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Adaptations in the intertidal zone

Brian Nagy

EDTECH 503: Instructional Design
Summer, 2013

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Table of Contents

Synthesis Reflection Paper 3
Part 1: Topic.. 5
Part 2: Analysis Report. 6
Part 3: Planning. 11
Part 4: Instructor Guide. 14
Part 5: Learner Content. 16
Part 6: Formative Evaluation Plan. 19
Part 7: Formative Evaluation Summary 21
Part 8: AECT Standards 23
Appendices 29
Appendix A: Needs analysis survey items 30
Appendix B: Learning task analysis flowchart.. 33
Appendix C: Subject matter expert review survey

Appendix D: SME review results.

Appendix E: Invent an Invertebrate.. 37
Appendix F: Graphic Organizer 38
Appendix G: Vertical Zones Bell Work 39
Appendix H: Test Items 40
Appendix I: Sources.. 42

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Synthesis Reflection Paper

I entered into this Instructional Design course not having any idea what it meant. I have
been teaching for six years and have a Masters degree in Secondary Education under my belt
already. I could not imagine it being a difficult process. I have been writing lesson and unit plans
all along. I know how to put together instructional materials to get my students to learn the
required material. I had no clue what Instructional Design was.
The instructional design process is very much like reading a Sherlock Holmes novel
backwards. In the design process, you dont start with what you want to design, you start with
figuring out why you are designing. Any good Sherlock Holmes tale starts with a crime. It
becomes Holmess job to work backwards to figure out who committed the crime and why. In
what I always considered designing instruction (when I wrote lesson plans), I always stopped
after the first chapter. I knew the results; I was putting together learning activities for my
students, but I didnt stop to consider why. Perhaps thats not true. I always considered how
previous trials with the given content went over and small changes were made each time, but
student background, interests, clear guidelines for the instructionthose were never formalized
or even put to paper. The instructional design process follows the book more carefully, just not
how we normally would read it. The end product isnt the most important part, rather it is more
important about how and why we arrive at the final parts. What do we know about our students?
What is available for the instructor and the students in the classroom? What kind of instruction is
required to fill the needs that are discovered? Why is this important to the students? Sherlock
would ask each of these questions to figure out what happened to the victim. As instructional
designers, we need to meet the players, ask the questions, then design the instruction.
It is clear by now that I never considered the intricacies of designing instruction as I
planned for my classes over the past few years. It would be dishonest to say that I was never
frustrated by the process. It seemed like there was a lot of energy being put into a process where
all anyone saw was the final product. As we progressed through the term, I noticed that by doing
the leg work early on, the final piece became easy. I knew exactly what this instruction would
look like as I wrote the instructors guide because I already knew what students needed to be
able to do when they were done with the unit of study. I was really left astounded by the amount
of work that goes into the design process, but I can understand now that the product that comes
from it makes the effort worthwhile.
That being said, a sentiment that has been repeated all term comes to mind: going through
the whole design process for a classroom teachers courses is just not something that can be
done. As previously mentionedand as repeated in Instructional Design (Smith and Ragan,
2005), Most often, these instructional design activities are conducted mentally with little
documentation of the decisions made(p 13) by classroom teachers. Smith and Ragan also make
a point to state that those with training in instructional design are more thorough and consistent
in using good design theory in their instruction.
The one thing, above all else, that stood out as new to me was all of the evaluation along
the way. Teachers can easily explain the need for formative assessment, but how often do we
think about the need to evaluate our own instruction while it is being designed? Never.
Evaluation has always been after the fact. How did the students respond to the activities? How
well did they learn what they were meant to? Any changes would only benefit the next batch of
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students. It has always been summative. Davidson-Shivers and Rasmussen (2006), however
explain that formative evaluation of instructional design products helps review the instruction
for weaknesses and make the necessary revisions to correct errors and enhance effectiveness
before implementation.
Despite beginning my career in the classroom, I have been looking recently to transition
to working with online educational content providers in either a technical role or in some
capacity as a content creator. By combining the instructional design process with everything else
I have learnedand have yet to learnin the Educational Technology program, I hope to be
able to help create instructional materials of a quality that I have yet to see. I have supervised
students using several different online instructional programs for credit recovery and
supplemental learning and they have all been lacking. The content isnt written for the right
audience and the interface they use is complicated and antiquated. I have had everything I
learned in this course reinforced as I took Online Course Design (EDTECH 512) this semester as
well and I now feel more confident in my ability to design good instruction that will be suitable
for high school students.

I. Davidson-Shivers, G. V. and Rasmussen, K. L. (2006). Web-based learning: Design,
implementation, and evaluation. Upper Saddle River, NJ : Pearson Education, Inc.

