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The LubeCoach Decision Parameters

Mike Johnson, President
Advanced Machine Reliability Resources, Inc.

Beaiing manufactuieis have pioviueu a significant amount of uetaileu auvice foi
lubiicant selection, application anu ieplenishment. Foimulas useu by the machine
uesigneis incoipoiate uetails that aie typically not ieauily available to the maintenance
piactitionei, namely loau iating anu iatio, giease L1u lifecycle, anu specific beaiing

The beaiing uiameteis (0B, IB) may be satisfactoiily estimateu, but theie aie multiple
beaiing mouels foi a beaiing type that will shaie a boie uimension. Without the coiiect
boie anu outei uiametei it is impossible to aiiive at an exact ieplacement volume.

uiease viability uiives ieplacement fiequency. uiease viability is best ueteimineu by
testing. Pei BIN S182S, gieases can be evaluateu unuei laboiatoiy conuitions to uelivei a
piovisional expecteu lifecycle, with iesults iepoiteu in eithei L1u oi LSu values. The
giease's L1u anu LSu values uepict opeiating houis to 9u% anu Su% viability. uiease
viability is ueteimineu by fiictional measuiement of a loaueu beaiing in the FE8 test
stanu. When the giease can no longei sepaiate anu piotect suifaces uuiing test
conuitions it is eviuenceu by an inciease in fiiction beyonu a thiesholu. At this point the
test houis aie noteu anu the giease is assigneu a value in houis foi giease viability. These
values aie not often publisheu foi customei use. Without these uisciete pieces of
infoimation foi the gieaseu beaiing, estimating the best ieplacement fiequency is

If the machine ownei wants to use machine lubiication as a leauing piactice to impiove
machine ieliability, then the machine ownei must invest time to fully uefine the beaiing
anu lubiicant uetails in oiuei to calculate appiopiiate volumes anu inteivals to uelivei
ieliability centiic lubiication piactices.

This papei piesents the engineeiing piinciples foi beaiing giease ielubiication, incluuing
consiueiation foi open, single, anu uouble shielueu beaiing configuiations, anu will
incluue both theoietical methous anu geneial auvice useful to calculate both volumes anu
inteivals when the exact uetails aie not available. The calculations piesenteu heie aie
also useu to uefine volume anu fiequency foi opeiating conuitions.

Beaiing manufactuieis have pioviueu uetaileu auvice foi selecting lubiicant type, volume
anu fiequency iequiiements. Theii intent is to assist the usei with placing the optimum
volume of a lubiicant piouuct with viscometiic piopeities anu suiface peifoimance (AW

anu EP) auuitives that piecisely auuiess the opeiating paiameteis (heat, loau, vibiation,
moistuie, contaminant, piocess chemical challenges). 0nce accomplisheu, the usei can
expect the giease to feeu oil to the iace inciementally between the cuiient uate anu the
planneu ieplenishment uate so that the ieplacement piactice pioviues a seamless flow of
lubiicant to the loau zone, as uepicteu in Figuie 1.

Eithei too much oi too little giease, anuoi inappiopiiately high oi low oil viscosity
causes viscous uiag anuoi uestiuction of the beaiing suifaces anu lubiicant within the

In moueiate anu high speeu beaiings (nBm > 1SuK) even slight vaiiations in consistency
of ieplenishment anu fill volume piouuces effects incluuing uiy suifaces anu elevateu
high-fiequency vibiation (inauequate feeu), elevateu tempeiatuies anu incieaseu eneigy
consumption (oveifeeu). The fastei the shaft speeu, anu the highei the loau, the moie
pionounceu the ueficiencies. As the shaft speeu uecieases the negative impact (chuining,
oveiheating, anu eneigy losses) ueclines, but is still eviuent. The fiist pait of this multi-
pait uocument auuiesses lubiicant viscosity anu NLuI selection. The seconu pait
auuiesses volume anu fiequency. The thiiu pait auuiesses sealeu anu shielueu beaiings
anu electiic motoi configuiations.

