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Animal Bioethics

Prepared
by 5
th
years student under supervision of
Dr. Sumaia Abukashawa.
2007

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0456 0789:
Ensure that animals receive correct treatment and
are not subjected to unnecessary pain and suffering.
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VeWXi)eent *o) 3e)i""ion :
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1. All persons wishing to conduct
experimentation involving animals, which is
covered by the Regulation, must obtain
permission from the authority or from a person
delegated by the Authority.
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. !he authority may set general and"or specific
conditions for permission.

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#. Animal experiments, with the exception of
field experiments, may only be carried out in
facilities approved by the Authority. $hould
special situations exist, the %ational Animal
Research Authority may allow conduction of
the experiment in the absence of the specified
facilities.
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1. Experiments with animals may only be
carried out for the ac'uisition of
(nowledge, ta(ing legitimate scientific or
social considerations.
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. )or experiments that may be assumed to
cause pain, and where the goal of the
experiment is such that the use of anaesthesia
or analgesic preparations is not possible,
special demands on the scientific or practical
value of the experiment must be made .
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# . *ermission for the use of animals in
experimentation must only be given if other
scientifically acceptable methods that do not
re'uire the use of animals are not possible in
practice .
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+ . An applicant for an experiment that will
use animals is re'uired to document the
alternative methods that exist and to describe
these in the application .
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0B6
(e)i""ion *o) an in"titXtion o) +o3anz to
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1 . ,pon receipt of an application, permission to
conduct an experiment may be given to an
institution or company possessing an approved
laboratory animal unit under the leadership of an
approved competent person .
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. *ermission must specify the species of animals
that are to be utili-ed .
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/ . .
# . *ermission may be given years at a time and
may be withdrawn with immediate effect should
the conditions for approval be altered or no
longer exist .
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e=6_ -D R6Q b=6 =L 0 a ZvF = [4F
016 .
(e)i""ion *o) *ie!{ ei3e)ientation :
:08 01
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field experiment: applies the scientific
method to experimentally examine an
intervention in the real world (or as many
experimental economists like to say, naturally-
.
occurring environments) rather than in the
laboratory.
1 . ,pon receipt of an application, permission to
conduct a field experiment, or other experiments
not conducted in an approved laboratory animal
facility, may be given to an institution, company or
an individual. !he authority may re'uire that a
person other than the person receiving the
permission is to ta(e part in or supervise the
experiment .
j6a = 0M6_ = L;E? S4A 016 A Z LEB
074 D CDE =r4D . .
. !he applicant must document the goals, type of
experiment, si-e of the experiment including the
species and numbers of individuals of each species,
the duration of the planned experiment, and where
the field experiment will ta(e place. /n addition, the
applicant must at any given time provide any
information the Authority may re'uire .
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# . *ermission may be given for years at a time and
may be withdrawn with immediate effect should
the conditions for approval be altered or no longer
exist .
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016 e=6_ -D R6Q b=6 =L0 a ZvF =
(e)i""ion *)o ,Xanitz :
:04 01
It is all too easy for the public to
underestimate how little understanding
and control humans have over biology
and how limited and contingent our
greatest advances in medical science
have been. Researchers must continually
remind the public that animal
experimentation is essential, not only for
its clinical applications to human and
animal health, but because it is usually
the only feasible way to examine basic
questions of structure, function,
development, behavior and even
2
welfare. It is significantly more difficult
to do this effectively if we are required
to treat animal experimentation as a
moral imperfection to be eliminated .