II. Smith, P. L. and Ragan, T. J . (2005). Instructional design (3
ed.). Hoboken, NJ :
J ohn Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Part 1: Topic

1a. Learning goal
After three hours of instruction, 11
and 12
grade students in marine biology will be able to
create a fictional beach organism that has at least three adaptations to that ecosystem.
1b. Description of the audience
The learners for this unit of instruction are 11
and 12
graders (16-18 years old) in a science
class that does not lead to a state assessment (mainly used as an alternative to continuing on to
chemistry). Given the rural area of the school, many have not spent much time exploring
beachesif any at allso the class is their first exposure to many aspects of marine life.
1c. Rationale
Students in marine biology have historically demonstrated lack of understanding about the role
of stressors and adaptations in an ecosystem. Following the current instruction, it not unusual for
students to be unable to explain what benefit certain body plans or structures bestow in their
given ecosystem (as an example, many students cannot describe the benefits of white coloration
in a polar ecosystem without direct instruction). With the proposed project, students will not only
learn about adaptations and stressors, but will also be able to apply that new knowledge to a
creature that they will invent. By devisingand justifyingtheir own answers to stressors in an
ecosystem, they will be able to better apply those concepts to other organisms that they
The instruction in this unit is predominantly supplantive in nature. Though students have
received instruction in biology, and therefore have been introduced to adaptations in the context
of evolution, many have not been challenged to consider what about certain adaptations make
them more beneficial. By receiving more structured instruction, with heavy scaffolding and
significant amounts of declarative knowledge on existing adaptations, students will gain the
foundational knowledge needed to begin applying this information to their own devised
This project primarily involves learning concepts. More precisely, it leads to understanding of
what an adaptation is and how certain physical features can make it easier to live in an
ecosystem. With the learning of adaptation as a concept, students will later be able to apply the
attributes outside of the beach ecosystem and will be able to identify adaptations and explain
their benefits in organisms regardless of the environment in which they live.
Instruction will employ a combination of inquiry and expository strategies. After learning about
a variety of extant organisms living in various partsknown as vertical zonesof the intertidal
zone, students will be encouraged to begin brainstorming ideas on both what an adaptation is and
what adaptations are necessary in each vertical zone based on the stressors that exist there.

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Part 2: Analysis Report

2a. Description of the need
2a.1 Needs analysis survey
In order to determine need and better understand the learners who would be targeted by this
instruction, a survey was created using Google forms (shortened URL:
Participants self-selected after an invitation was sent out using social media (Facebook) to
current high school students and recent graduates. There were 11 respondents in the given time
Google Forms seems to only allow for capturing a domain-specific user name, thus closing off
the survey to many potential learners. The survey then had to be open, however the system did
not provide the ability to capture IP address, and so there is no way to be certain that any one
person did not submit more than one response. Further, to maintain anonymity of respondents,
names were not collected with responses. Learners were asked to send a message once the survey
was filled out. The number of respondents matches the number of messages, removing some
uncertainty about falsified surveys. See Appendix A to view the survey questions.
2a.2 Survey results
Of the 11 survey responses, six were from
females and 5 from males. The responses
came from students ranging from
approximately 15 years old (entering 10

grade for the 2013-2014 year) to 18 or older
(already graduated from high school), with
the majority being in the target age group
(rising 11
and 12
graders). See the graph
to the right for a break down.
In order to get some sense of prior
knoweldege, one of the questions of the
survey asked about how often learners visit
a beach. In the survey, 73% stated that they
regularly go to the beach. This data may be
misleading as many of the respondants are
not from the same region as the targeted audience and therefore may not accurately represent the
When asked to rate some statements regarding the content of this project, learner responses were
mixed. Overall, reponses demonstrated a lack of understanding of the factors that make living in
a beach ecosystem difficult, with 7 of the 11 saying that the statement It is easy for animals to
live on the beach. is either True or Maybe true. The remainder chose Im not sure one way
or the other. for that statement.
10 11 12 Already
High Schhol



Grade Entering for 2013/2014
Grade Level
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When asked about cerain adaptations, learners demonstrated some understanding of prerequisite
knowledge. For example, all respondants stated that All animals deal with difficult parts of the
environment in the same way was False or Maybe false. For Anything that lives on the
beach must be able to breathe under water, only two respondents answered True or Maybe
When asked to self report on how
well they learned using different
activities, learners responded more
positively to hands-on, active
learning tasks (including labs). As
expected, there was a range of
responses to these learning
preferences. As many respondents
found listening to a teacher lecture to be the best way to learn as did those that selected reading
from a textbook, though one person said they could not learn by reading from a book. Watcing a
film and practiciing problems were preferred to the previous two options. Book work was
reported to be the least preferred learning activity.
2b. Description of the learning context
2b.1 Learning context
The learning environment for this project is a public high school in a rural district of New York.
According to the most recent data from the state Department of Education, the district is
characterized as a low-income rural school with 33% of high school students eligible for free or
reduced lunch assistance (New York State Department of Education, 2012a). The school consists
of 40 teachers, one principal and an assistant principle that is shared with an attached middle
school. With 214 different class sections in the 2010-2011 school year (New York State
Department of Education, 2012b), average class sizes range from 20 to 25 students.
Though not major focus of this unit of instruction, technology is prevalent in the school. Each
classroom has at least one desktop Macintosh computer. In addition, each room is equipped with
an LCD projector and a document camera. Students and teachers have access to two computer
labs (one found in the shared middle school/high school media center) as well as 2 mobile laptop
labs, which are connected to the school network through wifi. Productivity suites available to
users include Microsoft Office as well as Google Docs.
The instructor for this course has been teaching for 12 years. She has been with this district the
entire time. She is a strong proponent of allowing students to discover new ideas through
experimentation and observation. She is well versed in the technology in the classroom and
frequently uses it to aid in student learning through online simulations, computer-assisted data
collection and analysis and modeling of complex systems. This will be the first year of marine
biology being taught by this instructor, but the curriculum has existed in the school for five years
with small changes made each year. The course is taught as a survey of aquatic ecosystems
including beaches, polar ecosystems, open ocean, salt marsh and freshwater environments.