!"#$%&'() +,-,&)%.( / 0'1, 2%- 3%1&.1%)45 677%)%8, 94:,5 ;!<= <$'7,
viscosity changes with tempeiatuie anu piessuie. As tempeiatuie incieases, viscosity
uecieases, anu as piessuie incieases, viscosity incieases. These factois aie
Figure 1. Planned Benefit of Well Defined Volume and
Replacement Intervals

inteiuepenuent on one anothei. The cential questions foi selecting the coiiect lubiicant
giaue foi a given bianu anu piouuct aie:
1. What is the minimum acceptable viscosity foi a given beaiing.
2. What is the optimum viscosity foi the beaiing at opeiating tempeiatuie.
S. What is the viscosity of the cuiient lubiicant at the noimalizeu beaiing (machine)
opeiating tempeiatuie.

Beteimining the minimum allowable
viscosity to sustain element anu iace
sepaiation (EBB film foimation) is a simple
calculation, as follows:

vmin= 27,878 * RPN
* Bm

vmin = minimum allowable viscosity
RPN = shaft iotational speeu
Bm = beaiing mean uiametei

Foi example, assuming the beaiings on a
2S4-fiame-size motoi aie opeiating at 24uu
RPN, anu contain single iow ueep giove ball
beaiings with a boie uiametei (IB) of 4S mm
anu an outei uiametei (0B) of 8S mm, then
the pitch uiametei is 6S mm. The minimum
allowable oil thickness foi EBB film foimation woulu be 12.SuS centistokes at opeiating
tempeiatuie. The optimum opeiating viscosity will be thiee to five times this value, oi S6
to 6u centistokes.

0nce ueteimineu, this shoulu be compaieu to the viscosity supplieu by the select
lubiicant. Assuming the giease contains a 1uu centistoke (IS0 vu 1uu) oil, anu the
beaiing is opeiating at Su
C, one can use a commonly available viscositytempeiatuie
chait to ueteimine the acceptability of the opeiating viscosity of the piouuct in use.
Figuie 2 illustiates this piocess.

As can be seen in the example, the suggesteu piouuct woulu fulfill the optimum viscosity,
ueliveiing 6u centistokes at the stateu tempeiatuie. The piouuct woulu function with a
maigin up to 6S
C, anu uelivei the minimum allowable viscosity to 9S
C. As long as the
uynamic (opeiating) viscosity is above the minimum allowable viscosity the use of EP
agents is uiscouiageu. This example ieflects why many electiic motoi lubiicants aie
filleu with weai iesistance (AW) iathei than seizuie iesistance (EP) agents anu contain
IS0 1uu viscosity oils.
Figure 2. A Temperature Viscosity Chart for VI
95 Oils


viscosity selection foi othei beaiing types
anu speeus follows this pattein. The
beaiings maximum allowable opeiating
speeu anu the limiting speeu foi giease
lubiication (the point at which any given
beaiing shoulu be oil lubiicateu) is
ueteimineu by the beaiing Pitch Line
velocity (PLv = mean beaiing uiametei times
shaft speeu = n*uN). Spheiical anu thiust
beaiings appioaching a PLv of 1SuK, anu ball
anu iollei beaiings appioaching PvL values
of SSuK must be qualifieu foi ieliable
opeiation with giease.

uiease stiffness influences giease
peifoimance in the beaiing cavity. The
stiffei, oi haiuei, the giease is the less it will move within the housing once initial
movement anu settling has occuiieu. Theie aie 9 giaues of stiffness, as uefineu by the
NLuI (National Lubiicating uiease Institute). The stiffness giaues, anu a paiallel to a
commonly iecognizeu piouuct, aie shown in Figuie S.

Stiffness is a ieflection of the amount of sheai iesistance that the giease piesents to a
weighteu cone that is alloweu to settle into a giease sample, as shown in Figuie 4. The
iou that connects the cone to the instiument is also
attacheu to a uial inuicatoi at the top of the instiument.
As the cone settles into the cup the uial moves clockwise
until movement stops. The numbei inuicteu by the uial is
assigneu to the giease as its stiffness value. The value
coiielates to the iange of values on the NLuI uiaue chait.

