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164 Forensic Science International

System. In this paper, BALISTIKA will be introduced shortly and

a comparative performance test conducted together with Criminal
Police Laboratories of Security Department of Ministry of Interior
Affairs (CPL) will be presented. The studies to create a ballistic
image analysis and recognition system started in 1997, in a project
conducted together with General Command of Gendarme, Criminal
Laboratories Department (CLD). A system capable of making com-
parisons of bullets and cartridge cases, searching bullet/cartridge
case from the database, ranking the cartridge case/bullets accord-
ing to similarities and enabling examiners to register all kinds of
information about criminal events, criminals, bullets and cartridge
cases. Although the project deemed successful and started working
in CLD, BILTEN continued working on the project to increase the
success ratio of recognition. Studies reached at a mature phase and
a comparative performance test of the system conducted together
with CPL. The way tests conducted and test results are given in the
following paragraphs. Due to higher importance of cartridge case
recognition for a ballistic analysis and recognition system, along
with other constraints like time and labor, only the success for car-
tridge case recognition has been tested, bullet recognition success
has not been measured. It has been agreed to do that test in future.
The main problem of the test was to set a reference to measure the
success of BALISTIKA. The solution to that problem was found as
using another widely used, successful ballistic analysis system as
reference. So, the success was measured comparatively. The way to
make the comparison was also vital in such a study. For that purpose,
two sets of cartridge cases have been chosen at calibers of 9x19 (P.
type) and 7,65mm. The sets were selected by ballistic experts, as
pairs that were red from the same gun. The cartridge cases have
been recorded to BALISTIKA by a ballistic expert, who had about
a two-hour training about the system and to the reference system by
a certied user. Then, the matching procedures run on both systems.
The match results obtained, recorded according to "breech face",
"ring pin" and "ejector mark" matching classes. BALISTIKA had
another ranking class named "combined evaluation", which evalu-
ates breech face, ring ping and ejector mark evaluation results to
obtain a better ranking of cartridge cases according to their similar-
ity to the reference cartridge case. The ranks of the correct matches
for each ranking class have been recorded. In order to evaluate the
overall performance of the systems, the number of unsuccessful
matches, that is misses have been counted. If a cartridge case cannot
take place in rst ten, in any ranking class, then it counted as a miss.
The number of misses is inversely related to the success. As the
number of misses increase, the system deemed to be unsuccessful.
For 9x19 cartridge cases, there were 694 individual, that is, 347
pairs of cartridge cases (pairs red from 347 guns). The number of
cartridge cases used in 7,65mm was 706, that is, 353 pairs (pairs
red from 353 guns).
The test results are as follows: For 9x19 type cartridge cases(347
pairs), for BALISTIKA number of misses are: Breech face: 112
Firing pin: 165 Ejector mark: 274 Combined evaluation: 103 Over-
all: 64 For 9x19 type cartridge cases(347 pairs), for the reference
system, number of misses are: Breech face: 169 Firing pin: 171
Ejector mark: 219 Combined evaluation: - Overall: 61 For 7,65 mm
type cartridge cases(353 pairs), for BALISTIKA number of misses
are: Breech face: 120 Firing pin: 87 Ejector mark: 275 Combined
evaluation: 59 Overall: 39 For 7,65 mm type cartridge cases(353
pairs), for the reference system, number of misses are: Breech face:
250 Firing pin: 116 Ejector mark: 276 Combined evaluation: - Over-
all: 76 As it can be seen from the Table 1, for 9x19 type cartridge
cases, failure rate for BALISTIKA is 18,4 % and for the reference
system, failure rate is 17,6 %. It could be said that, there is not a
considerable difference between the failure rates. When we compare
7,65 mm type cartridges, the failure rate for BALISTIKA is 11,0 %
and for the reference system, the failure rate is found to be 21,5 %.
This difference is a signicant one.
As a result of the study, BALISTIKAis found to be very success-
ful and some other aspects of the system like quality of cartridge
case images, ease of use and fast learning curve stated as salient
features of it.
Keywords: Ballistic Analysis Ballistic Database Firearms
Forensic Anthropology
How Accurate is the Estimation of Stature from Metatarsals
C. Cordeiro, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal, Delegao de
Coimbra, Largo da S Nova, 3000-213 Coimbra, Portugal; S.
Wasterlain, E. Cunha, Departamento de Antropologia, Faculdade
de Cincias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3000-056
Coimbra, Portugal and *Duarte Nuno Vieira, Instituto Nacional de
Medicina Legal, Delegao de Coimbra, Largo da S Nova,
3000-213 Coimbra, Portugal.
In forensic anthropology adult living stature is one of the key
elements for positive identication of skeletal remains.
Since in many forensic cases the long bones are not well pre-
served, the corresponding regression equations cannot be applied.
On the other hand, taking into account that small bones, such as
the metatarsals, are often intact, it would be a great advantageous
whether they could be used for stature estimation. Until now, Byers
and collaborators developed in 1989 the only formulas available for
this purpose.
Therefore, the authors developed regression equations for the esti-
mation of stature based on metatarsal lengths using 200 metatarsals,
namely 100 rst metatarsals and 100 seconds metatarsals collected
during the autopsies done in the National Institute of Legal Medicine
in Portugal, from cadavers of know stature. By the analyses of the
results, the second metatarsal, namely his maximum length, showed
to be the more appropriate for predicting stature.
In the present paper we do present a comparative performance
between our formulas and those from Byers. Moreover, to test the
accuracy of the regression equations attained, we applied them to
a series of 60 identied skeletons from the Collection of Museu
Antropolgico da Universidade de Coimbra. Although stature is not
known, several estimations were done on the basis of the femur
using the formulas of Trotter and Gleser, Olivier and Tissier and
The results show that metatarsals lengths can be used with accu-
racy whenever the long bones do not allow stature estimation.
Keywords: Metatarsal, Stature, Anthropology
Severe Traumatic Cranial Injuries: Report of a Complex
Multiple Homicide Case
Eugnia Cunha, Joo Pinheiro, Isabel Pinto Ribeiro, Jorge Soares
and *Duarte Nuno Vieira, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal,
Delegao de Coimbra, Largo da S Nova, 3000-213 Coimbra,
A complex case of multiple homicides is presented. A group
of Portugueses, made of four adults and two children were victim
of a same massacre in an african country. In a rst phase only
four bodies, presumably all adults, were found. The forensic exams,
namely identication and cause of death establishment, were done
by african expertises, after which the bodies were sent to Portugal.
One year latter, two others were retrieved in the surroundings of
the place where the crime had occurred. Local authorities presumed
to be the two missing children. By then, some bone samples were
sent to Portugal to analysis. A pluridisciplinary team of the National
Institute of Legal Medicine (NILM) in Portugal, made of forensic
geneticist, forensic anthropologist and pathologists, found out that
Scientic Sessions 165
the bodies were previously misidentied. Therefore, the exhuma-
tions of the victims buried in Portugal were done. The team from
the NILM, having as main aims the victims identication and the
establishment of their cause of death, did a series of examinations
which lead to the conclusions that the identities of the victims were
changed and that the causes of death based on doubtful and even-
tual rst autopsies were unascertained. A series of severe traumatic
cranial injuries were detected, which, undoubtedly, were in relation
with the manner of death, a violent one. Whereas the man suffered
from a gunshot wound, the female and children were victim of blunt
traumas. The lesions, are discussed, namely their pattern. Besides,
the probable reconstruction of the events is done. The need and
importance of interdisciplinary teams is reinforced by the cases here
Keywords: Identication, Forensic Anthropology Traumatic
Comparison Between Reported Stature from Personal Records
and Stature as Measured after Death
*D. Radoinova, Deprtment of Forensic Medicine, Medical
University of Varna, 9002, Marin Drinov str 55, Bulgaria; B.
Justinianova, Department of Hygiene and Disaster Medicine,
Medical University of Varna, 9002, Marin Drinov str 55, Bulgaria
and W. Dokov, Deprtment of Forensic Medicine, Medical
University of Varna, 9002, Marin Drinov str 55, Bulgaria.
Summary: Since the year 2000 new identity cards are introduced
in Bulgaria which are synchronized with the world and European
standards in relation to some identication marks. Stature - the main
anthropometrical measurement is compulsory recorded in these doc-
uments. Correct data for the real human stature is important criteria
in the identication process of the individual in forensic medicine.
Difference between stature as reported in the identity cards and the
postmortal stature can render serious difculty on the identication
process and lead to false experts conclusions. Understanding the
actuality and importance of the problem we aimed to assess if there
is a signicant difference between reported stature in identity cards
and postmortal stature. The accuracy of personally reported stature
among older individuals and especially among the taller and shorter
people has not been studied in Bulgaria. It is very important for the
practical work to know to what extent the data for personal stature,
which individuals report for their personal documents, can be used
for expert conclusions in cases of human identication. Height was
measured in 134 forensic cases 82 (61.2%) men and 52 (38.8%)
women in horizontal position of the body lying on its back on the
table, after cutting tendo calcaneus (Achilis) tendon. Measurements
were made only in cases where the cause of death was not affecting
the stature and other body proportions. Data for stature before death
was taken from the identity cards where it is reported by the indi-
vidual. Taking into account the role of age all cases were devided
in two groups: I group - up to 45 years and II group more than
45 years. Data analysis show that postmortal stature in males in
both age groups and in females above 45 is signicantly smaller
(p<0.01). They have reported height with 3 cm higher on average.
Mean stature from identity cards for men from the rst age group
is 175.27 cm and mean measured stature is 172.86 cm. For men
from the second age group the corresponding gures are 172.22 cm
and 169.56 cm. The respective data for women from the two age
groups are: 161.22 cm and 160.88cm; 161.24 cm and 158.59 cm. In
women under 45 there is no signicant difference between stature
as reported in the identity cards and postmortal height (p>0.05). A
coincidence between the two types of stature is recorded in 13.5%
in men in both age groups. Among women up to 45 years there is
a coincidence in 33.3% and above 45 in only 5.9%. The amplitude
of the difference between the two types of stature is more marked
in men as compared to women. A marked discrepancy (more than 4
cm) between reported stature and measured height is found in 66%
of males and 31 % in females. Among women such a discrepancy is
found in only 9% from the rst age group and in 22% of the second
group. This can be a result of the steeper height loss in women with
age. Conclusions: 1. Stature as recorded in identity cards is often
reported incorrectly and it is higher with 4 cm on average in 66% of
men and 31 % in women as compared to postmortal height. 2. Men
in both age groups have reported height with about 3cm higher than
the postmortal height. 3. Women up to 45 have reported the most
accurate data for their stature in the identity cards. 4. Results of this
study show the need for controlled registering of height in iden-
tity cards and its strict measurement before registration, for which
people have to be informed in advance.
Keywords: Forensic anthropology, Stature, Reported stature
A Simple Morphological Method for Gender Determination at
the Petrous Portion of the Os Temporalis
*Matthias Graw, Institut fr Rechtsmedizin, Frauenlobstr. 7a,
D-80337 Mnchen, Germany; Martin Schulz, Institut fr
Gerichtliche Medizin, Ngelestr. 5, D-72074 Mnchen, Germany
and Joachim Wahl, Landesdenkmalamt Baden-Wrttemberg,
Osteologie, Stromeyersdorfstrae 3, D-78467 Konstanz, Germany.
Introduction: The importance of characteristics that allow the
determination of an individuals gender - even with skulls that
have been largely destroyed - is undisputed in both archaeology
and anthropology. Due to its extreme mechanical strength, the pars
petrosa ossis temporalis is usually preserved in skulls and, there-
fore, of particular interest regarding gender determination. Indeed,
both morphological and morphometric gender-specic differences
have been described at the petrous portion (Wahl and Henke 1980,
Schutkowski 1983, Kalmey and Rathbun 1996, Graw and Haffner
2000, Wahl and Graw 2001). According to these ndings, it is the
course of the meatus acusticus internus which is the most decisive
gender-specic characteristic (Wahl 1981, Graw 2000): independent
of age, the meatus acusticus internus in males rises in a at angle on
either side from the facies posterior towards laterocaudal direction.
In females, this angle is steeper. However, the previously described
method used for estimating this angle is complicated and proved
unsuitable in the eld since it requires the use of our self designed
cutting device. Therefore, it was our intention to develop a more
practical method.
Materials and Methods: A study was made of 274 (170 male,
104 female) contemporary temporal bones from the left side of the
face that had been isolated and macerated. As it is virtually im-
possible to determine the course of the meatus acusticus internus
directly by visual inspection of the temporal bone, anatomically ex-
act moulds were prepared using Silaplast

and Silasoft

artifact <1%). Its elasticity in a hardened state will always allow
the replica to return to its original form when handled; an articial
alteration of its shape is therefore not possible (Graw 2001). The
angles between the lateral wall of the meatus and adjacent facies
posterior were optically measured using a set square. Angles below
were taken as at, those above as steep. The control group
included 128 skulls (78 male, 50 female ones) of which the gender
was known: the moulds were prepared through the left-side foramen
magnum and measured as described.
Results and Discussion: The sex-relation of this feature is un-
ambiguous: 67,9% of the male petrosal bones were classied as at;
77,9% of the female petrosal bones had a steep angle. The petrosal
bones of the control group revealed similar results (males: 70,5%
with at angles; females: 88,0% with steep angles). The diagnosis of
gender is, therefore, correct in 3/4 of the cases examined which, for
an individual skull character, is a comparatively high value (Graw
and Wahl 2000). The higher precision of the approach used to sex
female petrosal bones is most likely due to the selected angle of
166 Forensic Science International
to separate males and females. This is quite suitable for simple
optical determination, but on the other hand the angle which deci-
sively separates males from females is slightly higher. The course
of the meatus acusticus internus is a skull characteristic that can be
used for the determination of an individuals gender using the sim-
ple, quick and cost-effective method described here that works even
under unfavourable conditions ("eld-method"). On the basis of re-
producible results the method can also be recommended for routine
diagnostics. According to Czarnetzki (quoted in Wahl 1988), the
moulds can also be formed using plasticine

. Due to its viscosity

and plasticity, this substance is however only partially suitable for
making a replica that is true to the original and is also more dif-
cult to handle. Therefore, we recommend using dental moulding
material such as Silaplast

and Silasoft

. This kind of replica can

be stored for a long period of time and can be used for subsequent
examinations - also independently from the original bone material.