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2b.2 Transfer context
The concept of an adaptation neednt be reserved for organisms living on a beach. In science,
it is used to identify some feature of an organism that has developed and allows some advantage
for survival. The primary question asked is How does that benefit? This question can be
transferred outside of the context of science and be applied to psychology, economics, and
business. The idea of having something that aids in success and survival is pivotal in determining
the causes of a persons actions as much as it is in figuring out why clams dig into the sand. The
ability of one company to survive the economic climate over another can be understood in the
context of why kelp anchors to the rocky coastline.
2c. Description of the learners
Learners for this project are between the ages of 16 and 18. The students in this school are
predominantly Caucasian (92% in the 2010-2011 school year). Due to location and socio-
economic status, many students have limited experience outside of the county.
As with any public high school, the students have a wide range of abilities and some have
disabilities. Approximately 25% of students have diagnoses of some sort that affect their ability
to succeed in school without interventions (ADHD and anxiety disorders are the most common).
Few, if any, have visual, hearing or speech impairments. The course can be checked for
accessibility prior to going live for those with visual or physical disabilities.
The following data are accumulated from responses to the needs assessment survey:
Learner interests
In the survey provided, reading level was assessed tangentially through questions on what
learners enjoy reading. Reading preferences trended heavily towards fiction over
nonfiction and books over comics, magazines or newspapers. Primary reading interests
seem to be in books on comedy and science fiction/fantasy (likely due to the prevalence
of teen fantasy titles currently available). Students have also demonstrated interest in
video games, animal husbandry, hunting and forestry, though those were not assessed in
the needs survey.
When questioned about favorite school subjects,
respondents varied greatly in their responses,
though science was selected as a favorite subject by
5 of the 11 respondents. Art and English followed
with three selections each. No one chose music as
their favorite subject, and there was one other
chosen, with Home Economics hand entered for
that selection. When asked specifically about
interest in science courses, all learners rated their
interest at or above 3 out of 5 (with 5 being the
highest interest). This could be a factor of the self selection
of respondents, but seems to be a trend among learners in
the school. When asked about the importance of learning
different topics in school, science received the highest
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rating of importance over a list of topics that include math, history, government and
Attitudes on school
Attitudes measured on school are equally a mixed bag. All learners reported that
regularly attending school is important, but absenteeism is a big problem in the school.
Approximately 10% of students become at risk for loss of course credit annually due to
missed class time. Every respondent stated the importance of graduating from high
school, but more (10 out of 11) thought that getting a job was very important than gave
the same answer about going to college (6 out of 11).
Parent Education
According to self-reported information, the parents of the learners tend to not have
received significant education
themselves. The mother of every
respondent has graduated high school or
gained a GED, with some (27%) having
taken some college courses or obtaining
an Associates degree. Fathers, on the
other hand, span the continuum provided.
36% reported that their father did not
graduate from high school. 27% reported
that the father graduated, but did not
progress any further. Only 36% (4 of 11)
of respondents report that their fathers
took any college courses, which is a
higher percentage than mothers who had
gone to college. One respondent reported
a step-father with a Masters degree. No
other students responded to the
educational progress of a step-parent.

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2d. Learning task analysis

See Appendix B for a larger version of this flow chart.

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Part 3: Planning

3a. Learning Objectives
By the end of this unit of instruction, students will be able to:
1.0 Compare the vertical zones of the intertidal zones in terms of physical placement
2.0 Make a list of organisms that live at each vertical zone of a beach ecosystem
3.0 Explain how wave action is a stressor for organisms in the intertidal zone
4.0 Describe temperature changes as a stressor in relation to the action of enzymes in the
5.0 Explain how gas exchange is made difficult in a beach ecosystem
6.0 Explain the interplay of predator and prey relationships
7.0 Explain why some organisms must resist drying out on the beach
8.0 Explain how each factor presents a challenge to living in the intertidal zone
9.0 Correctly pair adaptations found in beach organisms with the stressor that those
adaptations alleviate.
10.0 Devise other possible adaptations to the stressors found in a beach ecosystem and
explain how they will help their hypothetical organisms survive.
3b. Matrix of Objectives, Blooms Taxonomy and Assessments
Format of
of Test
Form (d)
Sample Items (e)
1.0 Comprehension Paper and
Draw a map of a beach ecosystem
and show the placement of the
vertical zones.
2.0 Knowledge Paper and
Create a data table that shows at
least 4 organisms found in each of
the vertical zones.
3.0 Comprehension Paper and
What effect does wave action
have on organisms in the
intertidal zone?
4.0 Comprehension Paper and
What happens to the effectiveness
of enzymes as temperatures
change? Be sure to discuss both
reaction speed and the shape of
the enzyme molecule.
5.0 Comprehension Paper and
Name two different methods of
gas exchange. Predict why living
near a beach may make one of
them difficult.
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6.0 Comprehension Paper and
Define the term "Limiting Factor"
and explain how a predator and its
prey each act as a limiting factor
for the other.
7.0 Comprehension Paper and
One of the biggest challenges to
life on land was needing to get
water. Describe at least 3 things
living things need water for.
8.0 Comprehension Performance Essay For each of the stressors of living
in the Intertidal zone, list the
changes that occur over the course
of a day and why those changes
need to be dealt with for
organisms to survive.
9.0 Application Paper and
Make a list of the stressors of
living in the Intertidal zone. For
each, list 3-5 adaptations you
have learned about that help
organisms overcome that stressor.
10. Synthesis Performance Build
Pick a vertical zone. List at least 3
stressors organisms have to deal
with for that zone. Design an
organism that has at least one
adaptation for each stressor. Be
creative. After you have planned
your organism, you will be
building a model of it.

