts)
Correction factor for soil
thermal resistivity
Table B52.16 for method D only
where soil resistivity is other
than 2.5 K-m/W.
Reduction factor for more than one (single or multi core) cable
per circuit.
Table B52.17 for installation method E to F
Table B52.18 for cables laid direct in ground
Table B52.19 for cables laid in duct in ground
Table B52.20 for multi core cables in free air (method E only)
Table B52.21 for single core cables in free air (method F only)
Annex E reduction factor due to harmonic currents
Current
capacity
required
11 IEC 60364-5-52 TABLE B52.16
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Typical thermal resistivity of soil are included in the handbook.
12 IEC 60364-5-52 TABLE B52.16
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13 IEC 60364-5-52 EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
1
Estimate load current 0.9x25kW/(0.85x415Vx3
36A.
25kW
1
1
Choose rating of circuit I
B
= 50A. 36A
2
1
Choose protection device I
n
= 63A (I
n
>I
B
) 60A
3
1
Size cable I
Z
> I
n
; choose 4x25mm PVC; I
Z
90A
Table B52-5
25mm
4
1
Check I
2
< 1.45I
z
130A
Fuse 63A blow in abour 200s at 130A (I
2
)
MCB 63A trip in about 240s at 130A (I
2
)
200s
5
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14 IEC 60364-5-52 EXAMPLE
Melt Time Current Data 2-125 Amperes
T
i
m
e

i
n

S
e
c
o
n
d

Current in Amperes
Example

gG Fuse 63A
Melt in 200s for 130A
current (over-load)


Fuse 63A
Melt at about 0.01s for 2kA
current (short circuit
current)
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15 IEC 60898 BREAKER CLASS
16 IEC 60898 FUSES
(a) The first letter indicates the breaking range of fuse-links:
(i) g for full range breaking capacity; general purpose fuse link interrupts
all faults and is usually used for all overload and short circuit application.
(ii) a for partial range breaking capacity, usually associated with another
protective device in cascade for discrimination between different
segments of a circuit. It is usually used for short circuit protection only.
(b) The second letter indicates the utilisation category, which defines the
accuracy of the time-current characteristics,
(i) G indicates general application;
(ii) M indicates protection of motor;
(iii) R indicates semiconductor protection;
(iv) S indicates semiconductor protection;
(v) Tr indicates for transformer protection;
(vi) D indicates time-delay (UL 248); and
(vii) N indicates non-time-delay (UL 248).
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17 IEC 60898 FUSES
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18 IEC 60364-5-52 VOLTAGE DROP
19 NEUTRAL CABLE
Neutral (TN and TT systems) shall have the same cross sectional area and
not less than that of the line conductor in the following cases (refer IEC
60364-5-52 Clause 524.2).
(i) In all cases of single-phase, 2-wire circuits.
(ii) In polyphase and single-phase 3-wire circuit, when the size of the line
conductors is less than or equal to 16mm2 copper or 25mm2
aluminium.
Note: Some national codes require that neutral cable should be the same size
as line conductor. This requirement is mandatory in Malaysia in all cases,
except between transformer and main switch board and at the discretion
of the designer who is expected to take into account issues relating to
neutral current listed below..
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20 HARMONICS, ANNEX E, 5-52
Where significant harmonic current occurs in three-phase circuits, reduction
factor for conductor sizing in accordance with Table 9 (Annex E of IEC 60364-5-
52) shall be applied.
When harmonics exceed 33%, neutral currents may exceed the line current in
which case neutral conductors may be oversized compared to line conductors.
Third harmonic content of
phase current (%)
Reduction factor
Size selection is based on
phase current
Size selection is based on
neutral current
0 -15 1.0 -
15 - 33 0.86 -
33 - 45 - 0.86
> 45 - 1.0
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R = Ro [1 + 20 ( 20)]
R = Rso [1 + 20 (sc 20)]
X= 2 10
-7
Ln [2s/d]

1
= (Rs/SR) [ 1 /(1 + (Rs/X))]
22 IEC 60287
Type of insulation Temperature limit
a, d