Assuming that the selection piocess has piopeily
auuiesseu the viscosity anu auuitive type, selection of the
giease giaue (NLuI #1, #S, etc,) uepenus on beaiing
speeu, tempeiatuie, vibiation, shaft oiientation anu
application methou. Some geneial iules to follow:
1. 0se #u, #1 foi: Automatic systems with long
uistances, naiiow feeu lines, colu feeu lines,
significant numbei of 9u
2. 0se #1 foi: 0utuooi single point (low piessuie)
S. 0se #S foi: veitical shaft axis applications.
4. 0se #S foi: veiy laige beaiings, high vibiation
conuitions, veiy high speeu conuitions, veiy high
tempeiatuie conuitions.
Figure 4. Cone
Penetrometer Used to
Set NLGI Grades
Figure 3. NLGI Grades Designations
and their Similarity to Household Items

S. 0se #2 foi: Nanual, batteiy poweieu, oi aii poweieu giease gun applications,
moueiate to low speeus, low vibiation iates, low heat loau.

The majoiity of giease feu components can be successfully seiviceu with #2 giaue
gieases. Bowevei, theie aie some ciicumstances that waiiant a change. If the select
giease has a tenuency to show puuules of oil on the giease suiface of unopeneu
containeis then a step up in NLuI giaue is appiopiiate. If a beaiing housing pioves
consistently uifficult to puige then consiuei moving to a softei giaue. If the beaiing is
subject to giease uilution oi iemoval fiom fiequent exposuie to watei, oi wash uown
activities, consiuei a stiffei giaue.

=(%)%'- >%-- ?1)%@'),1
When an element beaiing is fiist placeu into seivice, the initial fill volume shoulu be
baseu on 1S to 2S of beaiing net capacity, uepenuing on expecteu shaft speeu. The
highei the speeu the lowei the initial fill volume. The beaiing net capacity is calculateu as

v = ((Pi4) * W * (0B
- IB
) * 1u
- u78uu)*1u
, wheie

v = volume in cubic centimeteis,
0B = Beaiing 0utei Biametei, mm
IB = Boie Biametei, mm
W = Beaiing Wiuth, mm
u = Beaiing weight, Kg

In auuition to the giease intiouuceu into the element spaces, enough giease shoulu be
placeu into the housing to biing the giease level up to the lip of the outei iace of the
beaiing. When the excess fiom the initial fill is pusheu away fiom the elements it
accumulates on the giease shelf at the iace anu becomes a ieseivoii to continuously
seive oil back to the iaceway without ciowuing the elements.

0bviously, the engineeipiactitionei making these uecisions has to know piecisely which
beaiing by manufactuiei numbei is in use in oiuei to pioviue all the iequiieu values.
Beaiing manufactuiei numbeis aie ieauily available at the time of initial installation
anuoi beaiing ieplacement, so enough infoimation is available foi a coiiect initial fill.

Replenishment volumes: The beaiing numbei uetails get fuzzy as iepaiis occui, as CNNS
systems aie upgiaueu anu uata is lost, anu as the uetails fiom the oiiginal installation
faue fiom memoiy. Theiefoie it is necessaiy to have a moie usei-fiienuly appioach to
estimate ieplacement volumes foi 'in-situ' applications. 0ne shoulu consiuei both feeu
volume anu feeu inteival since the two aie intei-ielateu. The foimula shown in Figuie S
gives volumes in both giams (foi metiic uimensions) anu ounces (foi English
uimensions) foi thiee uiffeient inteival ianges.


Wheie actual beaiing uimensions aie
not known, a close pioximity to the
actual suggesteu value coulu be
estimateu by using housing
uimensions anu factoiing again by
one-thiiu {(B * B * .114) *.SS}.
CA0TI0N: This pioviues only an
appioximation. Foi ciitical
applications the actual beaiing make
anu mouel shoulu be ueteimineu.