3c. ARCS Table
A.1. Perceptual arousal Students will view a video clip from The Magic School Bus Goes
to Mussel Beach
A.2. Inquiry arousal Students will be asked to come up with adaptations that are
employed by organisms that live in the beach ecosystem
A.3. Variability Students will be allowed to create any organism they want,
including fantastical ones as long as they have adaptations to
survive stated stressors of their environment.
R.1. Goal orientation The instructor will utilize the presurvey to adjust learning activities
and interests of the students.
R.2. Motive matching Students will be able to choose which vertical zone to focus on In
their final project and then choose stressors from the list for that
R.3. Familiarity Students will be asked to think about their own experiences at the
beach and the types of animals they have seen there.
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C.1. Learning requirements Students will be given all of the objectives and rubrics at the
beginning and will be given resources to utilize for additional
support as needed.
C.2. Success opportunities The instructor will provide opportunities for students to provide
feedback and prove what they have learned through checkpoint
questions during instruction and bell work.
C.3. Personal control Though the final project will not be assessed based on artistic
ability, having a final project that demonstrates concepts learned
will be a motivation to complete the project successfully.
S.1. Natural consequences At the end of the instruction, students will have a physical
manifestation of their learning in their models.
S.2. Positive consequences In subsequent units and classes, students will be able to
demonstrate a deeper understanding of the functions of adaptations
for survival. Final projects will be displayed in a case in the school,
with approval of administration and the students
S.3. Equity Positive and constructive feedback will be provided throughout
through formative assessment. In order to synthesize the final
project, students must understand the earlier content. That
understanding will make the later process easier and more

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Part 4: Teacher Guide

Activate Attention- The instructor will ask the class to list out loud the types of
organism that live on the beach and why they can live there.

Explain Purpose- The instructor will explain to the class that they will be learning about
the different areas of the beach and how organisms are adapted to live there.

Arouse Interest and Motivation- The class will view a video clip from The Magic
School Bus Goes to Mussel Beach (click here and skip to 02:47). Stop at 20:00.

Preview Learning Activity- The instructor will relay a breakdown of the activities:
Students will learn about the vertical zones shown in the video in more detail
Students will learn about some of the creatures found in each zone
Finally, students will create their own organism that lives on the beach and shows
adaptations for surviving there

Recall Relevant Prior Knowledge-As a group, students will list the stressors of a
previously-learned ecosystem (the salt marsh, for example).

Process Information and Examples- Instructor will ask students about the zones in the
beach ecosystem (as shown in the video clip). Instructor will then elaborate on features of
each zone and list some of the organisms found in each. Alternately, students may
complete the J igsaw activity found here.

Focus Direction- The Instructor will ask students to recall the stressors of the other
ecosystem from earlier. Students will be asked how those stressors affect organisms
there. In pairs, students will come up with a list of stressors at the beach which will be
shared with the whole class. Instructor will add to the list as necessary. (See this page for
some stressors; add predation, breathing, and salinity changes.)

Employ Learning Strategies- The instructor will elaborate on each stressor by
discussing the biological and physical processes affected by then. The instructor will
encourage students to draw on prior knowledge through scaffolding questions. Students
will be asked to come up with strategies employed by the sample organisms listed earlier
to counter the stressors in each vertical zone. More information can be found here.

Practice- Students will summarize content by viewing pictures (examples) or living or
preserved examples (if available) of intertidal zone animals and explain their adaptations.

Feedback- The instructor will provide feedback during class discussion and while
students look at the example organisms.
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Summarize and Review-The instructor will guide students in generating a graphic
organizer showing vertical zones, stressors and adaptations.

Transfer Learning- The instructor will provide conditions to the students (example: An
organism living in the high tide zone that cannot breathe in the air) and ask students to
predict adaptations it may have.

Remotivation and Close - The instructor will ask the class where this kind of
information can be used elsewhere and try to direct students to understand that they can
figure out the purpose of adaptations in any ecosystem based on the stressors of living

Assess Learning-There will be formal formative assessment throughout with daily bell
work and checkpoint questions. The instructor will informally assess learning throughout
the discussions. Finally, students will pick a vertical zone, list its stressors and create a
unique organism that has adaptations designed for that zone. Materials needed for this are
found in the student instruction sheet titled Invent an Invertebrate.

Evaluate Feedback and Seek Remediation- The instructor will provide feedback
throughout instruction based on the formal and informal formative assessments. Once the
final projects have been returned, all students will have the opportunity to use the
feedback and resubmit.

