j
FACULTY OF: TECHNOLOGY
CODE AND NAME OF COURSE: CI V 310  Geotechnics I
DATE AND TIME: December 13, 2007 09: 00 Hrs DURATION: 3 l/2Hours
EXAMINERS: INTERNAL,: Mr. Maxwell J ackson EXTERNAL:
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES:
This paper has 4 pages and 5 questions
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS_________________________________________________________________
*
QUESTI ON: 1
i .(a) An embankment consists of clay .Ells for which C :=25 IcN/ tri1 and <p~ 26 (from
consolidation undrained tests with pore pressure measurements). The average bulk density
..
of the fill is 1.9 Mg / m3. Estimate the shear strength of the m aterial on a horizontal plane at a
point 20m below the surfaces of the embankment, if the pore pressure at this point is shown
by a piezometer to be 180 kN / m2. 11 ^) m
3 Marks
l .(b) A footing 1.8m x 2.5m is located at a depth of 1.5m below the ground surface in a deep
deposit of an overconsolidated clay. The ground water level is 2.5m below the ground
surface. The undrained shear strength is 120 kPa and the saturated unit weight is 20 kN/m3
THE UNIVERSITY OF GUYANA
\
*
Determine the allowable bearing capacity, assuming a factor of safety of 3 for short term *
condition. Neglect geometric factors.
<1' Z~ *v? } ,JL
*i. 3Marks
1.{c) .A 6m high road embankment has an undrained shear1strength of lOkPa. A hard
stratum exists at 3m below the ground, surface. Find the factor of safety i f the inclination for
the slope is 20.
3 Marks
j
QUESTI ON: 2
2.(a) A retaining wall has a vertical back and is 8m high, The soil is a sandy loam of unit
weight 17.17 kN / m} . It shows a cohesion of 13 JcN / m2 and (j>=20 Neglect any effect of
wall friction and the upper surface of the fill is horizontal. Determine the thrust on the wall,
3 marks
2.(b) Find the resultant thrust on the wall i f drains are blocked and water builds up behind the
wall until the water table is at 3m above the bottom of the wall. Assume saturated unit weight
19.62 kN / m3 3 marks
2.(c) Define active and passive earth pressure and earth pressure at rest. Explain stiffness of
foundation. 3 marks
i
Question 3:
(a ) Y ou are required to design a foundation for a multi storey building on campus. Describe
how you would plan and conduct the investigation, include the field and laboratory tests you
would recommend and Why. 3marks
(b) For a large construction project, the general subsoil condition is shown in fig. 1010. I f a
10 ft. thick fill is placed over the existing ground surface, determine the consolidation
settlement of the soft clay layer. Unit weight of fill is 110 lb/ft3. 10,marks
Lr C,.(t*W
(iii) Explain the terms total pressure, pore water pressure and effective pressure
as applied to a saturated soil and show how these pressures .are related to one
another. What is the influence of pore water pressure on the shear strength
of soil.
A soil failed under a major principal stress of 262 K N/m2with a corresponding minor
principal stress of 115 K N/m2. I f the minor principal stress for the same soil had been
250 K N/m2, determine graphically the value of the major principal stress at failure if:
t'i) t p =0
(ii) C = 0
An undisturbed.soil, sample, 38mm in cpand 76mm in length, sheared in a triaxial test
under an additional axial load of 2.75 K N with a vertical deformation of 6.5mm. The
failure plane was inclined at 50 to the horizontal and the cell pressure was 240
K N/m2.
(i) Draw the Mohr circle diagram representing the above stress condition.
(ii.) Determine Coulombs equation tor the shear strength of the soil, in
terms of total stress.
List the main assumptions in Terzaghis T heory of Consolidation.
A laboratory' consolidation test on a couple of clay, 20mm thick, drained top and
bottom gave the following results:
Pressure ( K N/m2) Void ratio
50
0.71
100
0.66
200
0.61
300
0.56
400
'0.52
I f a layer of this soil 3.0lf\s subjected to a pressure increment from 125 KN/m to 175
K N/m2, calculate the settlement.
THE UNIVERSITY OF GUYANA
EXAMINATIONS OF SEMESTER I 2004
"ACULTY OF: TECHNOLOGY
:ODE AND NAME OF COURSE: CI V 310  Geotechnics I
MTE AND TIME: December 20, 2004 13: 00 Hrs DURATION: 3 l/4Hours
EXAMINERS: INTERNAL: Mr. Maxwell J ackson EXTERNAL:
NSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES:
'his paper has 3 pages and 5questions
vNSWER .ALL QUESTIONS
5 u e s t i o n ,A
.(a) A retaining wall has a vertical back and is 8m high. The soil is a sandy loam of unit
'eight 17.17 kN ! rri1. I t Shows a cohesion of 13 k N m 1 and tj> 20 Neglect any effect of
all friction and the upper surface of the fill is horizontal Determine the thrust on the wall.
(S Marks)
(b) Find the resultant thrust on the wall i f drains arc; blocked and water builds up behind the
all.until the water table is at 3m above the bottom of the wall. Assume saturated unit weight
QUESTI ON: 2
2.(a) An embankment consists of clay fill for which C = 25 kN / m2 and ^=25
consolidation undrained tests with pore pressure measurements), i he average bulk
Or" / P . 7 ,
of the fill is 1.9 Mglm*. Estimate the shear strength of the material on a horizontal pi;
point 20m below the surface of the embankment, if the pore pressure at this point is
by a piezometer to be 180 kN! m2. <2. \ /''  , ?
zix ,M.r: W (3b.
2.(b) A 15m high embankment is inclined at 30u to the horizontal. I f <f>= \5 and cc
strength is 15 kPa and unit weight of embankment Soil is 17.5 kN / . Find the fa
3afety< ^ ,= ;
", v   r X  f3 Ai
2.(e) A 4m high road embankment has to be made out of clay with negligible i.
friction. I f cohesion is lOkPa and a hard stratum exists at 2m below the ground surlac
the safe inclination for the slope of the embankment. ^ 
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QUESTI ON: 3 0 ^'
3.(a) The 10x10 ft area shown (Fig3) is loaded with a uniform pressure of 1000 poun
square foot. Determine the stress increase at a point A, which is 10 ft below the surface
location shown: r/
~ . (3 Mi
3,(b) For the same foundation and loading calculate the average stress increase at a de
12 ft. \ f ' r~
(2Me
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3.(0 I f fire footing is fomrded on a sand wrth a soil modulus of 200 kips, ft' and a ?o
ratio of 0.40. Estimate the settlement of the footing. / . . ^
QUESTION: 4 ;
4.[a') A "clay deposit has a unit weight of 100 lbs / f t and an unconfirmed compressive
strength of 200l b s / f t 1. Determine the depth at which the horizontal soil pressure is zero.
. : . (2 Marks)
\
4.(b) Given the retaining wall footing'shown, F i gl , determine the factor of safety in bearing',
capacitv. The load due to wall has the following properties Ov =3000 lbs / f t Qn =1000
* " 0 N
lbs! f t e=0.75 ft. the wall is founded on a silty sand with c = 0, p 28 . The moist density
above water table 120 lbs/ f t 3, the saturated density below water table is 125 IhjjJ f t 3. s
fo;
QUESTI ON: 5 ' ^ ' i
5.(a) A clay layer 15 ft thick underlies a 5 ft sand layer. Assume the initial void ratio of the
clay is 0.9; the compression index is 0.20.tbe watertable is.arthe top of the clay layer. A 10
ft by 10 ft footing with a pressure of 1000 lbs! f t 1 is founded 3 ft below the ground.
Calculate the settlement of the layer using the three layers shown. Take the average stresses
in the layers as the stresses at the midpoints shown, in F.ig2 (Use the^.l method j
(10 Marks)
5.(b) I f the clay has a coefficient of consolidation of 0.3 f t 1/ day . Determine the time when
50% of the total settlement.will occur.