Summary: Due to its extreme mechanical strength, the pars pet-
rosa ossis temporalis is usually preserved in skulls and, therefore, of
particular interest for sex determination. Indeed, both morphologi-
cal and morphometric sex-specic differences have been described
at the petrous portion. According to these ndings, it is the course
of the meatus acusticus internus which is the most decisive sex-
specic character: independent of age, the meatus acusticus internus
in males rises in a at angle on either side from the facies posterior
towards laterocaudal direction. In females, this angle is steeper. Here
we present a simple, fast and cost-effective method that can also be
used under unfavourable external conditions ("eld method"). Us-
ing anatomically exact moulds, the angle between the lateral wall
of the meatus and facies posterior is determined. Angles below 45
are classied as male, those above 45
are classied as female.
This feature has a hit rate of nearly 75% which can be regarded as
References: Graw, M. (2001) Morphometrische und morphog-
nostische Geschlechtsdiagnostik an der menschlichen Schdelbasis.
In: Oehmichen, M., Geserick, G. (Hrsg) Osteologische Identika-
tion und Altersschtzung. Schmidt-Rmhild Lbeck, 103-121 Graw,
M., Haffner, H.-Th. (2000) Morphognostically accessible sex di-
morphism of the pars petrosa ossis temporalis. Medicina Legale
Aggiornamento Incontri 1, 61-64 Graw, M., Wahl, J. (2000) Die
Wertigkeit morphognostischer Geschlechtsmerkmale am rezenten
Schdel. In: Rothschild, M.A. (ed) Das neue Jahrtausend: Heraus-
forderungen an die Rechtsmedizin. Schmidt-Rmhild, Lbeck, pp
387-403 Kalmey, J.K., Rathbun, T.A. (1996) Sex determination by
discriminant function analysis of the petrous portion of the tempo-
ral bone. J Forensic Sci 41, 865-867 Schutkowski, H. (1983) ber
den diagnostischen Wert der Pars petrosa ossis temporalis fr die
Geschlechtsbestimmung. Z Morph Anthropol 74, 129-144 Wahl, J.
(1981) Ein Beitrag zur metrischen Geschlechtsdiagnose verbrannter
und unverbrannter menschlicher Knochenreste - ausgearbeitet an
der Pars petrosa ossis temporalis. Z Rechtsmed 86, 79-101 Wahl,
J. (1988) Sderbrarup. Ein Grberfeld der rmischen Kaiserzeit
und Vlkerwanderungszeit in Angeln. II. Anthropologische Unter-
suchungen. Offa Bd. 64. Wachholtz Neumnster Wahl, J., Henke,
W. (1980) Die Pars petrosa als Diagnostikum fr die multivariat-
biometrische Geschlechtsbestimmung von Leichenbrandmaterial. Z
Morph Anthropol 70, 258-268 Wahl, J., Graw, M. (2001) Metric sex
differentiation of the pars petrosa ossis temporalis. Int J Legal Med
114, 215-223
Keywords: Sex Diagnosis, Pars Petrosa, Ossis Temporalis,
Meatus Acusticus Internus
Forearm Bones and Sexual Variation in Humans
Osman Celbis, Inonu University Medical School Forensic Medicine
Dept., Malatya, Turkey; Ibrahim Uzun, Counseil of Forensic
Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey and *Mehmet Yasar Iscan, Istanbul
University Institute of Forensic Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.
Sex differences in humans have shown population specic vari-
ation. Therefore forensic anthropologists should be aware of this
and develop study models for the population the skeletal remains
come from. The purpose of this study is to analyze forearm bones
obtained from forensic settings in Turkey. The sample consists of
40 males and 35 females with an average age of 40 and 38 years,
respectively. Numerous measurements were taken from radius and
ulna including lengths, midshaft diameters, and epiphyseal breadths.
Individuals with any anomaly and pathology were not included in
the analysis. Discriminant function statistics was applied to each
bone individually. A stepwise analysis when applied to both bones
selected the ulnar length in one function and radius length, and
midshaft a-p and transfer diameters. The classication results pro-
vided a low accuracy rate (77% for radius and 78% for ulna). In
conclusion sexual dimorphism in long bones is better expressed in
bone diameter and circumference rather than the length. It is thought
that the shaft dimensions are related to strength and robusticity. In
this Turkish sample the ulna did not give this expectation. The ra-
dius was more in the line with other populations and both set of
dimensions participated in separating one sex from the other.
Keywords: Forearm Bones Length, Forensic Anthropology
The Reliability of Sex Determination of Skeletons from
Forensic Context in the Balkans
*Marija Djuric, Danijela Djonic, Laboratory for Anthropology,
Institute of Anatomy, School of Medicine dr Subotica 4/2 11000,
Belgrade, Yugoslavia; Zoran Rakocevic, Radiology Department,
Faculty of Stomatology, Belgrade and Slobodan Nikolic, Institute of
Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
The anthropological analysis for ageing and sexing skeletal ma-
terial from forensic context is an integral part of identication
process because it allows relatively fast and accurate data, which
could narrow the police investigators search eld. A number of
studies have demonstrated that pelvis is the single most reliable
area for sex determination. But despite the improvements of the
methods and introduction of different scoring systems, there is still
a need to establish population specic standards. In this study we
tested morphologic methods for sex assessment based on complex
of traits proposed in the "European recommendation" (Ferembach
et al. 1980) and "Standards for data collection from human skeletal
remains" (Buikstra, Douglas 1994). The material involved in the
study comprises 97 pelvic bones and 58 well-preserved skulls of
male individuals of known sex from two mass-graves in Serbia.
The material was examined separately by two anthropologists. Sex
was correctly estimated by experienced anthropologist in 100 % of
individuals using all criteria involved. Actually, sex differences in
pelvic morphology were large enough to allow sexing the individ-
uals with accuracy of 100%. Among them, the least reliable sex
indicators were: the shape of the great sciatic notch (with accuracy
of 77.3%) and preauricular sulcus (with accuracy of 75.26%). Look-
ing at the skull alone, sex was correctly inferred in 78.35% of cases.
It was shown that the most accurate single indicators among cra-
nial methods was the size of the mastoid process (with accuracy of
61.7%), followed by the robustness of the mandible (with accuracy
of 55.1%). Testing the sample by second individual with training in
physical anthropology, but no experienced, suggests that experience
likely contributes to the accuracy of the sex estimation. Namely,
overall correct sex diagnoses in the skeletal material decreased to
Scientic Sessions 167
94.8%, while using the skull morphology only, sex was correctly
estimated in 47.2% of individuals.
Keywords: Sex Assessment, Pelvic Morphology, Cranial
Comparative Identication Studies on Basis of Ante-Mortem
and Post-Mortem Radiographs
*Dorota Lorkiewicz-Muszyska and Mariusz Glapiski,
Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Medical Sciences
in Pozna ul. wicickiego 6, 60-781 Pozna, Poland.
Identication procedure involves comparison analysis of traits
and their variables. The process should include a possibly broadest
range of highly individual traits which characterise the object to
be identied. The entire skull-based complex comparative identi-
cation procedure consists of several detailed studies from different
disciplines of science. The discipline of performed studies depends,
rst of all, on the available and collected comparative material,
pertaining the examined person and the nal result of the complex
identication procedure represents the resultant of individual stages
of the studies. The theoretical grounds for the criteria used for a
persons identication on the basis of skeletal remains are provided
by results of studies in variability of anatomical structures. There
are many elements of human skeleton which are characterized by
unique features and anatomical variability so they are especially
useful for individual identication. The most important diagnostic
element of the skeleton seems to be the skull. No other part of
skeleton determines to such an extent the traits which are so highly
variable from the point of view of anatomy and it is of great im-
portance for identication procedure. The radiograms have one of
the highest diagnostic values for identication process. Especially
valuable are those radiograms which concern those part of skele-
tal elements which are anatomically variable or exhibit different
kinds of changes. All available ante-mortem radiographic material
which exhibits dental treatment, dental anomalies and skull radio-
graphs showing characteristic and unique skull features (especially
frontal sinuses or changes due to pathological development, trauma
or surgical operations) are of great help in identication research.
Many authors have established that the radiographic pattern of the
frontal sinuses is both highly variable and unique to each individual.
Morphological differences have been stated within gender, racial
groups and even among monozygotic twins. They are not visible at
birth and begin to develop during approximately second year of life.
The frontal sinuses become radiographically visible between the
ages of ve and seven. They grow slowly until puberty, then their
subsequent rapid growth ensues until they reach their maximum
size and shape at the age about twenty. The anatomical features of
frontal sinuses remains unchanged throughout life so they are very
useful for identication purpose. Their utility have been recognized
since 1921 when Shuller found out that radiograms of frontal si-
nuses were very useful tool for identication purpose. Many other
scientists have established that other parts of skeleton, for example
jaws and teeth, mastoid air cells, pelvis are also valuable structures
for personal identication because of their anatomical variability.
The radiograph of some part of skeleton exhibits another kind of
unique features e.g. congenital pathology or changes due to surgi-
cal operation is very valuable too. This paper demonstrates three
cases in which personal identication was established on the basis
of ante-mortem and post-mortem radiographs. Three skulls were
subjected to analysis, together with enclosed comparative material
in forms of radiograms and photographs of missing persons. In
each of the cases all available comparative material was used. In
two cases the post-mortem radiographs of a skull and in one case
the post-mortem radiograph of the teeth were done for comparison
with ante-mortem radiographs. The ante- and post-mortem radio-
graphs were placed on a light-box and photographed with a Agfa

ePhoto 1680 digital camera. The resultant images were imported

into computer using Photo Wise 1.6 imaging software. The corre-
sponding ante-mortem and post-mortem radiographs were analyzed
and compared in details. In two cases the features of skull were
also compared with ante-mortem photographs of missing persons
by superimposition method. Case 1. Body of a male, with gunshots
wounds on the head, was found in a forest. Advanced post-mortem
decomposition precluded visual identication. The head was saved
for identication procedures employing anthropological studies and
face reconstruction. Anthropological examination of the macerated
skull demonstrated that the person was 30 to 35 years old. Results of
the studies were returned to the unit which dealt with the case. About
three months later, the unit submitted material pertaining a missing
person, selected on the basis of the reconstructed face. When lost,
the person was 32 years old. For further comparative identication
studies a photograph was submitted (originating from a recent pe-
riod of life) and two radiographs of teeth 35 and 36 (the radiogram
covered teeth 33, 35, 36 and 37, the tooth 34 was ante-mortem lost).
One of the radiographs was taken during treatment process, and
the second one when treatment was nished. On the two teeth, 35
and 36, the caps were putted. The post-mortem radiograph of the
analogous teeth was taken from the skull for comparison with ante-
mortem radiographs. The post-mortem radiograph showed identical
restorations on teeth as dentists radiographs. Case2. The human
skull which was submitted originated from a charred human body.
The skull demonstrated extensive injuries in the cerebral and, in
part, facial skull due to burning with bone charring. The submitted
human skull was accompanied with comparative material in the
form of photographs and ante-mortem radiographs (in posterior-
anterior and in lateral projections). For the purpose of identication
analogous radiographs were taken from the skull. Due to skull in-
juries in particular analysis based on parameters, cephalometrical
and craniometrical points as well as on morphological traits of face
and of facial skull (by the superimposition technique) was markedly
restricted. The proper identication procedure involved reciprocal
comparisons of ante-mortem and post-mortem radiographs, focused
rst of all on individual traits of dentition. The detailed comparative
analysis of radiograms disclosed concordance in: - a disturbance in-
volving spurious decrease in teeth number /hypodontia spuria/ due
to total retention of both maxillary canines /retentio totalis/; - pres-
ence of a bridge in maxilla; - ante-mortem lost tooth 46. Case3. The
male body in advanced post-mortem ecomposition was found at a
river bank. Advanced post-mortem decomposition precluded visual
identication. The skull was saved for identication procedures. The
skull exhibited changes due to surgical operations (after craniotomy)
on the left parietal bone. The photograph of the missing person was
submitted but it was not sufcient for positive identication. On
account of changes of the skull due to surgical operation the police
was asked for ante-mortem radiographs of the missing person. After
short time the ante-mortem radiographs (in posterior-anterior and in
lateral projections) were sent in. The analogous radiographs were
taken from the skull for the purpose of identication procedure. The
ante-mortem radiographs showed changes due to surgical operations
(after craniotomy) on the left parietal bone. The corresponding ante-
mortem and post-mortem radiographs (in lateral projection) were
analyzed and compared. The comparison showed identical set of
features of changes which were visible on both radiographs. In next
part of identication procedure the corresponding ante-mortem and
post-mortem radiographs in frontal projection were analyzed and
compared. The detailed comparative analysis of radiographs dis-
closed concordance in size, shape and outline of the frontal sinuses,
in features of the septum and another surrounding bone structures.
The radiograms have very high diagnostic values for identication
process. Especially valuable are those radiograms which concern
those part of skeletal elements which are anatomically variable or
exhibit different kinds of changes. All available ante-mortem radio-
graphic material which exhibits dental treatment, dental anomalies
and skull radiographs showing characteristic and unique skull fea-
168 Forensic Science International
tures (especially frontal sinuses or changes due to pathological
development, trauma or surgical operations) are of great help in
identication research.
Keywords: Human Identication, Dental and Skull
Radiographs, Frontal Sinuses
A Peculiar Case of a Skeleton Found in a Cellar, Chained to the
Cristina Cattaneo, *Barbara Polo Grillo, Danilo De Angelis,
Laboratorio di Antropologia ed Odontologia Forense, Istituto di
Medicina Legale, Universit degli Studi, Milano 20133, Italy;
Andrea Piccinini, Laboratorio di Emogenetica Forense, Istituto di
Medicina Legale, Universit degli Studi, Milano 20133, Italy and
Marco Aurelio Grandi, Laboratorio di Antropologia ed
Odontologia Forense, Istituto di Medicina Legale, Universit degli
Studi, Milano 20133 Italy.
Introduction: In the summer of 2001 a skeleton was found within
the cellar of an abandoned building in a city near the outskirts of
Milano. The body was completely skeletonised still dressed, sur-
rounded by garbage, with its feet bound in chains which were
attached to the wall. Scene of crime investigators collected most of
the bones (although many animal bones, especially chicken, were
initially taken for human bones) which underwent full anthropolog-
ical, odontological and genetic investigations.
Materials and Methods: Anthropological analyses were per-
formed on two fronts. (1) First of all, a biological prole of the
deceased was built according to standard sexing and aging methods;
estimation of ancestry, height and dental status were also performed.
The biological prole subsequently led to suspicion of identity,
thus ante-mortem data related to a young North-African who had
gone missing, and post-mortem data belonging to the skeleton were
compared, in particular the dental status. Finally cranio-facial su-
perimposition and genetic analysis were performed. (2) Trauma
analyses was also undertaken since the skeleton presented recent
(peri-mortem) and healed fractures. This was done by macroscopic
and stereomicroscopic observation of the bone lesions and by ra-
diological analysis, in order to establish post-mortem, peri-mortem
and ante-mortem trauma and its manner of production. Aging of
ante-mortem trauma was also attempted.
