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1.

This question concerns the chemistry of the Group II metals Mg to Ba.


An aqueous solution of a Group II metal chloride, XCl2, forms a white precipitate when dilute
aqueous sodium hydroxide is added. A separate sample of the solution of XCl2 does not form a
precipitate when dilute aqueous sodium sulphate is added.
An aqueous solution of a different Group II metal chloride, YCl2, does not form a precipitate
when dilute aqueous sodium hydroxide is added. A separate sample of the solution of YCl2
forms a white precipitate when dilute aqueous sodium sulphate is added.
Suggest identities for the Group II metals X and Y. Write equations, including state symbols, for
the reactions which occur.
(Total 6 marks)

City College Manchester

2.

(a)

Define the terms


(i)

mass number of an atom,


.......................................................................................................................

(ii)

relative molecular mass.


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(3)

(b)

(i)

Complete the electron arrangement for a copper atom.

1s2 .........................................................................
(ii)

Identify the block in the Periodic Table to which copper belongs.


.......................................................................................................................

(iii)

Deduce the number of neutrons in one atom of 65Cu


.......................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

A sample of copper contains the two isotopes 63Cu and 65Cu only. It has a relative
atomic mass, Ar, less than 64. The mass spectrum of this sample shows major peaks with
m/z values of 63 and 65, respectively.
(i)

Explain why the Ar of this sample is less than 64.


.......................................................................................................................

(ii)

Explain how Cu atoms are converted into Cu+ ions in a mass spectrometer.
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................

(iii) In addition to the major peaks at m/z = 63 and 65, much smaller peaks at m/z = 31.5
and 32.5 are also present in the mass spectrum. Identify the ion responsible for the
peak at m/z = 31.5 in the mass spectrum. Explain why your chosen ion has this m/z
value and suggest one reason why this peak is very small.

Identity of the ion .............................................................................................


Explanation for m/z value ................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................

Reason why this peak is very small ..................................................................


.......................................................................................................................
(6)
(Total 12 marks)
City College Manchester

3.

(a)

There is a trend in the reactivity of the Group II metals, BeBa, with water. State this
trend and give the conditions under which magnesium reacts rapidly with water.
Write an equation to represent this reaction.

Trend Be to Ba .....................................................................................
Conditions ...................................................................................................
Equation .....................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Describe what you would observe when a few drops of aqueous sodium hydroxide are
added to aqueous beryllium chloride, followed by a large excess of aqueous sodium
hydroxide. Write equations for the two reactions which occur.

Observation when a few drops are added ....................................................


.......................................................................................................................

Equation .............................................................................................
Observation with excess ................................................................
.....................................................................................................................

Equation .....................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 7 marks)

City College Manchester

4.

(a)

Iodine and graphite crystals both contain covalent bonds and yet the physical properties of
their crystals are very different.
For iodine and graphite, state and explain the differences in their melting points and in
their electrical conductivities.
(9)

(b)

Draw the shape of the BeCl2 molecule and explain why it has this shape.
State and explain the effect that an isolated Be2+ ion would have on an isolated Cl ion
and explain how this effect would lead to the formation of a covalent bond.
Give one chemical property of Be(OH)2 which is atypical of the chemistry of Group II
hydroxides.
(6)
(Total 15 marks)

City College Manchester

5.

The diagram below shows the values of the first ionisation energies of some of the elements in
Period 3.

1600
1400
1200
First ionisation 1000
energy/kJ mol 1
800
600
400
200
0
Na
(a)

Mg

Al

Si

Cl

Ar

On the above diagram, use crosses to mark the approximate positions of the values of the
first ionisation energies for the elements Na, P and S. Complete the diagram by joining the
crosses.
(3)

(b)

Explain the general increase in the values of the first ionisation energies of the elements
NaAr.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(3)

(c)

In terms of the electron sub-levels involved, explain the position of aluminium and the
position of sulphur in the diagram.

Explanation for aluminium ........................................................................................


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................

Explanation for sulphur .............................................................................................


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.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 10 marks)

City College Manchester

6.