(2 Marks)
THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF G U Y A N A
> \ .
EXAMINATIONS OF SEMESTER I 2005
:ULTY OF: TECHNOLOGY
DE AND NAME OF COURSE: CI V 31.0  Geotechnics I
TE AND TIME: December 15, 2005 13: 00 Mrs DURATION: 3 l/2Hours
AMINERS: INTERNAL: Mr. Maxwell J ackson EXTERNAL:
>TRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES:
,s paper has 3 pages and 5questions
ISWER ALL QUESTIONS
U F S T I O N : 1
!> A retaining, w a l l lias a vertical back and. is Sir hiU.ll TllC SOll IS & S'AIlcVy \0iiITV Ot WUlt
light 17.17 k N ! nv'. It shows a cohesion of 13 k N , nr and (j) = 20 Neglect any effect of
ill friction and the upper surface of the fill is horizontal. Determine the thrust on the wall.
3 marks
b) Find the resultant thrust on the wall il drains a::s blocked and water builds up behind the
ill until the water table is at 3m above the bottom of the wall. Assume saturated unit weight
.62 kN / nr' 3 marks
J r r a p r 4 I p ( j * f j
c) Define active and passive earth pressure and earth pressure at rest. Explain stiffness of
undation. ^ . 2 marks
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QUESTI ON: 2
2.(a) An embankment consists of clay fill for which C = 25 kN / m2 and <p~ 26
consolidation undrained tests with pore pressure measurements). The average bulk d<
of the fill is 1.9 Mg / in . Estimate the shear strength of the material on a horizontal plat]
point 20m below the surface of the embankment, i f the pore pressure at this point is s
by a piezometer to be 180 kN / ml .
3 Ma
2.(b) A homogenous clay has an unconfined compressive strength of 2000 lb/ft2 . Esl
the net ultimate bearing capacity and the net allowable bearing capacity. FS =:: 3
4 Ma
2.(c) A 4m high road embankment has to be made out of clay with negligible in
friction. I f cohesion is 1OkPa and a hard stratum exists at 2m below the ground surface
the safe inclination for the slope of the embankment. /.
k o 1 3 Ma
, Question 3:
(a ) Y ou are required to design a foundation for a multi storey building on campus. De
how you would plan and conduct the investigation, include the field and laboratory tes
would recommend and1Why, 5 m;
(b) What are geophysical methods of soil investigation? 3 m;
For a large construction project, ihe general subsoil condition is shown in fig. 101
10 ft. thick fill is placed over the existing ground surface, determine the consoli
settlement of the soft clay layer. Unit weight ol till is 110 lb/ft . 1m
Original ground surface
Sltj
6
Dry xmii
n Gs ~z.m
T2 Ground water table e
i
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r* 'isjkr  
Sand
5ft
11 0 x a s
1C
Soft, noTHially cofi:>oitciated clay
Gs 2 7 2
e 0.9
R Liiqutci limit 42%
Sand \
Fig 1010
estion 4:
ne inch thick clay specimen was subjected to a conventional consolidation test. When the
ctive pressure on the soil specimen was increased from 2000 lb/ft2to 4000 lb/ft2, the void
) decreased from 0.75 to 0.62. Also the time for 50% consolidation was determined to be
m. What is the coefficient of permeability, k. of the clay for the loading range? 10 marks
stion 5:
:he retaining wall shown, recommend a base width B to provide a sliding safety factor of
or slightly above). Assume that the base is rough and the friction angle between concrete
;and can be taken as 30. /cone. = 150 lb/ft3
determine the overturning and resisting'moment. Check the resulting factor of satety
12 marks
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___ > GEOT ECHNI CS CSV .310
A soil normally consolidated clay layer 25m thickness has a natural
:or.tent of 55%; saturated unit weight of 17.2kiv/m , n panicle specific gravity of
i liquid limit of 65%. A foundation load will cause a vertical stress increase of
Estimate the settlement of the foundation if the ground water table is at the
th e clay.
A clay layer 15 ft thick underlies a 5 ft sand layer. Assume the iuitial void
clay is 0.90 and the compression index is 0.20. A foundation1load 1000 psf is
ft below the ground. Unit weight sand  100 pcf. Unit weight clay  420 pcf
nine the net pressure increase at the base of the foundation.
ate die settlement of the clay layer, 1 
.(i) Explain the Consolidation Theory bv Terzaghi.
y layer in Question 2. has a Cv of 0.3ft /day Detccni
thi Total SctTlejjieiUwilhaoGuc_
mine the time when 50%
1C[he reasons tor a site investigation.
I nc (a) Normally consolidated
b) Over consolidated and OCR
c) Geophysical investigation
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J /j ,/ I ylsled is lAjridctl Toa wcmihl ol 7 >N and pulled nuoss ii beach i Ii
' o takes a horizontal lnn:e/of, I l l m pull the sled Whui me the slicnyth parameters o
''fieach snnd?( I Points)
2.'A layer ofsancl ,1mthick rvci i es a stratum (if saturated clay of unknown depth,
water table is at 21^below gjouiid level.
(i.) Determine the Total, Poie am. infective i ressures to a depth of 7m Assume no
capillary rise in the sand. Void ratios: for smtd 0.45, clay 0,90. Specific gravities: s
2.65 and clay 2.70.Unit weight of water: 9.81 kN/m3. .
(ii)Consider an OCR. of 5; determine the preconsolidation pressure at 7rn .
(4 Points)
3, The 10 10 ft area shown is loaded with n uniform pressure of 1000'psf. Deten
hd stress increase at point A, which is 10 ft below the surface at the location shov,
(2 Points)
in
10
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V . i 4. M concentrated load of 20kN acts on the surface of an homogenous soil mass o
r^^tN tenU ;.Find the stress intensity ai a depth of 10m.
fft'O Directly under the load and <jj' 5 / T
(ii) at a horizontal distance of 5m. (2 Paints)
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GEOTECHNI CS 1CI V 310
QUI ZZ #2
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\ ^ A soft normally consolidated clay layer 25m thickness has a natural
j moisture content of 55%; saturated unit weight of 17.2kn/m3, a particle specific gravity of
V_^r68 and a liquid limit of 65%. A foundation load will cause a vertical stress increase of
15kn/m2. Estimate the settlement of the foundation i f the ground water table is at the
surface of the clay; '
\/Qu^ki on 2
n V 'OC A clay layer 15 ft thick underlies a 5 ft sand layer. Assume the initial void
ratio of the clay is 0.90 and the compression index is 0.20. A foundation load 1000 psf is
founded 3 ft below the ground. Unit weight sand  100 pcf. Unit weight clay  <120 pcf
(a) Determine the net pressure increase at the base of the foundation.
(b) Calculate the settlement of the clay layer.
Determine the time when 50%
on 3
_ s ' A ( i ) Explain the Consolidation Theory by Tenzaghi.
(ii) The clay layer in Question 2. has a Cv of C.3ft id.ay. Determi
^an^90% of the Total Setfl ena^ wH^e^^ur^
/; <^pstipn 4 N'
State the reasons for a site investigation. \
(ii) Define (a) Normally consolidated
(b) "Over consolidated and OCR
(c) Geophysical investigation
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GEOTECHNI CS 1CI V 310
QUI Z#!
</y^ I. sled is liiaded to a weight of 75N and pulled across a beach Ttprpfi.'CTl 'rjTili I f it
(J * takes a horizontal force^of 45N to pull the sled. What are the strength parameters of the
oeach sand?( Points)
/ r \ 2 ^ A layer oksand 3m thick overlies a stratum of saturated clay of unknown depth. The
waysr table is at 2m below ground level.
Determine the Total, Pore and Effective Pressures to a depth of 7m.Assume no
  capillary rise in the sand. Void ratios: for sand 0.45, clay 0.90. Specific gravities: sand
2.65 and clay 2.70.Unit weight of water: 9.81kN/m3. ;
(ii)Consider an OCR of 5 determine the preconsolidation pressure at 7m .
