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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS DRY LINING PARTITION WALLS



8.1. GENERAL.
These Technical Specifications contain the technical data for the works execution of
drywall partitions, wall linings and suspended ceilings made of gypsum board.


8.2. REFERENCE STANDARDS AND NORMATIVES.
EN ISO 1461 Hot-dip galvanised coatings on fabricated iron and steel articles
specifications and test methods
BS EN 10143 : 1993 Hot-dipped galvanised steel
EN ISO 140-3:1995 Acoustics Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of
building elements Part 3: Laboratory measurements of airborne
sound insulation of building elements
EN ISO 140-4:1998 Part 4: Field measurements of airborne sound insulation between
rooms
EN ISO 140-9:1985 Laboratory measurement of room-to-room airborne sound
insulation of a suspended ceiling with a plenum above it
EN ISO 9001:2000 Assurance of Quality
EN ISO 140-3 : 1995
/Amd 1:2004
Installation guidelines for lightweight twin leaf partitions
Manufacturers manuals for the drywall boards and linings (See Knauf, Rigips, Lafarge or
similar approved)


8.3. MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT USED. QUALITY CONTROL. DELIVERY,
HANDLING, STORAGE.

8.3.1. Drywall Partitions and Wall Linings
Non load-bearing interior partition walls shall be made of metallic frames and drywall
boards (also known as gypsum or plasterboard, such as KNAUF, RIGIPS, LAFARGE or
similar approved), mounted on site. The stability of the partition walls comes from the
combined action of the frames made of galvanized steel sections with their reinforcing
structural elements and of the stiffening effect of the drywall/gypsum boards. The functional
qualities of the structure depend on the thickness and material composition of the
drywall/gypsum boards and of the insulation layer which is mounted in between. In addition,
the drywall boards may bear sanitary objects or other features (wall-mounted cabinets etc.)
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mounted on them by using wooden battens or additional reinforcing steel sections and
special fittings.
Partition walls with metal frames and drywall/gypsum boards are normally used for
interior room arrangements in public buildings, including humid/sanitary rooms. They shall
not be used in technological wet rooms, in the open air or in rooms with a high degree of
humidity.
Height and thickness of the partition wall structures, as well as the number of layers
and quality of drywall/gypsum boards and insulation will be defined by the Designer in his
drawings and/or finishing schedules, taking into account the Manufacturers
recommendations and specific functional requirements, such as water resistance, fire
resistance and sound insulation.
Water resistance
Water resistant drywalls are made of gypsum board with specifically (green) impregnated
carton lining on both sides. Two cases can be distinguished:
Water resistant gypsum board on both sides of the supporting frames, to be used
between humid rooms (sanitary rooms, basements etc.) and not requiring any specific
sound insulation;
Water resistant gypsum board on one side and ordinary gypsum board on the other,
the partition wall requiring standard sound insulation and/or fireproofing, as the case
may be.

Fireproofing and sound insulation
The drywall is made entirely of non-combustible materials (impregnated carton,
gypsum, galvanized steel and mineral wool). Dry lining partition walls comply with many
specifications for fireproofing, depending on the fire-rating (F30, F60, F90 etc.) of the wall
and on the number of drywall/gypsum board layers. In order to use this kind of partitions in
rooms with high fire risk, such as attics, or as fire compartment walls (next to staircases or
lift shafts), drywall boards with additional fireproofing characteristics (such as PROMATECT
or similar approved) shall be used.
The sound insulating property of those partitions may become superior to the one of
brick walls and can be achieved through various drywall board layers and thicker insulation
(mineral wool) mounted between the drywall boards.
The sound absorption rate Rw of partition walls between ordinary classrooms shall be
at least 40db. It may need to be increased in music schools up to 54db according to the
prescriptions in the Designers plans and finishing schedules.

Dry linings on walls and below wooden roof structures
Gypsum board (Knauf Direct Bonding System or similar approved) fixed by means of
adhesive dabs directly to the wall shall be used to camouflage uneven wall surfaces in
rehabilitation works.
Gypsum boards fixed (shot-nailed or screwed) to rafters and battens is used to
camouflage roof carpentry and insulation in attics.
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Gypsum board on metal channels (like Knauf Wall Liner System or similar approved)
or on wooden studs shall be used to improve the thermal insulation of historical buildings,
which have a decorative faade treatment, not allowing the application of exterior insulation
layers. In this case the insulation is applied at the inside of the exterior wall between the
metal studs. It is recommended to use special mounting brackets for the fixing of C-
channels as support, in order to reduce the thermal bridge. The thickness of the thermal
insulation shall be such that the R-value of the entire external wall system, including
plastering, is equal or more than 2.0 m2K/W.
Alternatively may be used in such cases composite wall panels made of extruded
Polystyrene (thickness varying from 5 to 10cm) and covered at the inner side with gypsum
board (type Placomur or similar approved).
Gypsum board linings shall equally be used in case of steel or timber structures
requiring additional fire protection. The number of layers will be specified by the Designer
and must be approved by the Fire Risk Engineer.