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (Thermo-plastics) 70C at the conductor
Cross-lined polyethylene (XLPE) and ethylene
propylene rubber (EPR) (Thermosetting)
90C at the conductor
b

Mineral (PVC covered or bare exposed to touch) 70C at the sheath
Mineral (bare not exposed to touch and not in contact
with combustible material)
105C at the sheath
b, c

Table 12 Temperature limit of cables (Table B52.1 of 60364-5-52)
23 VOLTAGE STANDARD
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IEC 60287 Electric cables Calculation of the current rating

Part 1 Current rating equations (100 % load factor) and calculation of
losses:
Section 1: General;
Section 2: Sheath eddy current loss factors for two circuits in flat
formation;
Section 3: Current sharing between parallel single-core cables and -
calculation of circulating current losses;
Part 2 Thermal resistance:
Section 1: Calculation of thermal resistance;
Section 2: A method for calculating reduction factors for groups of cables
in free air, protected from solar radiation
Part 3 Sections on operating conditions:
Section 1: Reference operating conditions and selection of cable type;
Section 2: Economic optimization of power cable size;
Section 3: Cables crossing external heat sources
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25 EXAMPLE 1
Circuit 1 Lighting 8 nos 80W each
Circuit 2 2x13A socket outlet in radial circuit
Circuit 3 1x15A water heater
Circuit 4 1x15A, air cool split unit air conditioning
Circuit 5 4x13A socket outlet in ring circuit
Circuit 6 6x13A socket outlet in ring circuit
Example 1, domestic wiring diagram with typical circuits
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26 EXAMPLE 1
Circuit 1 Lighting 8 nos 80W each
Circuit 2 2x13A socket outlet in radial circuit
Circuit 3 1x15A water heater
Circuit 4 1x15A, air cool split unit air conditioning
Circuit 5 4x13A socket outlet in ring circuit
Circuit 6 6x13A socket outlet in ring circuit
Example 1, domestic wiring diagram with typical circuits
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27 EXAMPLE 1
N
o

Fuse rating Conductor
(mm)
Comments
1 6 Amps 1.5 mm Lighting circuit (8 nos x 80W). Clause 524,
Table 52.2 of 60364-5-52 requires minimum
cable size at 1.5mm.
2 15 Amps 2.5 mm 2x13A socket outlet in radial circuit (2x300W)
3 20 Amps 4 mm 1x15A socket outlet for water heater
(2,000W)
4 15 Amps 2.5 mm 1x15A socket outlet for (1x750W)
5 30 Amps 2.5 mm 4x13A socket outlet in ring circuit (4x300W)
6 30 Amps 4 mm 6x13A socket outlet in ring circuit (6x300W)
7 60 Amps 25 mm Main feeder cables to consumer unit (total
load = 6,690W (38A).
Table 13A; Example 1, schedule of circuits
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28 EXAMPLE 1
Load Estimate
Select Earthing
System
Determine
Installation
Method
Select & Size
Wiring / Cables
Table 13A
(previous slide)
TN-S
PVC single core
in conduit;
method A1
IEC60364-5-52,
method A1; Table
B52.2
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29 EXAMPLE 1
Cct
No
Load/ current
(3)

I
B
(A)
MCB (type B) Cable Comments
Nom.
rating I
N

Effective
trip I
2
(1)

Size mm I
z
(A)
(2)
230V single phase
1 8x80W ~ 3.3A 6A 9A 1.5 14.5 Lighting circuit
2 2x300W ~ 3.3A 15A 22.5A 2.5 19.5 Socket outlet radial
circuit
3 2000W ~ 9.7A 20A 30A 4 26 Water heater
4 750W ~ 3.8A 15A 22.5A 2.5 19.5 15A outlet with air
conditioning unit
5 4x300W ~ 6.5A 30A 45A 2.5 2x19.5 Ring circuit subject to
national conditions.
6 6x300W ~ 9.8A 30A 45A 4 2x26
7 6,690W ~ 36A 60A 90A 25 80 Main power intake
(1) Assume effective trip current to be 1.5 x I
N
.
(2) Cable installation assumes PVC insulated cables, 2 single core in conduit embedded in walls.
Current capacity referenced from IEC 60364, table B52.2, installation method A1.
(3) Load estimate are presented here without consideration of diversity as an illustration only.
The subject of load diversity can be a detail subject which may require national statistics on
average usage of electrical appliances.
Check: I
B
< I
N
< I
Z
I
2
< 1.45 x I
Z