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Part 5: Learner Content

5a: Learning materials
The majority of the learning materials for this instruction is either in the form of manipulatives or
student-generated notes. Online materials are linked from the Teacher Guide (above).
Live or preserved specimens: Specimens will be used during the Employ Learning Strategies
and Practice sections of instruction. Having real animal will allow learners to better understand
the structure of adaptations found on the organisms shown in order to figure out how they are
used in counter-acting the stressors of their environment. Pictures can be shown as well, but they
do not necessarily convey the information as clearly as the actual animal could. Live animals can
be captured at a beach or purchased from a pet store or scientific supply company. Preserved
animals can be purchased. If purchasing, ample time should be allowed for shipping.
Graphic Organizer: A graphic organizer will be used during the Summarize and Review
section of the instruction. Using a device such as the one found in Appendix F will help learners
recall information later on for use in class and as a study aid for later assessments.
5b: Assessment materials
Formative Assessments
Discussion Questions: Located in the Instructor Guide are several opportunities for formative
assessment through class discussions. In the Transfer Learning section in particular, a good
opportunity for assessment arises when the instructor provides conditions about organisms and
asks students to try to predict adaptations it might have. Examples include:
What adaptations would an organism living the high tide zone but cannot breathe air
Raccoons sometimes come to the beach to find bivalves for lunch. What might a clam
living in the low tide zone do to avoid being eaten?
Anemone need light in order to survive, so they cant go any deeper than the subtidal
zone. What could they do to avoid being washed away by wave action?
Bell Work: Small formative assessments at the beginning class help to identify student learning
from the prior class or act as an anticipatory set that accesses prior knowledge. A bell work
assignment for the second day of class is found below in Appendix G.

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Summative Assessments
Invent an Invertebrate: This assignment is available for download in PDF format here and a
screenshot of the file is located in Appendix E.
Test Items: A list of both multiple choice and free response questions pertaining to this unit of
instruction can be found in Appendix H.
5c. Technology tool justification
Technology use for this unit of instruction is not extensive. As written, there is no technology
requirements, however given options for alternatives in the Instructor Guide and additional
resources provided, technology may come in to play.
Computer(s): Computers can be used as part of the instruction. If the instructor chooses to use
the websites shown in the Instructor Guide, then at least one computer is required for accessing
those sites. If the instructor chooses to utilize the web-based J ig-saw activity, then at least one
computer would be required for every two students in order to complete the activity, which is
described below. The only required use of a computer would be to view the initial video on
YouTube, though this episode is available on DVD, so alternate methods of showing the video
could be used.
LCD Projector/Large Monitor: An LCD projector (or large computer monitor) would be used
to project images and instructional materials large enough for all students to see.
Document Camera: A document camera is a viable alternative for a blackboard. Again, it is not
a requirement for this instruction, however they can be useful. Document cameras can be used to
project printed images onto a screen or monitor (in much better clarity than overhead duplicates),
they can be used for note-taking in lieu of a blackboard. Also, if specimens are fragile or there is
only one to be shown, they can be placed under the document camera for everyone in the room
to observe at once. Magnification on such devices would allow a close examination of structures
found on preserved or live specimens.
Websites: Again, use of most websites is optional, however all of the sites previously listed are
combined here.
The Magic School Bus Goes to Mussel Beach: (click here). This video is used to activate
student interest in the topic and provide an introduction for some of the content to be
presented later.
J ig-saw activity (click here). This site is an optional form of instruction that allows
learners to become experts on a small part of the content then report back to the class.
This would take the place of some of the direct instruction.
The Intertidal Zone (Wikipedia) (click here). This page, which links directly to the
subheading on Ecology lists some of the stressors found in the intertidal zone and is listed
as a resource for the instructor to make sure all items are being met during instruction.
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American Field Trip: Oceans (PBS) (click here). Here, instructors can find video,
PowerPoint and text information on adaptations found in the intertidal zone. These can be
used during instruction or they can be used for reference while preparing for the class.
Intertidal Organisms (Enchanted Learning) (click here). This site shows examples of
pictures of intertidal organisms. Pictures do not need to come from this source, but it is a
good starting point for collecting images if physical specimens are not available.

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Part 6: Formative Evaluation Plan

6a. Expert Review
The Subject Matter Expert (SME) was Susan Boyle, a biology teacher and head of the science
department in the school where this module will be taught. As a biology teacher, she has the
background knowledge necessary to evaluate the content and methods used in the instruction.
SME review took place on J uly 31, 2013.
6b. One-to-One Evaluation
As access to the intended learners is difficult during the summer months, one-to-one evaluation
will take place with learners similar to the target audience. Two or three subjects will be selected
from neighbors, children of friends and family members between the ages of 15 and 20 can be
selected. I would likely utilize read-think-aloud, as described in Smith & Ragan (2005, p330)
and ask clarifying questions at the end. While looking at the student materials and instructor
materials (as a substitute for direct instruction), testers will be asked the following:
How difficult is the reading? Which--if any--words are you unsure about?
How clear were the instructions given in the instruction? If there were any tasks you were
unsure about, please list them.
Take a look at the objectives. Do you think they were met? Were there questions or
activities for each objective? Please list any objectives you don't see addressed.
6c. Small Group Evaluation
After revision from the one-to-one evaluations, the one-to-one subjects as well as 8-10 more
students will be invited in for a larger-scale run. They will be given the student pre-assessment.
They will then work through the instruction with a teacher, including all of the assessments. As
the instruction progresses, student responses will be recorded as well as any questions they ask.
Products of assessments will be evaluated for student learning from the instruction. The
instructor will also be asked:
Please comment on the quality of the materials provided for the instruction. What parts
did you particularly like? What did you dislike and do you have any suggestions for
How effective was the instruction at meeting the objectives listed?
How easy was the instruction for you to complete? Were instructions clear enough for