^(4 Poi nts)
/ f 3. The 10 x 10 ft area shown is loaded with a uniform pressure of 1000 psf. Determine
stress increase at point A, which is 10 ft below the surface at the location shown.
(2 Points)
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4. A concentrated load of 20kN acts on the surface of an homogenous soil mass of large
^O^ferUent. Find the stress intensity at a depth of 10m.
f&nrj 4j/i?(\) Directly under the load and SjA , 
(ii) at a horizontal distance of 5m. (2 Points)
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CI V 3)'0 Mid Semester Exam:
An s w e r all que s t i ons
(1) What are Geophysical methods of soil exploration?
(b)Y ou are required to design a foundation for a
building on Campus. Describe how you would conduct
the soil investigation, include the field and laboratory
tests you would recommend and give reasons.
(2) A 10,000 lb load acts uniformly over a 4ft x 4ft
footing. Estimate the average pressure distribution
on a plane 5 ft below the footing *
(b) I f the footing is founded on a sand with a soil
modulus of 200 kips/ft2and a poissons ratio of 0.40.
Estimate the settlement of the footing.
(3) I f a 4m x 4m lies 1.5m below the surface of a soil
having cohesion of 50kN/m2, angle of friction 30 and a
unit weight of 20kN/m3. Determine the net allowable
bearing capacity i f FS =3.
(b) With the aid of a neat sketch define a flexible
foundation and a rigid foundation.
(4) A sand fill 4m.thick is placed over the existing
ground surface of a normally consolidated soft clay
2m.thick. The clay properties are: liquid limit 42%,
initial void ratioe0= 0.92 and sp.gravity 2.72, unit
weight =17.5 kN/m3 and R= 2.2 xl 0'9m/s. The water
table is located at 1.5m and the moist or saturated unit
weight of the fill is 19.5kN/nr\ Determine (a) the
settlement, of the clay layer, (b) the time for 50%
consolidation
Quizz#3Answer all Questions
G1V310
sand fiU'^fljithipk is plaeed oyer the existing ground surfe.es of a normally f
consolidated clay 2m.thick. The clay properties'are: liquid liijwf 42%,
Determine (a) the settlement of the clay layer, (b) the time for 50%
ponsulidution(5macla)
j
A teat was carried out at a depth of 6m below ground leyeJ in clay soil has
determined the horizontal total stress to he 12QfcN/ra?' Tbs water table lies 1.4m
below ground {eve}. Assume the clay to be folly saturated witjj unit weight of
2p.5kN/m*. Determine the coefficient of earth pressure at the depth of the
t3t.(2marks)
A compacted fill is to be constructed with a total wlume of 10, 000 cubic meters.
The ffll'is to be impacted'to a~5ry unit weight
Minimum water content of lQ%.'Soil in the borrow area has a dry density of
12PM/ra* and average water pq ms m of 8%. Hqw raaay Qf feftijaw
materials must be ex&vated and bow manyHiters must be hauled in? fmaj?k)
A retaining v/all with vertical back is 8m high. The density o f te top 3m of fill is
surfacVoftHe fill equivalent to u n i f t ^
magnitude and point of application ofth e thrust on the wall per metre run.
(i) if the fill is well drained,
ii) if the fill is water logged after a 5$P.rrn( assume the saturated densities pttne
two strata 1.9 and 2.0 Mg/m* rMj^V !y4(Smrk?)
A tooting, 3raby 6ra is to be founded at a depth of 2m in a saturated soil of unit a
'weight J 9kN/nr the spjl.ha? an angle of friction of 28 and a coh esion of Skn/m
ground water leyel is at a depth of 4m.
Determine a value for the safe bearing capacity of the fqundation^(2marks)
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^ Mid Semester Exam: 7
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J A / U What are Geqphysipal methods qf soil exploration? C?
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/ (b)pu are required to design a foundation for a gj? j/=>,
building on Campus. Describe how you would conduct
Uic soil' investigation, include the .field.and.laboratory^ ^
i tesw you would recommencTanci give reasons]
/ J r (2).A 19.0Q5! lb load acts uniformly oyer a 4ft x 4ft
O  ^footing/Estimate the average pressure distribution
y . on a plane 5 ft below the footing, ,
_____ 7 c _ v (b))If the footing is founded on a sand with a soil
modulus of 200 kips/ft2and a poissons ratio of 0.40.
^ PctimfltA tK A /V^UA
/t3)) If a 4m x 4m lies' h 5m belo\y the surfa.ee qf a soil
having coh esion ofSOkN/m2, angle of friction 30 and a
unit weigh t of 20kN/mJ, D ermine th e net allowable
bearing capacity if FS "3
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^C(4)y A sand fill 4m.thick is placed over th e existing
ground surface of a nonn^ly" play
2m.thick. The clay properties'are: liquid limit 42% , e0
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the moist or saturated unit weigh t of the fill is
19.5kN/m3. Determine (a) the settlement o f the clajc.
layer, (b) th e time for 505? consolidation^'
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Quizz#3Answer all Questions
G4V 31Q
A*sand fiU;4mlthicic 13placed over th e existing ground surges o f a normally * '
consdidated clay 2m.tfti.ck. fbe clay properties are: liquid limit 42%,
and sp, gravity 2772, unit weigh t =17, , Sl^/m* and k 2.2 xlQ^m/s? XllOwater table
is located at 1.5m and the moist or saturated unit weight ofth g fill is !?.SKN/m?.
Determine (a) the settlement of the clay layer, (b) the time for 50%
ponsolidation(5marks)
I (
A test was carried out at a depth of 6m below ground level in clay soil has
determined the horizontal total stress to he U.Q kN/ra2' Tbs water table lies 1.4ra
below ground level. Assume th e clay to be folly rafiiTStwi Witfe unit weight of
20.SkNVm^. Determine the coefficient of earth pressure at the depth of the
test. (2 m arks)
A compacted fill is to be constructed with a total volume of 10, 000 cubic metexx
The fill is to be ajmpacteci t o a &y unit weight of i f j j 9 ^ / m ran2f a
Minimum water content of 1Q%.'SqUin the borrow area has a dry density of
and average water content of 8%. How many PH^iP>Rjstep of feftljPW
materials must be excavated and h ow njanyHiters must be hauled in? fS.marks)
ffpr,
surface"oft&efilleqiBialentto 1
magnitude and point of application afth e thrust on the wall per metre run.
(i) if the fill is well drained, ......
(ii) if the fill i? water logged after a storm ( asum.e the saturated densities of the
two strata 1.9 and 2.0 Mg/m* nMjpectiyejy^Smarks)
ground water level is at a depth of 4m.
Determine a value for the safe bearing capacity of the fpundatipm(2marks)
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Mid Semester Exam:
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j ' ^1) What ars Geophysical methods of soil exploration? @
'i ^ . i i f a ft)PW %e required to design a foundation for a 0 J / s , a _/
/y I building on Campus. Describe how you would conduct ^ T
i4 @e&>e' . the soil investigation, include the .field and l aboratory^ _I .
,wj gr~~''L : : tests you would recommencTand give reasons \
'.y. **
, i / \^(2) A I Q,0.6Q lb. load acts uniformly oyer a 48 x 4ft
Cr *^footing, Estimate the average pressure distribution
on a plane 5 ft below th^footing C; <>.<
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//< . (b)Uf the footing is founded on a sahd with a soil
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vmodulus of 200 kips/ft2and a poissons ratio of 0.40.
Estimate the settlement of the footing, n >> ^
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'rw/: ^ 9 lies' 1.5m below the surface of a soil
' haying cohesion of S0fcN/m2, angle offriction 30 and a
; \ unit weight of 20kN/m*. Determine the net allowable
hearing capacity i f FS 3
o , , . .