Results: Results showed that the skeleton belonged to a 35-44
year-old male Caucasian of Mediterranean origin, circa 1.69 m tall,
whose two central superior incisors had gone missing long before
the time of death. Cranio-facial superimposition, along with con-
sistent ante-mortem and post-mortem data concerning the missing
incisors (the young man had a removable prosthetic appliance cor-
responding to the two upper incisors), indicated a high probability
of identication, which was then conrmed by genetic analyses.
Trauma analysis showed signs of sharp force peri-mortem trauma
on the blade of the left scapula along with ante-mortem trauma
resulting probably from blunt force injury to the left scapula and
the right bula. The radiographic and macroscopic study of the
initial osseous remodelling of the ante-mortem trauma, still at the
stage of "periostitis", indicated that these lesions had probably been
produced 15-30 days prior to death. Such indications conrmed a
witness report which stated that the victim had been initially hit
with a blunt object, then chained to the wall. Anthropological evi-
dence further showed that the victim survived these blows, but after
a period roughly comprised between 15-30 days, he was stabbed
and died shortly after.
Conclusion: This case report shows the important applications
of forensic anthropology not only to problems concerning identi-
cation, but also to the interpretation of trauma on bone. However,
the case also brings to our attention the need for standardisation of
anthropological identication procedures (as in the case of cranio-
facial superimposition) and for reference collections concerning
the macroscopic aspects of peri-mortem and ante-mortem bone le-
sions, as well as their various stages of healing, since traditional
histopathological techniques are usually inapplicable for diagnosing
the vitality of a wound or, in cases of short-term survival, its age.
Keywords: Forensic Anthropology, Forensic Odontology,
Age Estimation of Children - Case Studies
*Verica Poposka, Biljana Janeska, Zdravko Cakar and Aleksandra
Gutevska, Institute for Forensic Medicine and Criminology,
Vodnjanska 19, 1000 Skopje, R Macedonia.
One of the tasks of a forensic expert is identication (estimation)
of age of live persons in case of mental illness, mental retardates as
well as small children who are not able to tell their age. Two study
cases of estimating the age of children, done at our Institute, have
been described in this paper. The rst case presents estimation of
age of 4 children, a sister and 3 brothers, left in the Social Welfare
Center by their mother, a mentally retarded person. The second case
presents estimation of age of 2 children found at a bus station in
Skopje, then sheltered at the Social Welfare Center. Since there was
no ofcial document of their age, we were requested to carry out an
expertise, i.e. estimation of the age. Expertise was carried out on the
basis of development stage of ossication centers of the bones of
the wrist and the pattern of eruption of the deciduous and permanent
Keywords: Age Estimation, Wrist Radiograph, Deciduous and
Permanent Dentition
Towards a Statistical Basis for Facial Deformation Modes in
*Peter Tu, Timothy Kelliher, General Electric Global Research and
Development Center, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY, USA;
Kevin W.P. Miller and Michael A. Taister, Federal Bureau of
Investigation, Laboratory Division, USA.
An important forensic problem is the identication of human
skeletal remains. For this purpose the skull is commonly used as
a basis for reconstructing a face model, which may be used for
recognition of the subject. In traditional, manual, reconstruction
techniques esh depth tables are used to guide the forensic artist
in developing a clay model. We offer a method to collect data
from Computed Tomography (CT) scans to create a dense set of
measurements for use in reconstruction. To model the variation of
facial shape, Principle Components Analysis is used as a means of
developing a statistical model of these measurements. This model
can then be used to reconstruct the average face that would match a
subject skull and to explore the space of likely facial deformations.
In the current work a database of 300 CT scans divided among
6 subgroups (Caucasoid, African-American, and Asian; Male and
Female of each group) is being collected to provide the basis for
understanding the variation of facial esh and soft tissue as related
to variation in skull. Scans of each subject in the database are taken
to include the entirety of the head. The collection is performed as
a byproduct of routine medical care. Subjects are screened such
that only those with "normal" skulls and esh are included in the
database. This excludes people with trauma and major dental work.
Incorporating scans into the database is a multi-step process. In the
rst stage 3D models of the skull and face are extracted from the
CT data using an established algorithm such as Marching Cubes.
These models are then rigidly aligned with a reference skull to bring
the new skull into course alignment with the existing data. This
gives a rm basis for developing the information related to variation
between subjects that underlies the PCA approach. The aligned 3D
Scientic Sessions 169
model is transformed into a cylindrical coordinate system to create
a 2.5D image-like model. This model is used to create an image-like
representation of a face. For the 2.5D the origin of a coordinate
system, (z, q, r), is place centered at the base of the skull. The z
axis points toward the top of the head, the q coordinate is oriented
around the z axis and the r axis is the distance from the z axis. In
an image representation the z coordinate becomes the y index, q is
mapped to x and the r coordinate is represented as image intensity.
From the 2.5D models a two-pass algorithm is used to ne-tune
the previous course alignment between the skull and the canonical
skull. In the rst pass points are chosen on the reference skull and
new skull to match high curvature areas such as eye sockets, similar
to a crest line approach. The matched points are used to guide the
alignment. These points are held in correspondence and the model
of the new skull is deformed to provide as close a match as possible
to this using a continuous bicubic nite element parameterization of
the model. A least squares cost criteria is used to determine best t.
The second pass takes the shape-aligned skulls and further aligns
the surface depths, represented as intensity in the 2.5D model. In
this pass reference points are chosen once again. The criterion for
point selection in this pass is to select points where the curvature is
low implying that depth is stable. Again a least squares metric and a
bicubic nite element parameterization are used for the alignment.
At this point the skulls will be as well aligned as they can be. By
having the esh model follow the same alignments and deformations
as the skull it will be brought into similar close alignment. The
esh, however, will maintain some variation that is not explained
by the differences in the skull. This variation is captured for each
element in the 2.5D model. It is from this variation that we build a
statistical model of facial variation. When a subject skull is found
it is scanned and a comparison is made against each of the skulls
from a selected demographic category in the database following the
alignment procedure described above. Each of these comparisons
results in description of the variation between the subject and the
database faces. This description is captured as a vector, X, of length
L where L is the number of elements in the model. Each member
of X corresponds to an individual element from the model on
a one to one basis; Xi corresponding to the estimate for the ith
scan from the database. From this collection of individual face
estimates, an average estimate can be computed simply by summing
the individual members of X and dividing by the total number of
scans. This average estimate takes into account all of the variation
found within the database and expresses the average across all
feature variation. Once the average face has been computed, the
deformation modes or principle components of the distribution can
be calculated. This is done by rst estimating the covariance matrix
C of X, and then computing the eigenvectors of C. The eigenvectors
are global deformations that are mutually orthogonal and can be
ordered based on the amount of variation in the population that
they represent. The user can then explore the plausible face space
by adjusting the contribution of the dominant eigenvectors. As the
user incorporates the desired deformations, a full 3D reconstruction
is generated interactively. Once this reconstruction is completed,
incorporating various elements from a facial parts database can
make further modications.
Keywords: Facial Reconstruction, Statistical Methods,
Computed Tomography (CT)
A Study of the Relation Between the Skeletal Age Determined
by the Cervical Spines and the Chronological Age in Egyptian
Mohamed Nour El-Din, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of
Medicine, University of Alexandria, Egypt; *Hoda
Fouad Abdel-Salam, Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of
Medicine, University of Alexandria, Egypt; Saleh A. Saleh,
Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of
Alexandria, Egypt and El-Saaed M. Bedeir, Orthodontics, El-Azhar
University, Egypt.
Skeletal growth and maturation vary in different subjects, hence
skeletal age and maturation follows a rate which would differ from
the chronological age. Lateral cephalographs of 405 Subjects of
Egyptian ancestry (200 males and 205 females, aged between 11
and 19 years) was done.
The 3
and 4
cervical vertebrae were Traced and vertical as
well as anteropostenior measurements for the body were taken.
The vertical measurements were taken as:
The length of anterior border (Ht1) the vertical height of body of
vertebrae (Ht2), the concavity of the inferior border (Ht3).
The anteroposterior dimensions were taken as:
The length of time I (AP1) the distance from the meeting points
of line II and line I to the posterior end of inferior border (AP2).
And the distance between the point S and the posterior most point
of the upper border (AP3) > The measurements were used as such,
and the ratios between the vertical height of body of vertebra (Ht2)
and the anteroposterior dimensions were calculated. The rate of
growth of each measurement, per year was calculated by dividing
the difference of the measurement between two successive age
groups by the real period between the mean of ages of these age
groups. Statistical analysis was done by (SPSS/Pc) package running
an IBM set It included cross sectional and correlation studies.
Multiple regression analysis was done to construct equations if
age could be detected from the various measurements.
The data from 295 radiographs were used to construct equations
for age determination. The resultant equations had a predictability
power as 91% for males and 87% of females. Data from the remain-
ing 110 radiographs (55 males and 55 females) ere used with age
hidden from the investigator to test these equations.
Keywords: Skeletal age, Cervical spines, Chronological age
A Study on the Credibility of Footprint Dynamic
Characteristics Examination
*Shi Limin!Shenyang, Hu!Zhenliao, Li!Yongtao and Yao Li, China
Criminal Police College, P.O.BOX 755, 110035 PR. China.
As the means of crime develop with more intellectual power,
there are more cases in which criminals, after the fact, destroy the
shoes they wear when committing crimes, which results in the fact
that traditional technique on footprint static (iconic) characteris-
tics examination, i.e., technique on shoe (worn by criminals when
committing crimes) identity authentication can not meet the present
need. Therefore, methods of examination have been developed, such
as footstep examination, sole wear and tear examination, footprint
dynamic examination, quantitative examination of feature of pace.
These methods employ footprint dynamic characteristics (i.e., foot-
print characteristics of positive connection with body movements)
and are employed in the identity authentication of various shoes
worn by the same person. They have theoretically as well as prac-
tically contributed to the enrichment and development of science of
footprint, providing effective resolution to the problem of identity
authentication of various shoes worn by the same person. Never-
theless, knowledge about features of different types of dynamic
characteristics and their relations is still in muddle, which causes
one-sidedness in employment of footprint dynamic characteristics.
Furthermore, due to randomness of various footprint dynamic prop-
erties, the classication and measurement are limited to experience
of naked eye observation. Consequently, the credibility and re-
liability of examination conclusions is drastically affected. As a
result, the identity authentication of footprint dynamic characteris-
tics is severely hindered, which hinders the development of science
of footprint. To solve the problem we have devoted ourselves to
170 Forensic Science International
the study of footprint examination grounding theories. We have
adopted various theories and methods about footprint dynamic char-
acteristics identity authentication, such as footstep characteristics
examination, footprint dynamic examination, sole wear and tear
characteristics examination. Meanwhile, we have employed knowl-
edge of disciplinary sciences such as anatomy, body movement
mechanics, mechanics, mechanics of materials, mathematics, and
computer science. We have observed and analyzed thousands of
footprint samples, achieved many research achievements. We hope
that through our further research, on one hand, those muddled ideas
in the footprint examination sphere get wiped out, and the theoretical
system of footprint dynamic characteristics examination will be per-
fected, so that the theory will be recognized by research departments
of domestic public security organs, the Peoples Procuratorate, the
Peoples Courts and international courts of justice, so as to increase
the utilization ratio of footprint; on the other hand, dynamic charac-
teristics examination physical models and mathematical models will
be established to realize quantitative examination technique, to uti-
lize instruments and apparatus to do measurement and examination
instead of naked eye observation examination, thus to break away
from examination methods based on experience.
Keywords: Footprint Dynamic, Step Characteristics
The Variability of Facial Reconstruction: A Case with Three
*Friedrich W. Rsing, Institut fr Humangenetik und
Anthropologie, Universitt Ulm, Germany; Matthias Graw, Institut
fr Rechtsmedizin, Universitt Mnchen, Germany.
The case: male, 18 or 19 years of age at death, European features,
possibly Mediterranean or Balkanic, shallow grave in a forest near
Pfullingen, found strongly skeletonised; no missing record matches,
so it should be assumed that he was an illegal immigrant, possibly
from the Balkans. Consequently no identication so far.
A rst reconstruction is drawn by Karen T Taylor, independent
forensic artist in Austin TX, assisted by Friedrich Rsing for setting
the soft tissue marks. Both frontal and lateral views are drawn, in
two different complexions, middle light and dark.
A second reconstruction is drawn by Mike Taister, forensic artist
at the FBI in Washington DC, assisted by Douglas Ubelaker.
A third reconstruction is drawn by Stef Burrath, facial identi-
cation expert of the Landes-Kriminal-Amt Mecklenburg. She used
the same soft tissue marks as Karen Taylor. This drawing was her
rst piece of such work, deliberately and experimentally done before
she delved into reconstruction bases.
Comparison: the appearence of the three faces is radically dif-
ferent. We might exclude attempt 3 because it was an experiment,
still the deceased cannot be represented by both. One problem might
be the soft tissue marks which in the case of the Washington team
were newly formed, whereas Karen Taylor uses pooled data which
are known since decades; this might explan the huge difference at
the gonion. Moreover, the Washington team did not take sufcient
respect of the nasal spine shape for the reconstruction of the nose
as a whole. Finally, the nose back differences may be explained by
the missing nasal bones, so with this trait neither attempt may be
marked as more reliable.
Facial reconstruction is a highly professional eld, very detailed
and precise work and much experience is needed. A "blind" ap-
proach leads to an average face, not a personal one.
These prerequisites do not at all guarantee success, rather a
personal reliability check would be needed but has never been
done so far.
Much experience has been published, ever since the pioneer work
of Kollmann at the end of the 19
c. Important older authors are e.g.
Gerasimow, Grner, Helmer or Lebedinskaja, or as a new author
Vignal. This cannot possibly be ignored if a reliable work is to be
Keywords: Facial Reconstruction, Variability
Forensic Archaeology
*Bianca Benisch, Federal Bureau of Criminal Repression Crime
Scene Unit-ZD12, Germany.
Since the crime scene -ZD12- faced within the last two years
increasing numbers of inquiries concerning the search for buried
corpses, we decided to establish the operating range "Forensic Ar-
chaeology" within our department. None of the colleagues working
in this eld is a scientist. So far we try to gain experience and to
improve the manner in which we approach buried crime scenes.
The speech is divided in two main Themes:
1. Strategic search for buried corpses which is based on archae-
ological (soil-sampling, plant-sampling, colour-change in soil, etc.)
and geophysical means (ground penetrating Radar, magnetometry,
etc.) The preparing of such a strategic search is explained by the
help of a case example.