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6d. Field Trial
During the first quarter of the coming school year, one section of Marine Biology will act as a
test group for this instruction. They will be given all of the assessment items and instruction, as
described in the instructor guide. Students will be given a post-assessment with items that ask
about the ease, level of interest and effectiveness of learning activities and their feedback on
assessment items. The instructor will be given a questionnaire before about her comfort level
with the content. Afterwards, she will be asked again about her comfort with the content
following the instruction. She will also be asked to provide feedback on parts of the instruction
that worked well and parts that didnt. She will be asked to provide suggestions for
Instructor pre:
How comfortable are you with teaching about adaptations to stressors in a beach
Instructor post:
After completing this unit with your class, how comfortable do you now feel
about teaching about adaptations to stressors in a beach ecosystem? What part of
the instruction do you feel helped you most in your comfort?
Please name parts of the instruction you thought worked best with the students.
What made them good learning experiences? Was it because it was fun, engaging,
challenging, etc?
Please name parts of the instruction you thought was the least successful with
students. What made them unsuccessful? Were they too hard? Boring? How could
they be improved?
Please provide further feedback about improvements that can be made on this
instruction. If you were to do it over again, what would you like to change?
Learner post:
How difficult was the content? Name anything you felt was either too easy or too
How interested were you in the information from this unit? Name the part you
enjoyed the most and the part you enjoyed the least and explain what about them
you liked or disliked.
Do you feel that you learned a lot from this unit? Name any parts you didnt
How did you like the assessments and activities? Knowing the objectives, do you
think the assessments were fair? How prepared for the assessments did you feel?

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Part 7: Formative Evaluation Summary

7a. Evaluation survey
A survey was created using Google Docs for the Subject Matter Expert (SME). See Appendix C
for screenshots of the survey.
7b. Expert review results
The SME reviewed the materials on J uly 31, 2013. She was able to complete and submit the
review on August 2, 2013. Detailed results can be found in Appendix D.
Feedback from Mrs. Boyle was positive. She gave high marks on the objectives and goals for the
course, rating them as appropriate for the course and indicating that the instruction meets the
goals as stated.
She made positive comments about the content, as well. She praised the bridging of content from
the Living Environment (New York State Education Departments name for Biology) to marine
biology, but cautioned about the amount of prior knowledge being pulled from prior years. She
was excited about the summative assessment and expressed that it gave a fresh spin on teaching
and assessing student understanding of adaptations.
On pedagogy, Mrs. Boyle made a few suggestions that I had already considered. She did not like
that a lot of the instruction had students sitting. She said, It seems like there is a lot of the
instructor will. There is a lot of discussion and note-taking, but the students only seem to get
active at the end She also questioned the need for the video at the beginning. It was chosen to
draw interest and get learners thinking about the topic, but valid points were made that the video
may be too young for high school students and that its length could be problematic in the
7c. Proposed changes
The SME made some suggestions which may be added in future iterations of this instruction.
Primarily, they involve getting students more active in the learning process.
Mrs. Boyle suggested that the online J igsaw activity (linked in the Instructor Guide) be used
instead of some of the direct instruction. This is suggested in the guide, but by making it a
permanent part of the instruction could improve the overall experience for learners. This will
break up the instruction a little more to keep student attention. It also allows students to act as
teachers since they will be reporting back to the whole class.
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Additionally, she suggested setting up displays around the room and have students rotate through
to learn about the different vertical zones and/or organisms. The idea of station learning seems
like it would work well in this instance. It would be critical for the instructor to have access to
living or preserved specimens for viewing during these stations. That may be the only part of the
suggestion that makes it complicated.

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Part 8: AECT Standards

Professional Standards Addressed (AECT)
The following standards, developed by the Association for Educational Communications and
Technology (AECT), and used in the accreditation process established by the National Council
for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), are addressed to some degree in this course.
The numbers of the standards correspond to the numbers next to the course tasks show on the list
of assignments. Not all standards are addressed explicitly through student work.
Assignments meeting standard in whole or part
Standard 1: DESIGN
1.1 Instructional Systems Design
X ID Project
1.1.1 Analyzing X ID Project
1.1.2 Designing X ID Project
1.1.3 Developing X ID Project
1.1.4 Implementing X ID Project
1.1.5 Evaluating X Selected Discussion Forums; ID Project
1.2 Message Design
1.3 Instructional Strategies X ID Project
1.4 Learner Characteristics X ID Project

2.0 (includes 2.0.1 to 2.0.8) X ID Project
2.1 Print Technologies X Reading Quiz; ID Projects
2.2 Audiovisual Technologies
2.3 Computer-Based Technologies X (all assignments)
2.4 Integrated Technologies

3.0 (includes 3.0.1 & 3.0.2)
3.1 Media Utilization X (all assignments)
3.2 Diffusion of Innovations
3.3 Implementation and
X ID Project
3.4 Policies and Regulations

Standard 4: MANAGEMENT
4.0 (includes 4.0.1 & 4.0.3)
4.1 Project Management
4.2 Resource Management
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4.3 Delivery System Management
4.4 Information Management

