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11-10-2007

Morale and Job Satisfaction


A combined measure in the Netherlands’ Armed Forces

Jolanda M. Snijders, MSc

Netherlands Defence Services Centre Behavioural Sciences

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Topics

•Introduction

•Morale
•Job Satisfaction

•Current study
Hypotheses
Results
Conclusions
Discussion
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Introduction (1 of 4)

NLDSC Behavioural Sciences Mission

The goal of the NLDSC Behavioural


Sciences is to support and improve the
entire Netherlands’ Defence organisation
through practical social science research
and advice.

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Introduction (2 of 4)

Fields

• In-, through- and outflow of personnel


• Individual mental factors of operational action
• Improving psychological selection
• Work experiences, unit climate
• Morale, unit factors
• Coordination and Quality Improvement
• Miscellaneous
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Introduction (3 of 4)

•In the Netherlands’ Armed Forces morale


and job satisfaction have always been
measured seperately

•In combat, job satisfaction has a very


limited and relative meaning (Manning,
1991)

•Because of more frequent deployment in


Afghanistan and Iraq the surveys
sometimes interfere 5
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introduction (4 of 4)

•Morale and Job satisfaction have been


assessed together in the current
exploratory study

•Most definitions of morale include some


aspects of satisfaction and motivation

•Both morale and job satisfaction include


leadership, collaboration, motivation and
social support
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Morale (1 of 2)

•Morale is the enthusiasm and persistence


with which soldiers carry out the prescribed
activities of their unit (Manning, 1991).

•Morale is measured through the scales


enthusiasm, cynicism, persistence and
emotional exhaustion

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Morale
Determinants of morale

Individual
Individual Home
Homefront
front
Self
SelfEfficacy
Efficacy commitment
commitment support
support Organizational
Organizational
support
support
Collaboration
Collaboration ••Weapons
Weaponsand
and
equipment
equipment
Morale
Morale
Cohesion
Cohesion ••Support
Supportfor
forthe
the
organizations’
organizations’
Identification objectives
objectives
Identification
with
withunit
unit
••Support
Supportbybythe
the
oganization
oganization
Leadership
Leadership Job
Job
Respect
Respect (multi
(multilevels)
levels) satisfaction
satisfaction
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Job Satisfaction (1 of 2)

Job satisfaction is measured by PICTURE,


an instrument developed by the NLDSC
Behavioural Sciences

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Job satisfaction
Perceived
Perceived
Work
Work
Leadership
Leadership atmosphere unit
unit
atmosphere support
support
Aspects
Aspects
of
of
work
work •Satisfaction
•SatisfactionUnit
Unit
Information
Information •Satisfaction
•Satisfactionorganization
organization Absenteeism
and Absenteeism
and •Commitment
•Commitmentunitunit and
equipment and
equipment •Commitment
•Commitmentorganization
organization Turnover
Turnover
•Motivation
•Motivation
Misconduct
Misconduct

Career
Career Communication
Communication
opportunities
opportunities

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Hypotheses

•No distinction can be made between job


satisfaction and morale in measures of
pre-deployment combat readiness

•Job satisfaction influences morale and


therefore the determinants of job
satisfaction contribute to the prediction of
morale in pre-deployed units

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Participants

•404 service members of a Dutch


mechanized infantry battalion preparing for
deployment in Afghanistan

•Average age 26 years (SD=7.38)

•367 males, 12 females, 25 unknown

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Results

•Correlations

•Factor Analysis

•Regression Analysis

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Correlations

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Factor Analysis

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Regression analysis Enthusiasm

Job satisfaction is the stongest predictor of


Enthusiasm
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Regression analysis Persistence

Persistence is best predicted by a


combination of morale and job satisfaction
determinants 17
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Regression analysis Cynicism

Cynicism is best predicted by a


combination of morale and job satisfaction
determinants 18
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Regression analysis Exhaustion

Exhaustion is best predicted by a


combination of morale and job satisfaction
determinants
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Conclusions

•Correlations show that morale and job


satisfaction are related

•Factor analysis showed that morale and


job satisfaction measure the same
construct

•Regression analysis shows that job


satisfaction scales are good predictors of
morale in pre-deployment units
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Discussion

•Further research in necessary to validate


the outcomes

•Survey was done in peacetime, will the


focus shift during deployment?

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Questions?

Thank you for your attention

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