2. "digging up" of buried corpses archaeological principles in
order to nd complex traces.
A buried scene can give a lot of hidden hints to the crime, the
perpetrator, etc. The "digging up" methods are illustrated by the
help of a case example.
I want to emphasis that our work in the eld of "Forensic Ar-
chaeology" is in a stage of commencement. We intend to present
our immediate methods of approaching a buried scene and hope to
receive information how other European colleagues handle cases
like these.
Keywords: Forensic archeology, Search for corpses, Grave
Putting the Pieces Together: Comparative Mass Grave
Excavation Methods
*Hugh Tuller, International Commission on Missing Persons,
Alipasina 45A, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Learning Objective: To present to the international forensic
community how proper archaeological methods and techniques as-
sist in the recovery of more complete bodies from mass graves
through a comparative analysis.
Although police agents, pathologists, anthropologists and ar-
chaeologists have been active in the recovery of single buried hu-
man remains for years the excavation of contemporary mass graves
containing hundreds of bodies is relatively new. The lack of past
investigation of mass graves to base recent excavations on forced
investigators to alter their methods or create new ones. During
the last several years of excavations in the former Yugoslavia and
Rwanda two basic methods of have emerged. These are the pedestal
method where the soil around the bodies is removed allowing the
body mass to be viewed and accessed from all angles, and the
top-down method that retains the grave walls while removing the
bodies in the reverse order from how they were placed in the grave.
Pros and cons for both methods exist. However, statistical analysis
regarding which method is better has not been done.
Better methodology in this case is dened by which method
allows for the exhumation of more complete bodies. Hundreds
of bodies in various degrees of decomposition intertwined and
mixed with muddy soil and artifacts make for a very complex,
confusing situation that can challenge even the most knowledgeable
investigator. Bodies within these graves often have been subjected
to massive trauma by the construction machines that placed them in
the grave or there may have been an attempt to further destroy the
bodies by re, chemical, or other method. It is often very difcult to
Scientic Sessions 171
determine which body part belongs to what body. Invariably many
bodies are removed from the grave missing limbs or other parts.
Body parts and single bones that cannot be associated with bodies
are labeled separately in hope they can be re-associated during
autopsy or with DNA analysis. The unassociated bones in particular
present problems as most are never re-associated due to time and
money constraints. The goal of mass grave excavation is the retrieval
of all evidence including bodies in their best possible condition. In
general, the more complete a body is upon removal from the grave
the more information a forensic pathologist and/or anthropologist
has for identication and crime analysis. The excavation method
that produces more complete bodies and less unassociated body
parts and bones should be considered rst when undertaking a mass
Two mass graves, part of the same event, created within the
same time period, containing almost 300 bodies each, and laying
approximately 10 meters from each other, were excavated using
the two different methodologies described. The rst grave (Grave
A) was excavated using the pedestal method. A year later the
second grave (Grave B) was excavated with the top-down method.
Separate forensic excavation teams, both with prior mass grave
experience, excavated the graves. Despite the extra year of time the
bodies had to decompose within Grave B, the top-down excavation
method produced more complete bodies and less unassociated body
parts and bones than did the pedestal method.
It is believed that maintaining the walls of the grave as done
in Grave B helped keep the decomposing bodies in situ permitting
more individuals to be recovered whole. By removing the grave
walls, as done in Grave A, the body mass relaxes and slumps,
further disarticulating bodies. While removal of the grave walls
allow for drainage of rain it also allows for erosion of soil and
decomposition matrix further relaxing the body mass. As a result of
body-mass-slump greater confusion within the grave occurs. More
body parts and other evidence shift from their original position
creating difculties for investigators to re-associate those items.
In addition to maintaining associations, the top-down method is
more practical in the absence of excavation machinery. While the
pedestal method requires a machine to remove the great amount
of soil around the body mass, the top-down method of excavation
needs only hand tools to excavate. As might be imagined, hand tool
excavation will be at a slower but more controlled pace and will
cause less damage to bodies than machine excavation.
While all mass graves are unique and present their own particular
challenges it is suggested that when planning an excavation the
top-down method be used if circumstances allow.
Keywords: Mass graves, Excavation methods
The New Methods of the Age at Death Denition on Changes of
a Bone Tissue
*Yuriy Pigolkin, Maria Fedulova and Natali Goncharova, 123242,
Sadovaja-Kudrinskaja ul., d.3, korp 2, Moscow, Russia.
Objectives: To make new methods and technologies allowing to
dene age at death with the maximum accuracy. Nature of the study:
Long-lasting prospective investigation.
Materials and Methods: Histological sections of the sternal ends
of the third ribs, tibial epiphyseal and diaphyseal fragments from 364
male cadavers aged 0-99 were studied by means of the histomorpho-
metrical computer analysis. Radiographs of the left hands of 2000
male and female aged 0-94 were subjected to the planimetrical and
densitometrical investigations. Statistic analysis: Multidimensional
analysis techniques have been systematically used.
Results: Method I. It was found 22 histologic parameters of a
bone tissue, which have precise correlation with age. Also it was
revealed, that in different groups the power of relationship of these
signs with age appeared various. At persons till 18 years when os-
teogenetic processes prevail, the increase of thickness and the area
of the epiphyseal trabeculae, internal general plates of the tibial
diaphises, the cortical layer and osteon density of rib was observed.
In a range of 18-30 years there is an adaptation of the bones (basi-
cally, the tibia) to changes of mechanical loading. The increase of
the osteon diameter and some expansion of their Haversian canals
reveals; thickness of internal and external general plates of the tibial
diaphyses decreases. In the rib active osteogenesis proceeds. In an
interval of 30-50 years the relative stabilization of all parameters
comes with the tendency to prevalence osteoresorption by the end
of this period: diameter of Haversian canals accrues, the density of
osteon with the reconstructed central department in tibial diaphy-
ses grows, the trabecular thickness in tibial epiphyses is reduced.
After 50 years process of osteoresorption is intensied: thickness
of a compact layer and trabeculae, osteocyte density decreases, the
density of reconstructed osteons is even more increased. Except
for described above, it was revealed, that identical structures in
the different bones change unsimultaneously (heterochronically). It
species necessity of the complex analysis of the various bones of
the same individual for more exact establishment of age. On the
basis of the received database the optimal parameters were allocated
and the regression equations were made with which help it is pos-
sible to calculate age of a male persons with accuracy 2-3 years.
Method 2. On radiographs of the left hands a number of the qual-
itative (osteophytes, signs of a bony rarecation, an osteosclerosis
and articulate deformations) and quantitative (dimensional charac-
teristics of various departments of phalanxes and marrowy canals)
parameters was analysed, and also the optical density of the bones is
measured. In result it was revealed, that the rst age changes at sep-
arate persons arise up to 30-years age, basically on distal phalanxes.
Further atrophic and compensatory-adaptive processes accrue, that
is shown by occurrence of exostoses on average and proximal pha-
lanxes, various nodes, growth of apiostoses on the distal phalanxes,
porous changes, expansion of marrowy canals, narrowing of articu-
late cracks. The degree of a hand bone mineralization also reduced.
After 50 years there is a spasmodic accumulation of the mentioned
signs. We also revealed dependence of the age changes degree on
sex of the individual. As well as in a method 1, to qualitative and
quantitative age signs of the hand bones we created a database and
the regression equations were made separately for male and female
persons on which the age with accuracy of 3-5 years is established.
Both methods were submitted as computer programs.
Conclusion: In this work two new methods of medicolegal age at
death denition with the help of histomorphometrical, planimetrical
and densitometrical analyses are offered. By these methods it is
possible to establish age with high accuracy both applying them
separately, and using them in common with each other, and also
with other known techniques that is doubtless may improve result
of examination even more.
Keywords: Age Denition, Bones
Pentosidine as a Marker of Human Age in Forensic Medicine
Age Estimation
*Alexander Pilin, Institute of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology,
General University Hospital in Prague; Studnikova 4, 12800
Prague 2, Czech Republic; Frantiek Pudil, Ji Sajdok, Institute of
Chemical Technology in Prague, Technick 5, 16628 Prague 6,
Czech Republic; Drahomra Bezdkov, Institute of Clinical
Biochemistry, General Hospital in Prague, U Nemocnice 2, 12800
Prague 2, Czech Republic; Vladimr Bencko, Institute of Hygiene
and Epidemiology, Studnikova 7, 12800 Prague 2, Czech Republic
and Jarmila Zdkov, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague,
Technick 5, 16628 Prague 6, Czech Republic.
Age estimation is a frequently asked question mainly in the cases
of the autopsy of unidentied dead bodies. The forensic medicine
172 Forensic Science International
has quite large menu of methods for age estimation which can be
divided into morphologic and chemical. The analysis of a teeth,
where morphologic methods (appreciation of attrition, root trans-
parency, periodontal recession etc.) as well as chemical (analysis for
D- aspartic acid) procedures can be applied, is considered to be the
most reliable method for age estimation. A problem may arise when
e.g. a dismembered dead body is found and no teeth are present.
In such case, it should be useful to perform chemical analysis of
soft tissues for markers of age. Unfortunately, until now there is no
reliable method for age estimation from soft tissue. The analysis of
posttranslational protein modication seems to be the possible way.
One of these modications is the formation of so called Advanced
Glycation End products (AGEs) in soft tissues. The pentosidin is
one of these AGEs. The pentosidine is a cross link between arginine
and lysine with a sugar in the molecule of collagen. It was found it
accumulated gradually during the life in the tissues containing the
collagen e.g. like tendon or intervertebral disc. We have investigated
the tissue of intervertebral disc for the presence and amount of
pentosidine. The intervertebral discs were cut-out from dead bodies
between the ages of 15 to 95 years, autopsied for different reasons
(natural and violent causes of death) in the Institute of Forensic
Medicine and Toxicology. The discs were stored deep frozen until
analysis. About 50 mg of wet tissues was extracted for proteoglycans
and the post-extraction residues were freeze dried. Approximately 5
mg of freeze dried tissue was hydrolyzed in 6 M HCl for 24 hours
at 110C. Hydrolyzate was analyzed for pentosidine using high per-
formance liquid chromatography with uorescence detector. The
analysis of the tissue was accompanied with determination of gly-
cated hemoglobin in blood as a marker of diabetes mellitus because
it was found that the amount of pentosidine was higher in the per-
sons suffering for diabetes mellitus. Results of our research indicate
that determination of pentosidine could be the reliable marker for
age estimation. The research is supported by the grant No 7281-4
given from Internal Grant Agency of Ministry of Health, Czech
Keywords: Age Estimation, Intervertebral Disc, Pentosidine
Evaluation of Suchey-Brooks Methods for Aging Skeletons in
the Balkans
*Marija Djuric, Danijela Djonic, Laboratory for Anthropology,
Institute of Anatomy, School of Medicine dr Subotica 4/2 11000,
Belgrade, Yugoslavia; Zoran Rakocevic, Radiology Department,
Faculty of Stomatology, Belgrade and Slobodan Nikolic, Institute of
Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
Of the various skeletal indicators for estimating the age of older
adolescents and adults, no single criterion has received more atten-
tion than the morphological development of the pubic symphyseal
face. The present study has been carried out to determine whether
Suchey-Brooks (S&B) methods could be successfully applied in
age assessment of populations from Balkans. The known-age sam-
ple consists of 25 female and 39 male pairs of pubic bones collected
from the autopsy cases from Institute for Forensic Medicine, Bel-
grade. Various metamorphic features were observed on the symphy-
seal surface: ridges and furrows, dorsal margin, ventral bevelling,
lower and upper extremity, ossic nodule, ventral rampart, dorsal
plateau and symphyseal lipping. Age estimation by S&B method
showed accuracy of 89.74% in males and 72.0% in females. The
greatest dispersion of the actual age at death was found in the fth
S&B faze. The most reliable single indicator in both sexes was
dorsal margin and ventral rampart. The less reliable single indicator
in females was the appearance of ossic nodules, while in the males
it was the dorsal plateau. Taking into account the deviation from the
S&B categories we developed slightly revised technique for popula-
tion in Balkans. Two blind tests of the method were performed with
experienced and non-experienced physical anthropologists. These
tests showed that between the experienced anthropologists interob-
server error was less than 10% of cases, while with inexperienced
one, the error was 16%.
Keywords: Age Assessment, Pubic Symphysis, Skeletal
Forensic Applications of Stable Isotopes in Hair
*Thure E. Cerling, James R. Ehleringer, Adam West, Erik Stange,
Dept. Biology. Univ. Utah. Salt Lake City, Utah, USA and Janet
Dorigan, Georgetown Pike, Fall Church, Virginia, USA.
Stable hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios have
the potential to be used in forensic applications. Hair records diet
(carbon and nitrogen) and water (hydrogen and oxygen) preferences
of individuals. Carbon isotopes reect primarily the fraction of diet
associated with the C4 or C3 photosynthetic pathways, which have
signicantly different 13C/12C ratios. Thus individuals from high
latitudes where C4 plants are absent in the food chain have d13Chair
values of 22 whereas those from low latitudes where C4 plants
are favored have d13Chair values up to 17. Nitrogen isotope
ratios also indicate diet preferences, but that of trophic levels. On the
other hand, 2H/H and 18O/16O ratios are primarily related to local
water sources which is derived from the natural variations of the
isotopic composition of rainfall. Hair from individuals from tropical
regions have d18Ohair of about +17, whereas that from people
living in higher latitudes are depleted in 18O. d18Ohair values of
+9 are found for people living in the Rocky Mountains (USA),
while a single person who overwintered at South Pole had a value
of +2. We present examples of diet changes of individuals who
travel, and regional differences in 2H/H, 13C/12C, 15N/14N, and
18O/16O of long time residents of particular locations. Bleaching,
dying, or coloring has only minor effects on the isotopic composition
of hair.
Keywords: Stable Isotopes, Hair, Diet
Age Estimation Based on Panoramic Radiography
Zoran Rakocevic, Radiology Department, Faculty of Stomatology,
Belgrade, Austria and *Marija Djuric, Laboratory for
Anthropology, Institute of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Belgrade,
There is still controversy in the anthropological literature con-
cerning the reliability of radiographic parameters for aging adult
individuals in forensic practice. The results illustrate that accuracy
of age estimation is inuenced by interpopulation and individual
variability, technique complexity and experience of the investigator.
In this study we attempt to develop a new method for age estima-
tion of adult individuals based on the analysis of ve radiographic
parameters of teeth and jaws on the ortopantomography: tooth loss,
occlusal tooth wear, pulp stones, carious teeth, periapical disease,
stomatological work, and periodontal disease (measured as distance
between the cementoenamel junction and the alveolar crest sur-
rounding mandibular canine and incisors, and maxillary premolars).