Standard 5: EVALUATION
5.1 Problem Analysis X
5.2 Criterion-Referenced
X ID Project
5.3 Formative and Summative
X ID Project
5.4 Long-Range Planning

The overall goal for the course is for each student to consider and use the systematic process of
instructional design to create an instructional product. To achieve this goal, students will engage
in activities that promote reflective practice, emphasize realistic contexts, and employ a number
of communications technologies. Following the course, students will be able to:

1. Discuss the historical development of the practice of instructional design with regard to
factors that led to its development and the rationale for its use

2. Describe at least two reasons why instructional design models are useful

3. Identify at least six instructional design models and classify them according to their use

4. Compare and contrast the major elements of three theories of learning as they relate to
instructional design

5. Define instructional design.

6. Define the word systematic as it relates to instructional design

7. Define learning and synthesize its definition with the practice of instructional design

8. Relate the design of instruction to the term educational (or instructional) technology

9. Describe the major components of the instructional design process and the functions of
models in the design process

10. Provide a succinct summary of various learning contexts (declarative knowledge,
conceptual, declarative, principle, problem-solving, cognitive, attitudinal, and

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11. Build an instructional design product that integrates major aspects of the systematic
process and make this available on the web.

a. Describe the rationale for and processes associated with needs, learner, context,
goal, and task analyses

i. Create and conduct various aspects of a front-end analysis

ii. Identify methods and materials for communicating subject matter that are
contextually relevant

b. Describe the rationale for and processes associated with creating design
documents (objectives, motivation, etc.)

i. Construct clear instructional goals and objectives

ii. Develop a motivational design for a specific instructional task

iii. Develop assessments that accurately measure performance objectives

c. Select and implement instructional strategies for selected learning tasks

i. Select appropriate media tools that support instructional design decisions

d. Describe the rationale and processes associated with the formative evaluation of
instructional products

i. Create a plan for formative evaluation

12. Identify and use technology resources to enable and empower learners with diverse
backgrounds, characteristics, and abilities.

13. Apply state and national content standards to the development of instructional products

14. Meet selected professional standards developed by the Association for Educational
Communications and Technology

15. Use various technological tools for instructional and professional communication

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AECT STANDARDS (Applicable to EDTECH 503)

1.0 Design
1.1 Instructional Systems Design
1.1.a Utilize and implement design principles which specify optimal conditions for
1.1.b Identify a variety of instructional systems design models and apply at least one
1.1.1 Analyzing
1.1.1.a Write appropriate objectives for specific content and outcome levels.
1.1.1.b Analyze instructional tasks, content, and context.
1.1.2 Designing
1.1.2.a Create a plan for a topic of a content area (e.g., a thematic unit, a text chapter, an
interdisciplinary unit) to demonstrate application of the principles of macro-level design.
1.1.2.b Create instructional plans (micro-level design) that address the needs of all
learners, including appropriate accommodations for learners with special needs.
1.1.2.d Incorporate contemporary instructional technology processes in the development
of interactive lessons that promote student learning.
1.1.3 Developing
1.1.3.a Produce instructional materials which require the use of multiple media (e.g.,
computers, video, projection).
1.1.3.b Demonstrate personal skill development with at least one: computer authoring
application, video tool, or electronic communication application.
1.1.4 Implementing
1.1.4.a Use instructional plans and materials which they have produced in contextualized
instructional settings (e.g., practica, field experiences, training) that address the needs of
all learners, including appropriate accommodations for learners with special needs.
1.1.5 Evaluating
1.1.5.a Utilize a variety of assessment measures to determine the adequacy of learning
and instruction.
1.1.5.b Demonstrate the use of formative and summative evaluation within practice and
contextualized field experiences.
1.1.5.c Demonstrate congruency among goals/objectives, instructional strategies, and
assessment measures.
1.3 Instructional Strategies
1.3.a Select instructional strategies appropriate for a variety of learner characteristics and
learning situations.
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1.3.b Identify at least one instructional model and demonstrate appropriate
contextualized application within practice and field experiences.
1.3.c Analyze their selection of instructional strategies and/or models as influenced by the
learning situation, nature of the specific content, and type of learner objective.
1.3.d Select motivational strategies appropriate for the target learners, task, and learning
1.4 Learner Characteristics
1.4.a Identify a broad range of observed and hypothetical learner characteristics for their
particular area(s) of preparation.
1.4.b Describe and/or document specific learner characteristics which influence the
selection of instructional strategies.
1.4.c Describe and/or document specific learner characteristics which influence the
implementation of instructional strategies.
2.0 Development
2.0.1 Select appropriate media to produce effective learning environments using
technology resources.
2.0.2 Use appropriate analog and digital productivity tools to develop instructional and
professional products.
2.0.3 Apply instructional design principles to select appropriate technological tools for
the development of instructional and professional products.
2.0.4 Apply appropriate learning and psychological theories to the selection of
appropriate technological tools and to the development of instructional and professional
2.0.5 Apply appropriate evaluation strategies and techniques for assessing effectiveness
of instructional and professional products.
2.0.6 Use the results of evaluation methods and techniques to revise and update
instructional and professional products.
2.0.7 Contribute to a professional portfolio by developing and selecting a variety of
productions for inclusion in the portfolio.
2.1 Print Technologies
2.1.3 Use presentation application software to produce presentations and supplementary
materials for instructional and professional purposes.
2.1.4 Produce instructional and professional products using various aspects of integrated
application programs.
2.3 Computer-Based Technologies
2.3.2 Design, produce, and use digital information with computer-based technologies.