8.3.2. Non-modular Suspended Ceilings Without Visible J oints
Suspended dry lining ceilings without visible joints shall be made out of continuous
gypsum board lining or specific fire-resistant dry lining, supported by a proprietary metal rail
system (system Knauf, Rigips or similar approved), which is suspended from a plenum
above (mostly a soffit of a concrete floor slab). The joints between the different panels shall
be luted. A sufficient number of hatches shall be provided, in order to allow access to the
ceiling void.
For specific fire-rated ceilings (F30), panels of type PROMAT or similar approved
must be used. In this case, light fittings and other features integrated into the ceiling must
be boxed-in on the upper side according to the specifications of the ceiling Manufacturer.

8.3.3. Materials
For all materials mentioned in this paragraph and before starting the works the
Contractor shall supply mock-ups for approval by the Engineer.

Drywalls and wall linings
The main materials used are:
Drywall boards with thickness of 12.5 to15 mm; the boards can be:
- Standard boards;
- Sound-shield boards;
- Green boards resistant to humidity;
- Red fireproof boards;
The supporting structure of the walls or linings is made of:
- UW and CW profiles from zinc coated sheet of 0.6 mm thickness;
- Profiles from zinc-coated sheet of 2 mm thickness for framing of cut-outs;
- Wooden battens used for the framing of cut-outs or for supporting sanitary objects,
wall-mounted furniture etc.;
- Fixing and reinforcing elements: anchors, clamps, rods, etc.
Metallic fittings:
- Screws and nuts with thread;
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- Screws with plastic plug;
- Metallic anchors;
- Mounting brackets.
Other fittings: joint lute, adhesive tape;
Mineral wool for sound insulation, standard thickness 25mm;
Mineral wool for thermal insulation with aluminium foil on one side, thickness 10 to 15cm;
Extruded Polystyrene (for interior thermal insulation of external walls)
Composite panels (such as Placomur or similar approved), as the case may be.

The drywall boards are stored in piles, in closed rooms and out of humidity or other
external factors.
They are stored according to their respective types and sizes.
The drywall boards are carefully handled in order to avoid their distortion or
breaking.

Suspended ceilings
The main materials used are:
Standard drywall boards with thickness of 12.5 to 15 mm;

The supporting structure of the ceiling is made of:
- UW and CW primary support channels from zinc coated sheet of 0.6 mm thickness;
- U-channels as perimeter channels providing support at the junction of ceiling and
wall;
- Angle sections from zinc-coated sheet forming bulkheads;
- Soffit cleats;
- Strap hangers;
- Fixing and reinforcing elements: anchors, clamps, rods, etc

Metallic fittings:
- Screws and nuts with thread;
- Channel Intersection Connectors;
- Channel Connectors;
- Universal brackets.


8.4. WORK EXECUTION, MOUNTING, INSTALLING, ASSEMBLING.
8.4.1. Dry partitions
a. Drywall partitions
Execution stages:
Mounting the self-adhesive sealing tape;
Mounting the profiles from steel-zinc sheet;
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Mounting the drywall boards;
Wall finishing;

Mounting the self-adhesive sealing tape:
Before mounting the horizontal profiles onto the floor surface, a sealing tape is
mounted to limit the noise transmission through the wall structure.
Mounting of the profiles from steel-zinc sheet:
of all the horizontal UW profiles are mounted by fixing them to the existing
structure using screws with plastic plugs and metal angles.
Then the vertical CW studs are mounted at intervals of 600mm, using screws or
special connectors.

Mounting of the drywall boards:
The drywall boards are mounted after completion of the supporting structure.
The boards are fixed with screws at 250mm intervals for drywalls with one-board
layers on either side or at 750 mm intervals for the first layer in case of a two-layer
drywalls and then at 250mm interval for the next layer.
When one side of the walls is completed the interior, electrical, sanitary, thermal
installations are executed (by other trades).
Mineral wool is fixed with metallic clamps onto the studs.
The steel structure for the fixing of doors and the frames for sanitary objects shall
be reinforced with wooden profiles.
Whwre drywall boards have cut-outs or form angles, corner profiles shall be used,
in order to provide well-jointed junctions.
The second drywall board is mounted only after the installation conduits, if any,
have been checked.
The second drywall on the opposite side is mounted starting with a half board, so
that the joints of the boards on either side are displaced against each other;

Wall finishing:
Lute is used in all the panel and cutting joints, joint tape is applied and is pressed-
on at the entire length to provide an adequate contact. After the tape is applied,
another lute layer is applied on top.
All the surfaces are prepared using lute in case of any cracks and for covering
screw heads.

b. Partitions with decorative layered boards of high pressure (HPL ) made of thermosetting
resin, obtain from phenolic resin and cellulosic fibres laminated and layered at high
temperatures and pressures.