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3 Our ethical position is that as
humans, researchers have a unique
opportunity to obtain understanding
of the world. Their position of control
brings the professional responsibility
to use animals humanely, to justify
why they are used, and to explain
publicly exactly what is being done.
If this does not persuade the public
4
in one country, the work must be
done in another, where the benefits
of the knowledge gained will
naturally accrue. esearchers are
already mobile in their careers, and
some will readily relocate to more
supportive environments. Their need
to maintain a reputation demands
that the research be ethically
supported. !s with other challenging
research, this is an invitation to the
host nation to mandate and fully
fund best practice in education,
oversight and legislation. The global
research community of peer referees
and the global public with access to
the research results will not long
tolerate national governments that
condone poor welfare practices or
cruelty. !s stressed or crowded
animals produce unreliable research
results, and many phenotypes are
only accessible in contented animals
in enriched environments, it is in the
best interests of the researchers not
to cut corners or to neglect welfare
issues. The animals, too, have their
own interests, and these must be
5
taken into account when
experimenting upon them. "ecause
they have only the rights afforded to
them by people, this is our
responsibility .
Our ethical position is
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,se embryos in research re'uired
permission to be given by the parents of
the embryos.
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,a" a{e it Xna++e3ta!e *o) anz in t,e
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!egi"!ation wa" int)o{X+e{ t,at a!!owe{ "X+,
)e"ea)+, Xn{e) "t)i+t!z )egX!ate{ +on{ition" an{
!iite{ to t,e X"e o* e)zo" +on"i{e)e{ to e in
ei+e"" o* t,o"e )eWXi)e{ in t,e +oX)"e o* in-it)o
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)3,ant "tate :
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,i!{)en: are persons who have not attained the
legal age for consent to treatments or procedures
involved in the research, under applicable law of
the jurisdiction in which the research will be
conducted. 7enerally the law considers any person
under 12 years old to be a child
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nust consider the potential benefits and ris(s.
j /n assessing the ris(s and potential benefits1,
we should consider the circumstances of the
children to be enrolled in the studyofor
example their health status, age, and ability to
understand what is involved in the researchoas
well as potential benefits to subjects, other
children with the same disease or condition, or
society as a whole.
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*rovide additional protection for the children
who would be involved in the research.
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piscomforts of the research to children and
assess the justification for their inclusion in the
research.
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Research not involving greater
than minimal risk to the children:
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The assent of the children and the
permission of their parents or
guardians
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Research involving greater than
minimal risk but presenting the
prospect of direct benefit to the
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individual child subjects involved
in the research:
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The risk is ustified by the
anticipated benefits to the
subects! the relation of the
anticipated benefit to the risk
presented by the study is at least
as favorable to the subects as that
provided by available alternative
approaches.
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the assent of the children and the
permission of their parents or
guardians
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Research involving greater than
minimal risk and no prospect of
direct benefit to the individual child
subjects involved in the research,
but likely to yield generalizable
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knoledge about the subject!s
disorder or condition.
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"the risk of the research represents a
minor increase over minimal risk#! the
intervention or procedure presents
experiences to the child subects that
are reasonably commensurate with
those inherent in their actual, or
expected medical, dental, psychological,
social, or educational situations!
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the assent of the children and the
permission of their parents or guardians
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Research presents a reasonable


opportunity to further the
understanding, prevention, or
alleviation of a serious problem
10
affecting the health or elfare of
children.
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$onsulting with a panel of experts in
pertinent disciplines "e.g., science,
medicine, education, ethics, and law#
and following an opportunity for public
review and comment.
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"The research presents a reasonable
opportunity to further the
understanding, prevention, or
alleviation of a serious problem
affecting the health or welfare of
children.#%
The research will be conducted in
accordance with sound ethical
principles.
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&dequate provisions are made for
soliciting the assent of children and the
permission of their parents or
guardians.
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{o!e"+ent "tate: zoXt, "tate :
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A qhuman subjectr is a living individual about
whom an investigator obtains either G$H data
through intervention or interaction with the
individual, or GH identifiable private information1.
segal re'uirements to protect human subjects apply
to a much broader range of research than many
investigators reali-e, and researchers using human
tissue specimens are often unsure about how
regulations apply to their research. segal
obligations to protect human subjects apply

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,e 3e)i""ion tae *o) :
14
: a %4 %&' m1NA :
o{i!z ate)ia!", such as cells, blood or urine,
tissues, organs, hair or nail clippings, even if
you did not collect these materials
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Ve"i{Xa! {iagno"ti+ "3e+ien", including
specimens obtained for routine patient care
that would have been discarded if not used for
research
|]f
()iate in*o)ation, such as medical
information that can be readily identified with
individuals, even if the information was not
specifically collected for the study in 'uestion.
Research on cell lines or p%A samples that
can be associated with individuals falls into
this category.
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o) taing t,e "a3!e" *)o t,e ,Xan :
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omply with your institutionrs rules and the
re'uirements of your /nstitutional Review oard
j/R1 as well as meeting )ederal re'uirements j11
15
in order to carry out your research. $ome
institutions have re'uirements that exceed those of
the )ederal regulations. /f you have any 'uestion or
uncertainty about whether you need /R approval,
you should as( your /R office for clarification
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btain permissions from the patient jexplicit
written permission1 .
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oe"ti+ ania!
1
04N4?
,e {oe"ti+ ania!" a)e : population of animals
must have their behavior, life cycle, as a result of
being under human control for many generations.
j!he term also includes the germ cells, embryos
and fertile ova of such animals 1
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. (e)i""ion *o) {oe"ti+ ania!" :
04N4? 016:
uy the animal from it owner or ta(e permission
freely.
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(e)i""ion *o) wi!{ ania!" :
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%pF= 0E/7 a EF : t 0A6/
Y04N4D 6Q 0 a