Number of carious teeth, number of extracted teeth and number of
tooth lling were considered as one category (CEF-T). The material
comprises 1200 dental panoramic tomograms of living patients of
both sexes with documented age (20 to 70 years). Statistical analy-
sis showed the strongest correlation between CEF-T parameter and
chronological age, but correlation coefcient varied in different age
categories. Third degree of tooth wear did correlate with chrono-
logical age in contrast to the rst and second degree, which showed
weak or no correlation with age. The bone loss in periodontal dis-
ease was signicantly correlated with age, particularly in maxillary
premolars, which showed minimum dispersion of results. Among
Scientic Sessions 173
the age related characteristics only the pulp stones did not correlate
to age. On the basis of obtained results calculation tables for age
estimation were designed.
Keywords: Age Estimation, Ortopantomography, Skeletal
The Development of the Forensic Anthropology in Albania
*Bardhyl Cipi, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of
Tirana, Faculty of Medicine, Rr."Dibra", 370, Tirana, Albania and
Besim Ymaj, Central Service of Forensic Medicine, Rr Dibra 370
Tirana, Albania.
Purpose: Presentation of the development of the Forensic An-
thropology in Albania.
Nature of study: Retrospective investigation.
Materials and Methods: Analysis of some cases of the identi-
cation of unknown skeletal human remains. The different methods of
Physical Anthropology etc. Illustration with some typical examples.
Results: The acquaintance of the Forensic Anthropology prob-
lems of identication of unidentied skeletal corpses which helps
the struggle against the criminality, it claims, among others, the ex-
ploitation of the data of Physical Anthropology, Criminalistics and
the deepening of the collaboration with the Forensic Odontology etc.
In this paper the authors present some data about the development
of the forensic anthropology in Albania. The different problems of
this discipline, especially in the identication of skeletal, badly de-
composed, or otherwise unidentied human remains in our country
are analyzed by the University Central Forensic Medicine Service
in Tirana, since its creation in 1953 and the Forensic Sector in the
Criminalistics Laboratory of Tirana, opened in 1957. In fact, during
the period 1953-1990, the cases of expertise of skeletal unknown
human remains were rare. After 1990, the period of the transition
after the defeat of the communism in Albania, characterized with
the opening of our country after a long period of time of isolation,
is also associated with a general recrudescence of the criminality.
In these circumstances, it is observed a great increase of the exper-
tise in the eld of the Forensic Anthropology. The author describe
the use in our practice of the different methods of the estimation
of age, sex, stature, race etc. He presents also some data about
Forensic Odontology and the facial identication by the method of
skull-photo superimposition and the graphic method of algorithm.
These are illustrated with some typical examples. In the expertise of
these cases an important role has played the collaboration with the
Department of the Anatomy of the Faculty of Medicine in Tirana.
There is also a case of the collaboration with the Forensic Medicine
Institute in Stockholm (Sweden). In conclusion of the paper it is
underlined efforts must be made that in Albania the problems of
Forensic Anthropology occupy their own place.
Keywords: Forensic Anthropology, Albania, Identication
Comprehensive Anthropological Studies and Facial
Reconstruction Concerning Skulls of 14 Persons Killed During
World War II
*Irena Bialek and Andrzej Czubak, Institute of Forensic Research,
Westerplatte 9, PL-31-033 Cracow, Poland.
The Institute of Forensic Research in Krakow received a request
from the Institute of National Remembrance to carry out superpro-
jection and DNA studies of 14 skulls of Poles killed in 1942 in
Poznan, with the aim of identifying these war crime victims. Before
carrying out reconstruction of the appearance of the persons when
alive, the skulls were examined with the aim of determining sex,
age at time of death and anthropological type. It was ascertained
that 10 of the victims were men, two were women and in two cases
gender could not be determined. The skulls originated from persons
ranging in age from 23 to 55 years old. The investigations also
revealed information about individual characteristics of some of the
skulls, indicating injuries while still alive, health problems and life
conditions of the persons during their development stage. In order
to determine the anthropological type of the skulls, studies were
carried out using specialist measuring instruments and appropriate
comparative tables, in this way gaining detailed information (both
measurements and descriptions) concerning each skull. In the stud-
ied group, the prominence of the maxilla and mandible in the nasal
area is noteworthy, as are the prominence and prole of the nasal
bones. In terms of these features, the skulls differ signicantly from
average Polish skulls. All the analysed skulls, in spite of having dif-
ferences. Distinguishing features of analysed skulls include: shape
of nasal bones (narrow, prominent), shape of maxillar dental arch
(narrow, elongated), alveolar prognathism. On the basis of anthropo-
metric information, a reconstruction of the living appearance of the
victims was undertaken. Having at our disposal ndings concerning
gender, age and anthropological type, the thickness of the muscle
layer covering the skull at appropriate anthropometric points was
ascertained, with the help of tables of data. These tables had been
worked out on the basis of the assumption that there is a correlation
between the osseous build of the skull and the thickness of the soft
tissues. The skulls were photographed on a scale of 1:1 from the
front and in prole. On photographs taken in this way, 15 anthropo-
metric points were marked, together with a margin corresponding
to thickness of soft tissues at these points, read from tables. On to
these photographs were superimposed tracing papers, on to which
particular elements of the probable appearance of the face were
drawn by hand. The points on the surface of the skull served as
indicators when drawing the contours of the face. When drawing
the nose, eyes and other parts of the face, scientic formulae were
helpful. The results of reconstruction of the living appearance of
the faces by the drawing method have been presented in 14 tables.
The Institute of Forensic Research received as comparative material
10 photographs and 4 xerocopies of photographs of persons miss-
ing during nazi occupation. Material came from families of those
persons and included both document photographs and snapshots
from family albums, showing men of various ages, at various facial
angles. On the basis of analysis of appearance of facial features
visible on the photographs, an attempt was made to determine the
age of each of the men and then an image of each face was su-
perprojected corresponding elements from the photograph and
the skull were superimposed. These studies did not reveal a match
between elements of the faces (on the photos) and corresponding
elements positioned on the skulls (taking into account the margin for
the thickness of the soft tissue layer) hence they were not shown
to be from the same persons. On the basis of comparative studies
carried out between photographs and the reconstructed portraits and
photograms of the skulls it was ascertained that the skulls from the
Natural Museum in Vienna most probably did not originate from
persons whose photographs were sent to us.
Keywords: Facial Reconstruction, Skull Superimposition
Good Practice Concerning the Securing of Burned Osseous
Material at the Scene of the Occurrence, Discussion of the Case
*Andrzej Czubak, Institute of Forensic Research, Westerplatte 9,
PL-31-033 Cracow, Poland.
In the work of forensic medical doctors and forensic anthro-
pologists, burned corpses devoid of soft tissues sometimes have to
be examined. In such cases the skeleton, as a result of the action
of high temperatures, undergoes thermal degradation, resulting in
cracking of bones, deformation, partial burns and ashing. An in-
teresting example of burning is annealing at low temperature with
insufcient supply of oxygen. The result is a chemical transfor-
174 Forensic Science International
mation of calcium carbonate and phosphate (building materials of
bones) to burned lime. Bones that have been transformed in this
way, if they are not appropriately secured, will then absorb wa-
ter from the atmosphere, and the lime in the bones will then be
hydrated. The result is rapid crumbling of surviving fragments of
bones. Appropriate securing and transport of this type of evidence
is thus a deciding factor for the quality of information which can
later be gained in anthropological examinations of this evidence. It
is especially signicant in the case of reconstruction of the living
appearance of the face of a dead person (requested by a judicial
body).In the course of securing the site of the criminal burning of
a corpse, the activities of the police were restricted to taking gen-
eral photographs of the positioning of the evidence, carrying out a
hand-drawn situational sketch, and collecting and packing material
evidence that was visible in the ashes, i.e. burnt human fragments
and other objects. At this stage most bones were still whole, and the
skull was photographed without positioning it in any special way.
Then all the bones were placed together in the same package and
sent to a forensic medical laboratory, with the aim of establishing the
sex and age of the burned person. At the same time, surface samples
in the vicinity of the skeleton were collected for the laboratory, with
the aim of establishing the composition of the accelerant mixture. In
the course of transport of the osseous material to the laboratory, the
skull and most of the large bones disintegrated into smaller pieces.
Medical experts stated that it was impossible to put them back to-
gether again and photograph them, and thus impossible to carry out
all medical and anthropological studies, including reconstruction of
the face.Study of material from the site of the re led to the discov-
ery of the presence of trace quantities of hydrocarbons which could
have originated from fuel oil, on remains of ashed newspapers. This
substance, which does not require a high temperature to ignite, can
burn in conditions of insufcient supply of air.In the face of a lack
of satisfactory results from earlier medical investigations, the Public
Prosecutors Ofce ordered additional small steps to be taken, above
all to secure the saved bone fragments against further destruction,
possibly allowing partial reconstruction in the future. This mainly
concerned elements of the skull, pelvis and long bones. The Public
Prosecutors Ofce also ordered that an attempt be made to recreate
the appearance of the face of the victim using modern computer
programmes.To this end, the material evidence from this case, to-
gether with documentation and earlier expert reports, were sent to
the Institute of Forensic Research in Krakow.Staff of the Section
of Fingerprints and Forensic Anthropology of the Institute at once
secured the crumbling bones by drying them and saturating them
with liquid parafn. Then, on the basis of saved fragments, most
bones were reconstructed by sticking together their tting surfaces.
Larger gaps were lled in using putty. The skull was tackled in a
similar manner. In this way the appearance of most of the cranio-
cerebral and large fragments of the craniofacial in the area of the
eye sockets, zygomatic arches, nasal aperture and the mandibula
was restored. (The photographs of the complete object contained
in the documentation were of no use as the positions and the light
and shade distribution (on the photos) made accurate discernment
of details impossible). Finally, the tted together fragments were
fastened onto a stand and an anthropologically correct photograph
was taken. After scanning this photographs, we set about enhancing
them electronically. After copying the secured osseous elements,
and then turning them over, they were glued into the places where
bone was missing. This procedure created a foundation for recon-
structing the face by the drawing method. In the end we managed to
achieve a strong similarity between the drawn image and a compar-
ative photograph supplied. Conclusion In cases such as this, special
care should be taken (at all stages starting from the scene of the
occurrence) to ensure the quality of secured evidence in the form
of documentation and objects themselves so that maximum in-
formation about the occurrence can be gained. This will facilitate
subsequent research and help a correct conclusion to be reached
concerning the case. So special attention should be paid to the way
of taking photographs, drawing sketches, writing descriptions and
physical securing of the evidence, for faulty packing of material
evidence has in the past made the work of experts more difcult or
even impossible.
Keywords: Burned Bones, Securing Evidence, Anthropological
Case Report on Two Muti Murders from South Africa
*Maryna Steyn, Dept. of Anatomy, University of Pretoria, South
In January 2000 police submitted three pots, obtained from a
"witchdoctors" house, for analysis. Two of the pots were con-
structed around human skulls, while the third was made of a
"kalbassie" (plant material). All three pots were constructed by
moulding epoxy or a similar substance around the skulls/kalbassie.
All three objects were carefully decorated with beaded mats, neck-
laces with coloured beads, skin (crocodile and possibly human)
armbands, bird talons, human nger bones and small animal horns.
One object contained a ping-pong ball as stopper, while the other
two had lids embedded into the resin. Porcupine quills or metal rods
were inserted into the lids, which were apparently used to apply the
medicine to the foreheads of the customers. Apparently car hijack-
ers formed a large part of the clientele. A variety of objects were
found inside the pots, all in a foul-smelling purple liquid containing
leaves and herbs. These included coins, a human tongue, various
human and animal bones, a tampon, white stones, empty shells, and
a piece of animal tail. These objects all have symbolic meaning that
helps to increase the potency of the medicine. The objects, espe-
cially the beadwork, show similarities with Tsonga cultural goods.
Colour plays an important role in the symbolism associated with the
treatment - the black and red stand for good and bad, while white
represents what is good. Red and black are used to expel bad things
from the body, and to strengthen the body against future attacks.
White is used to regain good health.
The epoxy resin was removed from both human skulls. Anthro-
pological assessment indicated that one skull probably belonged to a
young individual of about 16 2 year of age (open epiphyses in long
bones in the pots). This skull was delicate, tentatively indicating a
female. The other skull belonged to a young adult male. Using cra-
nial data, multiple discriminant functions were developed using only
those measurements that could be taken from the two crania. For
this purpose, existing data from South African Blacks and Whites
was used. From this it could be deducted that the younger individual
was probably of Negroid origin, and the adult male of Caucasoid
origin. No cause of death could be detected. To our knowledge the
sangoma died in jail, and the case never came to trial.
It seems that the use of skulls and pots go back a long time in
history, and clearly has a signicant meaning. A pot with a com-
plete skull, mandible and three cervical vertebrae was discovered
from the Mapungubwe Iron Age site (AD 1000 - 1300). However,
more research is needed on the ritual signicance of these types of
Keywords: ritual murder, witchdoctor, cranial remains
SEM Analysis of the Effects of Burning on Dried Human and
Nonhuman Enamel Prism Structure and Packing
*Megan K. Moore, 1704 Washington Avenue, Apt. C, Knoxville, TN
37917, USA.
When bones and teeth are found within the debris of a re, the
rst question of law enforcement is whether or not the remains are
human. This research project by a physical anthropology doctoral
student at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville will examine the
Scientic Sessions 175
morphology of enamel prism and prism packing before and after
burning at varying times and temperatures to determine the critical
point for which the prisms become unrecognizable as to species.
A secondary research question being considered is whether or not
the heating temperature can be determined from the fracture pat-
tern of the enamel. Tooth enamel is the hardest element in the
human body with 99% mineral content. The high mineral content
and subsequent low organic component makes tooth enamel ex-
tremely resistant to the effects of burning. Furthermore, mammals
have uniquely shaped enamel prisms, which permits histological
differentiation at the species level. As early as 1849, J. Tomes rec-
ognized the importance of enamel structure as a taxonomic indicator.