A gaseous sample of chromium can be analysed in a mass spectrometer. Before deflection, the
chromium atoms are ionised and then accelerated.
(a)

Describe briefly how positive ions are formed from gaseous chromium atoms in a mass
spectrometer.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

What is used in a mass spectrometer to accelerate the positive ions?


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

What is used in a mass spectrometer to deflect the positive ions?


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(d)

The mass spectrum of a sample of chromium shows four peaks. Use the data below to
calculate the relative atomic mass of chromium in the sample. Give your answer to two
decimal places.

m/z

50

52

53

54

Relative abundance / %

4.3

83.8

9.5

2.4

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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

7.

Diamond and graphite are both forms of carbon.


Diamond is able to scratch almost all other substances, whereas graphite may be used as a
lubricant. Diamond and graphite both have high melting points.
Explain each of these properties of diamond and graphite in terms of structure and bonding.
Give one other difference in the properties of diamond and graphite.
(Total 9 marks)

City College Manchester

8.

(a)

Define the term electronegativity and explain why the electronegativity values of the
Group II elements BeBa decrease down the group.
(4)

(b)

Name the strongest type of intermolecular force between hydrogen fluoride molecules and
draw a diagram to illustrate how two molecules of HF are attracted to each other.
In your diagram show all lone pairs of electrons and any partial charges. Explain the
origin of these charges.
Suggest why this strong intermolecular force is not present between HI molecules.
(7)

(c)

Crystals of sodium chloride and of diamond both have giant structures. Their melting
points are 1074 K and 3827 K, respectively. State the type of structure present in each
case and explain why the melting point of diamond is so high.
(4)
(Total 15 marks)

City College Manchester

9.

(a)

Ammonium sulphate reacts with aqueous sodium hydroxide as shown by the equation
below.
(NH4)2SO4 + 2NaOH 2NH3 + Na2SO4 + 2H2O
A sample of ammonium sulphate was heated with 100 cm3 of 0.500 mol dm3
aqueous sodium hydroxide. To ensure that all the ammonium sulphate reacted, an excess
of sodium hydroxide was used.
Heating was continued until all of the ammonia had been driven off as a gas.
The unreacted sodium hydroxide remaining in the solution required 27.3 cm3 of
0.600 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid for neutralisation.
(i)

Calculate the original number of moles of NaOH in 100 cm3 of 0.500 mol dm3
aqueous sodium hydroxide.
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................

(ii)

Calculate the number of moles of HCl in 27.3 cm3 of 0.600 mol dm3
hydrochloric acid.
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................

(iii)

Deduce the number of moles of the unreacted NaOH neutralised by the


hydrochloric acid.
.......................................................................................................................

(iv)

Use your answers from parts (a) (i) and (a) (iii) to calculate the number of moles of
NaOH which reacted with the ammonium sulphate.
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................

(v)

Use your answer in part (a) (iv) to calculate the number of moles and the mass of
ammonium sulphate in the sample.
(If you have been unable to obtain an answer to part (a) (iv), you may assume that
the number of moles of NaOH which reacted with ammonium sulphate equals
2.78 102 mol. This is not the correct answer.)

Moles of ammonium sulphate ...........................................................................


.......................................................................................................................

Mass of ammonium sulphate .........................................................................


.......................................................................................................................
(7)

City College Manchester

(b)

A 0.143g gaseous sample of ammonia occupied a volume of 2.86 104 m3 at a


temperature T and a pressure of 100 kPa.
State the ideal gas equation, calculate the number of moles of ammonia present and
deduce the value of the temperature T.
(The gas constant R = 8.31 J K1 mol1)

Ideal gas equation ......................................................................................................


Moles of ammonia ......................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................

Value of T ...................................................................................................................
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(4)
(Total 11 marks)

City College Manchester

10.

Lithium hydride, LiH, is an ionic compound containing the hydride ion, H


The reaction between LiH and aluminium chloride, AlCl3, produces the ionic compound LiAlH4
(a)

Balance the equation below which represents the reaction between LiH and AlCl3
LiH +

AlCl3

LiAlH4 +

LiCl
(1)

(b)

Give the electronic configuration of the hydride ion, H


......................
(1)

(c)

Predict the shape of the AlH 4 ion. Explain why it has this shape.