Excessive lubiicant volume applieu to beaiings with labyiinth style seals anu low pitch
line velocity beaiings (PLv < Su,uuu foi ball anu cylinuiical iollei, < Su,uuu foi spheiical
anu thiust iollei) is not consiueieu to be as pioblematic to the giease oi beaiing as it
woulu be at highei speeus. Excess giease uissipates ieauily anu any giease iemaining in
the woiking aiea has auequate tianspoit time anu space. Bowevei, the same beaiings
with shielus anu pluggeu ielief poits can accumulate giease iesiuue. 0vei time the
iesiuue can ciowu the housing anu cause chuining anu oveiheating. It is best to iuentify
the piecise beaiing uetails foi all ielubiication volume anu fiequency calculations, anu
use the piecise values to make well-uefineu uecisions.

>%-- 3.-"@, A.$ B%CD +:,,7 0,'$%(C1
The ieplacement volume foi high pitch line velocity (PLv > SSu,uuu foi iauial ball type; >
1Su,uuu foi spheiical iollei anu thiust type) element beaiings iequiies thoughtful
consiueiation uue to sheaiing anu heat piouuceu by oveifilling. All beaiings opeiating at
high speeus benefit fiom moie fiequent but lowei volume uoses, emulating continuous
ieplenishment that occuis with oil lubiicateu elements. Foi instance, the volume
calculateu foi the shoit inteival, uq-Weekly, woulu iueally be unifoimly uistiibuteu into
the numbei of woiking houis foi the time peiiou anu applieu accoiuingly. This technique
woulu iequiie automatic application incoipoiating the use of timeis anu low volume
injectois oi quality single point lubiicatois.

E,:-'&,@,() >$,F",(&4
The most uepenuable calculation foi ielubiication inteival will be baseu on a
combination of machine opeiating conuitions anu the expecteu giease seivice life foi
those conuitions. uiease lifecycles can be pieuicteu empiiically. Nuch like a beaiing L1u
lifecycle value that inuicates an opeiating inteival foi which 1u% of a given beaiing
population woulu fail unuei iuentical opeiating conuitions, the giease F1uReal value
piojects an opeiating inteival foi giease lifecycles, anu consequently ielubiication
The F1u giease pieuiction mouel, as shown in Figuie 6, is baseu on known
giease uegiauation peifoimance unuei test conuitions, such as the FAu FE9 Testei (BIN
S1821, Pait 2), oi similai test methous (SKF R0F Testei, BIN S18u6).
Gq - Annually = D * B * .0912 (.004 for mm)
Gq - Monthly = D * B * .0684 (.003 for mm)
Gq - Weekly = D * B * .0546 (.002 for mm)
Gq = Ounces (cubic centimeters)
D = Bearing Outer Diameter, inches (mm)
B = Bearing Width, inches (mm)
Figure 5. FAG Bearing Company
Replacement Volumes


The (theoietical) F1uReal foimula
foi giease ieplenishment
inteivals, in houis, is shown in
Figuie 6.

Factoi FS peitains to the actual
opeiating tempeiatuie (given
unuei T), anu Factoi F4 peitains to
beaiing loau factoi (given unuei
P). Similai to the eailiei comment
about giease fill volumes, this
appioach woiks well when
specific gieases aie being testeu
foi specific applications uuiing
uesign consiueiations, but is
uifficult foi the plant lubiication
technician to apply to in-seivice
components when the specific
uata points aien't available.

When FE9 test uata, anu F1uReal values foi specific lubiicant piouucts aie not available (it
is typically not iepoiteu in 0EN peifoimance uata), a mouifieu appioach can pioviue the
ieliability piactitionei with a well uefineu staiting point. This empiiically ueiiveu
appioach (foimula shown in Figuie 7) assumes applications wheie the actual loau is a
low peicentage of net capacity, anu wheie beaiings aie opeiating below the iateu speeu
limits (Pitch line values aie < SuuK foi ball anu iollei type elements, < 14uK foi spheiical
anu thiust type elements). In this appioach 'K' is the piouuct of machine opeiating
conuition paiameteis, shown in Figuie 8. The F1u value is mouifieu (houis to failuie value
is ieuuceu) to give equipment owneis an oppoitunity to factoi in plant conuitions. Each
of seveial factois becomes a juugment call, but with time anu expeiience iesults similai
to the BIN 8182S calculation foi net ielubiication fiequencies aie achieveu.