 \ (4) A stod fill 4m.thick is placed over the existing
'ground surface of a normally consolidated soft clay
v2m.thick. The clay properties are: liquid limit 42%, e
=0r92' and sp.grayily'2.72, uni: weight' =17.5 kN/m3and
k=2.2 xlO m/s. The water tabic is'located at 1.5m and
the mois: or saturated unit weight of the fill is
19.5kN/mJ , Determine (a) the settlement of the cla^c
layen. (b) the time foe 50% ccmsolfdation v
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Qui 22#3 Af l s ws r all Questi ons
C4V310
' /h sand 1511'4m. thick is placed qver the gristing ground surfece of a normally
consolidated clay 2m. thick The clay properties are: liquid limit 42%, e,, **9.92
 l
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Determine (a) the settlement of the.cia; layer, (b) the time for 50%
0 eonsolidatioa(5manks)
A test was carried out at a depth of 6m below ground level in clay soil has
determined the horizontal total strsss to b 120 kft/m1' The water table lie? I 4m
beiow ground evd. Assume the clay; to be fully saturated with unit weight of
20.kN/m*. Determine the coefficient of earth pressure at the depth of the
test.(2marks)
if
/
rV' j
/

4.
A compacted fill is to be constructed with a total iajlume of 10,000 cubic meterc
The fill is to be compacted to a dry unit weigh t'of atleast iQkN/rn^and a ......
Minimum water content of 10%. Soil in the borrow area has a dry density of
l.Qbft/m and average water content of 5%. How many cubic rasters of borrow
materials must be excavated and how many'liters must be hauled in? fSmarks)
A retaining wall with vertical back is 8m hist. The density of the top 3m of fill is
\ 1;75 Mg/m^and the angle of shearing resistance 30*. For the lower 5m the values
are 1.85 Mg/m3 and 3a respectively. There is a surcharge load on the horizontal
surface of the fill equivalent to i .2 Mg/m" uniformly distributed. Find the
magnitude and point of application of:he thrust on the wall per metre am.
(i) if the fill is well drained,
ii) if the fill is water logged after a storm assume the saturated densities of the
two strata 1.9 an'd 2.0 Mg/m3respectively.(Smarks)
^ 'sPji footing, 3 m bv 6m is to be founded at a depth of 2m in a saturated soil of unit ^
2 v U  weight i'?kN/ni  the soil has an angle of friction of 28 and a cohesion of 5kn/m:
A ground water level is at a depth of 4m.
Determine a value for the safe bearing capacity of the fqundatiqn.(2marks)
S '
/ n
S ' / , '/u
yW'T~
t o r J
n
Y k
(;In  l'<'11i!!(I ('IV
'
Answer ;ill Quest ion::
Calculate (h>: ((!.:! I'm!era I In ice acting againsi a smooth unyielding wall 3 m hmh
Ihat retains cohesion k^s soil. Assuming ho lateral deformation occurs in (lie soil mass
and i lie a! res I cond.'ions applies and (lie wider (able is I in below top of wall. Properties
of i be retai ned soi l n;c.: <f>".35' y i ?v.?kN/nr 2 m:i rk.s / /:, ! L 1
f i "
2. A rcl ni ni ng wal l .suppoj i s a sand hack fill. A ssumi ng an aci i ve l ateral pressure
condi ti on and j i si ng soi l properti es gi ven in questi on I. Dctci Vni nc (a) (he l ateral force,
per i mi I l engl h of l!;t. wal l . 5j murks i i ( () ; j ^Cv' j
3. A fl exi bl e 11>muI<i(i'11 I ni ' lin is pl aced on a cl ay l ayer l()m thi ck and exerts a
uniform pressure ol l20kN/m '.Dclcrmiiri ItIre. immediate settlement at the center and
j f i
corner ol lire f oundi ti ui . ! 'OMN/i n and i H)/l 6 i nnrks . , ) ;
I
I . . .
4. A cl ay l ayc ' Mil I (hit k has sand ; Inki/e it and an i mpei vi ous shal e below it; the
coel l l ei enl of consol i ki l i on is 0,4 ft /day. A uni f orm stress i ncrease is appl i ed to the soil.
Cal cul ate (he ti me when 50% of settl ement will have occurred. I f tlu: cl ay stratum were
40 ft Mislead of 2( rl, how l ong woul d it l ake to achi eve 50% of I he ul ti mate settlement? '
U(T) "50% T O. 1<>7 5 marks
5. A soi l normal l y consol i dated cl ay l ayer is 15m thi ck wi th natural moisture content
of 40%. I he cl ay has a saturated unit wei ght of I 8kN/m , a parti cl e specific gravity of
2.65, and n .l i qui d l i mi t of 80%. The foutwhti on l oad will subject the center of the layer to
a verti cal stress i ncrease ol I 'kN/m Ksl i mate (lie val ue for the set I lenient of the
Ioi .u k lalK'u il imoi i m I ter l evel is al tin' sui l ace ol the cl av 7 marks . i
inal Test Answer All Questions:
'"Nl
(1): A building foundation 3m by 3m will impose 1500 kN total loading onto the
surface of a thick stratum,of normally consolidated (beneath centre) ciay soil.
Determine the foundation!settlement due to primary consolidation in the clay, using
Layers that are lrn; 1m; 2m and 2m thick respectively, from foundation load down
ward. For simplification, use a soil unit weight of 17.5 kN/m'1constant with depth, an
inplace void ratio of 1.2D. and a compression index equal to 0,38 for each, layer.
Assume Boussinesq conditions; apply.
 (2'Dmarks)
(2): (a)yCompute the ultimate load that an eccentrically loaded square footing of width
2.4 m with eccentricity (e) of 0.4m can sustain ifj'=18kN/mJ ; and c 10kN/m2and
(Z^56;..and surcharge intensity at the base of the looting of 10kN/m2.
< i T;; 'l (lOmarks)
[(b) A continuous footing'is founded 3ft below the ground surface in
=nous ciay. Determine the ultimate and allowable bearingcapacities. :125pcf
C 1^00psf; and < j> 0. Assume F.S=
;3.0 (5 marks)
))A cut is to excavated in a soil which has a cohesion .of 96kN/m", a unit weight
N7m3and angle of internal friction of 10". The design requires a slope
x (P) of 60. What is the maximum depth that can be excavated and still.
" maintain a factor of safety of 1.5 with respect to'the height ofxlje slope. Use
Tajsfcaugjability chans. ^ (5marks)
(b) ^Determine the factor of safety for a slope of 40 and 30m high in an area
vvli^re a uniform clay exists, using c=96kN/m2; y I 7kN/m3and A
"rocktstratum exists 45m below the ground surface. Use Taylor stability charts.
(5inarks)
(4) (a) A 10,000 lb load acts uniformly over 4ft*4ft footing. Estimate the average?
L'pressure distribution on a plane 5ft below the!footing base. (5 marks)
I f the "above footing is founded on a sand with a soil modulus of 200 kips
per square foot zmd a Poissons ratio of 0.4. Estimate the settlement of the
footing. (30m arks)
(b) A clay deposit has a unit weight of 100 lb/ftJ and an unconfined
cipmpressive strength of 20001b/ft\ Determine the depth at which the
horizontal soil pressure is Zero.
('10 marks) (
y
<.
/
GEOTECHNI CS 1 CI V 310
Answer all Questions \ $
v. ^
S * ^ P ~ n_ >3
Calculate the total lateral force acting against a smooth unyielding wall 3m high
that retains cohesionless soil. Assuming no lateral deformation occurs in the soil mass
and the at rest conditions applies and the water table is lm below top of wall. Properties
of the retained soil are: cp=35 y=18.2kN/m2 2 marks rr L ^ \
2. A retaining wall supports a sand backfill. Assuming an active lateral pressure
condition and rising soil properties given in question 1. Determine (a) the lateral force
per unit length of the wall. 5 marks Q~ '<>Sa /f 'iK V
/. /?