Shape ..........................................................................................................
Explanation .................................................................................................
......................
......................
(3)

(d)

A bond in can be represented by H Al


Name this type of bond and explain how it is formed.

Type of bond ................................................................................................


Explanation ..
......................
(3)
(Total 8 marks)

City College Manchester

10

11.

(a)

Magnesium and chlorine react together to form the ionic compound magnesium
chloride, MgCl2.
(i)

Explain how each of the ions in this compound is formed.


.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................

(ii)

Explain why compounds with ionic bonding tend to have high melting points.
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
(4)

(b)

(i)

Define the term electronegativity.


.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................

(ii)

Explain why electronegativity increases across a period in the Periodic Table.


.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
(4)

(c)

Chloride ions are polarised more by aluminium ions than they are by magnesium ions.
(i)

State what is meant by the term polarised.


.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................

(ii)

Why is a chloride ion polarised more by an aluminium ion than by a magnesium


ion?
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................

(iii)

Predict the type of bonding in aluminium chloride.


.......................................................................................................................
(5)
(Total 13 marks)

City College Manchester

11

12.

The values of the first ionisation energies of neon, sodium and magnesium are 2080, 494 and
736 kJ mol1, respectively.
(a)

Explain the meaning of the term first ionisation of an atom.


......................
......................
......................
(2)

(b)

Write an equation to illustrate the process occurring when the second ionisation energy of
magnesium is measured.
......................
......................
(2)

(c)

Explain why the value of the first ionisation energy of magnesium is higher than that
of sodium.
......................
......................
......................
(2)

(d)

Explain why the value of the first ionisation energy of neon is higher than that of sodium.
......................
......................
......................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

City College Manchester

12

13.

(a)

Iodine and diamond are both crystalline solids at room temperature. Identify one
similarity in the bonding, and one difference in the structures, of these two solids.
Explain why these two solids have very different melting points.
(6)

(b)

(i)

For the elements MgBa, state how the solubilities of the hydroxides and the
solubilities of the sulphates change down Group II.

(ii)

Describe a test to show the presence of sulphate ions in an aqueous solution.


Give the results of this test when performed on separate aqueous solutions
of magnesium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Write equations for any
reactions occurring.

(iii)

State the trend in the reactivity of the Group II elements MgBa with water.
Write an equation for the reaction of barium with water.
(9)

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City College Manchester

13

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(Total 15 marks)

City College Manchester

14

14.

Phosphorus and nitrogen are in Group V of the Periodic Table and both elements form hydrides.
Phosphine, PH3, reacts to form phosphonium ions, PH +4 , in a similar way to that by which
ammonia, NH3, forms ammonium ions, NH +4
(a)

Give the name of the type of bond formed when phosphine reacts with an H+ ion. Explain
how this bond is formed.

Type of bond .............................................................................................................


Explanation .............................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Draw the shapes, including any lone pairs of electrons, of a phosphine molecule and of a
phosphonium ion.
Give the name of the shape of the phosphine molecule and state the bond angle found in
the phosphonium ion.
PH3

Shape of PH3

PH +4

Bond angle in PH 4+ ......


(4)
(Total 7 marks)

City College Manchester

15

15.

(a)

Sodium carbonate forms a number of hydrates of general formula Na2CO3.xH2O


A 3.01 g sample of one of these hydrates was dissolved in water and the solution made up
to 250 cm3.
In a titration, a 25.0 cm3 portion of this solution required 24.3 cm3 of 0.200 mol1 dm3
hydrochloric acid for complete reaction.
The equation for this reaction is shown below.
Na2CO3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2O + CO2
(i)

Calculate the number of moles of HCl in 24.3 cm3 of 0.200 mol dm3 hydrochloric
acid.
............

(ii)

Deduce the number of moles of Na2CO3 in 25.0 cm3 of the Na2CO3 solution.
............

(iii)

Hence deduce the number of moles of Na2CO3 in the original 250 cm3 of solution.
............

(iv)

Calculate the Mr of the hydrated sodium carbonate.


............
............
(5)

(b)

In an experiment, the Mr of a different hydrated sodium carbonate was found to be 250.