Figuie 7. The Nouifieu Relubiication Fiequency Foimula.

Tf = Time in houis between giease ieplenishment events
K = Piouuct of enviionmental coiiection factois
N = Shaft speeu
B = Beaiing boie in millimeteis

10 Real
= F
* F
* F
* F
* F
10 Real
= Adjusted Frequency, Hrs
= Calculated Nominal Grease Lifecycle
= (P; T; Kf*n*dm)
P = FE9 Load Factor
T = FE9 Temperature Factor
= Factor for Bearing Type
dm = Bearing Pitch Line, mm
n = Bearing Speed, RPM
= Op. Environmental Polution
= Op. Load Dynamics/Vibration
= Op. Outer Ring Rotation
= Op. Mounting Type and Centrifugal Energy

Figure 6. DIN 51825, Part 2, Grease Relube Cycle
= 20 K
n* d
' 4*d


The coiiection factoi, K, shown in Figuie 8, allows the engineei to aujust fiequencies
baseu on machine opeiating anu enviionmental consiueiations. The six pioviueu
conuitions ieflect piactical issues that uegiaue beaiing life anu giease peifoimance.
Figuie 8 incluues the coiiection factois foi a 9u mm boie spheiical iollei beaiing
opeiating at 12uu ipm (PLv = 16u,8uu) in uiiect exposuie to iain anu in a uusty
Figure 8. K = Operating State Correction Factors (derived from DIN 51825, Part 2)
Condition Average Operating Range Factor Value
Bearing Bore (b), mm 90 90
Shaft Speed (n), rpm 1200 1200
1 Svc Factor (Ft) Bearing Temperature, Housing 0.9
>100, <= 150 F 0.9
150 to 175 F 0.5
175 to 200 F 0.2
Above 200 F 0.1
2 Svc Factor (Fc) Contamination 0.3
Light, non-abrasive dust 0.9
Heavy, non-abrasive dust 0.6
Light, abrasive dust 0.3
Heavy, abrasive dust 0.1
3 Svc Factor (Fm) Moisture 0.1
Humidity mostly below 80% 0.9
Humidity between 80 and 90% 0.7
Occasional condensation 0.4
Occasional water on housing 0.1
4 Svc Factor (Fv) Vibration; Shock Loading 0.9
Less than 0.2 ips; Moderate 0.9
0.2 to 0.4 ips; Strong 0.6
Above 0.4: Very Strong 0.3
5 Svc Factor (Fp) Position 1
Horizontal bore centerline 1
45 degree bore centerline 0.7
Vertical centerline 0.5
6 Svc Factor (Fd) Bearing Design 1
Ball Bearings 1
Cylindrical and needle roller bearings 0.5
Tapered and spherical roller bearings 0.1
Calculated PM cycle (hr) !!.. 423
Calculated PM cycle (day) !!.. 18
1 Calculated PM cycle (mo.) !...
Bearing Relubrication Frequency Correction Factors

enviionment, such as neai an unpaveu ioauway anu uiiectly exposeu to the weathei. The
calculateu inteival amounts to 18 uays between ielubiication events.

Nultiple Beaiing 0EN Lubiication uuiueline publications pioviue alteinate quantitative
appioaches that aie also valiu anu coulu be consiueieu as a stiong iefeience staiting
iv, v, vi

+D%,-7,7 0,'$%(C1G +%(C-, '(7 H."#-, +D%,-7



Seals anu shielus peifoim similai functions in suppoiting effective beaiing lifecycle.
Shielueu beaiings may be useu wheie no ioutine ielubiication foi the life of the machine
is the uesign objective, but aie typically useu in housings wheie ieplenishment can be
accomplisheu. The key uiffeience between sealeu anu shielueu beaiings is that shielus
aie in contact with only one iace, anu seals contact both.