3. A flexible foundation 4m*4m is placed on a clay layer \0mthick and exerts a
uniform pressure of 120kN/m2.Determine the immediate settlement at the center and
comer of the foundation. E=20MN/m2and u=0.4 6 marks ' ( }'
j t *i '
4. A clay layer 20ft thick has sand above it and an impervious shale below it; the
coefficient of consolidation is 0.4ft2/day.. A uniform stress increase is applied to the soil.
Calculate the time when 50% of settlement will have occurred. I f the clay stratum were
40 ft instead of ,20ft, how long would it take to achieve 50% of the ultimate settlement?
U(T)=50% T=0.197 5 marks "T  

5. A soft normally consolidated clay layer is 15m thick with natural moisture content
of 40%. The clay has a saturated unit weight of 18kN/m3, a particle specific gravity of (\
2.65, and a liquid limit of 80%. The foundation load will subject the center of the layer to */
a vertical stress increase of 15kN/m . Estimate the value for the setttemenTof the /
foundation i f ground \jVater level is at the surface of the clay. 7 marks / ^
A sand fill 4m thick is placed over the existing ground surface of a normally
consolidated clay 2m thick. The clay properties are: liquid limit 42%, = 0.92 and
Sp gravity 2.72, unit wgt. = 17.5 kN/m3and k = 2.2 xlOym/s. The water table is
located at 1,5m and the moist or saturated weight ot the fill is 19.5 kN/m3.
Determine: (a) the settlement of the clay layer. ,
(b) the time for 50%consolidation.
A test was carried out at a depth of 6m below ground level in clay soil has
determined the horizontal total stress to be 120 kN/m: . The water table lies 1.4m
below ground level. Assume the clay to be fully saturated with unit weight of^eCS
kN/m8 Determine the coefficient of earth pressure at the depth of the test. .
A compacted fill is to be constructed v'ith a total volume of 10,000 cubic meters.
The fill is to be compacted to a dry unit weight of at least 20 kN/m3, and a
minimum water content of 10%. Soil in the borrow area has a dry density of 19
kN/m1and average water content or' 8%. How many cubic meters of borrow
materials must be excavated and how many liters must be hauled in?
A retaining wall with vertical back 8m high. The density of the top 3m of fill is
1 75 Mg/m' and the angle yf shearing resistance 30 For the lower 5m the values
arc 1,85 Mg/m3and 35 respectively. There is a surcharge load on the horizontal
surface of the fill equivalent to 1.2 Mg/m'' uniformly distributed. Find the
magnitude and point of application of the thrust on the wall per metre run.
(1) if the fill is well drained,
(2) if the fill is water logged after a storm (assuming the saturated densities of
the two strata 1.9 and 2.0 Mg/m3respectively.
A footing 3 m by 6m is to be founded it a depth of 2m in a saturated of unit weight
19 l<N/m3the soil has!an angle of friction of 28 and a cohesion of 5 )<N/m
Ground water level is at a depth of 4m. Determine a value for the safe bearing
capacity of the foundation.
What are Geophysical methods of soil exploration?
You are required to design a foundation tor a building on campus. Describe how ^
you would conduct the soil investigation, including the field and laboratory tests
you would recommend and give reasons.
A 10,000 lb "load acts uniformly over a 4ft x. 4ft footing. Estimate the average
pressure distribution on a plane 5 ft below the footing. , ./ft2qnH
I f the footing is founded on a sand with a soil modulus cohesion of 00 kips < >
a poissons ratio of 0.40. Estimate the settlement of the footing. 0 ^ *6 I
/ '
v
L S
8. I f a 4m x 4m lies 1,5m below the surface of a soil having cohesion of 50 kN/m*
anyle of friction 30 and a unit weight of 20 kN /m'. Determine the net allowable
bearing capacity if FS = 3
9. A sied is loaded to a weight of 75N and pulled across a beach. I f it takes a
horizontal force of 45N to pull the sled. What are the strength parameters of the
beach sand? i / ( \ ' *'
10. A layer of sand 3m thick overlies a stratum of clay of unknown depth. The w.t. is
at 2m bel ow ground level. (1) Determine the Total, Pore and Effective Pressures
to a depth of 7m. Assume no capillary rise in the sand Void ratios: for sand 0.45
and clay 0.90. Specific gravities: sand 2.65 and clay 2.70. Unit wgt. ol water =
9.81 kN/m3. (2) Consider an OCR of 5: determine the preconsolidation pressure
.at 7m. !
11. The 10 x 10 ft area shown is loaded with a uniform pressure of lOOOpsf.
i / ' Determine the stress increase at point A, which is 10 ft below the surface at the
location shown.
< \
i f \
if 13
For the same foundation and loading calculate the average stress increase al a
depth of 12 ft.
I f the footing is founded on a sand with a soil modulus of 200 kips/112and a
poissons ratio of 0.4. Estimate the settlement of the footing.
A concentrated load oi 20 kN acts on the surface of an homogenous soil mass of
large extent. Find the stress intensity at depth of 10m.
(1) Directly under the load. *
(2) At a horizontal distance of 5m.
i
A soft normally consolidated clay layer 25m thickness has a natural moisture
A ciay layer 13 ft thick underlies a 5 ft, sand hvr a . . .
* day is 0 : 0 ,K ind T Z l d l l ^ T 1 I T ' ralioof
H  '' loundal.'f:/) IojkI 10<H>psf n
T 
y .
founded 3 ft below the ground. Unit wgt. sand = 100 pcf. Unit wgt. clay = 120
pcf (a) Determinfe the net pressure increase at the base of the foundation.
(b) Calculate the settlement of the clay layer.
15. (a) Explain the consolidation theory by Terzaghi.
(b) The clay layer in Qu 14 has a C, of 0.3 ft3/day Determine the time when 50%
and 90% of the total settlement will occur.
, ' 6. (aj State the reasons for a site investigation I.
* (b) Define: Normally consolidated, Over consolidated and OCR, Geophysical
investigation.
*
i 17. A building foundation 3m x 3m will impose 1500 kN total loading onto the surface
of a thick stratum of normally consolidated (beneath centre) clay soil. Determine
the foundation settlement due to primary consolidation in the clay, using layers
that are 1m, 1m, 2m, and 2m thick respectively, from foundation load down ward.
For simplification, use a soil unit wgl. of 17.5 k'N/m3constant with depth, an in
place void ratio of 1.20 and compression index equal to 0.38 for each layer
Assume Boussinesq conditions apply.
i\ f Qu . < > v t e > S %\
18. (a) Compute tne ultimate load that an eccentrically loaded square footing of width ^
2 4m with eccentricity e = 0.4m can sustain if y = 18 k_N/m3, and c = 10 kN/m'
and <p 36, and surcharge inien&ily at ihe base of the footing :s 10 k.N/m2.
(b) A continuous footing is founded 3 ft below the ground surface in homogeneous
ciay. Determine the ultimate and allowable bearing capacities i f y = 125 pcf,
c = 1200 psf and ip 0. Assume F.S.  3.0
19. (a) A cut is to excavated in a soil which has a cohesion of 96 kN/m2, a unit wgt. qf
17 kN/m5and angle of internal friction of 10 The design requires a slope angle
0 ) of 6p. What is the maximum depth that can be excavated and still maintain a
factor of safety of 15 with respect to the height of the slope Use taylor stability
factors.
(b) Determine the S.F. for a slope of 40 and 30m high in an area where a uniform
clay exists, using c = 96 kN/m2, y = 17 kN/m3and ip= 0. A rock stratum
exists 45m below the ground surface. Use taylor stability charts.
20. (a) A 10,000 lb load .acts uniformly over 4 ft x 4 ft footing. Estimate the average
pressure distribution on a plane 5ft below the footing base.
It the above tooting is founded 'in a sand with a soil modulus of 200 kips per
square foot and poissons ratio of 0.4. Estimate the settlement of the footing.