Gantt (1979) described the overall human prism pattern as a denite
keyhole shape and gorilla prisms as hexagonal. The following re-
search will explore the effects of burning on tooth enamel of several
mammal species to determine the critical temperature at which the
enamel prism structure and packing pattern become unrecogniz-
able. The four species to be considered are domestic cow, domestic
horse, deer and human. Methods include burning the teeth at 200C,
600C, 800C and 1000C for ve, fteen and thirty minutes in an
electric mufe furnace. The control group will consist of unburned
teeth from each species. The teeth will be thin-sectioned and viewed
with a Scanning Electron Microscope at 3,500X magnication. The
research goals include quantifying the shape of the prism and prism
packing for each species from the unburned dentition using triangu-
lation, analyzing the shape after burning and comparing the results
to see if the difference before burning and after burning is statisti-
cally signicant within and between species. Previously, Yamamoto
et al. (1990) has undertaken this research question by looking at
teeth extracted from fresh cadavers of a human, rabbit, rat, dog, and
rhesus monkey. In life, water is present within the prism matrix, the
surrounding organic sheath and inter-prismatic spaces. When teeth
are burned, the sheath burns up very quickly, but the prism outline
is maintained (Hillson, 1996)(Yamamoto et al., 1990). The denser a
bone, the more brittle it will be when burned, with cortical bone and
enamel fracturing earlier than spongy bone. The enamel will ake
off, but the enamel prisms can still be identied in the fractured
enamel. The overall morphology of prism shape and packing pat-
tern unique to each species is retained up until 700C. The critical
heating point differs between species. Mayne Correia (1997) and
Yamamoto et al. (1990) found similar results with burned bone and
teeth, in which there appears to be a fracturing point of no return,
also called elastic deformation, which occurs at around 800C. Va-
porization of this water is the likely cause for much of the enamel
cracking according to Yamamoto et al. (1990 ). Dried bone reacts
very differently upon heating than does wet or eshed bone. A skull
will explode in a re when the water content of the brain and bone
vaporizes and expands. The direction of cracks on the long bones
will change depending on whether the bone was wet or dry (Mayne
Correia, 1997). By using dried teeth, the cracking would be kept
to a minimum, extending the critical temperature for prism recog-
nition and species differentiation. This research project is presently
ongoing at the University of Tennessee. The samples have been
collected and are undergoing burning and thin-sectioning, with re-
sults to be reported in March. The overarching goal is to provide
research relevant to forensic anthropologists, forensic odontologists
and bio-archaeologists in determining the presence of burned human
Keywords: Enamel Prisms, Prism Packing, Burning
Distinguishing Between Human and Non-human Bones:
Histometric Method for Forensic Anthropology
*Petra Urbanov and Vladimr Novotn, Masaryk University Brno,
Faculty of Science, Kotl rsk 5, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic.
A forensic anthropologist standing in front of skeletal remains
focuses on resolving questions primary for any anthropological ex-
pertise: What is the origin of the found remains? Do they belong
to human or non-human individual? He or she usually searches for
answers comparing found bones with osteological collections. The
main anatomical factors, a shape and a size are the rst attributes
used as basically origin determining. Nonetheless, many taxons
share similar morphological patterns and together with fragmentary
condition of ensemble these factors lose the main discriminative
roles. Similarly, one can nd the answer of origin in immunochem-
ical or biomolecular DNA methods. Nevertheless, how to iden-
tify heavily degraded or cremated remnants if all above-mentioned
methods fail? Histological methods seem as alternative or secondary
techniques in many directions. Supposed demands for technical and
material background pushed them in a standard anthropological
examination aside. Regardless, microstructure of bones hides infor-
mation, which we are able to notice and to use for our own prot.
Our study initiated contemporary needs in Czech criminalistic prac-
tice. We had been asked to ll up the methodical vacuum existing
in Czech forensic anthropology, which had been left without an
adequate identication key or suitable tables distinguishing bony
fragments of human origin from any others of animal taxons. Clas-
sical histomorphological methods based on comparing structures
specic for each taxon ght with subjective evaluations and me-
thodical requirements to experiences of observers. For these reasons
they do not suit to current routine forensic practice. Perceiving this
recent problem we focused our research on analysing characteristics
of bone tissue using quantitative microscopy. Compact substance
in tubular bone consists of lamellas organized into concentrically
arranged systems, commonly known as Haversian system or sec-
ondary osteon. Each osteon contains Haversian canal running in a
center, orientated parallel with longitudinal axis of a tubular bone.
We selected a middle part of femur shaft as clearly dened anal-
ogous locus for following interspecies comparison. Because of the
dense properties of compact substance in the middle shaft of fe-
mur the selected locus provides presumptions to be preserved in
heavily degraded or burnt skeletal remains and so be the object
for forensic analysis. Studied ensemble consisted of human bones
and bones of eight mammalian taxons. Taxons were chosen care-
fully with regard to include both domestic and wild living species of
even-toed ungulates, odd-toed ungulates and carnivores (Bos taurus,
Equus caballus, Canis familiaris, Ovis aries, Sus scrofa domestica,
Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capreolus capreolus). Undecalcied
thin-sections from middle shaft of femur were prepared and anal-
ysed in standard transmit light microscope. Parameters of 1,381
osteons and 1,916 Haversian canals were measured automatically
using image analysis software. Data containing number of osteons
in 1mm
, length of minimal and maximal axis, perimeter and area
of each osteon and Haversian canal were analysed to demarcate
inter and intra species variability at rst place. Secondary, we used
methods of multidimensional static analysis, discriminant function
analysis to eliminate the least determinative parameters and to set
up an identication key for determining the origin of the sample.
The most determinative micrometric properties of compact tissue
appeared to be: length of maximal axis of Haversian canal, area of
Haversian canal, length of maximal axis of osteon. As a conclusion
we formulated two different types of classication equations distin-
guishing human and non-human origin of bone. The rst one uses
only histometric properties of compact substance of femur shaft
and gives a predicted correct classication of 94% of cases. The
second equation combines histometric properties of bone with gross
morphological parameter, with a cortical bone width. This equation
predicted correct classication of 100% of cases.
Keywords: Bone tissue, Histometry, Human vs. non-human
176 Forensic Science International
Determination of Sex from Measurements of Hand and Foot
Abdi Ozaslan, Istanbul University, Medical Faculty of Cerrahpasa,
Department of Forensic Medicine, 34303, Istanbul, Turkey; *Sadk
Toprak, The State National Institute of Forensic Medicine, 34303,
Istanbul, Turkey and Sermet Koc, Istanbul University, Medical
Faculty of Cerrahpasa, Department of Forensic Medicine, 34303,
Istanbul, Turkey.
The identication of a persons gender by an isolated extremity
can create problems for the investigation of the identity of some of
the victims. In spite of a need for such a study, there is a lack of
systematic studies to identify fragmented and dismembered human
remains. The purpose of this paper is to analyze anthropometric
relationships between dimensions of the extremities and sex. Anal-
ysis are based on samples of male (n = 202) and female (n = 108)
middle class Turkish adults residing in Istanbul. The participants
are mostly students, staff members of a medical school and military
personnel. This study includes subjects without any pathologic or
morphologic skeletal changes. All measurements are taken from the
left side according to the procedure described by the International
Biological Programme. For the convenience of the readers the di-
mension are taken by a sliding caliper. Taken measurements are hand
length and breadth, wrist breadth, foot length and breadth and an-
kle breadth. The associations of relevant variables and gender were
assessed with multiple logistic regression method. As an alterna-
tive approach, factor analysis were carried out to dene collinearity
all variables. Three factors, which were obtained from the factor
analyse, were used to predict gender in multiple logistic regression
model. Principal component analysis were used to extract initial fac-
tors. Only factors with eigen values of more than 0,5 were retained
in the analysis, because, the total explained variance has to be at
least %80. The initial factors were subjected to Varimax rotation to
facilitate their interpretation. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sam-
pling Adequacy and Bartletts Test of Sphericity was used to check
suitability of the dataset for factor analysis. The signicance level
was considered to be p<0,05. The logistic regression analyse was
performed for discrimination of gender. A total accuracy of %89
was estimated by using foot length and wrist breadth predictors.
Three factors had to be determinated with the factor analyse. With
the parameters, a total variance of %84 was explained in this study.
These three factors were named as followed; the rst factor, which
includes foot and ankle breadth, "foot breadth factor", the second
factor, which includes hand and wrist breadth, "hand breadth factor"
and the last factor, which includes hand and foot lengths "length
factor". We performed multivariate regression analyse to the results,
which was obtained from the factor analyse to prediction of gender,
and noticed, that a total accuracy of %90 was reached, when the
model, which includes all three factors, were used. The conclusion
of this study is, that the determination of a living sex can be made
possible, while using various dimensions of extremities. But one
must consider the differences between populations in order to apply
functions as such to others.
Keywords: Determination sex, Mass disaster, Turks
Determination of Gender from Articular Breadth
Humman Sen, Abdi zaslan, *Berna Senel and Sermet Ko,
Istanbul University, Medical Faculty of Cerrahpasa, Department of
Forensic Medicine, 34303, Istanbul, Turkey.
The identication of an isolated extremity as well as the gender
of the person it belonged to has created problems in the investigation
of the identity of some victims. In spite of a need for such a study,
there is a lack of systematic studies identifying fragmented and dis-
membered human remains. The purpose of this paper is to analyze
anthropometric relationships between articular breadth of the ex-
tremities and gender. This study has been evaluated in the Autopsy
Hall of the Morgue Specializing Department, the State National
Institute of Forensic Medicine in Istanbul. Data were collected from
whole as well as non-decayed adult bodies sent by the public prose-
cutor to be autopsied. The study consisted of 39 male and 18 female
bodies. Only subjects without any pathological or morphological
skeletal changes were included. All of the measurements were taken
from the four extremities according to the procedure described by
the International Biological Programme. Measurements taken are
bicondylar humerus, wrist breadth, bicondylar femur and ankle
breadth. For the convenience of the readers the articular breadths
are taken by a millimeter sliding caliber. Data from the four ex-
tremities were measured to abolish the difference of left or right
sided extremity. Before starting this study a pre-study was com-
pleted aiming to cease differences of measures of our investigators
as well as to standardize the measurements. Moreover, some cases
have been measured repeatedly by each investigators. The data are
analyzed using various subroutines of SPSS (Statistical Package for
the Social Sciences), developed for various combinations to reach
the best estimate possible. The associations of relevant variables
and gender were assessed with multiple logistic regression method.
Total accuracy was estimated 87 % when left wrist breadth and
left bichondyler humerus breadth predictors were used. left wrist
breadth and left bichondyler humerus breadth had both 0,04 signif-
icance level. In conclusion the study suggested that determination
of a living sex can be made possible using left wrist breadth and
left bichondyler humerus breadth. One must consider differences
between populations in order to apply functions as such to others.
Keywords: Sex determination, Articular breadth, Dismembered
human remains
Carrying Angle- A Sex Indicator: An Investigation Into Its
Probable Cause of Formation
*Ruma Purkait, Department of Anthropology, Saugor University,
Saugor, M.P., PIN-470 003, India.
When the forearm is completely extended and supinated, the long
axis beyond the elbow joint is not in line with the upper arm but is
deviated laterally. This is referred to as Carrying or Cubital angle.
In the living the angle measures around 173 degrees in males and
167 degrees in females. The angle is neutralized when the forearm
is exed or pronated from extended supinated position. The cause of
its formation is a long debated issue. The present study is an attempt
to identify by anthrpometric means the sexually dimorphic features
in the bones of the elbow joint which make the Carrying angle a
sex indicator. The distal end of humerus and the proximal end of
ulna playing major role in the formation of Carrying angle have
been examined for sex difference. Two new measurements for the
humerus (angle of inclination of trochlea and condylo-diaphyseal
angle) and three measurements for the ulna (Olecranon-coronoid
angle, length and width of inferior medial trochlear notch ) were
devised for the study. The study was conducted at the Medicolegal
institute of Bhopal in central India. A board was specially designed
for the purpose of measuring olecranon coronoid angle. The length
and width of inferior medial trochlear notch of ulna were recorded
to the 1/100 millimetre using Mitutoyo Dial caliper. Though the
humeral angles failed to show any sex difference the angle and
dimensions of ulna exhibited statistically signicant result. The data
were further exposed to discriminant function analysis using SPSS
package. Direct analysis using single or multiple variables revealed
olecranon -coronoid angle as the best single parameter yielding
85% accuracy. The length and width of inferior medial trochlear
notch of ulna produced 73.8% and 70.6% accuracy respectively.
Could these parameters be the cause of sex difference the Carrying
angle exhibited at the elbow joint ? Measurements of inferior
medial trochlear notch have an additional advantage of being used in
Scientic Sessions 177
fragmentary bone where only upper end is available. The calibrated
discriminant functions correctly classied 90.6% of all males and
females of an independent test sample.
Keywords: Carrying Angle, Ulna Humerus
Forensic Anthropology in the Department of Anthropology at
Masaryk University Brno (Czech Republic)
*Vladimr Novotn, Masaryk University, Faculty of Science,
Department of Anthropology, Kotl rsk 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech
Anthropological Institute at the Masaryk University had been
founded in 1924, in the former Czechoslovakia. Nevertheless, re-
stricting interventions during the totalistic period reduced the activ-
ity in the Institute to extremes. Still, so called "Velvet Revolution"
in 1989 allowed to restore and re-found the Institute as an integral
part of Masaryk University, as the Department of Anthropology,
Faculty of Science, Masaryk University Brno. The process had initi-
ated with primary ambitious programme to establish biological and
social cultural anthropology as an entire science. Being one of the
most essential aspect in the research, attention is given to method-
ology, that is creation, verication/falsication of new methods and
techniques, as well as application in practice for the analysis of
skeletal remains (sex estimation, age estimation, determination of
stature, assessment of racial afnity, manifestation of childbirth,
health condition, nutrition deciencies and markers of stress condi-
tion) including experimental approach (paleodermatoglyphics, etc.).
All above-mentioned methods might be utilised in a great scale of
anthropological subcategories, from paleoanthropology, prehistoric
and historic anthropology to forensic anthropology and criminal-
istics. In this point they enrich the forensic sciences. Existing in
newly formed democratic ambience the personnel of the department
was able to co-operate openly and even more closely with foren-
sic anthropologists of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague and
mainly with numerous foreign institutions. Due to current social en-
vironment demanding higher requirement (increase of criminality,
international terrorism, etc.) on one hand and rapid development of
theory and methods applying in forensic sciences on the other hand
the Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Science at Masaryk
University Brno as the rst and only in the Czech Republic set up
the course of forensic science as a part of studies for Master degree.
Prof. Y. M.