The wild animals are: ild animals and


vegetation, especially animals living in a natural,
undomesticated state.
ild animals examples: including mollus(,
crustaceans, a'uatic insects, fish, reptiles,
amphibians, wild birds, and all other wild
mammals .
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.~EM<@W I 8MF

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1 o !he department shall have the authority to solicit
assistance from and provide assistance to )ederal
and other $tate agencies, local governments and
private entities in monitoring wild animals in this
ommonwealth to determine the presence of
dangerous transmissible disease. !his monitoring
may be done in cooperation with the *ennsylvania
7ame ommission, the *ennsylvania )ish and
oat ommission, the ,nited $tates )ish and
ildlife $ervice or any other private or
governmental entity .
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0\] ;7@ = -] ;?4s n?F % [A 0A6/
:M = 0L 74 D s ; q4s: t= w
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o *arties involved in farming, export and import of
wildlife shall abide by the onvention on
/nternational !rade in Endangered $pecies of ild
)auna and )lora j/!E$1 provisions and similar
other international laws .
= U68 0P6E? B q?t: -?F 016
? = AF jF = LF
# o /ndividuals, organi-ations and institutions
willing for private commercial farming of the wild
animal with the objective of supporting wild animal
conservation shall obtain permission from the
ninistry of wild animal that protected wild animals
D CDE a 0/Q6 ; LtE? = ?9? = j6a:
= 074 -D 01 = %&B FF % ; 0A6/
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+ o !he applicants j/ndividuals, rgani-ations, and
/nstitutions1 should submit a detailed wor( plan of
the species intended for farming, breeding and
research .
/ C\F ED `a6A % 0 %&: = 016 [^ .
:016 71
te3" o* wi!{ ania! 3e)i""ion :
+
1 . $cientific ollecting *ermit is re'uired low
say: any person desiring to collect wild animals
that are protected by law or their nest or eggs for
scientific study shall ma(e application to the
chief of the pivision of ildlife for a wild
animal collecting permit .
/ Z Z 01 [7
= w -s 07@B 0?D mt % 0a6ED
-D %&< = [^ Z [A 0?E @L
Y 9E ? 0A6/ R 07@
. A permit re'uired in addition to the state
permit for collection of migratory birds or
protected species. *ersons wishing to obtain a
$cientific ollecting *ermit must complete the
application in its entirety .
0P6ED = Rj a / %M & D
01 [7A R6o;D ^ a = U68
0\1
# . /t is often necessary to supplement the
application with attachments or a cover letter
detailing the specifics of a project re'uest. !he
following criteria have been established to
provide guidelines for determining
'ualifications for the issuance of a $cientific
ollecting *ermit :
?E / C\B j=D [7
.
+ . !he applicant for a $cientific ollecting
*ermit must submit a completed application to
the pivision of ildlife before starting the
activity. !he application must outline in detail
the species, locations, 'uantity and collection
methods to be used .
`a6D= 0A6/ - =r4? qL8A [7
w / % 0]? }: C\F ED
Y; 08A6^ = ;?Mw;EsD
,e a33!i+ant *o) a +ienti*i+ o!!e+ting
(e)it X"t e {i)e+t!z a**i!iate{ wit, o) an
a33)o3)iate )e3)e"entatie *)o one o* t,e
*o!!owing in"titXtion":
:016 [^ jD
1 . A college, university, high school, junior high
or elementary school as an educator, researcher,
student, masters or doctoral candidate .
0AjL: = 0A. 0@L?w0EDw0p
YML _6D =6@D [^w[^wBwZB6Dw05LB:=
. A public agency, such as federal, state, city or
county unit of government, engaged in a wildlife or
scientific area of study or research .
0
0s |]_ O YYY 09ALDw0A:= w0L C.D 0D 0M=
0A6/ RB
# . A nonoprofit educational or conservation
organi-ation that is associated with wildlife or
scientific area of study or research .
Y0A6/ RB 0s ; ?9? = 0A6/ R -A=;
+ . A scientific research organi-ation
.
0/ 0Af@: 04@r? = ?E / 0?9D
33!i+ant" w,o a)e not {i)e+t!z a**i!iate{
wit, an in"titXtion !i"te{ X"t 3)oi{e t,e
*o!!owing in*o)ation to e)i*z WXa!i*i+ation
*o) a 3e)it:
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1 . *ersonal 'ualifications to perform this
activity .
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. $pecific purpose necessary for you to perform
this activity .
2
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# . !he locationjs1 where collected specimens will