(b) A clay deposit ha's a unit wgt. of 100 lb/ft'1and an unconfined compressive
^ strength ol 2000 lb/ft Determine the depth at which the horizontal soil
pressure is zero.
ft pt l'UoJ Qu e.4[ , c 'J 
an/v  ' S' ^ <r
^ " ^C 3 ) [ ^ I s
,2jL Calculate the total lateral force acting against asm<both unyielding wall 3 m higli
that retains a cohesionless soil. Assuming no lateral deformation occurs in the sbii
mass and the at rest conditions applies and the water table is 1m below top of wall.
Properties of the retained soil are: y = 18.2 kN/m1and cp~35".
22. A retaining wall supports u sand backfill. Assuming an active lateral pressure
condition and using soil properties given ir question 21. Determine (a) the lateral
force per unit length of the wall, (b) the overturning moment
23 A flexible foundation 4m x 4m is plac ed on a clay layer 10m thick and exerts a
uniform pressure of 120 kN/m". Determine the immediate settlement at the center
and corner of the foundation. E  20 MN/m and u. =0.4
,l/ / 24. A clay layer 20 ft thick has sand above it and impervious shale below it; the
^coefficient of consolidation is 0.4 f r /day A uniform stress increase is applied to
the soil. Cal the time when 50% of settlement will have occurred. I f the clay
stratum were 40 ft instead of 20 ft, how long would it take to achieve 50% of the
ultimate settlement? U(T) = 50% T =0.197
1/25. (a; An embankment consists of clay fill for which C = 25 kN/m2and tp=26u(from
 s consolidation undrained tests with pore pressure measurements). The average
bulk density of the fill is 1.9 Mg/in'. Estimate the shear strength of the
'material on a horizontal plane a. a point 20m below the surfuvr Ihe
embankment, if the pore pressure at this point is shown by a piezometer to be
180 kN/m2.
Xtp Compute the ultimate load that an that an eccentrically loaded square footing of
width 2.5m with eccentricity ^T="^).3m5can sustain i f c ~ 12,kN/m2, y  20
kN/m1 anci {P = antl surcharge "ritensity at the base of the footing off 15
v kN/m2. \
v
26, (a) A continuous footing 2 ft wide is founded 3 ft below the mound surface in
uniform sand. The soil parameters are O = 0, y = 125 lb/ft3 and
n a
>
<P ..o
0
Determine the ultimate bearing capacity and recommend an allowable bearing
capacity.
(bj A 2m X 3rn rectangular foundation is 3m below the ground surface in a sandy
clay deposit. Given that y  20 kN/m3and <o 14,J Determine rhp /
bearing capacity. uei e,n,ne Ihe ultimate
(a) A ciay deposit has a unit wet of 100 lb/f*J mri ^ c
strength of 200 lb/ft3. Determine th* i ,i unconfined compressive
pressure is zero t eptli at which the horizontal soil
(b) Determine the
OMiankmem 30 5m 1 . S * 10 Col^ io" <* >'' submerged
soil proper! esi re c Z t * " ? f " <*** l,as inclination o f 45 The
P operileb .ire C  .! / 6 IcN'/m, y , 3 ;>5 fcN/mJ and ip= 10
_2J_. Calculate the total lateral fo.ce acting against asm<both unyielding wall 3 in liigji
tliat letains a cohesionless soi 1 Assuming no lateral deformation occurs in the sbii
mass and the at rest conditions applies and the water table is 1rri below top of
Properties of the retained soil are: y = 18.2 kN/m1and ip==35
n
ii
wall.
/
/
^ retaining wall supports a sand backfill. Assuming an active lateral pressure
condition and using soil properties given in question 21. Determine (a) the lateral
force per unit length of the wall, (b) the overturning moment. '
23 A flexible foundation 4m x 4m is plac ed on a clay layer 10m thick and exerts a
uniform pressure of 120 kN/m " Determine the immediate settlement at the center
and corner of the foundation. E  20 MN/m" and p = 0.4
24. A clay layer 20 ft thick has sand above it and impervious shale below it; the
coefficient of consolidation is 0.4 f r /day. A uniform stress increase is applied l o
the soil. Cal the time when 50% of settlement will have occurred. If the clay
stratum were 40 ft instead of 20 ft, how long would it take to achieve 50% of the
ultimate settlement? U(T) = 50% T  0.197
1/25. (a; An embankment consists of clay fill for which C =25 kN/m2and cp= 26" (from
^ consolidation undrained tests with pore pressure measurements). The average
. bulk density of the fill is 1.9 Mg/m\ Estimate the shear strength of the
material on a horizontal plane 3 po'nl 20m below {he surfuvr of (he
embankment, if the pore pressure at this point is shown by a piezometer to be
180 kN/m2.
jh) Compute the ultimate load that an thatan eccentrically loaded square footing of
width 2.5m with eccentricity qgj ^.3rrpcan sustain i f c = 12.kN/m\ y ~ 20
T kN/m3and (p = 36;'and surcharge intensity at the base of the footing of! 15
C , \ kN/m1. \
26. (a) A continuous footing 2 ft wide is founded 3 ft below the ground surface in a
uniform sand. The soil parameters are C = 0, y = 125 lb/ft3 and <p .35
Determine the ultimate bearing capacity and recommend an allowable beariqg
capacity.
(b) A 2m x 3m rectangular foundation is 3m below the ground surface in o sandy
clay deposit. Given that y = 20 kN/m3and <p= 34; Determine the ullitnafp
bearing capacity.
2/. (a) A clay deposit has a unit wgt of 100 lb/ft3 and an uncoivfined compressive
strength of 200 lb/ft3. Determine the depth at which the horizontal soil
oressure is zero.
(b) Determine the ta,ctor of jsafety (in regard to cohesion only) for a submerged
embankment 30.5m h;gh whose upstream face has an inclination qf 45. The
soil properties are C = 37.0 kN/m , y 18.85 kN/m ' and <p= 10
frictioni aiitile, between ccj>
Determine (a) the factor
irierete and sand can be taken as 3.0. W t .ilSO Ib'/fT
if] safety against sliding and (b) the overturning moment.
29. The fig. belo
and (b) the
and use av
ti
lera
w shows a
me for 50%
ge stress inc:
foundation. Determine (a) the consolidation settlement
consolidation. Consider p0at the centre'of the clay layer
ease method.
A?
j
30 At a pl annk construction jslite subsurface sampling indicates th at th e w^uni t wst
o 1 soil S123 pcf. (a) determine the effective verncal
1(b) the effective vertical stress at the 12 tt deptn u tne
the water tible is deep and
water table is at the ground puriace.
urfacc is 6m under the water surface. Sandies itom the
lake indicate a bulk density of 2 Mg/m . Determine the
m the deposit at a,depth 12m below the soil surface. Alio.'indicate
1stress at the same point. j
ion the soil s
At a lake loieat
soil deposit underlying the
effective stress
the total veil
. / >32 Compare thl^stress increase: 2m below the centre of a 3m x 3m square foundation
V imposing aj. bearing pressure of 145 kPa. (a) When the Bpussinesq: stress
distribution is assumed and(b) 2:1 average pressure increase is assumed.: j
! L : I! , ! i
.33. (a) A retaining has a v^hical back and is 8m high. The soil isja sandi/loam of
unit wgt, 17.17 SN/rn3. II shows a cohesion of 13 kN/m* and cp=,20. 'Neglect!
any effect off wall friction and the upper surface of the fill is hori zontal '
Determine the thrust on
(b) Find the resultant thrust
i behind t
Assume
34 (a) A 15m li
ie Will until tl
saturated unit w
gh embank me
the wall.
on the wall i f drains are blocked' and water
ii water table is at 3m above the) bottom of
it 19.62 kN/m3.
cohesive; Istiiength is 15
factor of
(b) A 4m h jgh
the grour
at
d s
builds up
file waij.
t is inclined at 30 to the horizontal. I f (p =: il5 and
ItPa and unit wgt of the soil is 17.5 kN/tn3 Find the
ty. I,
road emba ikment has to be made out of clay with negligible
internal teciion. I f cohesive is 10 lcPa and a hard stratum exists at 2m below
arface. Fine :the safe inclination for the slope of the embankment.
fajctor ol' safety in bearing
capacity. The load clue to wall 1ms the fjjljiowuig properties Qv  3000 lb/ft, Qi, =
1000 lb/ft and e = 0.75 ..ft. The wall is fotfricl'ed oil a silt}] sand with c = 0 and
(p &. 28 The moist density above W.T, 1.20 lb/ft3, the saturated density beJ ow
W.'ff: ;*! 125 lb/ft3.. i !