I scan being not only our friend (then Florida Atlantic
University) but being our fellow and colleague for more than 30
years can be considered as a "model" for this course. The pro-
gramme of this one-semester course is built up on his own paper
"Rise of Forensic Anthropology" (Yearbook of Forensic Anthro-
pology 31, 1988). 12 lessons contain relatively detailed description
of fundamental topics: what is forensic anthropology; what is its
denition according to anthropological, medical and legal sciences;
multidisciplinary of forensic sciences, education and current re-
search trends, professional standards for practitioners, development
of forensic anthropology; what is "forensic skeletal nd". Identi-
cation of skeletal remains, approach of physical/biological anthro-
pology (group biology) vs. forensic anthropology (identication of
personal biology), "big four": determination of age, sex, stature and
race + manifestation of childbirth, stress markers in the skeleton
(professional and activity-related). What can skeletal remains say
about life of individual, pathology, traumas, taphonomy, hand and
foot prints, reconstruction and comparison of facial physiognomy,
skull-to-photograph superimposition; methods of gross anatomy,
histology, radiography etc. and special methods as serology, DNA,
stable isotopes, statistical model. Crime scene archaeology. Foetus
and new-born skeletal remains, mass disasters and graves. Positive
identication. Forensic anthropologist on a crime scene, as an expert
witnessing. Philosophical aspects of forensic anthropology. Seven
half-day seminaries are based on practising the methods originating
in the Department of Anthropology and can be classied as priorities
made for forensic anthropology:
(1) Sexual dimorphism and determination of sex of the skeleton: a
systems approach. (V. Novotn 1962-2003):
(a) pelvis: priority meta-methodological approach to the sex-
ing, 100% of correct determination at least (ischiopubic
segment vs. sacroiliac segment and pelvis as a whole). The
research had been continuing in the cooperation with Uni-
versity of Bordeaux, J. Br uek, University of Bari, E. Vacca,
V. Pesce-Delno (Analytic denition of Reference Outlines
in Sexing dealing with image analysis and pattern recog-
(b) skull: quantication of morphoscopic characters of the skull
and using of step-wise discriminant analysis in sexing of
skeletal nds (also with University of Leipzig, D. Leopold);
morphologic and osteometric assessment of age, sex and
race from the skull (in cooperation with Florida Atlantic
University, Y. M.

I scan, S. Loth).
(c) small bones of lower extremity (talus, calcaneus, patella)
(2) Parturition scars of the human female bony pelvis and other
modications of bones (sulcus preauricularis vs. sulcus para-
(3) Paleodermatoglyphics: retrospective analysis of fragmentary
ngerprints age estimation of subadult individuals (Krlk
(4) Distinguishing between human and non-human bones: histo-
metric method for forensic anthropology and criminalistics (Ur-
banov 2002-2003).
(5) Determination of sex and age from cremated bones (J. Nov cek
2000-2003 in cooperation with University of Goettingen, M.
(6) Estimation of age at death using teeth (M. Vystr cilov 1999-
(7) Facial reconstruction from the skull (P. Mal 2002-2003 in
cooperation with Laboratory of anthropological reconstruction,
Institute for ethnology and anthropology, Russian Academy of
Science Moscow, E. Veselovskaya, T. Baluyeva).
The aim of education of forensic anthropology at Masaryk Uni-
versity is to improve the information concerning the discipline for
potential applicants in professional career in this specialization on
the one hand and to educate/train every anthropologist perfectly in
determination of "big four" of any unknown skeletal nd on the
other hand. Curriculum, as well as list of priority cited papers of
the Department of Anthropology, Masaryk University are available
right here.
Keywords: Forensic anthropology, Education/training, Priority
results, Masaryk University Brno (Czech Republic)
Facial 3d Reconstruction
*Hana Eliov, Daniel Dvok and Ondej Prochzka Institute of
Criminalistics Prague, Czech Republic.
Facial 3D reconstruction can be dened as a computer-aided
process of face modeling on the background of skull that is based
on scientically veried parameters and relationships between soft
tissues and skeletal support. The objective of the facial reconstruc-
tion for forensic purposes is to realize the type appearance of the
face according to cranium in cases of nding unknown cadavers
in various stages of the soft tissue decomposition. Background for
the reconstruction consists of digitized three-dimensional model of
skull obtained by scanning the pertinent cranium with 3D laser
scanner. The very reconstruction of the face is performed in the
FACERE system, comprising set of means for semiautomatic three-
dimensional reconstruction carried out with the help of computer.
Three-dimensional facial reconstruction denotes herein the process
in which the geometrical model of corresponding human face is
178 Forensic Science International
created on the basis of geometrical model of the skull. Then, the
term semi-automatic indicates that the resulting model is generated
in close interaction with human operator - the anthropologist. The
FACERE system is engaged exclusively in geometrical aspect of the
reconstruction. This system includes description of input and output
data, software tools for interactive facial reconstructions, software
tools for interactive editing of facial components and proprietary
formats for storage of partial results. Facial reconstruction is per-
formed in three basic steps: 1)The zero generation model contains
geometrical model of the cranium and denition of reconstruction
regions. It is the output format of the craniometrical editor and
contains virtually all information needed in the course of further
reconstruction. 2) The 1st generation model contains parts of face.
The face part is a result of reconstruction in one of the reconstruction
regions. The 1st generation model is generated fully automatically
from the zero generation model 3) The 2nd generation model con-
tains nal geometrical model of the face. The 2nd generation model
is created from the 1st generation model via automatic integration
of the face parts into one surface and through interactive nal mod-
ications, mainly smoothing. The whole system consists of three
basic components. These are: 1)Craniometrical editor allowing cre-
ation and further editing of the zero generation model on the basis
of input data, namely the 3D model of the skull, list of cranio-
metrical points, and facial components database (eyes, nose, lips)
2) Component editor allowing creation and further editing of the
database of facial components on the basis of their imported 3D
models 3) Reconstruction chain performing the very reconstruction,
i.e. transition from the zero generation model to the 2nd generation
model. Model of skull - 3D scanner output - can contain defects that
are eliminated by automatic volumetric correction of the polygonal
model. Denition of craniometrical points follows after correction
of the model. The editor displays in perspective view modied three-
dimensional model of skull in two different previews; thus enabling
to interactively determine positioning of complete or partial set of
reference points and soft tissue thickness in each of these points.
Important characteristics of the points include, among others, also
relative point weight (inuence of points on surrounding area) as
well as decimal drop distance relevant to decrease of soft tissue
thickness with increasing distance from the craniometrical point.
Values for soft tissue thickness at specic points (transferred to
normal line) are listed in conguration les of the editor that are
determined by the following parameters: ethnicity, gender, and age
group. Facial reconstruction is realized stepwise in several selected
areas that are nally integrated into a single nal model of the face.
We differentiate between two types of areas - craniofacial regions
and areas of facial components Craniofacial region is dened as
a continuous part of cranial surface, to which a set of attributes
pertains (name, border, coloration, specic reconstruction algorithm
given by a set of craniometrical points, thickness of soft tissues,
and other parameters such as surface convolution coefcient and
convolution radius). Visualization technique makes it possible to
see 3D model of the skull and the reconstructed face model as
an object covered with semi-transparent coating composed of soft
tissues. To check the accuracy of the reconstruction process, two
instruments have been implemented (instrument for the soft tissue
thickness measuring at individual spots of the face part, created by
reconstruction, and instrument for interactive generation of simple
two-dimensional sections across the 1st generation model represent-
ing intersection of the cranial 3D model surface and reconstructed
face parts with the section plane. The algorithm for reconstruction
of component region (eyes, nose, lips) is as follows: transforma-
tions are applied to the selected 3D model of the facial component
stepwise, in the sequence - warping, scaling, rotation, and trans-
lation Reconstructed model of the face is subsequently modied
with a volumetric algorithm. For nal edits of the facial model,
that means texture mapping, the Deep Paint 3DTM commercial
software with integrated Texture Weapon tool has been selected. Fi-
nal output of the reconstruction includes two-dimensional pictures
of the face model (full face and side face), which can be easily
Keywords: Facial Reconstruction, Forensic Science,
A Research Over Cranio-facial Identication by 3D Image
*Yuwen Lan and Yabin Wang, Tieling 213 Research Institute, No.33
Nanma Road, Yinzhou Dist, Tieling City, Liaoning Province, P. R.
This paper studies the examination methodology for identifying
the origin of the unknown skull in murder cases with 3D digital
image technology. First sweep the skull to be examined in 360
3D digital scanner and a 3D digitized image will be produced auto-
matically by the computer. As the 3D digitized image of the skull
can change its orientation and angles freely, thus in accordance
with the orientation ,angles and central perspective proportion of
the missing persons photo and data of its natural head , we can
superimpose the skull image over the head photo automatically and
determine if the examination indices match and give the reliable
examination result. This study belongs to forensic anthropology
and the research over 3D cranio-facial identication covers two as-
pects: skull-image superimposition and face-image superimposition.
Skull-image superimposition identication: It is to make identica-
tion of the unknown skull with the photo of the missing person. This
methodology is mainly used to determine the origin of the dead bod-
ies in murder cases with dismembered bodies, skeletonized bodies,
unidentied dead bodies and cases of re, explosion, aircrash and
ship wreckage. Therefore, it is very important to the investigation
of serious criminal cases and proper settlement of great disaster.
Face-image superimposition identication: It is to make identica-
tion of the images and pictures of the criminal suspects obtained
from the criminal act site or investigation with the faces of the living
suspects. It is applied to identify whether the criminal suspect is
the same person with the images or pictures recorded on the site
or obtained through investigation in great political cases ,economic
fraud cases or robberies in banks ,jewelry shops and museums. It
will provide valuable clues and court evidences for investigation and
trial of such cases.
Keywords: 3D image, Skull-image identication, Face-image
Identication of Living Offenders on Images
*Friedrich W. Rsing, Institut fr Humangenetik und
Anthropologie, Universitt, 89070 Ulm, Germany.
In many law suits and police investigations images of persons
play a major role for identication. Typical case groups are bank
robbery or trafc violations, and the necessity to involve an expert
arises from poor picture quality of a surveillance camera or the claim
of poor quality. A rare but most interesting case group concerns the
identication of historic or prominent persons.
Akey case may be presented because it has been extensively pub-
lished by the daily press (otherwise pictures should not be shown
publicly): The bank robber is documented by the surveillance cam-
era, there are several rather good pictures. A suspect is named by
the police investigator, he is another policeman. Similarity is con-
vincing, so he is charged. During the law suit a rst identity opinion
is given, restricted to the right ear, and it is positive, assigning the
highest probability class, yet issued by a non-expert of photo id.
Then a complete opinion points to trait contradictions which ex-
clude identity. The accused is aquitted. An interesting detail: right
from the beginning he had pointed to those contradictions.
This is not an excentric case but rather typical, as there is a
Scientic Sessions 179
principal element that leads to such difculties: If the surveillance
picture is used for investigations, principally there should be a
similarity to the suspect or possibly many suspects. This effect is
called "pre-selection", the suspects are not a chance choice from the
basic population, but selected for similarity to the perpetrator.
The principle of identication by pictures: (1) the face (hands...)
is partitioned into many single and small traits (not regarded as
a whole as in daily regognition), (2) the traits are standardised, ie
compared to schematic drawings, (3) the traits are determined slowly
and thoroughly (in contrast to the high speed of daily recognition),
(4) development of reproductibility, (5) on the basis of population
data of the traits the probability for identity is assessed on a graded
scale (in contrast to the polarisation of daily recognition between
identical and not identical); or, in the case of dissimilarity, the
probability of non-identity is given, which of course is only based
on picture quality and not on population frequencies.
Existing bases in anthropology are the many ancient works on
morphognostic trait variability and their population frequencies.
Some of it has been done for the former morphological paternity
assessment. As this was a method mainly used in the German
speaking region, the subsequent identication method is a German
specialty, too. A parallel development exists in criminalistics, often
connected to composite drawings etc. These identications are done
during daily police work, whereas the anthropological expertise
normally is given to a court.
Pre-requisites. As the principles, bases, rules and exeptions are
numerous and differentiated, an identication expert should have
a thorough instruction, theoretical as well as practical, followed
by a long period of tuition. Within the framework of the existing
union of experts this is examined. Following a positive outcome an
accrediation is given. At the moment a third wave of applications is
being decided.
Work standards are agreed and published. They include rules on
expertise formulation, ring tests, use of a standardised probability
scale, for each trait assessent of population frequency and of the
reliability of recognition, check of possible age differences and
deliberate facial changes. A forensic opinion is given under the
reservations (1) that no close relative might be involved, too, (2) that
the comparison image does indeed show the suspect, (3) that there
are no hidden changes of the appearance in the refernece image.
Technique. The pictures of a suspect are normally made by the id
expert, and they should technically match the surveillance pictures;
an optimal solution is the use of the surveillance camera. If there is a
choice, then conventional photography should be chosen because e-
pictures are normally coarser and because claims of undocumented
alterations to the pictures may be raised.
Sometimes superimposition is a useful tool; then one of the
two pictures should be reduced to contours or points. To illustrate
identity the parallel lines after Kaiser-Lindner may be used. All
these are auxiliary measures, the core of identication remains the
thorough analysis of all detailed traits. For the reconstruction of
stature there are elaborated methods, one of them is a patent.
Experience in court is often of the same kind: at the beginning
scepticism about just using eyes and brains and no sophisticated
and expensive machinery. Then the decisive details for the case are
elaborated and consequently the court and the parties are impressed
by the obvious difference between recognition and image analysis.
References Textbook articles:
Knussmann R (1988) Die morphologische Identittsprfung.
In: Knussmann R (Ed) Anthropologie. Band I/1. Gustav Fischer,
Stuttgart: 389-407.
Schwarzscher F (1992) Identizierung durch Vergleich von Kr-
permerkmalen, insbesondere anhand von Lichtbildern. In: Kube E,
Strtzer O, Timm J (Ed) Kriminalistik. Handbuch fr Praxis und
Wissenschaft. Bd l. 735-761.
Rsing Fw (im Druck) Identikation von Personen auf Bildern.
77 in G Widmaier (Ed): Mnchner Anwaltshandbuch Strafvertei-
digung. CH Beck-Verlag, Mnchen. Ms Nov 2002.
Work standards:
Buhmann D, Helmer RP, Jaeger U, Jrgens HW, Knussmann
R, Rsing Fw (Vors.) Schmidt HD, Szilvssy J, Ziegelmayer G
(1999) Standards fr die anthropologische Identikation lebender
Personen auf Grund von Bilddokumenten. Grundlagen, Kriterien
und Verfahrensregeln fr Gutachten. Anthrop Anz 57/2, 185-191;
Dt Autorecht 4/99, 188-189; Kriminalistik 4/99, 246-248; Neue Z
Strafrecht NStZ 1999/5, 230-232; Rechtsmed 9, 152-154. Jeweils
neueste Fassung in
Rsing Fw (2000) Quality standards for forensic opinions on
the identity of living offenders in pictures. (Presentations at the
biennial scientic meetin of the International Association for
Craniofacial Identication.) Forensic Science Communications 2/4,
part 3, 1-2.