In geneial seivice beaiing applications (pillow block, flange mount) giease may entei the
iaceway eithei fiom the face (axial feeu) oi fiom the outei peiimetei of the beaiing
(iauial feeu). Beaiings aie iuentifieu as iauially feeu in the 0EN equipment catalog if
they aie seiviceu in this mannei. Foi instance, SKF iuentifies iauial feeu beaiings with the
WSS uesignation in the beaiing numbei. 0thei beaiing supplieis may use this oi othei
nomenclatuie to uiffeientiate between styles. Foi beaiings that aie laige enough that the
housing is ietaineu anu only the element is ieplaceu uuiing a iepaii, the beaiing will have
an outei seal (lip oi labyiinth type) at the outei peiipheiy of the housing cavity, anu may
oi may not be equippeu with a shielu on the element itself. The shielu seives the function
of meteiing giease anu keeping contaminants out of the element aiea. If the shielu is
missing fiom the element then the giease slumps by giavity aiounu the lowei lip of the
beaiing, anu is uiawn into the elements giauually. This appioach uoesn't pievent giease
chuining anu piematuie loss of usefulness.

Configuiations wheie the beaiing anu housing aie ieplaceu as a unit shoulu contain
shielus on both faces. uiease may entei axially oi iauially into the element pathway, anu
the shielu in these instances is intenueu to vent piessuie anu pievent contamination

Electiic motoi beaiing constiuction is highly usei specific. If the usei iequests a shielu oi
seal then it can be supplieu. If the usei uoesn't specify eithei then it is the motoi
iebuiluei oi 0EN's pieiogative to follow theii own auvice. 0nless the question is
specifically askeu by the usei, heshe may not know. Shielu oiientation is also usei
uiiven. The shielu may face out oi away fiom the winuings. In these configuiations the
annulus gap between the innei iace anu the shielu peifoims a meteiing function,
allowing giease to entei into the iaceway thiough the gap while in opeiation. The giease
also pioviues a baffle to pievent chuining anu heating of the giease away fiom the
movement of the elements. It may also be configuieu with the shielu facing towaiu the
winuings. In these instances the shielu is thought to minimize iisk that the giease will
entei the winuings. In both configuiations the gap between the lip of the shielu anu the

innei face of the beaiing iing is sufficiently open that fiesh,
viable giease is uiawn into the iaceway easily. The shielu anu
gap can be seen in Figuies 9 anu 1u. Biffeient installation
aiiangements can be seen if Figuie 11.

Figuie 1u pioviues a cioss-sectional view of the element anu
iaces, anu illustiates the gap in moie uetail. The annulus is
between 12S anu S7S micions (u.uuS" anu u.u1S"). The shielu
also pioviues iestiaint of bulk contaminant flow into the
iaceway, but uoes not eliminate contamination pioblems
completely. uiven that uynamic element to iace cleaiances iange
between u.S anu 1.S micions, it is cleai that paiticulate that can
coiiupt the uynamic oil film can ieauily pass into the iace aiea.

Figuie 11 (below) uemonstiates accepteu mounting techniques
foi shielueu beaiings in electiic motoi housings. (0iiginal
uiaphic Ref., Beinz Bloch, "Piactical Lubiication foi Inuustiial
Facilities"). Single shielu beaiings may be installeu such that the shielu is facing the
giease supply, oi is on the opposite siue of the beaiing ieceiving giease supply.

When installeu facing the flow of giease the shielu can behave as a baffle to limit the flow
of giease, if the giease volume is not oveipoweiing, anu minimize the iisk of chuining.
0nfoitunately, if giease is supplieu unuei too much foice (high piessuie oi volume), the
shielu may collapse into the iaceway anu compiomise the beaiing. It is impoitant to
know which configuiation exists if possible befoie pioceeuing with the lubiication event.

Theie is no single position taken by beaiing manufactuies foi the use of shielus anu seals
(single oi uouble shielu configuiations). Nachine manufactuieis selecteu seals anu
shielus when contamination fiom the enviionment is expecteu. Shielus aie also pievalent
on electiic motoi applications. The shielu is beneficial to pievent giease chuining in the
housing, but uoes not pievent movement of the giease
towaiu the centei of the motoi. The motoi ownei
shoulu be awaie of the options pioviueu by the builuei,
anu shoulu publish anu pioviue technical
specifications accoiuing to what is believeu to be best
foi the piouuction site.