35. Given the retaining wall footing shown.; djeteijjiine he
' i>V odO
36.
(a):A clay layer 15 ft ti i i di uivdorliesa:5 ft sand layer. Ajssume the initial void ratio
of the clay is 0.9, the compression i n4^& f f 2.: The W .T. is at'"the top_ of the clay
UyW. A 10 ft x 10 ft footing with a pressure of . 10LXi Ibis ii^birndecl: 3 ft below the
ground. Cal the settlement of the layer using; tile three layers showi1. Take 'lie
a^;i'a;e stresses in the layers as the stress 35
(b)j l f the clay has a coefficient of consolidation of 0.3 ft2/day. Determine the time
when 50% of the total settlement will occur.
at" the midpo
I
ib sh in own.
I !
i 37.
Arectangular footing 4.5m long and J Onj Vide is placed at a depth of 1.8m below
ground level in a deposit.ol' firm son,'; led rHiy. T hcj WT
bi'.c.w ground it;vel. Delejimne me grow Uijidnet ultimate bearing capacities ioi
(a) undrained c 60 kN/m2, ym[ = 2J .8 IcNj/ip3 and (b) draiined c = 5 kN/rn2, <p 28.
I f the foundation is 0.65,m thick and bad
column transmitting a vertical load of <foo
foundation on the short axis, (c) determine
against general shear failure i f ycot,P = 25
placjed at the. centre of the foundation. Determine tlie factor of safety for drained
and undrained conditions.
filled with a spil of y  19.5 kN/nr. A
.kjN is placed 0:4m from the center of the
the bearing capacity and factor of safety
kN/nr1and (d) i f the column had been
28. for the tig. shown beiow and considering that y = 125 lb/ft3and (p = 30; the
t friction*.angle between concrete and sand can be taken as 30. yconc= 150 lb/ft3,
r Determine (a) the factor of safety against sliding and (b) the overturning moment.
2!. The below shows a foundation. Detennine (a) the consolidation settlement
and (b) the time for 50% consolidation. Consider p0at the centre of the clay layer
and u.se average stress increase method.
30 At a planned construction site subsurface sampling ind:cates that the wet unit wgt
of the soil is 123 pcf. (a) determine the effective vertical stress at the 12 ft depth if
the water table is deep and (b) the effective vertical stress at the 12 ft depth if the
water table is at the ground surface.
rO
31 At a lake location the soil surfacc is 6m under the water surface. Samples from the
soil deposit underlying the lake indicate a bulk density of 2 Mg/m3. Determine the
effective stress in the deposit at a depth 12m below the soil surface. Also indicate
the total vertical stress at the same point.
Ji
32. Compare the stress increase 2m below the centre of a 3m x 3m square foundation
C imposing a bearing pressure of 145 kPa. (a) When the Boussinesq stress
distribution is assumed and (b) 2:1 average pressure increase is assumed. ,
(a) A retaining wall has a vertical back and is 8m high. The soil is a sandy loam of
unit wgt 17.17 kN/m3. It shows a cohesion of 13 kN/m2and cp=20. Neglect
any effect of wall friction and the upper surface of the fill is horizontal.
Determine the thrust on the wall.
(b) Find th e resultant th rust on the wall if .drains are blocked and water builds up
behind the wall until the water table is at 3 mabove the bottom of the wall.
Assume saturated unit wgt 19.62 kN/m3
J ned at 30 to the horizontal. I f cp= 15 and
P P nit wgt of the soil is 17.5 kN/'mJ . Find the
I has to be made out of clay with negligible
  10 kPa and a hard stratum exists at 2m below
inclination tor the slope of the embankment.
L L * u J M
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i
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* m
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Fig. lCi'O
OH" v U ' * r . V_. 'r*C K
Question 4:
A one inch thick clay specimen was subjected to a conventional consolidation test. When the
effective pressure on the soil specimen was increased from 2000 lb/ft2to 4000 lb/ft2, the void
ratio decreased from 0.75 to 0.62. Also the time for 50% consolidation was determined to be
Mtl I'
3min. What is the coefficient of permeability, k, of the clay for the loading range? 10 marks
t, / b
Cl fc. y, ' o */'r"~c
Question 5: w
For the retaining wall shown, recommend a base width B to provide a sliding safety factor of
2.0 (or slightly above). Assume that the base is rough and the friction angle between concrete
and sand can be taken as 30. y c0nc.  150 lb/ft3
(b) Determine the overturning and resisting moment. Check the resulting factor of safety
8 marks
EXAMINATIONS OF SEMESTER I 2012
FACUL TY OF: TECHNOL OGY
CODE AND NAME OF COURSE: CIV 310  Geotechnics I
DATE AND TIME: December 10, 2012 09: 00 Hrs DURATION: 3 l/4Hours
EXAMINERS; INTERNAL : Mr. Maxwell J ackson EXTERNAL :
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES:
Th is paper h as 4 pages and 4 questions

ANSWER AL L QUESTIONS____________________________________________________________________
THE UNIVERSITY OF GUYANA
QUESTION: 1
l.(a) A retaining wall has a vertical back and is 8m high. The soil is a sandy loam of unit
weight 17.17 kN / m \ It shows a cohesion of 13 kN / m2 and <t> 20 Neglect any effect of
wall friction and the upper surface of the fill is horizontal. Determine the thrust on the wall
both before and after the tensile crack occurs
(5 Marks)
l.(b) What are retaining walls? With the aid of sketches name and describe three common
types o f retaining walls. Discuss the ultimate limit states of retaining wall 5 marks
o
1. A cut is to be excavated in soft clay to a depth of 9m. The material has a unit weight of
18.3 kN/m3and cohesion of 34 kPa. A hard layer underlies the soft layer at a depth of 12m
below the original ground surface. What is the slope angle at which failure is likely to occur?
( 5 Marks)
QUESTION: 2
2.(a) A 10 ft thick fill embankment of very large extent is to be placed over a clay layer as
shown, while the ground water table is to be simultaneously lowered to 12 ft below ground
surface. The clay is saturated with a speciiic gravity of 2.69 and average water content of
30%, compression index was determined to be 0.28. Assuming the clay layer is normally
consolidated, determine settlement of the fill.
C ^ (10 Marks)
2.(b) Approximate the time required for 80% consolidation of the clay layer if Cvis 4.3 x
106ft2/sec. For 80% T =0.567 5 marks
*  2.. G^\
rr (JO
QUESTION: 3
3.(a) Given the height of the backfill shown, what is the height of the keyless concrete
gravity wall required to adequately resist sliding with a factor of safety of 2? Use 150 lbf/ft3
for the unit weight of concrete. Note: CA is adhesion
^wall
mudl i ne
i j f p l
I H p
t p  l
Wmm
m m t,
, . cl ayey sand '
W. .'V 105.7 l bf /f t 3 :
. Ca= 150 l bf /f t 2 . '
8 f t . cj) = 27
S = 15
20f t : ' . ; '
. 7' 4 f t *'
I M K k )
e>
(not to scale)
u j   n o
UU z b o o
15 marks
QUESTION: 4
1. 4.(a) For a warehouse with large bay spaces, the interior footings are required to
support a structural dead load plus live load of 100 kips per interior column.