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The boards shall meet the following characteristics:
Characteristic Test method M.U. Reference level
Density STAS 5886-68 Kg/mc 1400
Thickness SR ISO 4593:1998 mm 10
Size variation with humidity STAS 10681-85, point 3.1. % -longitudinally: 0.505;
-transversally: 0.830;
Breakage resistance to
traction
SR EN ISO 527 1:2000 N/mmp > 80
Breakage resistance to
flexure
SR ISO 178:1998 N/mmp > 100
Flexure SR ISO 178:1998 N/mmp > 1000
Resistance to ball hits STAS 10681 85, point 3.2. - No modifications
Resistance to scratches Resistance to scratches - No modifications
Combustion class class C1
Resistance in chemical
environment
No modifications

The boards shall by mounted on a wooden structure fixed in the walls of the halls
and staircases. The structure is fixed on walls with dowels and screws, acording to the
specification of the nanufactured.


8.4.2. Suspended Ceilings made on Drywall Boards
Work stages:
Mounting the drywall boards;
Mounting of all other integrated installation features (by other trades),
Surface finishing.

Mounting the metallic suspension structure:
As a first step the primary load-bearing main structure must be completed.
Then the primary channel profiles are mounted and fixed using either strap hangers
or adjustable hangers (like Knauf Universial Bracket or similar approved) suspended
from the existing main structure. The secondary profiles are mounted and fixed to
the primary channels by means of channel intersection connectors.
Perimeter U-channels provide support at the junction of ceiling and wall, or at vertical
shutters between ceilings of different suspension heights.

Installation execution (by other trades):
Electrical works: Cabling, cable trays etc.
Mechanical works: Piping and ducting for HVAC;
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Sanitary pipes: Water supply, hydrant water, sewerage etc.

Mounting the drywall boards:
Same as for the drywalls. A sufficient number of hatches must be foreseen, in order
to allow access of maintenance staff to the ceiling void,

Mounting of all other installation features (by other trades):
Electrician: Light fittings, smoke detectors, loudspeakers, panic lights etc.;
Mechanic: Air diffusers, air intakes etc.

Surface finishing :
Same as for drywalls: skim-coating of joints, painting etc.


8.5. QUALITY CONTROL. ADMISSIBLE DEVIATIONS.

8.5.1. Verification at Delivery
The quality of the drywall boards shall already be controlled at delivery, checking the
quality and conformity certificates of the batch, as well as carrying out the visual checking of
the boards which must comply with the following admissible deviations:
a) Sizes:
length/width: 2.5mm ;
thickness: 0.25mm ;
b) Aspect :
The board must be intact on the entire surface, without stains or exfoliations, whole
edges, plane and straight surface.

c) Marking:
The boards must have individual marks indicating the board type, length, width,
thickness and conventional colours of the recognition signs;

8.5.2. Verification before Commencement of Works
Before executing the walls or linings, they shall first be pegged on the floor and ceiling,
ceilings shall be set out using a laser levelling device. The quality of the drywall boards and
profiles must be visually checked again.
The following shall be verified:
if the pegging is according to the design;
if the preceding stage is finished (do the minutes concerning the taking-over of
preceding works exist?);
if the component materials, boards, profiles etc. comply with the specified
requirements (do the quality certificates, conformity declarations, technical
approvals exist?);
if the materials were adequately stored on site;
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if the technical execution procedure for the works on drywall partitions or ceilings
exists in the documentation presented by the Contractor;

8.5.3. Verification during Works Execution
The following must be checked:
if the intended technical execution procedure of the Contractor is met;
if the detailed design is met;
if at floor and ceiling the UW profiles for partition walls are mounted along the
pegging and if the CW intermediary studs are installed at max. intervals of 60cm;
If the height of the partitions is correct, particularly with respect to junctions with
suspended ceilings or other existing structures;
If the suspended ceiling profiles are perfectly level, in sufficient number and installed
at the correct height, admissible deviations are 3mm;

For partition walls:
if after fixing of the first side of gypsum board, the wall is sufficiently stable and
strutted and if thereafter any integrated installation works are necessary: in this case
all pipes and cables passing through CW studs shall pass through the openings
already reserved for this purpose inside those profiles;
special mounting boxes have been used for switches and sockets and if after
completion of the installation works, the insulation layers provided in the design were
correctly mounted and fixed with metallic clamps onto the CW profiles;
second board is laid only after completion of the integrated installation and insulation
works;
when the second board (on the opposite side) is mounted: if the Contractor has
started with a half-board, so that the joints at the opposing sides are displaced
against each other;
in two-ply walls: if the board joints situated at the same side of a partition wall are
displaced against each other, in order to reduce sound transmission and to improve
the fire resistance;

8.5.4. Verification at Completion of the Works
The following shall be checked when the works are completed:
if the executed walls are vertical, horizontal and plane,
if the suspended ceilings are level, no visible level differences at joints of suspended
ceilings are admitted;
if minutes for covered-up works and for quality taking-over have been issued;
if the executed walls/ceilings comply with the design requirements;





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