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3.0 Utilization
3.1 Media Utilization
3.1.1 Identify key factors in selecting and using technologies appropriate for learning
situations specified in the instructional design process.
3.1.2 Use educational communications and instructional technology (SMETS) resources
in a variety of learning contexts.
3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization
3.3.1 Use appropriate instructional materials and strategies in various learning contexts.
3.3.2 Identify and apply techniques for integrating SMETS innovations in various
learning contexts.
3.3.3 Identify strategies to maintain use after initial adoption.

4.0 Management
(none specifically addressed in 503)
5.0 Evaluation
5.1 Problem Analysis
5.1.1 Identify and apply problem analysis skills in appropriate school media and
educational technology (SMET) contexts (e.g., conduct needs assessments, identify and
define problems, identify constraints, identify resources, define learner characteristics,
define goals and objectives in instructional systems design, media development and
utilization, program management, and evaluation).
5.2 Criterion-referenced Measurement
5.2.1 Develop and apply criterion-referenced measures in a variety of SMET contexts.
5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation
5.3.1 Develop and apply formative and summative evaluation strategies in a variety of
SMET contexts.

SMET = School Media & Educational Technologies

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Appendix A: Needs analysis survey items

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Appendix B: Learning task analysis flow chart

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Appendix C: Subject matter expert review survey

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Appendix D: SME review results
The following was copied from the Google spreadsheet created for the survey. The original site
with these results can be found here.
Question Response
Name Susan Boyle
Date Reviewed 7/31/2013
Please rate the instructional goals on
appropriateness for the course in which it
is being taught.
If you felt the goals were inappropriate,
please indicate why.

Do you feel the instruction meets the
intended goals
If you chose No, please list any
objectives that you do not feel were met.

How appropriate is the content for the
Please describe why you rated the
content as you did
The content works for Marine, but it relies on a lot of prior knowledge
from LE. Will students remember enough? Is the video really
necessary? It seems like 17 minutes could be better spent, but I didn't
watch the whole thing. It's cute, but it might be too young for the class.
As a whole, the content fits pefectly for the course and it seems to be a
good way to get students to go back and combine basics from LE and
Please rate the instructional activities on
how helpful they are for student learning.
Have you come across and factual or
pedagogical errors or inconsistencies?
Please list anything you find, no matter
how trivial it may seem.
Content is correct and its nice that you included all the links to
resources in the guide. Did you have to use Wikipedia? Does that set a
poor precedent for students?

It seems like there is a lot of "the instructor will". There is a lot of
discussion and note-taking, but the students only seem to get active at
the end (I really like this project for them!)
What did you like about this instructional
I like how students think like biologists. They have to ask, why do the
animals look the way they do or have what they have? I really like that
the final assessment is to make their own animal to show they are
thinking about adaptations.
What did you dislike about this
instructional unit?
For a lot of the teaching, students don't move around. It looks like
they'd be talking a lot, but they should be more active somehow.
What suggestions do you have for
improvement or refinement? What would
you add, remove or change?
Set up displays around the classroom with pictures or specimens that
talk about the different zones or adaptations. That would get the kids
up for a bit and break up the lesson.

I looked at the website for the zones online activity. Tht looks like a
good alternative. Less teacher talking and more students finding things
out on their own.

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Appendix E: Invent an Invertebrate

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Appendix F: Graphic Organizer
This document can be downloaded as a PDF here.

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Appendix G: Vertical Zones Bell Work

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Appendix H: Test Items

Draw a map of a beach ecosystem and show the
placement of the vertical zones

Create a data table that shows at least 4
organisms found in each of the vertical zones.

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What effect does wave action have on organisms
in the intertidal zone?

What happens to the effectiveness of enzymes as
temperatures change? Be sure to discuss both
reaction speed and the shape of the enzyme
molecule. How is this an issue for beach

Name two different methods of gas exchange.
Predict why living near a beach may make one of
them difficult.

Define the term limiting factor and explain how
a predator and its prey each act as a limiting factor
for the other.

One of the biggest challenges to life on land was
needing to get water. Describe at least 3 things
living bodies need water for. Keep in mind that
drinking is how we get water, not what we use it

For each of the stressors of living in the intertidal
zone, list the changes that occur over the course of
a day and why those changes need to be dealt
with in order for organisms to survive.

Make a list of the stressors of living in the
intertidal zone. For each, list 3-5 adaptations have
learned about to help organisms overcome that

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Appendix I: Sources
I. Davidson-Shivers, G. V.& Rasmussen, K. L. (2006). Web-based learning:
Design, implementation, and evaluation. Upper Saddle River, NJ : Pearson Education,
II. Smith, P. L. & Ragan, T. J . (2005) Instructional Design (3
ed.). Hoboken,
NJ : J ohn Wiley & Sons, Inc.
III. Wohlers, B., Kinsella, J ., & Richardson, D. (Eds.). (2006). Life on an ocean planet.
Rancho Santa Margarita, CA: Current Publishing.