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31 EXAMPLE 2 LARGE CABLES
C
a
s
e

Installation Config-
uration
(1)
; XLPE cable
Conductor
size
(1)
(mm)
Current capacity
of cables
Group
rating factor
(2) (3)

Corrected
current
capacity
Multi core cable (B52.12, column 3, method E) B52.20
(a) 3 x 4 core, 1 cable
diameter apart
3x300mm / 4
core
3x621A = 1,853A 1 1,853A
(b) 3 x 4 core, 1 cable
diameter apart
2x240mm / 4
core
3x538A = 1,614A 1 1,614A
Single core cables in trefoil (B52.12, column 5, method F) B52.21
(a) Trefoil, 2 circuit @ 2 cable
diameter apart on 1 ladder
7x400mm / 1
core
(5)

2x823A = 1,646A 1 1,646A
(b) Trefoil, 3 circuit touching 11x240mm / 1
core
(5)

3x607A = 1,821A 0.82
(4)
1,493A
(b) Trefoil, 3 circuit @ 2 cable
diameter apart on 1 ladder
11x240mm / 1
core
(5)

3x607A = 1,821A 1
)
1,821A
Single core cables in flat formation (B52.12, column 6 or 7,
method F or G)
B52.21
(a) Cable touching (method
F), 2 circuits, 1 ladder.
7x400mm / 1
core
(5)

2x868A = 1,736A 0.97 1,684A
(b) 1 cable diameter apart,
(method G), 2 circuits, 1
ladder.
7x300mm / 1
core
(5)

2x902A = 1,804A 0.97 1,750A
(b) 1 cable diameter apart,
(method G), 2 circuits, 1
ladder.
7x240mm / 1
core
(5)

2x781A = 1,562A 0.97 1,515A
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32 EXAMPLE 2 LARGE CABLES
Notes:
(1) Installation configuration and conductor sizes are based on table B52.12 for
XLPE insulated copper cables.
(2) Group rating factor where only 1 cable ladder is used is referenced from table
B52.17 row 5. Finer graduation in group factor can be obtained from tables
B52.20 (for multi core cables and B52.21 (for single core cables).
(3) In all cases, we assume only one cable ladder used.
(4) Group rating for case 2(b). Table B52.21 for single core cables on ladder in
trefoil only considers case of cable-circuits laid 2 D
e
apart. To consider case of
cable touching, table B52.17 is referred for reduction factor.
(5) For single core cables, we assume neutrals to be sizes. The odd cable is
therefore used as neutral e.g. 11 core means 3x1 core for each line conductor
and 2x1 core for neutral. In some national jurisdiction, size neutral may not
be allowed.
(6) Ambient temperature is assumed to be at 30C, for temperature correction
factor at 1 (from table B52.14).
Table 14A; Example 2, schedule of cable sizes and configurations
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33 EXAMPLE 2 LARGE CABLES
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34 EXAMPLE 2 LARGE CABLES
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35 EXAMPLE 2 LARGE CABLES
Cable Sizing For Safe Power System Based
o n I E C S t a n d a r d s
I r . H. P. Looi ( me k t r i c o n @g ma i l . c o m)
B. Eng ( Hons ) , FI EM, J ur ut er a Gas
Cable Sizing Fundamentals and
El e c t r i c a l LV St a n d a r d
Ar mada Hot el , Pet al i ng J ay a
23
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Augus t 2014
P a r t 2 C a b l e S i z i n g
ThankYou f or your At t ent i on !