J-'((%(C A.$ =(%)%'- >%--1
The initial fill foi a single shielueu beaiing shoulu
confoim to auvice pioviueu above unuei open face
beaiings. 0EN's uo not uiffeientiate between fill anu
ieplenishment piactices baseu on the beaiing
component oi seal configuiation.

Figure 9. Shield and
Annulus Arrangement
(Illustration ref.
Machinery Lubrication
Figure10. Shielded Bearing

The quantity of giease to be placeu into the beaiing at the time of installation is goveineu
by the vacant space within the beaiing. The quantity of giease foi the housing is not
uefinable because a beaiing can be fitteu to multiple beaiing housings. Beaiings aie
shippeu with a quantity of giease that seives as both coiiosion inhibitoi anu initial
chaige foi opeiation. Any auuition of giease via hanu-packing piioi to mounting the
beaiing shoulu be
conuucteu unuei clean
ioom conuitions with
uust fieelint fiee
gloves. Even slight
hanuling of element
beaiings can inuuce
coiiosion. As noteu
pieviously, when a
beaiing is placeu into a
housing it is necessaiy
to cieate a giease flooi
in the housing that is
flush with the outei
iace lip at the bottom
of the housing. This
will allow any new
giease to slump to the
aiea at the bottom of
the shieluopen face
anu pioviue a
ienewing ieseivoii.

E,:-,(%1D%(C +D%,-7,7 0,'$%(C1
The volume foi ieplenishment is ueteimineu by the foimulas pioviueu above. The auvice
is baseu on beaiing size anu speeu, giease longevity anu opeiating conuitions.
Technicians shoulu be awaie of the use of shielueu beaiings, anu whethei the shielu faces
the giease flow oi is on the opposite siue of the beaiing. Shielueu beaiings shoulu be
lubiicateu while the beaiing is iunning to pievent ovei piessuiization of the seal anu
possible collapse into the beaiing pathway. Novement of the elements uuiing lubiication
will cause the giease to uiaw into the element pathway foi maximum flushing anu
uistiibution effectiveness.

Beaiings shoulu not be gieaseu while iule if possible. Wheie this is necessaiy, the
equipment ownei must ueteimine the minimal acceptable amount of giease foi the
installation anu its opeiating conuitions, anu iestiain giease auuition to this value only to
avoiu collapsing the shielu. Shoit of physical obseivation of the immeuiate aiea at the
beaiing (which is not possible without uisassembly of the housingmachine), it is not
possible to know the pathway that the giease follows once in the housing.

Figure11. Common Motor Shield Arrangement
(Graphic ref.: Machinery Lubrication Magazine)


+,'-,7 A.$ !%A, 0,'$%(C1
Within the last few yeais theie has been a maikeu inciease in the uepenuence on sealeu
foi life beaiings foi a wiue vaiiety of commeicial anu iesiuential, anu even some
inuustiial machines. The concept 'sealeu foi life' ieflects the uesign goal, not the expecteu
opeiational peiiou. 'Sealeu foi life' is also not a guaiantee of opeiational peifoimance.
Sealeu foi life beaiing applications have giown fiom the tiauitional ueep gioove ball
beaiing to incluue all shapes, sizes anu uesign paiameteis.

Equipment manufactuieis' piimaiy ueteimining factoi foi whethei to choose a seal (not
to be ieplenisheu while in use), oi a shielu, oi neithei, is uiiven by machine lifecycle cost
anu uuiation iequiiements. Foi typical components wheie sealeu beaiings aie wiuely oi
singulaily useu, the component suppliei has concluueu that the likelihoou of achieving
iequiieu lifecycle is bettei if the component is not ielubiicateu.

Sealeu beaiing lifecycles aie gieatly influenceu by the in-use giease conuition, which is
itself influenceu by the seal conuition (leakage anu contaminant exclusion). The
significant impiovements seen in both giease anu seal mateiials have enableu machine
manufactuies to uesign foi anu achieve longei lifecycles with sealeu beaiings in
piogiessively moie challenging conuitions.