Assuming square interior footings are designed in the soil profile as shown. What
is the factor of safety of the given loading with respect to ultimate bearing
capacity? Assume the column loading is concentric.
ground   p
surface
m
1.5 ft
:
i H l t l i
^c la ye y sand
l&iy  103.4 lbf/ft3
&:<!>= 25
>Xr: c 50 lbf/ft2 rV
6 ft
(10 Marks)
4. (b) What are the steps necessary to check the stability of retaining structures?
(ii) Discuss the purposes of geotechnical investigations. 5 marks
The bearing capacity factors (Vesic, 1971) are:
/Vc = (N  1) tan 0
JVy= 2(iV+ 1) tan *
Th e variations of /V, /V, and /V with soil friction angle 0 are sh own in Fig. 10 21.
H * t
The shape factors are as follows:
Fa  1+
V ,+
/ J
' i f
^ = 1  0 . 4
f i r
The depth factors (Df<B) are as follows:
Fqd= 1+ 2 tan 0(1  sin 0)2
End o f Exam
50 40 30 20
Slope angle, as(degrees)
S
t
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
n
u
m
b
e
r
,
EXAMINATIONS OF SEMESTER I 2006
FACUL TY OF: TECHNOL OGY
CODE AND NAME OF COURSE: CIV 310  Geotechnics 1
DATE AND TIME: December 11, 2006 13:00Hrs DURATION: 3 1/21
EXAMINERS: INTERNAL : Mr. Maxwell J ackson EXTERNAL :
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES:
Th is paper h as 3 pages and 5 questions
ANSWER ALL. QUESTIONS and sh ow neat: sketch es and diagrams____________________________
QUESTION:: 1
1. (a) A 6m tail cantilever wall retains a soil of unit weight 19.2 kN / in' and (j)  30
Neglect any effect of wall friction and the upper surface of the fill is horizontal. Determine
the thrust on the wall.
(3 Marks)
1. (b) Find the resultant thrust on the wall if drains are blocked and water builds up behind
the wall until the water table is at 3ni above the bottom, of the wall. Assume saturated unit
weight 19.62 kN t m3 i
THE UNIVERSITY OF GUYANA
QUESTION: 2
2. (a) An embankment consists of clay fill for which C =25 kN/ m2 and <f>= 26 (from
consolidation undrained tests with pore pressure measurements). The average bulk density
of the fill is 1.9 Mg / m}. Estimate the shear strength of the material on a horizontal plane at a
point 20m below the surface of the embankment, if the pore pressure at this poinx is shown
by a piezometer to be 180 kN / m2.
(3 Marks)
2. (b) A 15m high embankment is inclined at 30 to the horizontal. I f ^=15 and cohesive
strength is 15 kPa and unit weight of embankment Soil is 17.5 kN I m . Find the factor of
safety.
(3 Marks)
2. (c) A 4m high road embankment has to be made out of clay with negligible internal
friction. I f cohesion is lOkPa and a hard stratum exists at 2m below the ground surface. Find
the safe inclination for the slope of the embankment.
( 3 Marks)
QUESTION: 3
3.(a) The 10x10 ft area shown (Fig3) is loaded with a uniform pressure of 1000 pounds per
square foot. Determine the stress increase at a point A, which is 10 ft below the surface at the
location shown.
(3 Marks)
3. (b) For the. same foundation and loading calculate the average stress increase at a depth of
12ft.
(2 Marks)
3. (c) If the footing is founded on a sand with a soil modulus of 200 kips I f t 1 and a possions
ratio of 0.40, Estimate the settlement of the footing.
(2 Marks)
QUESTION: 4 ^
4. (a) An uneon fined compression test has been performed on a 35mm diameter and 75mm
long sample of clay. The axial load and the strain at failure were 12.0 and 7.5% respectively.
Compute the undrained shear strength. / / 
v m m j
~ ' '  >
4. (b) A 949 kN column load is to be supported on a square concrete footing that will be
underlain by a clayey silt with undrained shear strength of 125 kPa and unit weight of 18.0
kN/m3 . The bottom of this footing will be 1.6m below the ground surface, and the water
table is more than 30m below the ground surface. Using a factor of safety of 3.0, compute the
required footing width, y c=23.6 kN/m3
/ /^ \  0 0 Marks)
<\ ^ ^ V ' " f ~ O a?sr
ODESTtON: 5
5. (a) A bearing wall for a proposed building is to be supported on a 24 inches deep
continuous footing founded in an unsaturated clayey sand (SC). The load from this wall will
be 4.0 kips/ft, and the soil has c =100 lb/ft2. The groundwater table is very deep. Compute the
required width to maintain a factor of safety of 3.0 against a bearing capacity failure. y c~
150 lb/ft3
(10 Marks)
5. (b) Explain the difference between the active, atrest, and passive earth pressure
conditions.
Which of the three earth pressure conditions should be used to design a rigid basement
wall? Why?
Cut slopes or natural slopes of clayey sand can be very problematic. What mode of failure do
you think would be common, and how would you evaluate the potential for such a failure
before construction.
EXAMINATIONS OF SEMESTER I 2010
FACULTY OF: TECHNOLOGY
CODE AND NAME OF COURSE: CIV 310  Geotechnics I
DATE AND TIME: February 01, 2010 09: 00 Hrs DURATION: 3 l/2Hours
EXAMINERS: INTERNAL: Mr. Maxwell J ackson EXTERNAL: \>
THE UNIVERSITY OF GUYANA
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES:
This paper has 4 pages and 5questions
i' y
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS NOTE: h igh ligh t each step of analysis and neatness is rewarded
QUESTION: 1
1. A planned construction site is underlain by a thick deposit of
normally consolidated clay soil. A building foundation 6 ft, square
will be located on the ground surface and carry a total loading of
180,000 lb.
Determine the foundation settlement (beneath the centre) by
analyzing the volume changes due to primary compression in layers
that are 2, 4, and 6ft. thick, respectively, from the foundation level
downward. For simplification, assume a soil unit weight off ] 15 pcf)
constant with depth, an in place void ratio of 1.05 and
compression index of 0.35 for each layer analyzed(lJ se Boussinesq
conditions. 10 marks
 + P o ^ \
\ Us. p 1 r
r  J
c
~ t w (01__
QUESTION: 2
An existing building is to be renovated. One of the existing footings
is 1.5m by 1,5m in area and 1m below the adjacent soil surface. The
structural changes for the building would require this footing to
support a loading of 2000 kN. Determine if the footing size and soil
bearing capacity are adequate. Soil investigation indicates that the
foundation soils are (medium  dense tq dense sands. The angle of
internal friction is 34%nd the unlf weigRns l^kN/rn3" Apply a factor
. of safety of 2.5 8 marks J
Cl a ^ ^ 'V
V
QUESTION: 3 \ w
(a) Describe the 'causes and factors that affect slope stability""" ?
(b) An area of planned construction is underlained by sandy soil where the angle of
internal friction is 35. What is the maximum safe slope angle for the soil if there is
no ground water flow? I f it is assumed that groundwater flow could occur through the
slope, approximately what slope angle should be considered as the allowable
maximum?
(c) Describe how you would plan and conduct a subsurface investigation for the design
of a multi storey faculty of law building at Turkeyen campus.
10 marks
QUESTION: 4
For the figure 1shown below and considering that y = 1251b/ft3and <p~ 30, the friction
angle between concrete and sand can be taken as 30 y COnc. =1501b/ft3. Determine (a) the
factor of safety against sliding and (b) the overturning moment
(12marks)
QUESTION: 5
Figure 2 below shows a foundation. Determine (a) the consolidation settlement and (b)
the time for 50% consolidation. Consider p0at the center of the clay layer and use
average stress increase method. ^ i j y
(10 marks)
Normally consolidated clay
7 , = 108 lb/ft3
s* 2.75
w m 28% >~
>' >_> Ce= 0.4
Cv* 0.1 ft/day
End of Exam