be maintained. %ame and address of the facility
to be used as a repository for voucher specimens
. ? 4 S@<= %9 w sD
.
{X+ation (e)it"
:?E %&:
Education permits are a
mechanism designed to permit 'ualified educators
to possess hio native wild animals. Activities
covered by an Education *ermit include
possession of dead wild animal parts, nest, eggs,
mounts or study s(ins and live wild animals for
educational programming or display .
&
-D o = 0? = 0 Z 016 mt
OB6F = ? -6v 0?
*ersons desiring to obtain an
Education *ermit must complete the application. /t
is often necessary to supplement the application
with attachments or a cover letter detailing the
specifics of a project re'uest. !he following criteria
4
provide guidelines for determining 'ualifications
for the issuance of Education *ermits :
[7 Z S; SE 01 a -/Q6 -]_:
/ C\F ED `a6A= w .
!he applicant for an Education *ermit must submit
a completed application to the pivision of ildlife.
!he application must outline in detail the species,
locations to be collected or held, 'uantity and
collection methods to be used .
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,e a33!i+ant *o) an {X+ation (e)it X"t e
{i)e+t!z a**i!iate{ wit,w o) an a33)o3)iate
)e3)e"entatie *)o one o* t,e *o!!owing
in"titXtion" :
:016 [^ jD
1 . A college, university, high school, junior high or
elementary school as an educator .
0AjL: = 0A. 0@L?w0EDw0p
YML _6D =6@D [^w[^wBwZB6Dw05LB:=
. A public agency, such as federal, state, city or
county unit of government, performing wildlife
education .
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# . An educational or conservation organi-ation,
museum or -oological garden that displays or
performs wildlife education .
0 `5L = D w 0?EF ?9D
33!i+ant" w,o a)e not {i)e+t!z a**i!iate{ wit,
an in"titXtion !i"te{ X"t 3)oi{e t,e *o!!owing
in*o)ation to e)i*z WXa!i*i+ation *o) a 3e)it :
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1 . *ersonal 'ualifications to perform this activity .
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. $pecific purpose necessary for you to perform
this activity .
/ mt Z qL8A Eo Om bL;
# . !he locationjs1 where collected specimens be
maintained. %ame and address of the facility to be
used as a repository for voucher specimens .
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1o Ve3!a+eent: use of manne'uins, computers
simulations and in vitro techni'ues jcell or tissues
culture1 as alternative for animal use for scientific
purposes.
o Ve{X+tion: reducing the number of animals to
minimum.
#o Ve*ineent: eliminate or minimi-e pain distress.
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!hese include laboratory, agricultural, companion
animals and wildlife Australian code of practice for
the care and use of animals for scientific purposes
jthe code1 and the %ational )ramewor( for the
#+
development of Ethical *rinciples in 7ene
!echnology.
!he guidelines have been produced by the %ational
ealth and nedical Research ouncils
j%nR$1, Animal elfare ommittee jA1 as
introductory material to assist investigators.
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:jC>;FLX}; |<DE9>;
All live nonohuman vertebrates higher order
invertebrates
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primates for scientific purposes.
%nR 7uidelines on the use of animals for
training surgeons and demonstrating new surgical
e'uipment and techni'ues.
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Each project must use more than the minimum number
of animal necessary to ensure scientific validity.
#.
Example:o
o!he office of technology assessment estimates that
12o# million animals are used in the ,nited states for
research every year. !he vast majority of theseo about
5.o are rats and mice specifically bred for research.
/n 666, there were 05,.10 dogs and .,.06 cats used
in research. y comparison , wildlife biologists
estimate that over one million animals are (illed every
day by automobiles over #0. million per year.
o pogs, cats, and nonohuman primates combined
account for less than #"+ of a percent of the total and
their numbers has been declining for nearly #6 years.
!he number of dogs used in biomedical research has
declined 02 since 152#, and the number of cats used
in biomedical research has declined 0# since 152#.
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#2