Favoiable conuitions foi sealeu beaiings coulu incluue:
Small beaiing uimensions
Low shaft iotational speeus
Low shaft ciicumfeiential speeus
Low loaus
Clean conuitions (no moistuie, no uust)
Low heat
Shoit expecteu lifecycles

As the ielative loau, suiface contact speeu, tempeiatuie, anu contaminant loau inciease
uepenuence on shielueu oi open face ielubiicatable beaiings incieases. Sealeu beaiings
aie not intenueu to be ielubiicateu uuiing the machines expecteu lifecycle. Bowevei,
shielueu beaiings aie configuieu foi anu aie expecteu to be ieplenisheu on some inteival.
Elastomeiic iauial lip seals aie uesigneu piimaiily to ietain the lubiicant, anu aie only
maiginally expecteu to pievent exteinal contaminant ingiession. Seals aie capable of
containing both liquius anu semi-solius, aie capable of opeiating in beaiing sumps
vaiying fiom -6u to 2uu
C, can opeiate with peiipheial speeus up to 2u ms, anu suppoit
piessuies between 2u anu 1uu kPa (2.9 to 14.S PSI). Seal iauial loauing is ueteimineu by
the types of elastomeis useu, the contact aiea of the seal on the iace suiface, inteinal
piessuie fiom the fluiu, anu spiing tension. As the shaft tuins the movement of the shaft
causes the seal to flex. This pioviues a subtle pumping motion that seives to push the
fluiu towaiu it's ieseivoii aiea. The fluiu cieates a film baiiiei between u.12S mm anu
1.2S mm wiue. Lip contact loau is a key peifoimance factoi. Contact loau ianges between

u.uS anu u.12 Nmm (u.S to u.7 lbin) of ciicumfeience. As the lip loau (spiing tension)
incieases the suiface tempeiatuie iises with iespect to shaft speeu. Since tempeiatuie is
a piime cause of seal failuie, lip loaus shoulu be as low as possible anu still maintain a
seal. Figuie 12 pioviues a look at the key featuies of a lip seal.

uiease ielubiication piactices shoulu be hanuleu with
caie. Piecise giease volumes anu caiefully calculateu
inteivals will help the ieliability piofessional ieuuceu
outages, ieuuce costs, impiove machine peifoimance
anu enjoy a less stiessful caieei. The foimulas
pioviueu above aie eithei uiiectly oi inuiiectly
associateu with beaiing suppliei iecommenuations. The
Lube coach iecommenuations ieflect the piinciples
noteu in the pioviueu foimulas. These may be
piogiammeu into a woiksheet without a tiemenuous
amount of effoit. The LubeCoach is intenueu to pioviue
insight without stepping into sophisticateu spieausheet

LubCon uNBB, Beaiing lubiication Calculation Woiksheet, FAu Beaiings, ueiman
Society of Tiibology, otheis.
FAu Beaiings Limiteu, Rollei Beaiing Lubiication uuiue, Publication Numbei WL
81 11S4 ECEB
LubCon 0SA, LubCon uNBB, Beaiing lubiication Calculation Woiksheet,
FAu Rollei Beaiing Lubiication uuiueline WL8111SE. http:www.fag-inuustiial-
Web Refeience X.X - Timken Beaiing Company
Web Refeience X.X - SKF Beaiing Company.

Snyuei, B.R "Sealeu-foi-Life Beaiings: To Relubiicate oi Not." Tiibology anu
Lubiication Technology, Becembei 2uu4. Pages SS to 4u.
Boosei, R.E., Tiibology Bata Banubook, Chaptei 14, Bynamic Seals. CRC Piess
Bouowanec, N.N., "Evaluaton of Anti-Fiiction Beaiing Lubiicatio Nethous on
Notoi Life Cycle Cost". Siemens Inuustiy anu Automation Incoipoiateu. u-78uS-
478S-498. IEEE.

Figure12. Sealed Bearing Configuration