Keywords: Identication, Living Offenders, Images
Facial Reconstruction of Human Remains Using Deformation
Kevin W.P. Miller, Michael A. Taister, Federal Bureau of
Investigation, Laboratory Division, USA; Timothy Kelliher and
*Peter Tu, General Electric Global Research and Development
Center, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY, USA.
Facial reconstruction techniques have been used to bring life to
a wide variety of unknown individuals including early hominids,
(pre) historical gures, and the victims of violent crime. Tradition-
ally, facial models are built by molding clay directly over the skull
of the deceased. The thickness of the clay is worked to a level that
corresponds to the average facial tissue depth at given anatomical
points around the skull that are specic to the population to which
the deceased is thought to belong. This task is time consuming, how-
ever, and its success in forensic applications is largely dependent
upon on the skill and experience of the forensic artist. The use of
computers in forensic facial reconstruction allows has reduced the
time and effort necessary to generate a likeness, and increased the
number of investigations aided. The Federal Bureau of Investiga-
tion and the General Electric Company have developed a computer
program that will reconstruct the likeness of an unknown subject,
based upon recovered skeletal remains and tissue depth information
obtained from a database of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT)
head scans using esh deformation modes. The CT scans provide a
richness of information about the subject that the earlier reconstruc-
tion techniques, based on a limited set of anatomical points, could
not. The approach taken via the esh deformation modes is to utilize
the entire range of three-dimensional information from the entirety
of the skull. When a subject skull is examined a CT scan is taken
of the skull yielding a series of images of slices through the skull.
A reconstruction algorithm (marching cubes) is then used to extract
a 3D representation of the skull. CT provides an excellent modality
for gathering this data as it provides a crisp representation of the
bone surface. Once the representation of the skull is computed, it is
brought into alignment with a canonical, reference skull via a scaled
rigid transformation. The canonic skull can be chosen arbitrarily.
Its function is to make sure that all head scans are in the same
relative position, orientation, and scale. The aligned skull model is
projected into a cylindrical coordinate system producing an image-
like representation of skull. This is the 2.5D model. This model is
then more precisely aligned with a series of models of known skull
face pairs from a database of similarly processed CT scans. The
alignment at this stage is a two-step process. First, matching based
on high curvature surface points, similar to a crest line approach.
The second phase of alignment is based on points where the esh
depth has little variation. The goal of the alignment is to establish
the deformation that would be needed to make the database skull be
an exact match for the subject skull. The two phases of alignment
180 Forensic Science International
each dene a morphing eld, which brings the skull into correspon-
dence. The morphing process removes differences that are caused
by deviation in skull structure. Any remaining discrepancies can be
attributed to variation in soft tissue. By morphing each head scan
in the CT database, a collection of estimates of the subjects face is
generated. The estimate is derived by using the same deformation
that was derived for the skull for the face from the database. These
estimates can be viewed as samples from a face space that is tuned
to the subjects skull. Given these estimates, principal component
analysis is applied to determine both the average estimate of the face
and the main modes of deformation. Once a skull is processed an
operator is provided with the average estimate of the subjects face
in a 3D representation. The operator can interactively manipulate
the viewpoint to see this estimate form any angle. The main modes
of deformation are presented to the operator in a tool to allow inter-
active application of the deformations. In this way the operator can
then explore the subject-tuned face space by in a convenient manner
to arrive at a best estimate of the face, which is well supported by
underlying anthropological data. The face space approach provides
methods for estimating the overall structure of the subjects face.
A set of post-processing tools allows the operator to dene specic
details. Aface editing process is used to change the shape of features
such as the nose, eyes and lips. Work is ongoing to develop a more
robust database of skull face pairs that are sorted by demographic
categories. Additionally the algorithms underlying this work are
being further developed to provide a more automated process such
that the system could be packaged for use in eld ofces. An ex-
tensive validation of these algorithms in planed for later in this year
to characterize their results in contrast to traditional clay modeling
based on ducial points.
Keywords: Forensic anthropology, Facial reconstruction,
Human identication
A Comparison of Methods for Body Height Estimation Based
on Ulna Length
Izzet Duyar, Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Letters,
Ankara University, 06100 Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey and *Can Pelin,
Ragiba Zagyapan, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine,
Baskent University, 06530 Baglica, Etimesgut, Ankara, Turkey.
In forensic work, it is important to be able to estimate body
height from a variety of bones. It is well known that estimates based
on upper limb long bone measurements are highly accurate. This
report describes an equation devised for height estimation in the
Turkish population based on ulna length, and compares results with
ulna-based formulae devised for several other populations. Anthro-
pometric measurements were recorded for 254 healthy male subjects
aged 18-45 years. The subjects were randomly divided into equal-
sized study and control groups. A population-specic formula based
on ulna length of the subjects in the study group was calculated.
This formula and 23 other formulae reported in the literature were
applied to the control group and the mean estimation errors were
statistically compared. The analyses indicated that the population-
specic equation gave the most accurate results. In addition, the
formula devised by Trotter and Gleser for Mongoloids yielded more
reliable results than other formulae. The Trotter-Gleser formulae for
whites are the ones most frequently used in Turkey today; how-
ever, these equations do not yield reliable height estimates for our
Keywords: Forensic anthropology, Stature Estimation, Ulna
Body Height Estimation from Sacrum and Coccyx: A
Preliminary Study
Can Pelin, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent
University, 06530 Baglica, Etimesgut, Ankara, Turkey; *Izzet
Duyar, Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Letters, Ankara
University, 06100 Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey; Ragiba Zagyapan,
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University,
06530 Baglica, Etimesgut, Ankara, Turkey; Esra Kayahan and
Muhtesem Agildere, Department of Radiodiagnostics, Faculty of
Medicine, Baskent University, 06500, Bahcelievler, Ankara, Turkey.
Estimation of body height is of importance for biological and
forensic anthropologists for the identication of unknown bodies.
In catastrophic events such as plane crashes, since it is almost im-
possible to nd the whole bodies, stature is estimated depending on
the measurements from body parts. It is well known that long bones
particularly those of limbs, provide excellent means of calculating
a probable height. However if long bones are not available, bones
such as scapula, carpal or tarsal bones, phalanges or even incom-
plete bones could be used. Since several bones have been reported
in the literature for stature estimation up to date, no detailed study
have been carried out for sacrum and coccyges. In the present study
sacral and coccygeal measurements were taken on the MR images
of 38 male subjects aged between 25 81 with a stature between
154 200 cm. The sample was divided into two groups as study
and control. Regression formulae were calculated depending on the
measurements taken from the subjects in the study group, and their
accuracy was tested on the control group. The analysis showed that
the estimation depending on sacral height (S1 S5) and sacral +
coccygeal height (S1 C) gave a mean error about 10.5 mm. As a
conclusion, sacral and coccygeal dimensions could be used for the
estimation of body height if long bones are not available.
Keywords: Forensic anthropology, Stature Estimation, Sacrum
Estimation of Stature from Upper Extremity
*Abdi Ozaslan, Sermet Koc, Istanbul University, Medical Faculty
of Cerrahpasa, Department of Forensic Medicine, 34303, Istanbul,
Turkey; Inci Ozaslan, The State National Institute of Forensic
Medicine, 34303, Istanbul, Turkey and Harun Tugcu, Gulhane
Military Medical Academy, Department of Forensic Medicine,
Ankara, Turkey.
With the increasing frequency of mass disasters, the identica-
tion of an isolated upper extremity and the stature of the person it
belonged to has created problems for the investigation of the iden-
tity of some of the victims. In spite of a need for such a study,
there is a lack of systematic studies to identify fragmented and dis-
membered human remains. The purpose of this paper is to analyze
anthropometric relationships between dimensions of the upper ex-
tremity and body height. Analysis is based on a sample of middle
class male (n = 202) and female (n = 108) adult Turks residing in
Istanbul. The participants are mostly students and staff members of
a medical school, and military personnel. In the study included were
subjects without any pathologic or morphologic skeletal changes.
The subjects are asked to remove their clothing except underwear
and shoes. They are placed in the standard anatomic position with
the head on the Frankfort Horizontal Plane. All of the measurements
are taken from the left side according to the procedure described by
the International Biological Programme. For the convenience of the
readers the dimensions are taken with an anthropometer in millime-
ters and standard anthropometric instruments such as sliding and
spreading calipers, anthropometer, steel tape, and scale. Measure-
ments taken are stature, total arm length, upper arm length, forearm
length, hand length, hand width and, wrist width. The data are ana-
lyzed using various subroutines of SPSS (Statistical Package for the
Scientic Sessions 181
Social Sciences) and regression formulae are developed for various
combinations to reach the best estimate possible. The mean age of
the subjects included in the study was 30.74 in males and 35.34
in females, respectively. In case of stepwise regression analysis,
entrance and removal of a variable are based on the statistical sig-
nicance level of p< 0.05 and p< 0.10, respectively. Five variables
were entered into the analysis. Forearm length is selected as the
rst, followed by hand length and nally upper arm length in males.
In females the upper arm length is selected rst, this is followed
by forearm length and nally hand length. (R2). There were also
individually calculated formulae for some of these measurements
which provided smaller R2 values. R indicates the regression coef-
cient value. R2 explains the percentage that a dimension contributes
to the variation in the dependent variable (that is, stature). In other
words, nearly 38% of variations in stature are inherent by the fore
arm length for males and 43% of variations in stature are inherent by
the upper arm length for females, respectively. Generated regression
formulae from a stepwise and ve direct analyses to estimate stature
for both sexes from body parts are given. This study indicated that
stature estimation can be made with a standard error under 7 cm.
In conclusion the study suggested that estimation of a living height
can be made possible using various dimensions of the upper extrem-
ity. One must consider differences between populations in order to
apply functions as such to others.
Keywords: Identication, Regression analysis, Mass disaster
Estimation of Stature from Finger Length
*O.P. Jasuja and G. Singh, Department of Forensic Science,
Punjabi University, Patiala-147 002 India.
Disintegrated and amputed body organs are found very fre-
quently. Some times plastic and latent nger prints and palm prints
are also available at the scene of crime. In such type of the cases, per-
sonal identication is an integral part of the investigation. Estimating
stature from various parameters based on the above mentioned evi-
dences becomes one of the most important and essential exercise for
personal identication. In present paper, study on stature estimation
from nger length has been reported. Stature and nger length of all
the ngers of both the: hands of 50 individuals have been measured.
While measuring ngers, the total length of the nger as well as its
three phalanges were also measured. In addition to this, the inked
palm prints were also obtained and the same measurements were
done on it also. The difference of total nger length from the ac-
tual nger and from palm prints have been reported. The statistical
correlation coefcients and regression equations have been drawn
from the data collected. The results will be discussed at the time of
Keywords: Stature estimation, nger length
Forensic Education & Training
Teaching of Forensic Medicine to the Students of Medical
*A.A. Matyshev, E.S. Mishin, and V.T. Sevryukov, 47, Piskarevsky
pr., State Medical Academy named after I.I. Mechnikov, Petersburg,
Russian Federation.
According to the law of the Russian Federation in criminal and
civil legal proceedings forensic medical examination is carried out
by the state forensic-medical examiners. For commissions examina-
tions physicians of other specialties are often invited, when special
knowledge in other elds of medicine (surgery, obstetrics and gyne-
cology, reanimatology, etc.) are necessary. Examination of a corpse
at the place of incident is carried out by the inspector including
forensic-medical examiner. If the latter is not available physician of
any specialty is invited. Knowledge in many branches of forensic
medicine (thanatology, traumatology, toxicology) are necessary in
practical work of the doctor.
Considering all the above mentioned the student in the process
of training at the Academy should master theoretical knowledge,
practical skills and skills on forensic medicine in a volume necessary
for the doctor to realize the tasks of law authorities and their use in
daily medical practice.
Teaching of forensic medicine in the Academy is carried out at
Medical, Preventive-Medical faculties and faculty of Foreign Stu-
dents in two languages - Russian and English. In the educational
plan of the state educational standard 132 hours are devoted to
forensic medicine, of which 90 hours are auditorium studies (lecture
course - 30 hours and 15 subject 4 hour practical classes). At sub-
ject practical classes students master practical skills and abilities to
examined the objects with lesions by solution research-educational
and situational tasks. Students make forensic-medical diagnosis, ex-
pert conclusions on cause and period of death, character of lesion,
tool used for inicting trauma, degree of injury to health, etc. Five
classes are given in a forensic-medical morgue. At these lessons stu-
dents make independent forensic-medical examinations of corpses
and ll in the ofcial documents under the guidance of the teacher.
The nal control of knowledge, skills and abilities of students
is carried out in 3 stages and includes: 1) test (55 tests of 500), 2)
solution of a situational task with examination of micropreparation,
3) interview on 3 of 140 examination problems.
As a result of training at the department students acquire skills
and abilities, necessary for each doctor, for examination of a corpse
at the place of incidence, verifying fact of death, studying and
description of lesions and pathological changes at different types of
death, compiling and drawing forensic-medical diagnosis and expert
Keywords: Forensic Medicine, Teaching, Students
Is This Last Will Fraudulent? An Experiment for the
Forensic Chemistry Laboratory Course for Undergraduate
*Renata Wietecha, Joanna Mania, Micha Wozniakiewicz,
Katarzyna Madej and Iwona Maciejowska, Faculty of Chemistry,
Jagiellonian University, 3 Ingardena, 30-060 Krakow, Poland.
The rst in Poland possibility for undergraduate students to study
the forensic chemistry was given at the Jagiellonian University in
Krakow, the oldest Polish university. The forensic chemistry spe-
cialization at the Faculty of Chemistry at Jagiellonian University
belongs to a few similar in Europe. In 2000 year, a new laboratory
called Laboratory for Forensic Chemistry was created at Faculty of
Chemistry. Research interests of the Laboratory are focused on the
development and modication of analytical methods for forensic
purposes. Forensic laboratory is well equipped with miscellaneous
instruments, which allow performance of complex sample prepa-
ration and examination. Highly advanced techniques like atomic
uorescence spectroscopy (AFS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE)
are used. One of the most important tasks of Laboratory for Forensic
Chemistry is teaching students of the forensic chemistry specializa-
The aim of proposed poster is to present the objectives and
goals of one of the experiments created specially for the purpose
of the laboratory course of the forensic chemistry for undergraduate
students and which is conducted at the Laboratory for Forensic
Chemistry at our University. The laboratory course of the forensic
chemistry for undergraduate students was prepared for student who
are going to obtain their major in the forensic chemistry and it is
recommended during the fourth year of their studies at the faculty