Use this value to calculate the number of molecules of water of crystallisation, x, in this
hydrated sodium carbonate, Na2CO3.xH2O
......................
......................
......................
......................
(3)

City College Manchester

16

(c)

A gas cylinder, of volume 5.00 103 m3, contains 325 g of argon gas.
(i)

Give the ideal gas equation.


............

(ii)

Use the ideal gas equation to calculate the pressure of the argon gas in the cylinder
at a temperature of 298 K.
(The gas constant R = 8.31 J K1 mol1)
............
............
............
............
(4)
(Total 12 marks)

City College Manchester

17

16.

(a)

Methanol has the structure


H
H

Explain why the OH bond in a methanol molecule is polar.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

The boiling point of methanol is +65 C; the boiling point of oxygen is 183 C. Methanol
and oxygen each have an Mr value of 32. Explain, in terms of the intermolecular forces
present in each case, why the boiling point of methanol is much higher than that of
oxygen.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 5 marks)

City College Manchester

18

17.

(a)

When aluminium is added to an aqueous solution of copper(II) chloride, CuCl2, copper


metal and aluminium chloride, AlCl3, are formed. Write an equation to represent this
reaction.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1 mark)

(b)

(i)

State the general trend in the first ionisation energy of the Period 3 elements from
Na to Ar.
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

State how, and explain why, the first ionisation energy of aluminium does not
follow this general trend.
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
(4)

(c)

Give the equation, including state symbols, for the process which represents the second
ionisation energy of aluminium.
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(d)

State and explain the trend in the melting points of the Period 3 metals Na, Mg and Al.

Trend ...........................................................................................................................
Explanation ...............................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

City College Manchester

19

18.

A sample of iron from a meteorite was found to contain the isotopes 54Fe, 56Fe and 57Fe.
(a)

The relative abundances of these isotopes can be determined using a mass spectrometer.
In the mass spectrometer, the sample is first vaporised and then ionised.
(i)

State what is meant by the term isotopes.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

Explain how, in a mass spectrometer, ions are detected and how their abundance is
measured.

How ions are detected .....................................................................................


............................................................................................................................

How abundance is measured ............................................................................


............................................................................................................................
(5)

(b)

(i)

Define the term relative atomic mass of an element.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

The relative abundances of the isotopes in this sample of iron were found to be as
follows.

m/z

54

56

57

Relative abundance (%)

5.8

91.6

2.6

Use the data above to calculate the relative atomic mass of iron in this sample. Give
your answer to one decimal place.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

(c)

(i)

Give the electron arrangement of an Fe2+ ion.


...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

State why iron is placed in the d block of the Periodic Table.


...........................................................................................................................

City College Manchester

20

(iii)

...........................................................................................................................
State the difference, if any, in the chemical properties of isotopes of the same
element. Explain your answer.

Difference .........................................................................................................
Explanation .......................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 13 marks)

City College Manchester

21

19.

(a)

Lead(II) nitrate may be produced by the reaction between nitric acid and lead(II) oxide as
shown by the equation below.
PbO + 2HNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + H2O
An excess of lead(II) oxide was allowed to react with 175 cm3 of 1.50 mol dm3 nitric
acid. Calculate the maximum mass of lead(II) nitrate which could be obtained from this
reaction.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(4)

(b)

An equation representing the thermal decomposition of lead(II) nitrate is shown below.


2Pb(NO3)2(s) 2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
A sample of lead(II) nitrate was heated until the decomposition was complete. At a
temperature of 500 K and a pressure of 100 kPa, the total volume of the gaseous mixture
produced was found to be 1.50 104 m3.
(i)

State the ideal gas equation and use it to calculate the total number of moles of gas
produced in this decomposition.
(The gas constant R = 8.31 J K1 mol1)

Ideal gas equation

.........................................................................................

Total number of moles of gas ............................................................................


............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
(ii)

............................................................................................................................
Deduce the number of moles, and the mass, of NO2 present in this gaseous mixture.
(If you have been unable to calculate the total number of moles of gas in part (b)(i),
you should assume this to be 2.23 103 mol. This is not the correct answer.)

Number of moles of NO2 ..................................................................................


...........................................................................................................................

Mass of NO2
......................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
(7)
(Total 11 marks)
City College Manchester

22